Biology and Population Improvement
The following document, which appeared in Nature, September 16,
1939, was a joint statement issued by America’s and Britain’s most
prominent biologists (some of them Nobel Prize laureates), and was
widely referred to as the “Eugenics Manifesto.” The Second World War
had already begun, and the authors explicitly decried antagonism
between races and theories according to which certain good or bad
genes are the monopoly of certain peoples. The document is published
here in its entirety.
In response to a request from Science Service, of Washington, D.C.,
for a reply to the question “How could the world’s population be
improved most effectively genetically?”, addressed to a number of
scientific workers, the subjoined statement was prepared, and signed
by those whose names appear at the end.
The question “How could the world’s population be improved most
effectively genetically?” raises far broader problems than the
purely biological ones, problems which the biologist unavoidably
encounters as soon as he tries to get the principles of his own
special field put into practice. For the effective genetic
improvement of mankind is dependent upon major changes in social
conditions, and correlative changes in human attitudes. In the first
place, there can be no valid basis for estimating and comparing the
intrinsic worth of different individuals, without economic and
social conditions which provide approximately equal opportunities
for all members of society instead of stratifying them from birth
into classes with widely different privileges.
The second major hindrance to genetic improvement lies in the
economic and political conditions which foster antagonism between
different peoples, nations and ‘races’. The removal of race
prejudices and of the unscientific doctrine that Appendix 1 113 good
or bad genes are the monopoly of particular peoples or of persons
with features of a given kind will not be possible, however, before
the conditions which make for war and economic exploitation have
been eliminated. This requires some effective sort of federation of
the whole world, based on the common interests of all its peoples.
Thirdly, it cannot be expected that the raising of children will be
influenced actively by considerations of the worth of future
generations unless parents in general have a very considerable
economic security and unless they are extended such adequate
economic, medical, education and other aids in the bearing and
rearing of each additional child that the having of more children
does not overburden either of them. As the woman is more especially
affected by childbearing and rearing, she must be given special
protection to ensure that her reproductive duties do not interfere
too greatly with her opportunities to participate in the life and
work of the community at large. These objects cannot be achieved
unless there is an organization of production primarily for the
benefit of consumer and worker, unless the conditions of employment
are adapted to the needs of parents and especially of mothers, and
unless dwellings, towns and community services generally are
reshaped with the good of children as one of their main objectives.
A fourth prerequisite for effective genetic improvement is the
legalization, the universal dissemination, and the further
development through scientific investigation, of ever more
efficacious means of birth control, both negative and positive, that
can be put into effect at all states of the reproductive process –as
by voluntary temporary or permanent sterilization, contraception,
abortion (as a third line of defence), control of fertility and of
the sexual cycle, artificial insemination, etc. Along with all this
the development of social consciousness and responsibility in regard
to the production of children is required, and this cannot be
expected to be operative unless the above-mentioned economic and
social conditions for its fulfillment are present, and unless the
superstitious attitude towards sex and reproduction now prevalent
has been replaced by a scientific and social attitude. This will
result in its being regarded as an honour and a privilege, if not a
duty, for a mother, married or unmarried, for a couple, to have the
best children possible, both in respect of their upbringing and of
their genetic endowment, even where the latter would mean an
artificial –though always voluntary –control over the process of
Before people in general, or the State which is supposed to
represent them, can be relied upon to adopt rational policies for
the guidance of their reproduction, there will have to be, fifthly,
a far wider spread of knowledge of biological principles and of
recognition of the truth that both environment and heredity
constitute dominating and inescapable complementary factors in human
wellbeing, but factors both of which are under the potential control
of man and admit of unlimited but interdependent progress.
Betterment of environmental conditions enhances the opportunities
for genetic betterment in the ways above indicated. But it must be
also understood that the effect of the bettered environment is not a
direct one on the germ cells and that the Lamarckian doctrine is
fallacious, according to which the children of parents who have had
better opportunities for physical and mental development inherit
these improvements biologically, and according to which, in
consequence, the dominant classes and people would have become
genetically superior to the underprivileged ones.
The intrinsic (genetic) characteristics
of any generation can be better than those of the preceding
generation only as a result of some kind of selection, that is, by
those persons of the preceding generation who had a better genetic
equipment have produced more offspring, on the whole, than the rest,
either through conscious choice, or as an automatic result of the
way in which they lived. Under modern civilized conditions such
selection is far less likely to be automatic than under primitive
conditions, hence some kind of conscious guidance of selection is
called for to make this possible, however, the population must first
appreciate the force of the above principles, and the social value
which a wisely guided selection would have.
Sixthly, conscious selection requires,
in addition, an agreed direction or directions for selection to
take, and these directions cannot be social ones, that is, for the
good of mankind at large, unless social motives predominate in
society. This in turn implies its socialized organization. The most
important genetic objectives, from a social point of view, are the
improvement of those genetic characteristics which make (a) for
health, (b) for the complex called intelligence, and (c) for those
temperamental qualities which favour fellow-feeling and social
behaviour rather than those (to-day most esteemed by many) which
make for personal ‘success’, as success is usually understood at
A more widespread understanding of biological principles will bring
with it the realization that much more than the prevention of
genetic deterioration is to be sought for, and that the raising of
the level of the average of the population nearly to that of the
highest now existing in isolated individuals, in regard to physical
wellbeing, intelligence and temperamental qualities, is an
achievement that would –so far as purely genetic considerations are
concerned –be physically possible with a comparatively small number
of generations. Thus everyone might look upon ‘genius,’ combined of
course with stability, as his birthright. As the course of evolution
shows, this would represent no final stage at all, but only an
earnest of still further progress in the future. The effectiveness
of such progress, however, would demand increasingly extensive and
intensive research in human genetics and in the numerous fields of
investigation correlated therewith.
This would involve the co-operation of
specialists in various branches of medicine, psychology, chemistry
and, not least, the social sciences, with the improvement of the
inner constitution of man himself as their central theme. The
organization of the human body is marvelously intricate, and the
study of its genetics is beset with special difficulties which
require the prosecution of research in this field to be on a much
vaster scale, as well as more exact and analytical, than hitherto
contemplated. This can, however, come about when men’s minds are
turned from war and hate and the struggle for the elementary means
of subsistence to larger aims, pursued in common.
The day when economic reconstruction will reach the stage where such
human forces will be released is not yet, but it is the task of his
generation to prepare for it, and all steps along the way will
represent a gain, not only for the possibilities of the ultimate
genetic improvement of man, to a degree seldom dreamed of hitherto,
but at the same time, more directly, for human mastery over those
more immediate evils which are so threatening our modern
F. A. E. Crew,
C. D. Darlington,
J. B. S. Haldane,
S. C. Harland,
L. T. Hogben,
J. S. Huxley,
H. J. Muller,
G. P. Child,
P. R. David,
R. A. Emerson,
C. L. Huskins,
P. C. Koller,
H. H. Plough,
J. Schultz, ..
C. H. Waddington.160
Books Dealing with German History
...during the Weimar Period and under
Books with no references to
eugenics in index
1. Abel, Theodore. 1938, 1966.
The Nazi Movement. Atherton Press.
2. Abel, Theodore. 1938. Why
Hitler Came into Power.Prentice-Hall.
3. Arendt, Hannah. 1965.
Eichmann in Jerusalem:
A Report on the Banality of Evil. Viking Press.
4. Baird, Jay W. 1990. To Die
for Germany: Heroes in the Nazi Pantheon. Indiana University
5. Barnouw, DagMarch 1988.
Weimar Intellectuals and the Threat of Modernity. Indiana
6. Berg-Schlosser, Dirk;
Rytlewski, Ralf (eds). 1993. Political Culture in Germany.
St. Martin’s Press.
7. Brecht, Arnold. 1944. Prelude
to Silence: The End of the German Republic. Oxford
University Press, New York.
8. Bullock, Alan. 1962. Hitler:
A Study in Tyranny. Harper & Row.
9. Carsten, Francis L. 1965.
Reichswehr und Politik 1918-1933. Kiepenheuer & Witsch.
Reissued in English in 1966 by Oxford at the Clarendon
10. Cecil, Robert. 197. The Myth
of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology. Dodd
Mead & Company.
11. Childs, David. 1991. Germany
In the Twentieth Century. HarperCollins Publishers.
12. Compton, James V. 1967. The Swastika and the Eagle:
Hitler, the United States, and the Origins of World War II.
Houghton Mifflin Company.
13. Goldensohn, Leon. 2004.
Nuremburg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist’s
Conversations with Defendants and Witnesses, Knopf.
14. Davidson, Eugene. 1996. The
Unmaking of Adolf Hitler. University of Missouri Press.
15. Diehl, James M. 1977.
Paramilitary Politics in Weimar Germany. Indiana University
16. Dobkowski, Michael N.;
Wallimann, Isidor. 1989. Radical Perspectives on the Rise of
Fascism in Germany 1919-1945. Monthly Review Press.
17. Eksteins, Modris. 1975. The
Limits of Reason: The German Democratic Press and the
Collapse of Weimar Democracy. Oxford University Press.
18. Eschenburg, Theodor;
Fraenkel, Ernst; Sontheimer, Kurt; Matthis, Erich; Morsey,
Rudolph; Flechtheim, Ossip K.; Bracher, Karl Dietrich;
Krausnick, Helmut; Rothfels, Hans; Kogon, Eugen. 1966. The
Path to Dictatorship 1918-1933: Ten Essays. Frederick A.
19. Eyck, Erich. 196. A History
of the Weimar Republic. Harvard.
20. Farago, Ladislas. 1974.
Aftermath: Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich. Simon
21. Feuchtwanger, E. J. 1995.
From Weimar to Hitler: Germany 1918-1933. St. Martin’s
22. Fraser, Lindley. 1945.
Germany Between Two Wars: A Study of Propaganda and War-Guilt.Oxford
23. Frazer, David. 1993.
Knight’s Cross: A Life of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.
24. Fried, Hans Ernest. 1943.
The Guilt of the German Army. The Macmillan Company.
25. Fritsche, Peter. 1998.
Germans Into Nazis. Harvard University Press.
26. Fritzsche, Peter. 1990.
Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization
in Weimar Germany. Oxford University Press.
27. Fulbrook, Mary. 1992. The
Divided Nation: a History of Germany 1918-1990. Oxford
28. Guérin, Daniel. 1994. The
Brown Plague: Travels in late Weimar & Early Nazi Germany.
Duke University Press.
29. Halperin, S. William. 1965.
Germany Tried Democracy: A Political History of the Reich
from 1918 to 1933. Norton.
30. Hamann, Brigitte. 1999.
Hitler’s Vienna: A Dictator’s Apprenticeship. Oxford
31. Hanser, Richard. 1970.
Putsch! How Hitler Made Revolution. Peter H. Wyden, Inc.
32. Heiber, Helmut. 1972. Goebbels. Hawthorn Books.
33. Heiber, Helmut. 1974. Die
Republik von WeiMarch Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. Reissued
in English in 1993 by Blackwell.
34. Heiden, Konrad. 1944. The
Führer. Carroll & Graf Publishers.
35. Herzstein, Robert Edwin.
1974. Adolf Hitler and the German Trauma 1913-1945.
36. Heydecker, Joe J.; Leeb,
Johannes. 1962. The Nuremberg Trial: A History of Nazi
Germany As Revealed Through the Testimony at Nuremberg.
37. Hiden, J. W. 1974. The
Weimar Republic. Longman.
38. Hilger, Gustav; Meyer,
Alfred G. Meyer. 1953. The Incompatible Allies: A Appendix 2
119 Memoir-History of German-Soviet Relations 1918-1941.
39. Hitler, Adolf. 1942. The
Speeches of Adolf Hitler April 1922 –August 1939. Oxford
40. Hitler, Adolf. 1971. Mein
Kampf, Houghton Mifflin Company.
41. Homer, F. X. J.; Wilcox,
Larry, D. 1986. Germany and Europe in the Era of the Two
Word Wars, University Press of Virginia.
42. Housden, Martyn. 2000.
Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.
43. de Hoyos, Ladislas. 1985.
Klaus Barbie. W. H. Allen.
44. Hughes, John Graven. 1987.
Getting Hitler into Heaven. Corgi Books.
45. Jablonsky, David. 1989. The
Nazi Party in Dissolution: Hitler and the Verbotzeit
1923-1925. Frank Cass.
46. Shirer, William L. 1990. The
Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany,
47. Jasper, Gotthard. 1968. Von
Weimar zu Hitler 1930-1933. Kiepenheuer & Witsch. Jetzinger,
Franz. 1958, 1976. Hitler’s Youth. Greenwood Press.
48. Jones, J. Sydney. 1983.
Hitler in Vienna 1907-1913. Stein and Day Publishers.
49. Jones, Nigel H. 1987.
Hitler’s Heralds: The Study of the Freikorps 1918-1923, John
50. Kastning, Alfred. 1970. Die
deutsche Sozialdemokratie zwischen Koalition und Opposition.
51. Kersten, Felis (ed.: Herma
Briffault). 1947. The Memoirs of Doctor Felix Kersten.
Doubleday & Co.
52. Kilzer, Louis. 2000.
Hitler’s Traitor:Martin Bormann and the Defeat of the Reich.
53. Klemperer (von), Klemens.
1957, 1968. Germany’s New Conservatism: Its History and
Dilemma in the Twentieth Century, Princeton University
54. Kochan, Lionel. 1963. The
Struggle for Germany 1914-1945. Edinburgh at the University
55. Koch-Weser, Erich. 1930.
Germany in the Post-War World. Dorrance & Co.
56. Koenisberg, Richard A. 1975.
Hitler’s Ideology: A Study in Psychoanalytic Sociology. The
Library of Social Science.
57. Könneman, Erwin; Krusch,
Hans-Joachim. 1972. Aktionseinheit contra Kapp-Putsch. Dietz
58. Kosok, Paul. 1933. Modern
Germany: A Study of Conflicting Loyalties. University of
59. Langer, Walter C. The Mind
of Adolf Hitler: The Secret Wartime Report. Basic Books.
60. Lee, Marshall M.; Michalka,
Wolfgang. 1987. German Foreign Policy 1917-1933. Berg.
61. Linklater, Magnus; Hilton,
Isabel; Ascherson, Neal. 1985. The Nazi Legacy: Klaus Barbie
and the International Fascist Connection. Holt, Rinehart and
62. Ludecke, Kurt G. W. 1937. I
Knew Hitler. Charles Scribners.
63. Manvell, Roger; Fraenkl,
Heinrich. 1969. The Canaris Conspiracy: The Secret
Resistance to Hitler in the German Army. David McKay
64. McKenzie, John R. P. 1971.
Weimar Germany 1918-1933. Rowman and Littlefield.
65. Merker, Paul. Vol. 1, 1944,
Vol. 2, 1945. Deutschland: Sein oder nicht sein? El Libro
Libre, Mexico City.
66. Messenger, Charles. 1991.
The Last Prussian: A Biography of Field Marshal Gerd von
Rundstedt 1875-1953. Brassey’s.
67. Mitcham, Samuel W. 1996. Why
Hitler? The Genesis of the Nazi Reich, Praeger.
68. Mommsen, Hans. 1991. From
Weimar to Auschwitz. Princeton University Press.
69. Morgan, J. H. 1945. Assize
of Arms: Being the Story of the Disarmament of Germany and
Her Rearmament 1919-1939. Methuen & Co.
70. Murphy, David Thomas. 1997.
The Heroic Earth: Geopolotical Thought in Weimar Germany
1918-1933. Kent State University Press.
71. Nicholls, A. J. 1991. Weimar
and the Rise of Hitler. St. Martin’s Press.
72. Nicholls, Anthony; Matthias,
Erich (eds.). 1971. German Democracy and the Triumph of
Hitler. George Allen and Unwin.
73. Pachter, Henry. 1982. Weimar
Studies. Columbia University Press.
74. Paris, Erna. 1986. Unhealed
Wounds: France and the Klaus Barbie Affair. Grove Press.
75. Patch, William L. 1998.
Heinrich Brüning and the Dissolution of the Weimar Republic.
Cambridge University Press.
76. Payne, Robert. 1973. The
Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. Praeger.
77. Peterson, Edward N. 1969.
The Limits of Hitler’s Power. Princeton University Press.
78. Pool, James. 1997. Hitler
and His Secret Partners: Contributions, Loot and Rewards
1933-1945. Pocket Books.
79. Price, G. Ward. 1938. I Know
Henry Holt and Company.
80. Price, Morgan Philips. 1999.
Dispatches from the Weimar Republic: Versailles and German
Fascism. Pluto Press.
81. Robinson, Jacob. 1965. And
the Crooked Shall Be Made Straight: The Eichmann Trial, the
Jewish Catastrophe, and Hannah Arendt’s NarraAppendix 2 121
82. Roll, Erich. 1933. Spotlight
on Germany: A Survey of Her Economic and Political Problems.
Faber & Faber Limited.
83. Russell (Lord) of Liverpool.
1963. The Record:
The Trial of Adolf Eichmann for His Crimes Against the
Jewish People and Against Humanity. Alfred A. Knopf.
84. Schacht, Hjalmar Horace
Greeley. 1974. Confessions of “The Old Wizard”:
Autobiography. Greenwood Press.
85. Scheele, Godfrey. 1946. The
Weimar Republic: Overture to the Third Reich. Faber and
86. Schellenberg, Walter. 1956.
The Labyrinth: Memoirs. Harper and Brothers Publishers.
87. Schultz, Sigrid. 1944. Germany Will Try It Again. Reynal
88. Stachura, Peter D. 1983. The
Nazi Machtergreifung. George Allen & Unwin.
89. Stachura, Peter D. 1993.
Political Leaders in Weimar Germany: A Biographical Study.
Simon & Schuster.
90. Taylor, Simon. 1983. The
Rise of Hitler: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany
1918-1933. Universe Books.
91. Dederke, Karlheinz. 1984.
Reich und Republik Deutschland 1917-1933. Klett-Cotta.
92. Villard, Oswald Garrison.
1933. The German Phoenix: The Story of the Republic.
Harrison Asmith & Robert Haas.
93. Waite, Robert G. L. 1952.
Vanguard of Nazism: The Free Corps Movement in Post-War
94. Watkins, Frederick Mundell.
1939. The Failure of constitutional emergency Powers under
the German Republic. Harvard University Press.
95. Welch, David. 1983. Nazi
Propaganda: The Power and The Limitations. Croom Helm &
Barnes & Noble Books.
96. Wheeler-Bennett, John W.
1967. The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics
1918-1945. Viking Press.
Books with references to
eugenics in index
97. Benderesky, Joseph W. 1956. A History of Nazi
Germany. Burnham Inc. According to the index, eugenics is
mentioned on mentioned on 10 pages, but several of these
actually refer to euthanasia rather than eugenics, and the
others are limited to Hitler’s belief in “Aryan” racial
98. Bramwell, Anna. 1985. Blood
and Soil: Richard Walther Darré and Hitler’s “Green Party,”
Kensal Press, 7 mentions.
99. Hiden, John. 1996.
Republican and Fascist Germany: Themes and Variations in the
History of Weimar and the Third Reich 1918-1945, Longman, 2
100. Peukert, Detlev J. K.1991.
The Weimar Republic: The Crisis of Classical Modernity, Hill
and Wang, 2 mentions.
American Association for the
Advancement of Science (AAAS). 2000. “The Human Genome,”
Science, special issue, Vol. 291, No. 5507.
Associated Press. 1992. “Study Shows
Brains Differ in Gay, Heterosexual Men: Anterior Commissure Area
Larger in Homosexuals,” Washington Post, August 1, A2.
Associated Press. 2001a. “Population
rises halt in developed nations,” Washington Times, May 22, A6;
quoting Population Reference Bureau.
Associated Press. 2001b. “Scientist
says he will clone humans in U.S. or abroad,” Washington Times,
December 15, A2.
Atkinson, Richard. 2001. “SAT Is to
Admissions as Inadequate Is to…” Washington Post, March 26, A1.
Bailey, Michael; Pillard, Richard C.
1991. “A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation,” Arch. Gen.
Psychiatry, 48, 1089-96.
Bajema, Carl Jay. 1976. Eugenics
Then and Now. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg,
Pennsylvania. Balter, Michael. 2001. “Anthropologists Duel Over
Modern Human Origins,” Science, March 2, Vol. 291, 1728-1729.
Baur, Erwin; Fischer, Eugen; Lenz,
Fritz. 1931. Human Heredity. The Macmillan Company, New York.
Bearden, H. Joe; Fuquay, John W.
2000. Applied Animal Reproduction (Fifth Edition). Prentice
Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Binding, Karl; Hoche, Alfred. 1920.
Die Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens. F. Meiner,
Blank, Robert H. 1982. Torts for
Wrongful Life: Individual and Eugenic Implications. Social
Philosophy and Policy Center, Bowling Green, Ohio.
Bodart, Gaston. 1916. Losses of Life
in Modern Wars. H. Milford, London/New York.
Borkenau, Peter; Riemann, Rainer;
Agleittner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M. 2001. “Genetic and
Environmental Influences on Observed Personality: Evidence from
the German Observational Study of Adult Twins,” Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 80, No. 4, 655-668.
Bowler, Peter J. 1986. Theories of
Human Evolution: A Century of Debate, 1844-1944. Johns Hopkins
University Press, Baltimore/London.
Bravin, Jess; Regaldo, Antonio.
2003. “U.N. Puts Off Human-Clone Ban Amid Demands by U.S.,
Vatican,” Wall Street Journal, November 7, A3.
Brock, Dan; Buchanan, Allen;
Daniels, Norman; Wickler, Daniel. 2000. From Chance to Choice:
Genes And The Just Society. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, U.K./New York.
Broyde, Machael J. Undated, between
1997 and 2002. “Cloning People and Jewish Law: A Preliminary
Campbell, John H. 1995. Taken from
Evolution and Human Values. 1995.
Campbell, J. H.; Wesson, R.; and
Williams, P. (editors) Rodopi Press, Amsterdam, 79-114.
Campbell, Joseph. The Power of Myth.
Interview with Bill Moyers, Public Television.
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Bodmer, W. F.
1971. The Genetics of Human Populations. W. H. Freeman, San
Central Committee of the Communist
Party of the Soviet Union. 1936. ““On Pedological Distortions in
the Commissariats of Education,” Pravda, July 5.
Christians for the Cloning of Jesus.
“The Shroud of Turin.”
Clark, A. J. 1998. Animal Breeding:
Technology for the 21st Century, Harwood Academic, multiple
Cole, Tim. 1999. Selling the
Holocaust: From Auschwitz to Schindler: How History is Bought,
Packaged, and Sold. Routledge, New York.
Collange, Jean François; Houdebine,
Louis-Marie; Huriet, Claude; Lecourt, Dominique; Renard,
Jean-Paul; Testart, Jacques. 1999. Faut-il vraiment cloner
l’homme? Presses universitaires de France, Paris.
Cooperman, Alan. 2002. “Number of
Jews in U.S. Falls 5 Percent: Report Cites Couples’ Decision to
Delay Having Children as Principal Cause, ”Washington Post,
October 9, A3.
Crew, F. A. E.; Darlington, C. D.;
Haldane, J. B. S. Harland, S. C.; Hogben, L. T.; Huxley, J. S.
Muller, H. J.;
Needham, J.; Child, G. P.; David, P. R.; Dahlberg, G.;
Dobzhansky, Th.; Emerson, R. A.; Gordon, C.;
Hammond, J.; Huskins, C. L.; Koller, P. C.; Landauer, W.;
Plough, H. H.; Price, B.; Schultz, J.; Steinberg, G.;
Waddington, C. H. “Social Biology and Population Improvement, “
Nature, Vol. 144, No. 3646, 521-522.
De Marco, Donna. 2001. “What’s in a
name?: For direct marketers, a gold mine of data about a
consumer’s tastes, pocketbook,” Washington Times, June 17, A1,
6. “Disability Rights Advocates,” Center for Genetics and
“Docs Grow Heart Cells,” 2001. DNA
Diagnostics Center, August 2,
Domhoff, G. William. 1983. Who Rules
America Now? A View for the ’80s. Prentice Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey.
Dougherty, Carter. 2001. “Free
censorship with purchase? ISP blocks access to sites without
consent to curb ‘spam,’” Washington Times, May 30, B8, 9.
Drouard, Alain. 1999. L’eugénisme en
questions: L’exemple de l’eugénisme “français.” Ellipses, Paris.
Duster, Troy. 1990. Backdoor to
Eugenics. Routledge, New York/London.
Eisenberg, Daniel. 2002. “The Ethics
Elliman, Wendy. 2001. “Statistical
probabilitiesand probable cures,” Jerusalem Post, February 27,
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2001.
“Genetic disease, human.”
“Eugenics –Euthenics – Euphenics,”
Eysenck, H. J. 1982. “The sociology
of psychological knowledge, the genetic interpretation of the
IQ, and Marxist-Leninist ideology,” Bulletin of the British
Psychological Society, No. 35, 449-451.
Finkelstein, Norman G. 2000. The
Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish
Suffering. VERSO, London/New York.
Fletcher, John C. 1983. “Moral
Problems and Ethical Issues in Prospective Human Gene Therapy,”
Virginia Law Review, Vol. 69, No. 3, April, 515-546.
Fletcher, Joseph. 1974. The Ethics
of Genetic Control: Ending Reproductive Roulette. Anchor Press,
Garden City, New York.
Flynn, James R. 1984. “The Mean IQ
of Americans: Massive Gains 1932 to 1978,” Psychological
Bulletin, Vol. 95, No. 1, 29-51.
Ford, Gerald. 2002. “Curing, Not
Cloning,” Washington Post, June 5, A23.
“Fordham team discovers cause of
genetic disorder that affects people of Eastern European Jewish
descent,” 2001. Fordham University,
Fox, Maggie. 2002. “Genie outof the
bottle on cloning, expert says,” Reuters, May 15,
Frazer, Lorraine. 2002. “In-vitro
pioneer backs cloning for infertility, but with safeguards,”
London Sunday Telegraph, reprinted in the Washington Times, June
Fuller, John L. “Social Biology:
Whence and Whither,” Social Biology, Vol. 30, No. 1, 112-114.
Gallup Organization. 1999. “New Poll
Gauges Americans’ General Knowledge Levels,” July 6.
Gallup Organization. 2000. “One in
Five Americans Unaware that Either Bush or Gore Is a Likely
Presidential Nominee,” March 22.
Gallup Organization. 2001. “Public
Favorable to Creationism,” February 14.
Garber, Robert (United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum). 2001. E-mail letter to John Glad,
Gershon, Elliot S. 1983. “Should
Science Be Stopped? The Case of Recombinant DNA Research,” The
Public Interest, Spring, No. 71, 3-16.
Gist, John G. 2000. “Wealth
Distribution in 1998: Finds from the Survey of Consumer
Finances,” American Association of Retired Persons, WWW.
Glad, John. 1998. “A Hypothetical
Model of IQ Decline Resulting from Political Murder and
Selective Emigration,” The Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 3,
Glad, John. 2001. “The Current
Attitude Toward Eugenics in France,” The Mankind Quarterly, Vol.
42, No. 1, Fall 2001, 77-89.
Gladue, Brian A.; Green, Richard;
Hellman, Ronald E. 1984. “Neuroendocrine Response to Estrogen
and Sexual Orientation,” Science, September 28, Vol. 225,
Gould, Stephen Jay. 1981. The
Mismeasure of Man. Norton, New York.
Graham, Loren R. “Science and
Values: The Eugenics Movement in Germany and Russia in the
1920s,” American Historical Review, 82:1133-1164.
Grobstein, Clifford; Flower,
Michael. 1984. “Gene Therapy: Proceed with Caution,” The
Hastings Center Report, April, 13-17.
“Gun deaths decline 26 percent since
’93.” 2001. Washington Times, April 13, A6.
Guttmacher, Alan F. 1964. “The
Tragedy of the Unwanted Child,” Parents’ Magazine, June.
Haller, Mark H. 1963. Eugenics:
Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought. Rutgers University
Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
Hardin, Garrett. 1977. The Limits of
Altruism: An Ecologist’s View of Survival. Indiana University
Press, Bloomington, Indiana.
Harper, Jennifer. 2004. “Brits can’t
find Chicago, Dallas in geography test,” Washington Times,
January 4, A2.
Henderson, Helen. 1999. “Breaking
Down Barriers,” Toronto Star, October 23,
Henshaw, Stanley K.; O’Reilley,
Kevin. 1983. “Characteristics of Abortion Patients in the United
States,” 1979 and 1980,” Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15,
No. 1, 5-16.
Herrnstein, Richard J.; Murray,
Charles. 1994. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure
in American Life. Free Press, New York.
Hersh, A. H. 1966. “Eugenics,”
Encyclopedia Americana: International Edition, Vol. 10, 567-571.
Hewlett, Sylvia Ann. 2002.
“Household Help,” a review of Joined at the Heart: The
Transformation of the American Family by Al and Tipper Gore,
Washington Post, Bookworld, December 8, 7.
Hirschi, Travis; Hindelang, Michael
J. 1977. “Intelligence and Delinquency: A Revisionist Review,”
American Sociological Review, Vol. 42, August, 571-587.
Holden, Constance. 2001. “Study
Suggests Pitch Perception Is Inherited,” Science, March 9, Vol.
Holmes, Samuel Jackson. 1933. The
Harcourt, Brace and Company, New
York. Howells, William White. 1997. Getting Here: The Story of
Human Evolution. Compass Press, Washington, D.C.
Hunt, Earl. 1995. “The Role of
Intelligence in Modern Society,” American Scientist,
Huntington, Ellsworth. 1935.
Tomorrow’s Children: The Goal of Eugenics. Wiley, London,
Chapman and Hall, London.
“Infertility and Conception”
Undated. Epigee Birth Control Guide,
Itzkoff, Seymour W. 2000. The
Inevitable Domination by Man: An Evolutionary Detective Story,
Paideia Publishers, Ashfield, Massachusetts.
Jenkins, Philip. 1982. “The Radicals
and the Rehabilitative Ideal, 1890-1930,” Criminology, Vol. 20,
Nos. 3-4, 347-372.
Jensen, Arthur R. 1980. Bias in
Mental Testing. Free Press, New York.
Jordan, David Starr. 1915. War and
The Breed : The Relation of War to the Downfall of Nations.
Clivedon Press, Boston.
Kahn, Susan Martha. 2000.
Reproducing Jews: A Cultural Account of Assisted Conception in
Israel. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina.
Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph; Nowak,
Kurt; Schwartz, Michael. 1992. Eugenik, Sterilisation, “Euthanasie”:
Politische Biologie in Deutschland 1895-1945. Buchverlag Union,
“Kansas Board Revives Teaching of
Evolution: New Science Standards Undo Religious Conservatives’
Controversial 1999 Move,” Washington Post, February 15, 2001,
A10; reprinted from Los Angeles Times.
Kristol, William (chairman, the
Bioethics Project); Arkes, Hadley (professor of American
Institutions, Amherst College); Bauer, Gary (president, American
Values); Bennett, William J. (Codirector, Empower America);
Bottum, J. (books and arts editor, the Weekly Standard);
Bradley, Gerard V. (professor of law, University of Notre Dame);
Cameron, Nigel (dean, the Wilberforce Forum); Casey, Samuel B.
(exec. director and CEO, Christian Legal Society); Colson,
Charles W. (Prison Fellowship Ministries Chairman, the
Wilberforce Forum); Combs, Roberta (president, Christian
Coalition of America); Connor, Ken (president, Family Research
Council); Dobson, James (president, Focus on the Family);
Forbes, Steves (businessman and former U.S. Presidential
candidate); Fadkin, Hillel (president, Ethics and Public Policy
Center); Fukuyama, Francis (professor of International Political
Economy, Johns Hopkins University), George, Robert P. (professor
of jurisprudence, Princeton University); Kilner, John
(president, The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity); Land,
Richard D. (president and CEO, Southern Baptist Ethics and
Religious Liberty Commission); Mitchell, C. Ben (editor, Ethics
and Medicine: An International Journal of Bioethics); Murray,
William J. (chairman, Religious Freedom Coalition); Neuhaus,
Richard John (Institute for Religion and Public Life); O’Steen,
David (exec. director, National Right to Life Committee);
Prentice, David (M.D., Do No Harm); Rios, Sandy (president,
Concerned Women of America); Ruse, Austin (president, Catholic
Family and Human Rights Institute); Smith, Wesley J. (author);
Stevens, David (M.D., exec. Director, Christian Medical
Association); Weigel, George (Ethics and Public Policy Center);
Weyrick, Paul (Free Congress Foundation). 2002. “An assault on
human dignity: President Bush shows moral leadership on human
cloning,” Washington Times, January 10, A17.
Kröner, Hans-Peter; Toellner,
Richard, Weisemann, Karen. 1990. “Inwieweit Erwin Baur in die
geistige Urheberschaft der historischen Verbrechen, die der
Nationalsozialismus begangen hat, verstrickt war order nicht.”
Erwin Baur: Naturwissenschaft und Politik. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
zur Förderung der Wissenschaften, Münster, 1991, WWW.
Lamb, James I. 2002. “Cloaked
Cloning,” Update, Spring, Lutherans for Life.
Laris, Michael. 2002. “Herd Round
the World: 2.3 Million Granddaughters and Counting For Bull of
the Century from Loudoun,” Washington Post, June 30, A1, 10-11.
Lenin, Vladimir. 1914. “A Liberal
Professor on Equality,” Put’ pravdy, No. 33, March 11.
Leonard, Mary. 2002. “Coalition
urges a ban on all human cloning,” Boston Globe, March 22,
Lerner, Barbara. 1980. “The War on
Testing: David, Goliath & Gallup,” Public Interest, No. 60,
summer, 119-147. Lo Duca, (Giuseppe). 1969. Histoire de
l’érotisme. La jeune parque, Paris.
Lunden, Walter. 1964. Statistics on
Delinquents and Delinquency, C. C. Thomas, Springfield,
Lynn, Richard. 1996. Dysgenics:
Genetic Deterioration in Modern Populations. Praeger, Westport,
Margolin, C. R. “Attitudes Toward
Control and Elimination of Genetic Defects,” Social Biology,
Vol. 25, No. 1, 33-37.
McConaughy, John. 1933. Who Rules
America? A Century of Invisible Government. Toronto, Longmans,
Co., New York/Toronto.
McNeill, William H. 1984. “Human
Migration in Historical Perspective,” Population and Development
1, March, 1-18.
Mednick, Sarnoff. 1985. “Crime in
the Family Tree,” Psychology Today, March, 58-61.
Missa, Jean-Noël: Susanne, Charles (eds.). 1999. De l’eugénisme
d’État à l’eugénisme privé, DeBoeck Université, Brussels.
Monde (Le). 2002. “La naissance
annoncée des premiers clones humains,” May 24, WWW.
Mooney, Chris. 2001. “Irrationalist
in Chief,” The American Prospect: Online. September 24.. Quoting
Leon Kass in Toward a More Natural Science, 1985, and Virginia
Postrel in the Los Angeles Times.
Moravec, Hans. 1997. “When will
computer hardware match the human brain?” The Journal of
Transhumanism, Vol. 1, WWW, December.
National Assessment of Education
Progress. National Test Results.
Neel, James V. 1983. “Some Base
Lines for Human Evolution and the Genetic Implications of Recent
Cultural Developments,” How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odyssey,
Donald J. Ortner (ed.). Smithsonian Institution Press,
New York Times. 2002. “Dr.
Frankenstein on the Hill,” May 18, A14.
Osborne, Frederick. “History of the
American Eugenics Society,” Social Biology, Vol. 21, No. 2,
Paul, Diane B. 1995. Controlling
Human Heredity: 1865 to the Present, Humanities Press, Atlantic
Highlands, New Jersey.
Paul, Diane B. 1998. The Politics of
Heredity. State University of New York Press, Albany.
Pearson, Ian. 2000. November 17. The
Future of Human Evolution: Part One, WWW.
Pearson, Roger. 1997. Race,
Intelligence and Bias in Academe. Washington, D.C.
Perkins, Joseph. 2002. “Cloning
research under wraps,” Washington Times, June 5, A14.
Petersilia, Joan; Greenwood, Peter
W.; Lavin, Marvin. 1978. Criminal Careers of Habitual Felons,
National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice,
July. Pichot, André. 1995. L’eugénisme ou les généticiens saisis
par la philanthropie. Paris.
Pichot, André. 2000. La société
pure: De Darwin à Hitler. Paris.
Pickrell, John. 2001. “Human
Cloning: Experts Assail Plan to Help Childless Couples,”
Science, March 16, Vol. 291, 2061, 2063.
Pistoi, Sergio. 2002. Father of the
Impossible Children: Ignoring nearly universal opprobrium,
Severino presses ahead with plans to clone a human being, WWW.
Pomerantz, G. 1973. “Man without an Adjective,” Ethics, Vol.
83, No. 2, 126-145.
Population Reference Bureau. 2003
World Population Data Sheet. Washington, D.C.
Population Reference Bureau.
Undated. World Population and the Environment. Washington, D.C.
Price, Joyce Howard. 2001.
“Australian scientists fertilize mice eggs without using sperm.”
The Washington Times, July 13, A8.
Rajeswary, L. 1985. “Study Finds
Illiteracy Widespread,” Washington Post, August 3, A8.
Revel, Michel. 2003? “Human
Reproductive Cloning, Embryo Stem Cells, and Germline Gene
Intervention: An Israeli Perspective,” Weizmann Institute of
Science, Rehovot, Israel,
Reichler, Max (Rabbi). 1916. Jewish
Eugenics and Other Essays. New York.
Richards, W. (United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum). 2001. E-mail letter to John Glad,
Ridley, Mark. 2001. “Sex, Errors and
The Genome,” Natural History, Vol. 110, No. 5, p43; WWW (EBSCO).
Roper, Allen G. 1913. Ancient
Rothman, Stanley; Lichter, S.
Robert. 1982. Roots of Radicalism: Jews, Christians, and the New
Left. New York/Oxford.
Rubin, Debra. 2001. “Wiesel Laments
anti-Semitism among Jews,” Washington Jewish Week, March 22, 29.
Sachedina, Abdulaziz. 1999. “Islamic
Perspectives on Cloning,”
Saetz, Stephen B. 1985. “Eugenics and the Third Reich,” Eugenics
Bulletin, taken here from the Future Generations website (eugenics.net).
Schwartz, Michael. 1995.
Sozialistische Eugenik: Eugenische Sozialtechnologien in
Debatten und Politik der deutschen Sozialdemokratie 1890-1933.
Segal, Nancy. L. 1999. Entwined
Lives: Twins and What They Tell Us About human Behavior. New
Smith, Alison. 2002. “Measuring Up:
Should genetic testing decide who is born?” The National,
Canadian Broadcasting News, March 11,
Singer, Peter. 1999. A Darwinian
Left: Politics, Evolution and Cooperation. New Haven/London.
Snyderman, Mark; Rothman, Stanley.
1986. “Science, Politics, and the IQ Controversy,” The Public
Interest, No. 83, spring, 79-97.
“Speaking in Fewer Tongues.” 2001.
Washington Post, June 9, A13.
Special Correspondant, 2002. “La
naissance annoncée des premiers clones humains,” Le Monde, May
Sprow, Marla. 2002. “Bill could
criminalize cloning for scientists,” The Michigan Daily Online,
Squires, Sally. 1985. “Pinpointing
the Killer,” Washington Post, May 29.
Statistical Abstract of the United
States 1982-83. Washington, D.C.
Stein, Rob. “Wider Human-Chimp Gap,”
Science Notebook, Washington Post, September 9, A7.
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. 2002. Total
Ban on Cloning Research Appears Dead,” New York Times, June 14,
Stoler-Lis, Sachlav. 2003. “‘Mothers
Birth the Nation’: The Social Construction of Zionist Motherhood
in Wartime in Israeli Parents’ Manuals,” Nashim, No. 6, fall,
104-118, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, The
Schechter Institute of Jewish Studies, Jerusalem, The
Hadassah-Brandeis Institute, Jerusalem. Stone, Naomi. 2000.
Erasing Tay-Sachs Disease, WWW.
“Study rejects bacterial genes
claim.” 2001. Washington Times, May 18, A10.
Sutherland, Edwin H. 1914.
Criminology. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia.
Thomas, Jean-Paul. 1995. Les
fondements de l’eugénisme. Paris.
Timberg, Craig. 2003. “Williams Aims
To Be Mayor of A Bigger D.C.: Attracting Residents Is Goal As
2nd Term Begins Today,” Washington Post, January 2, A1, A11.
Traub, James. 2002. “Common Talk: In
Enron-sized America, why is populism such a dirty word?” New
York Times, Magazine Section (No. 6), October 16, 23-24.
Traubmann, Tamara. 2004. “‘Do not
have children if they won’t be healthy,’” Haaretz, July 3, 5764,
Tucker, William H. 1994. The Science
and Politics of Racial Research, Urbana/Chicago.
Vedantam, Shankar. 2001. “Tracing
the Synapses of Our Spirituality: Researchers Examine
Relationship Between Brain and Religion,” Washington Post, June
17, A1, A9.
Vedantam, Shankar. 2004. “Dementia
and the Voter: Research Raises Ethical, Constitutional
Questions,” Washington, Post, September 14, A1, A9.
Velle, Weiert. 1984. “Sex
Differences in Intelligence: Implications for Educational
Policy,” Journal of Human Evolution, No. 13, 109-115.
Verschuer, Otmar von. 1938. “The
Racial Biology of Jews,” Forschungen zur Judenfrage, Vol. III,
Hamburg, Translated by Charles E. Weber, WWW.
Verschuer, Otmar von. 1943. Manuel
d’eugénique et hérédité humaine. Translated by Dr. George
Montandon (shown as Professor of Ethnology and Anthropology).
Vining, Daniel. 1982. “Dysgenic
Fertility and Welfare: An Elementary Test,” Person. Individ.
Diff. Vol. 4, No. 5, 513-518.
Vining, Daniel. 1983. “Illegitimacy
and Public Policy,” Population and Development Review, Vol. 9.,
No. 1, March, 105-110.
Wade, Nicholas. 2002. “Stem Cell
Mixing May Form A Human-Mouse Hybrid: Mice With Human Cells
Would be Likely,” New York Times, November 27, A17.
Wade, Nicholas. 2004. “Human Gene
Total Falls Again, to 20,000+”, New York Times, October 21, A23.
Weingart, Peter. 2000. “Eugenics and
Race-Hygiene in the German Context: A Legacy of Science Turned
Bad?” 202-223, Humanity at the Limit: The Impact of the
Holocaust Experience on Jews and Christians. Bloomington/
Weingart, Peter; Kroll, Jürgen;
Bayertz, Kurt. 1988. Rasse, Blut und Gene: Geschichte der
Eugenik und Rassenhygiene in Deutschland. Frankfurt am Main.
Weinrich, James D. 1978.
“Nonreproduction, Homosexuality, Transsexualism, and
Intelligence: A Systematic Literature Search,” Journal of
Homosexuality, Vol. 3 (3), Spring, 275-289.
Weiss, Meira. 2002. The Chosen Body:
The Politics of the Body in Israel Society. Stanford University
Press. Weiss, Rick. 2002. “Free to Be Me: Would-Be Cloners
Pushing the Debate,” Washington Post, May 12, A1, A10. Wetzstein,
Cheryl. 2001. “Unwed mothers set a record for births: 33% of
infants born out of wedlock,” Washington Times, April 18, A1.
Weyl, Nathaniel & Possony, Stefan.
1963. The Geography of the Intellect. Chicago.
Weyl, Nathaniel. 1967. “Aristocide
as a Force in History,” Intercollegiate Review, June 1967,
Willing, Richard. 2001. “Human
Cloning Banned by House,” USA Today, August 1,
Wright, Lawrence. 1997. Twins and
What They Tell Us About Who We Are. New York.
Wright, William. 1998. Born That
Way: Genes, Behavior, Personality. New York.
Yax, Laura K. 2000. “Statistical
Brief: Mothers Who Receive AFDC Payments,” U.S. Census Bureau,
September 13, WWW.
Zohar, Noam J. 1998. “From Lineage
to Sexual Mores: Examining ‘Jewish Eugenics,’”Science in
Context, 11, 3-4, 575-585.
Zoll, Rachel. 2002. “Jewish
population in U.S. declining: Median age up 4 years, survey
finds,” Washington Times, October 9, A2.
1 Francis Galton, “Eugenics, Its
Definition, Scope, and Aims,” Sociological Papers, 1905, I,
45-50, 45; quoted in Weingart, Kroll, and Bayertz, 1988, 33.
2 Pichot, 2000, 12-13.
3 Balter, 2001.
4 Itzkoff, 2000, 265.
6 Neel, 1983.
7 Examination Alpha, Test 8, Forms 8 and 9, quoted by Paul,
1995, pg. 66, from Robert M. Yerkes, ed. Psychological
Examining in the United States Army, Vol. 15 of Memoirs of
the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1921.
8 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 345.
9 Flynn, 1984.
10 Hernstein/Murray, 1994, 401.
11 Lerner, 1980, 121.
12 Snyderman/Rothman, 1986, 83.
13 Finkelstein, 2000, 36-37.
14 Tucker, 1994, 219; Cited by B. S. Bloom, “Testing
Cognitive Ability and Achievement,” Handbook of Research on
Testing, ed. N.c. Gage, 1963, 384.
15 Hewlett, 2002.
16 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 351.
17 Henshaw/O’Reilley, 1983, 10.
18 Weyl and Possona, 1963; Weyl, 1967.
19 Glad, 1998.
20 Trafford, 2002, F8.
21 Encyclopedia Britannica, “Genetic disease, human.”
22 Ridley, 2001.
23 Hersh, 1966, 568.
24 Mann, Fritz, “Eugénique et éthique commune dans la
société pluraliste,” Missa/Susanne, 1999, 140.
25 Lévinas, E., Totalité et infini: Essai sur l’extériorité,
Coll. Biblio Essais, No. 4120, 1971, pg. 310; quoted in
26 Pembre, M., “Prenatal diagnosis and its ethical
implication,” A Report to the European Commission Group of
Advisors on the Ethical Implication of Biotechnology,
October 1994, 3-4; quoted in Missa/Susanne, 38-39.
27 Brock et al.
28 Traubmann, 2004.
29 Elliman, 2001.
30 Elliman, 2001.
31 Stone, 2000.
32 “Disability Rights Advocates.”
33 Smith, 2002.
34 Henderson, 1999.
36 Eugenics –Euthenics –Euphenics.
37 Lo Duca, 1969.
38 Bearden/Fuquay, 2000, 2.
39 Wright, 1997, 25.
40 Wright, 1997, 147-148.
41 Borkenau et al, 2001.
42 Wright, 1997, 61.
43 Wright, 1997, 61.
44 Wright, 1997, 63.
45 Bearden/Fuquay, 2000, 151.
46 Laris, 2002.
47 Weiss, Rick, 2002, A10.
48 Mooney, 2001.
49 Kristol, 2002.
52 Wade, 2004.
53 Paul, 1998, 12-13.
54 Population Reference Bureau, 2003 World Population Data
55 Hardin, 1977.
56 Singer, 1999, 42.
57 Gallup Organization, February 14, 2001.
58 Fletcher, 1983, 519.
59 McConaughy, 1933, 1, 7.
60 Timberg, 2003.
61 Traub, 2002.
62 Gallup, March 22, 2000.
63 National Assessment of Education Progress.
64 Gallup, July 6, 1999.
65 Rajeswary, 1985.
66 Harper, 2004.
67 Vedantam, 2004.
68 See: Pomerantz, 1973, for a sensitive discussion.
69 Bajema, 1976, 257.
70 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 197.
71 David Lykken, quoted in Wright, 1997, 131. See also
Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 191-201.
72 Guttmacher, 1964.
73 Vining, 1983.
74 Yax, 2000.
75 Price, 2001.
76 Wright, 1997, 64.
77 Wright, 1997, 60.
78 Holden, 2001.
79 Haller, 1963, 17.
80 Wright, 1997, 123.
81 Lunden, 1964, 86.
82 Hirschi/Hindelang, 1977, 573-574.
83 Hirschi/Hindelang, 1977, 573-574.
84 Hirschi/Hindelang, 1977, 581.
85 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 235, 242, 735.
86 See: McNeill, 1984, for a discussion.
87 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 359.
88 “Speaking in Fewer Tongues.”
89 Haller, 1963, 4.
90 Haller, 1963, 19.
91 Haller, 1963, 129.
92 Haller, 1963, 132.
93 Haller, 1963, 137, 141.
94 Ascencion Cambron, “Approche juridique de la
stérilisation des handicapés mentaux en Espagne,” article in
Missa/Susanne, 1999, 121.
95 Drouard, 1999, 7.
96 Alexander Tille, Das aristokratische Prinzip der Natur,
1893; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 1.
97 Otto Ammon, Natürliche Auslese und Ständbildung, 1893;
quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 2-3.
98 Leitsätze der “Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene,”
zur Geburtenfrage angenommen in der Delegiertenversammlung
zu Jena am 6. und 7. June 1914; quoted in Kaiser et al,
99 Leitsätze der “Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene (Eugenik),”
1931/32; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 62-64. 100
Statististisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden, Bevölkerung und
Wirtschaft 1872-1972, Stuttgart/Mainz, 1972, 102: quoted in:
Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 130-131. 101 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz,
1988, 141-142, 382, 536-537, 539, 542, 597-601.
102 Missa/Susanne, 19.
103 Adolf Hitler, Völkisches Menschenrecht und sogenannte
humane Gründe (1925/27), Munich, 1932, 444r, 444, Mein Kampf;
quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 119-120. 104 Verschuer, 1943,
105 Verschuer, 1943, 3.
106 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 1998, 298. 107 Das “Gesetz
zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses” vom 14. Juli 1933;
quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 126. 108 Missa/Susanne, 1999,
18-19 ;Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 470.
109 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 469.
110 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 22, 174, 263-265, 283,
111 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 300.
112 Karl H. Bauer, Rassenhygiene: Ihre biologischen
Grundlagen, Leipzig, 1926, 207; Hans Luxenburger, „Möglichkeiten
und Notwendigkeiten für die psychiatrischeugenische Praxis,”
Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1931, 78: 753-758,
753; Lothar Loeffler, “Ist die gesetzliche Freigabe der
eugenischen Indikation zur Schwangerschaftsunterbrechung
rassenhygienisch notwendig?” Deutsches Ärzteblatt, 1933, 63:
368-369, 369. All quoted inWeingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988,
113 Aktion “T4” / “Wilde Euthanasie” (1939-1945); Aussage
des “T4”-Leiters Viktor Brack: “Nutzlose Esser” 1946);
Aus: DOC-NO426, in GSTA, Rep. 335, Fall 1, Nr. 202, Bl.
11; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 250.
114 David Irving, Hitler’s War, Viking Press, 1977; quoted
in Saetz, 1985.
115 English Translation: “Human Heredity, NY, 1931.
116 Lenin, 1914.
117 Schwartz, 1995.
118 Max Levien, “Stimmen aus dem teutschen Urwalde,” Under
dem Banner des Marxismus, 1928, 4:150-195, 162; quoted in
Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 112. 119 Paul, 1994, 20;
quoting H.J. Muller’s “Out of the Night,” 114-115.
120 J. B. S., Haldane, Daily Worker, November 14, 1949;
quoted in Paul, 1998, 13.
121 Quoted in Paul, 1998, 13.
122 Singer, 1999, 9, 23. Income figures from Barnet, R. J. &
Cavanagh. J. Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the
New World Order, 1994; World Bank Development Indicators,
123 Paul, 1998, 29.
124 Wright, 1997, 10.
125 M.-T. Nisot’s 1927-29 La Question eugénique dans les
divers pays, two volumes, Brussels; quoted in Drouard, 1999,
126 Huntington, 31.
127 Schwartz, 1995, 16, 33.
128 Information provided by Benoit Massin to Peter Weingart;
quoted in Weingart, 2000, 208-209. Also from WWW site of
129 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 251.
130 Holmes, 1933, 122-123.
131 Y. Meir and A. Rivkai, The Mother and the Child, 1934,
Tel Aviv: Kupat Holim, 63-64, quoted in Stohler-Lis, 2003,
132 Traubmann, 2004.
133 Traubmann, 2004.
134 Weiss, Meira, 2002, 2.
135 Weiss, Meira, 2002, 32.
136 Kahn, 197.
137 Kahn, 140.
138 Kahn, 74.
139 Kahn, 106.
140 Revel, 2003.
141 Zohar, 1998, 584-585.
142 Graham, 1977.
143 Pearson, 1997, 10-11; quoting presidential address of
Sandra Scarr at the annual meeting of the Behavior Genetics
Association, Behavior Genetics, 12;3, 1987. 144 Grobstein/Flower,
145 Pearson, 1997, 38; quoting Philippe Rushton: 52,
“Science and Racism,” 52.
146 Finkelstein, 2000, 11.
147 Cooperman, 2002.
148 Zoll, 2002.
149 Tucker, 1994, 279-295.
150 Glad, 2001.
151 Gershon, Elliot S. 1983, 3.
152 Wade, 2002.
153 Lynn, 1996, 35; quoting Coleman & Salt, 1992.
154 “Gun Deaths…” 2001.
155 Fletcher, 1974.
156 Brock, et al, 2000.
157 Campbell, John, 1995.