by Stephen Lendman
Stephen Lendman is a Research
Associate of the Centre for Research on Globalization.
He lives in
Chicago and can be reached at
Also visit his blog site at sjlendman.blogspot.com
When it comes to observing US and international
laws, treaties and norms,
the Bush administration is a serial
Since 2001, it's:
spurned efforts for nuclear disarmament
to advance its weapons program and retain current stockpiles
renounced the 1970 Nuclear
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and asserted the right to
develop and test new weapons
abandoned the 1972 Anti-Ballistic
Missile Treaty (ABM) because it expressly forbids the
development, testing and deployment of missile defenses like its
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) and other
refuses to adopt a proposed Fissile
Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) that would prohibit further
weapons-grade uranium and plutonium production and prevent new
nuclear weapons to be added to present stockpiles - already
dangerously too high
spends more on the military than the
rest of the world combined plus multi-billions off-the-books, for
secret programs, and for agencies like the CIA
advocates preventive, preemptive and
"proactive" wars globally with first-strike nuclear and other
weapons under the nihilistic doctrines of "anticipatory
self-defense" and remaking the world to be like America
rescinded and subverted the 1972
Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) to illegally develop
new biowarfare weapons; in November 1969 and February 1970, Richard
Nixon issued National Security Decision Memoranda (NSDM)
35 and 44; they renounced the use of lethal and other types of
biological warfare and ordered existing weapons stockpiles
destroyed, save for small amounts for research - a huge exploitable
loophole; the Reagan and Clinton administrations took advantage; GHW
Bush to a lesser degree
GW Bush went further by renouncing the
US Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 that prohibits "the
Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological
(Biological) and Toxin Weapons....;" on May 22, 1990, GHW Bush
signed it into law to complete the 1972 Convention's implementation;
what the father and Nixon established, GW Bush rendered null and
void; "Rebuilding America's Defenses" is his central policy document
for unchallengeable US hegemony; among other provisions, it
illegally advocates advanced forms of biowarfare that can target
specific genotypes - the genetic constitution of individual
A Brief Modern History of
the Hague Convention of 1907 bans
WW I use of poison gas causes 100,000
deaths and 900,000 injuries;
Britain uses poison gas against Iraqis
in the 1920s; as Secretary of State for War in 1919, Winston
Churchill advocates it in a secret memo stating: "I am strongly in
favor of using poisoned gas against uncivilized tribes;"
the 1928 Geneva Protocol prohibits gas
and bacteriological warfare;
in 1931, Dr. Cornelius Rhoads
infects human subjects with cancer cells - under the auspices of the
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations; Rhoads later
conducts radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and
civilian hospital patients;
in 1932, the
Tuskegee Syphilis Study
begins on 200 black men; they're not told of their illness, are
denied treatment, and are used as human guinea pigs to follow their
disease symptoms and progression; they all subsequently die;
in 1935, the Pellagra Incident occurs;
after millions die over two decades, the US Public Health Service
finally acts to stem the disease;
In 1935 - 1936, Italy uses mustard gas
in conquering Ethiopia;
In its 1936 invasion, Japan uses
chemical weapons against China; in the same year, a German chemical
lab produces the first nerve agent, Tabun;
in 1940, 400 Chicago prisoners are
infected with malaria to study the effects of new and experimental
the US has had an active biological
warfare program since at least the 1940s; in 1941, it implements a
secret program to develop offensive and allegedly defensive
bioweapons using controversial testing methods; most research and
development is at Fort Detrick, MD; beginning in 2008, Los Alamos
and Lawrence Livermore labs will also conduct it; production and
testing are at Pine Bluff, AR and Dugway Proving Ground, UT;
from 1942 - 1945, (US) Chemical Warfare
Services begins mustard gas experiments on about 4000 servicemen;
in 1943, the US begins biological
weapons research at Fort Detrick, MD;
in 1944, the US Navy uses human subjects
(locked in chambers) to test gas masks and clothing;
during WW II, Germany uses lethal Zyklon-B
gas in concentration camp exterminations; the Japanese (in Unit 731)
conduct biowarfare experiments on civilians;
in 1945, German offenders get immunity
under Project Paperclip; Japanese ones as well - in exchange for
their data and (for Germans at least) to work on top secret
government projects in the US;
in 1945, the US Atomic Energy
Commission (AEC) implements "Program F;" it's the most
extensive US study of the health effects of fluoride - a key
chemical component in atomic bomb production; it's one of the most
toxic chemicals known and causes marked adverse central nervous
system effects; in the interest of national security and not
undermining full-scale nuclear weapons production, the information
is suppressed; fluoride is found naturally in low concentration in
drinking water and foods; compounds of the substance are also
commonly used for cavity-prevention, but few people understand its
in 1946, VA hospital patients become
guinea pigs for medical experiments;
in 1947, the US has germ warfare
weapons; Truman withdraws the 1928 Geneva Protocol from Senate
consideration; it's not ratified until 1974 and is now null and void
under George Bush;
in 1947, the AEC's Colonel EE
Kirkpatrick issues secret document #07075001; it states that the
agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive
substances to human subjects;
in July 1947, the CIA is established; it
begins LSD experiments on civilian and military subjects with and
without their knowledge - to learn its use as an intelligence
in 1949, the US Army releases biological
agents in US cities to learn the effects of a real germ warfare
attack; tests continue secretly through at least the 1960s in San
Francisco, New York, Washington, DC, Panama City and Key West,
Florida, Minnesota, other Midwest locations, along the Pennsylvania
turnpike and elsewhere; more on outdoor testing below;
after the (official) 1950 Korean War
outbreak, North Korea and China accuse the US of waging germ
warfare; an outbreak of disease the same year in San Francisco
apparently is from Army bacteria released in the city; residents
become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms;
in 1950, the DOD begins open-air nuclear
weapons detonations in desert areas, then monitors downwind
residents for medical problems and mortality rates;
in 1951, African-Americans are exposed
to potentially fatal stimulants as part of a race-specific fungal
weapons test in Virginia;
in 1953, the US military releases clouds
of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over Winnipeg, Canada, St. Louis,
Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River Valley in Maryland, and
Leesburg, VA - to determine how efficiently chemical agents can be
in 1953, joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments
are conducted in New York and San Francisco - exposing tens of
thousands of people to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens
and Bacillus glogigii
in 1953, the CIA initiates
Project MKULTRA - an 11 year research program to produce and test drugs and
biological agents that can be used for mind control and behavior
modification; unwitting human subjects are used;
in 1955, the CIA releases bacteria from
the Army's Tampa, FL biological warfare arsenal - to test its
ability to infect human populations;
from 1955 - 1958, the Army Chemical
Corps continues LSD research (on over 1000 subjects) - to study its
effect as an incapacitating agent;
in 1956, the US military releases
mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever over Savannah, GA and Avon
Park, FL - to test the health effects on victims;
in 1956, Army Field Manual 27-10, The
Law of Land Warfare, specifically states bio-chemical warfare isn't
in 1960, the Army Assistant Chief of
Staff for Intelligence authorizes LSD field tested in Europe and the
in 1961, the Kennedy administration
increases chemical spending from $75 - $330 million; it authorizes
Project 112 - a secret program (from 1962 - 1973) to test the
effects of biological and chemical weapons on thousands of unwitting
US servicemen; Project SHAD was a related project; subjects were
exposed to VX, tabun, sarin and soman nerve gases plus other toxic
in 1962, chemical weapons are loaded on
planes for possible use during the Cuban missile crisis;
in 1966, the New York subway system is
used for a germ warfare experiment;
in 1968, the Pentagon considers using
some of its chemical weapons (including nerve gas) against civil
rights and anti-war protesters;
in 1969, an apparent nerve agent kills
thousands of sheep in Utah; Nixon issues two National Security
Memoranda in 1969 and 1970; the first (in November 1969) ends
production and offensive use of lethal and other type biological and
chemical weapons; it confines "bacteriological/biological
programs....to research for defensive purposes" and has other
loopholes as well; the second (in February 1970) orders existing
stockpiles destroyed, confines "toxins....research and development
(to) defensive purposes only," and declares only small quantities
will be maintained to develop vaccines, drugs and diagnostics - a
huge exploitable loophole;
in 1969, the General Assembly bans
herbicide plant killers and tear gases in warfare; the US is one of
three opposing votes; despite being banned, open-air testing
intermittently continues to the present, and the Pentagon apparently
authorized it in its most recent annual report; it calls for
developmental and operational "field testing of (CBW) full systems,"
not just simulations, and followed it up in a recent March 2008
test; in Crystal City, VA, it released perflourocarbon tracers and
sulfur hexaflouride assuring residents it's safe; it's not and may
harm persons with asthma, emphysema and other respiratory ailments;
in 1969, DOD's Dr. Robert MacMahan
requests $10 million to develop a synthetic biological agent for
which no natural immunity exists;
from the 1960s through at least the
1980s, the US assaults Cuba with biological agent attacks;
in 1970, US Southeast Asian forces
conduct Operation Tailwind using sarin nerve gas in Laos; many die,
including civilians; Admiral Thomas Moorer, former Joint Chiefs
Chairman, confirms the raid on CNN in 1998; under Pentagon pressure,
CNN retracts the report and fires award-winning journalist Peter
Arnett and co-producers April Oliver and Jack Smith because they
refuse to disavow their report;
in 1971, US forces end direct use of
Agent Orange in Southeast Asia; also in 1971 with CIA help, an
anti-Castro paramilitary group introduces African swine fever into
Cuba; it infects a half a million pigs and results in their
destruction; a few months later a similar attack fails against Cuban
poultry; in 1981, a covert US operation unleashes a type 2 dengue
fever outbreak - the first in the Caribbean since the turn of the
century involving hemorrhagic shock on a massive scale; over 300,000
cases are reported, including 158 fatalities;
in 1975, the Senate Church Committee
confirms from a CIA memorandum that US "defensive" bioweapons are
stockpiled at Fort Detrick, MD - including anthrax, encephalitis,
tuberculosis, shellfish toxin, and food poisons;
in 1980, Congress approves a nerve gas
facility in Pine Bluff, Arkansas;
during the 1980s Iran-Iraq war, the US
supplies Iraq with toxic biological and chemical agents; Ronald
Reagan signs a secret order to do "whatever (is) necessary and
'legal' " to prevent Iraq from losing the war;" a 1994 congressional
inquiry later finds that dozens of biological agents were shipped,
including various strains of anthrax and precursors of nerve gas
(like sarin), gangrene, and West Nile virus;
in 1984, Reagan orders M55 rockets
retooled to contain high-yield explosives and VX gas; his
administration begins researching and developing biological agents
allegedly for "defensive purposes;"
in 1985 and 1986, the US resumes
open-air biological agents testing; it likely never stopped;
in 1987, Congress votes to resume
chemical weapons production;
in 1989, 149 nations at the Paris
Chemical Weapons Conference condemn these weapons; after signing the
treaty, it's revealed that the US plans to produce poison gas; at
the UN, GHW Bush reaffirms the US commitment to eliminate chemical
weapons in 10 years; the US implements the Biological Weapons
Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 - "to implement....the Prohibition of the
Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological
(Biological) and Toxin Weapons and Their Destruction....;"
in 1990, GHW Bush signs the 1989 act
making it illegal for the US to develop, possess or use biological
weapons; Bush also signs Executive Order 12735 stating: the spread
of chemical and biological weapons constitutes an "unusual and
extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of
the United States;"
following the Gulf War, reports surface
about US forces' health problems - later called Gulf War Syndrome;
the likely cause - widespread use of depleted uranium, other toxic
substances, and the illegal use (on nearly 700,000 theater forces)
of experimental vaccines in violation of the Nuremberg Code on
medical experimentation; over 12,000 have since died and over 30%
are now ill from non-combat-related factors; they've since filed
claims with the VA for medical care, compensation, and pension
in 1997, Cuba accuses the US of spraying
crops with biological agents;
in 1997, the US ratifies the Chemical
Weapons Convention (CWC) banning the production,
stockpile and use of these substances;
in 2001, the Bush administration rejects
the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) citing 38
problems with it, some called serious; claiming a need to counter
chemical and biological weapons threats, it's spending
multi-billions illegally to develop, test and stockpile
"first-strike" chemical and biological weapons that endanger
homeland security and threaten good relations with other countries;
all along, a BWC loophole allows
appropriate types and amounts of biological agents to be used for
"prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes" - construed to
be defensive; it also permits "research," not "development;" the
took full advantage to conduct programs for offense, not defense or
to further peace; further, the BWC includes nothing about genetic
engineering because it didn't exist at the time.
The US Secret
In November 2001, Michel Chossudovsky used this title for
his Global Research.ca article.
It was when,
"an impressive military arsenal of aircraft
carriers and gun-boats" was building up in the Persian Gulf in preparation
for "a major bombing operation... against Iraq" at a future designated time.
Back home, the administration used the 2001 anthrax attacks as,
"justification for extending the 'campaign
against international terrorism' to Iraq...
Washington singled out Iraq,
North Korea, Iran, Syria and Libya of violating the international treaty
banning weapons of germ warfare."
At the same time, ample evidence,
the US has built an extensive arsenal of biological weapons (in blatant
violation) of international laws and covenants."
It was enlarged in the
1980s and 1990s but significantly expanded under George Bush on the pretext
of being strictly "defensive" and to "curb the use of germ warfare by 'rogue
On October 29, 2002, the London Guardian reported that,
"Respected scientists on both sides of the
Atlantic warned that the US is (illegally) developing a new generation
of weapons that undermine and possibly violate international treaties on
biological and chemical warfare" - ironically at the same time it
accused Iraq of these same type violations.
University of Bradford international security
professor Malcolm Dando and University of California microbiology
lecturer Mark Wheelis accused the Bush administration of "encouraging
a breakdown in arms control" treaties by secretly conducting these programs.
Dando said they include:
developing a cluster bomb to disperse
building a bioweapons plant from
commercially available materials to prove "terrorists" can do it
genetically engineering a more potent
producing dried and weaponized anthrax
spores in quantities far larger than for research
researching and producing hallucinogenic
weapons such as BZ gas
developing "non-lethal" weapons similar
to the gas Russia used to end the 2002 Moscow theater siege that
killed around 170 people and injured hundreds
In February 2008, the
suspended operations, but its website is still accessible.
It was an NGO
dedicated to banning and "avert(ing) the dangers of" bioweapons.
In 2001, it
accused the Bush administration of advancing,
"a plan to undermine
international controls on biological weapons."
On May 8, 2002, it issued a press release titled "US Armed Forces Push for
Offensive Biological Weapons Development - genetically engineered microbes
that attack items such as fuel, plastics and asphalt" in violation of
The proposals date from 1997 and involve the
(Washington, DC) Naval Research Laboratory and the (Brooks Air Force Base,
San Antonio, Texas) Armstrong Laboratory.
They come at a time when the US
rejected "legally-binding" UN inspections of "suspected" facilities
producing weapons "explicitly for offense."
Additional documents have been suppressed and those known,
"are probably only the tip of the
The National Academies are also concealing related documents.
After the Sunshine Project requested copies.... on March 12, 2002, (they)
placed a 'security hold' on the public file" without explanation.
"The research proposed by the Air Force and
Navy raises serious legal questions. Under the (1989) US Biological
Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act, development of biological weapons, including
those that attack materials, is subject to federal criminal and civil
It also prohibits development, acquisition and
stockpiling of agents intended as bioweapons.
On May 21, 2004, AP reported that arms control advocates warned the Bush
"proposed research for a new (Fort Detrick)
Homeland Security center may violate an international ban on biological
weapons and encourage other countries to follow."
Experts said proposals for the National
Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) flout
bioweapons prohibitions by crossing the line between "defensive" research
and banned weapons development.
On July 31, 2007 the London Guardian reported that the US is "Building (a)
Treaty-Breaching Germ War Defense Centre" near Washington, DC" -
It's to be completed in 2008 and will be a,
"vast germ warfare laboratory intended to
help protect the US against an attack with biological weapons, but
critics say the laboratory's work will violate international law and its
extreme secrecy will exacerbate a biological arms race (by)
accelerat(ing) work on similar facilities around the world."
It will house,
"heavily guarded and hermetically
sealed chambers....to produce and stockpile the world's most lethal bacteria
and viruses" - forbidden by the 1972 BWC and 1989 US Biological Weapons
The Fort Detrick facility will be used for the
new 160,000 square foot lab, and it's authorization coincided with the 2001
anthrax attacks that killed five people, and along with 9/11, unleashed
everything that followed.
DHS calls Fort Detrick the home of "The National Interagency Biodefense
Besides NBACC, other agencies there include:
the Health and Human Services' (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
the Department of Agriculture's
Agricultural Research Service and Foreign Disease-Weed Science
Research Unit (FDWSRU)
the Department of Defense's US Army
Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID).
DHS says USAMRIID "conduct(s) basic and applied
research on biological threats (to provide) cutting-edge medical research
for the warfighter against biological threats."
International law and
bioweapons expert, Francis Boyle, disagrees.
He says the,
"program constitutes clear
violations of the international (1972 BWC) arms control treaty.... ratified
by the United States in 1975."
He also cites BWC's preamble that states in
"...Parties to this Convention (are)
Determined to act with a view to achieving effective progress towards
general and complete disarmament, including the prohibition and
elimination of all types of weapons of mass destruction, and convinced
that the prohibition of the development, production and stockpiling of
chemical and bacteriological (biological) weapons and their elimination,
through effective measures, will facilitate the achievement of general
and complete disarmament under strict and effective international
The BWC goes on to say that use of these weapons
are so "repugnant to the conscience of mankind....that no effort should be
spared to minimize this risk."
In Boyle's view, Fort Detrick's NBACC and
USAMRIID heighten risks because their work involves:
modifying, storing, packaging and dispersing classical, emerging and
genetically engineered pathogens."
This work is an "unmistakable hallmark of
an offensive weapons program" in violation of the 1989 Biological Weapons
Anti-Terrorism Act that he authored.
Even worse according to Edward Hammond,
former director of the Sunshine Project:
Recreating the deadly 1918 "Spanish flu"
germ that killed an estimated 40 million worldwide (or other dangerous
pathogens) increases "the possibility of (a) man-made disaster, either
accidental or deliberate.... for the entire world."
If a single viral particle or cell escapes or is
unleashed, an enormous outbreak may result with potentially catastrophic
The Fort Detrick plan derives from a Bush Homeland Security
Presidential Directive (HSPD-10) written April 28, 2004.
"Among our many initiatives we are
continuing to develop more forward-looking analyses, to include Red
Teaming efforts, to understand new scientific trends that may be
exploited by our adversaries to develop biological weapons and to help
position intelligence collectors ahead of the problem."
Boyle calls it "a smoking gun" aimed at the BWC.
"Red Teaming means that we actually have
people out there on a Red Team plotting, planning, scheming and
conspiring how to use biowarfare" and sooner or later will unleash it
using living organisms for military purposes.
They may be viral, bacterial, fungal, or other
forms that can spread over a vast terrain by wind, water, insect, animal, or
humans, according to Jeremy Rifkin, author of "The Biotech Century."
also asserts it's "impossible to distinguish between defensive and offensive
research in the field," and given this administration's penchant for lying
and secrecy, other nations will be justifiably suspicious.
The Bush administration proceeded anyway.
Since 9/11, it spent or allocated
around $50 billion on bioweapons development through 11 federal departments
and agencies, including DOD and DHS. For FY 2009, it wants an additional
$8.1 billion or $2.5 billion more than in FY2008. It calls its program
preventive and defensive and cites Project BioShield as an example.
It became law in July 2004 as a 10 year program
to develop countermeasures to biological, chemical, radiological and nuclear
It was, in fact, a gift to companies like Gilead Sciences,
the company Donald Rumsfeld led as chairman from 1997 to 2001 (and
remains a major shareholder) until he left to become George Bush's Defense
It would have also required every American to be vaccinated under the
Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005. It
passed the Senate but not the House and would have, under a public
emergency, allowed experimental or approved drugs to be used with
insufficient knowledge of their safety - in violation of the Nuremburg Code
on medical experimentation.
It also would have immunized companies from
liability and denied those harmed the right to sue.
Labs Cashing In
According to the Sunshine Project,
"scores of US universities and
biotechnology companies (since 2001) have benefitted handsomely from
billions of dollars in 'biodefense' cash. Across the country, 'biodefense'
labs are sprouting up like weeds.
The unrelenting spigot of federal money
(has) thousands of scientists and technicians" doing bioweapons research on
some of the deadliest pathogens.
But the problem is much greater than that:
projects underway are illegal
immense secrecy enshrouds them
federal oversight is so lax that NIH
safety guidelines aren't enforced and CDC poorly identifies problems
it should address; as a result, "accidents are popping up
everywhere" amidst a "pervasive cover-up culture" that hides them -
in direct violation of federal rules and responsible practice that:
require government agencies to
protect the public from dangerous pathogens
obligate research labs to disclose
the nature of their work
failure to do so suggests alleged biodefense research is, in fact, cover for offensive biowarfare
programs to complement Fort Detrick and other government site
The Sunshine Project believes about 400 private
bioweapons labs now operate around the country with no public disclosure of
their activities - and plenty of reasons to worry Francis Boyle that
Bush administration is up to mischief.
It "sabotaged the Verification Protocol for
the BWC (and) fully intend(s) to (engage in) research, development and
testing of illegal and criminal offensive biowarfare programs."
That prospect should frighten everyone.
Reporter Sherwood Ross for sure.
He calls the administration's project,
"the costliest, most grandiose research
scheme ever attempted (with) germ warfare capability.... going forward
under President Bush and in defiance of" US and international laws.
Far worse, where once "germ warfare was an
isolated happenstance, (today's efforts elevate it) to an instrument of
(deadly and loathsome) policy.
On February 21, 2008, the Sidney Morning Herald reported that the Bush
administration rejected claims made by Indonesian Health Minister, Siti
Fadilah Supari, in her book titled: "It Is Time for the World to Change!
God's Hand Behind Bird Flu Virus."
She questions whether the US is using bird flu
samples collected from developing nations to develop biological weapons, not
new vaccines as claimed.
On July 20, 2008, the Jakarta Post reported:
"If there were a "National Darling Award"
contest.... Supari would probably win it. (Her) supporters praise her as
a great third world heroine who dares challenge the global structure of
injustice and inequality perpetrated by powerful states (like the US)
and networks of international institutions. Most of the praise is based
on opinions" from her new book mentioned above.
She claims the US is transferring virus samples
to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It's one of two US nuclear weapons
labs that will operate new biological research facilities capable of
researching and developing dangerous pathogens in violation of the BWC and
US Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989.
California-based Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory is the other one. On January 25, it began operating a new
Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) lab. In August, Los Alamos is scheduled to
complete a federally mandated environmental study for a similar lab to begin
operations shortly thereafter. Given the Bush administration's penchant for
secrecy, Supari's accusations may be justified.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) establishes biosafety classifications.
BLS-4 ones, like for Ebola, are the most dangerous, in part, because no
known cures exist. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore currently operate BLS-2
labs. They'll now have BLS-3 ones to study infectious agents able to cause
serious or fatal illnesses if inhaled. But there's no way to know if both
labs, Fort Detrick, others like the former Edgewood Arsenal (now the
Edgewood Area at the Aberdeen Proving Ground), Oak Ridge Ridge National
Laboratory, and still more we don't know about will secretly research any
type pathogens, including the most dangerous ones, for any purpose - offense
What is known is that government labs will study pathogens posing serious
public health and safety threats. Ones like anthrax, botulism, brucellosis,
plague, Rickettsia, tularemia, Avian influenza, H5N1 (the recent strain
reported and called the most dangerous), and valley fever plus whatever
others are planned but kept secret.
Most important is this. These labs conduct weapons research, so they'll
likely focus on bioweapons and not follow BWC "prophylactic, protective, or
other peaceful purposes" guidelines. For example, vaccines and potential
biological weapons defenses may, in fact, be for offense. Distinguishing
between the two is impossible so other nations and figures like Supari are
They're not comforted by Lawrence Livermore's Lynda Seaver.
On February 12, she told Arms Control Today that
the US is "a signatory to the Biowarfare Convention and does not conduct
bioweapons research." She also said most work there will be unclassified. On
February 15, however, a CDC spokesperson suggested otherwise and informed
Arms Control Today that Lawrence Livermore security restrictions are tight
as they are at Los Alamos, Fort Detrick and other US weapons research
facilities. They bar transparency and place strict limits on sharing select
agents research to prevent other nations from knowing it exists or its
Further, later this year DHS will complete construction of the new Fort
Detrick lab (NBACC), and a new $500 million animal research facility is
planned. Both will have BLS-3 and 4 capabilities.
They'll work on the most dangerous known
pathogens and conduct controversial type threat assessment research - to
develop and produce new biological weapons and develop defenses against
Once again, differentiating between offense and
defense is impossible, and given their penchant for deception and secrecy,
no one takes Bush administration officials at their word nor should they.
"Biowarfare and Terrorism"
Boyle drafted the 1989 Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act and
covers it in his 2006 book. It's now codified in Title 18 of the US Code,
sections 175 - 178 and was the implementing legislation for the landmark
1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC).
MIT molecular biology professor Jonathan King wrote this about the book in
It "outlines how and why the United States
government initiated, sustained and then dramatically expanded an
illegal biological arms buildup....Boyle reveals how the new (multi-)
billion-dollar US Chemical and Biological Defense Program has been
reoriented (endorsing "first strike" CBW use in war) to accord with the
Neo-Conservative pre-emptive strike agenda - this time by (illegal)
biological and chemical warfare."
This "represent(s) a significant emerging
danger to our population (and) threaten(s) international relations among
nations." These programs "are always called defensive (but) with
biological weapons, defensive and offensive programs overlap almost
"Boyle (also) sheds new light on the motives
for the (2001) anthrax attacks, the media black hole of silence (about
them), and why the FBI may never apprehended the perpetrators of this
seminal crime of the 21st century."
They killed five people, injured 17 others, and
temporarily shut down Congress, the Supreme Court, and other federal
operations. Army scientist Dr. Steven Hatfill was unfairly implicated
as a "person of interest" but was never charged.
He sued the Justice Department and in June was
awarded $2.8 million and a $150,000 annuity for violating his privacy,
leaking false and inflammatory information, costing him his job and
reputation, and blasting his name all over the media for days. It was the
beginning of the frightening events that followed.
Boyle is currently a leading proponent of an effort to
George Bush, Dick Cheney and other high-level administration
figures for their crimes of war, against humanity and other grievous
violations of domestic and international law. In his "Biowarfare and
Terrorism," he sounds an alarm about the administration's bioweapons program
and what it means for humanity.
He fears "a catastrophic biowarfare or
bioterrorist incident or accident (is) a statistical certainty."
It highlights enormous new risks plus other
frightening ones like the possibility of nuclear war and catastrophic
fallout from it. That, permanent wars, a potential Andromeda Strain, police
state justice, and destroying the republic are but five among other threats
since the advent of George Bush and his roguish team.
In "Biowarfare and Terrorism," Boyle addresses the bioweapons threat as an
expert on the subject and gives readers an historical perspective. He
asserts that the US government dramatically expanded an illegal biological
arms development, production, and buildup that endangers all humanity with
its potential. It's part of an extremist agenda for unchallengeable power
and right to unleash "proactive" wars with the most aggressive weapons in
its arsenal - nuclear, chemical, biological, others, space-based ones, and
new ones in development.
Since WW II, America has actively developed, tested, and used terror
weapons, including biological ones. Even after Nixon ended the nation's
biowarfare programs, they never stopped.
The CIA remained active through a
loophole in the law, then the Reagan administration reactivated what Nixon
slowed down. It acted much like the current regime with many of the same
officials espousing similar extremist views - that America must exploit its
technological superiority and not let laws, norms, or the greater good deter
The Bush administration raised the stakes and threatens all humanity.
Boyle believes it used 9/11 and the anthrax
attacks to stampede Congress and the public into aggressive wars and a menu
of repressive laws. He also thinks the FBI knows who's behind the anthrax
attacks: criminal US government elements planning a police state and another
frightening enterprise - to fight and win a future biowar. A possible
nuclear one as well. Boyle sounds the alarm about what may lie ahead and its
In October 2003, the National Academy of Sciences did as well. It
warned about the,
"misuse of tools, technology, or knowledge
base of (bioweapons) research for offensive military or terrorist
That's the present risk.
It makes everyone
unwitting subjects of a recklessly endangering experiment.