"To establish his supremacy on Earth,
Marduk proceeded to establish
his supremacy in the heavens.
"....The Epic of Creation was thus a useful and powerful vehicle of
indoctrination and reindoctrination; and as one of his first acts
Marduk instituted one of the greatest forgeries ever:
of a Babylonian version of the epic in which the name "Marduk" was
substituted for the name "Nibiru."
It was thus Marduk, as a
celestial god, who had appeared from outer space, battled Tiamat,
created the Hammered Out Bracelet (the Asteroid Belt) and
Earth of Tiamatís halves, rearranging the Solar System, and became the
God whose orbit encircles and embraces "as a loop" the orbits of all
the other celestial gods (planets), making them subordinate to Mardukís majesty.
"....Marduk did not forget to settle some personal accounts. In the
past Nibiru, as the home planet of the Anunnaki, was the abode of
Anu and thus associated with him. Having appropriated
himself, Marduk relegated Anu to a lesser planet - the one we call
Uranus. Mardukís father, Enki, was originally associated with
Moon; now Marduk gave him the honor of being "number one" planet -
the uttermost, the one we call Neptune. To hide the forgery and make
it appear as though it was always so, the Babylonian version of the
Epic of Creation (called
Enuma Elish after its opening words)
employed Sumerian terminology for the planetary names, calling the
planet NUDIMMUD, "The Artful Creator" - which was exactly what
Enkiís Egyptian epithet, Khnum, had meant.
"A celestial counterpart was needed for
Mardukís son Nabu. To
achieve that, the planet we call Mercury, which was associated with
Enlilís young son Ishkur/Adad, was expropriated and allocated to
Nabu. Sarpanit, Mardukí spouse to whom he owed his release from the
Great Pyramid and the commutation of the sentence of being buried
alive in it to that of exile (the first one of the two), was also
not forgotten. Settling account with Inanna/Ishtar, he deprived her
of the celestial association with the planet we call Venus and
granted the planet to Sarpanit. (As it happened, while the switch
from Adad to Nabu was partly retained in Babylonian astronomy, that
of replacing Ishtar by Sarpanit did not take hold).
"Enlil was too omnipotent to be shoved aside. Instead of changing
Enlilís celestial position (as the god of the Seventh Planet, Earth)
Marduk appropriated to himself the Rank of Fifty that was
rank, just a rung below Anuís sixty (Enkiís numerical rank was
forty). That take over was incorporated into the Enuma Elish by
listing, in the
seventh and last tablet of the epic, the
of Marduk. Starting with his own name, "Marduk" and ending with his
new celestial name, "Nibiru," the list accompanied each name-epithet
with a laudatory explanation of its meaning. When the reading of the
fifty names during the New Year celebrations was completed, there
was no achievement, creative deed, benevolence, lordship, or
supremacy left out . . . "With the Fifty Names," the last two verses
of the epic stated, "the Great Gods proclaimed him; with the title
Fifty they made him supreme." An epilogue, added by the priestly
scribe, made the Fifty Names required reading in Babylon....
"Mardukís seizure of the supremacy in the heavens, was accompanied
by a parallel religious change on Earth. The other gods, the
Anunnaki leaders - even his direct adversaries - were neither
punished nor eliminated. Rather, they were declared subordinate to
Marduk through the gimmick of asserting that their various
attributes and powers were transferred to Marduk. If Ninurta was
known as the god of husbandry, who had given Mankind agriculture by
damming the mountain gushes and digging irrigation canals - the
function now belonged to Marduk. If Adad was the god of rains and
storms, Marduk was now the "Adad of rains...."
"In the words of
Enuma elish, Marduk became "the Enlil of the gods,"
"No longer residing in
Egypt, Marduk/Ra became Amen, "the Unseen
"....Ingeniously, the policy was not to eliminate the other
Anunnaki but to control and supervise them. When in time, the Esagila sacred precinct was built with appropriate grandeur,
invited the other leading deities to come and reside in Babylon, in
special shrines that were built for each one of them within the
precinct.... By accepting to his invitation, the others would
literally have made Babylon what the name - Babili - had meant:
"Gateway of the gods."
At a banquet,
"According (to the sixth tablet of the epic in its Babylonian
version), the other gods took their seats in front of the lofty dais
on which Marduk had seated himself. Among them were "the seven gods
of destiny." After the banqueting and the performance of all the
rites, after verifying " that the norms had been fixed according to
Enlil raised the bow, his weapon,
and laid it before the gods.
"Recognizing the symbolic declaration of "peaceful coexistence" by
the leader of the Enlilites, Enki spoke up:
May our son, the Avenger, be exalted;
Let his sovereignty be surpassing,
without a rival.
May he shepherd the human race to the end of days;
without forgetting, let them acclaim his ways.
"....Enki had this to say to the other
As for us, by his names pronounced,
he is our god!
Let us now proclaim his Fifty Names!
"...."The national character of
Marduk, Jacobsen (Thorkild) wrote
(in a study titled Toward the Image of Tammuz), created a situation
in which "religion and politics became more inextricably linked" and
in which the gods, "through signs and omens; actively guided the
policies of their countries."
"The emergence of guiding politics and religion by "signs and omens"
was indeed a major innovation of the New Age. It was not a
surprising development in view of the importance that celestial
signs and omens had played in determining the true beginning of the
zodiacal change and in deciding who could become supreme on Earth.
For many millennia it was the word of the Seven Who Determine the
Destinies, Anu, Enlil, and the other Anunnaki
leaders, who made the
decisions affecting the Anunnaki; Enlil, by himself, was the
the Command as far as Mankind was concerned. Now, signs and omens in
the heavens guided the decisions.
"....Under the New Age, the celestial omens - planetary
eclipses, lunar halos, stellar backgrounds, and so on - were
sufficient by themselves, and no godly intervention or participation
was required: the heavens alone foretold the fates.
"....The "entrances" of planets into the zodiacal constellations
were thought of as particularly important, as signs of the
enhancement of the planetís (good or bad) influence.
"....As the omens, predictions, and instructions increasingly
assumed a more personal nature, they verged on the horoscopic. Would
a certain person, not necessarily the king, recover from an illness?
Will the pregnant mother bear a healthy child? If some times or
certain omens were unlucky, how could one ward off the ill luck? In
time incantations were devised for the purpose; one text, for
example, actually provided the sayings to be recited to prevent the
thinning of a manís beard by appealing to "the star that giveth
light" with prescribed uttering. All that was followed by the
introduction of amulets in which the warding-off verses were
inscribed. In time too, the material of the amulet (mostly made to
be worn on a string around the neck) could also make a difference.
If made of hematite, one set of instructions stated, "the man could
lose that which he acquired." On the other hand, an amulet made of
lapis lazuli assured that "he shall have power."
"In the famous library
of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, archaeologists have found more
than two thousand clay tablets with texts pertaining to omens. While
the majority dealt with celestial phenomena, not all of them did so.
Some dealt with dream omens, others with the interpretation of "oil
and water" signs (the pattern made by oil as it was poured on
water)....What used to be astronomy became astrology, and
was followed by divinations, fortune telling, sorcery....
"Why did the
New Age bring all that about? Beatrice Goff (Symbols of
Prehistoric Mesopotamia) identified the cause as the breakdown of
the gods-priests-kings framework that held society together in the
prior millennia. "There was no aristocracy, no priesthood, no
intelligentsia" to prevent the situation where "all the affairs of
living were inextricably bound up with such ímagicalí practices."
Astronomy became astrology because, with the Olden Gods gone from
their "cult centers," the people were looking at least for signs and
omens to guide them in turbulent times.
"...."Chaldean" astronomy.... was a sterile astronomy and a far cry
from that of Sumer, where so many of the principles, methods, and
concepts on which modern astronomy is founded had originated....
O. Neugebauer wrote in The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, "It is
evident," he wrote, "that mathematical theory played a major role in
Babylonian astronomy as compared with a very modest role of
observations." That "mathematical theory," studies of the
astronomical tablets of the Babylonians revealed, were column upon
column upon column of rows of numbers, imprinted - we use the term
purposely - on clay tablets as though they were computer printouts!
"....Not unlike the astronomical codices of the Mayas, that
contained page after page after page of glyphs dealing with the
planet Venus, but without any indication that they were based on any
Mayan observations but rather followed some data source, so were the
Babylonian lists of predicted positions of the Sun,
Moon and visible
planets extremely detailed and accurate.... But, to quote from
Astronomical Cuneiform Texts by O. Neugebauer, "unfortunately these
procedure texts do not contain much of what we would call the
ítheoryí behind the method."
"Yet "such a theory," he pointed out, "must have existed because it
is impossible to devise computational schemes of high complication
without an elaborate plan."
"....It was not until the eighth or seventh centuries B.C. that
astronomy, in what is called the Neo-Babylonian period, reassumed
the observational aspects. These were recorded in what scholars
(e.g., A.J. Sachs and H. Hunger, Astronomical Diaries and Related
Texts from Babylonia) call "astronomersí diaries." They believe that
Hellenistic, Persian, and Indian astronomy and
from such records.
"....The sexagesimal system (in
Babylon) and the mathematical
theories were retained without improvement, medicine deteriorated to
become little more than sorcery. No wonder that many of the scholars
studying the period consider the time when the Old Age of the
Sumerian Bull of Heaven gave way to the New Age of the Babylonian
Ram a "time of darkness."
"....The many Sumerian references to schools, teachers, homework,
were nonexistent in the ensuing centuries. Gone was the Sumerian
tradition of literary creativity that bequeathed to future
generations, including ours, "wisdom" texts, poetry, proverbs,
allegorical tales, and not least of all the "myths" that had
provided the data concerning the solar system, the Heavens and
Earth, the Anunnaki, the creation of Man. These, it ought to be
pointed out, were literary genres that appear only in the Hebrew
Bible about a millennium later. A century and a half of digging up
the remains of Babylon produced texts and inscriptions by rulers
boasting of military campaigns and conquests, of how many prisoners
were taken or heads cut off - where as Sumerian kings (as, for
example Gudea) boasted in their inscriptions of building temples,
digging canals, having beautiful works of art made.
Babylonian king Hammurabi.... famous for his legal code
"Code of Hammurabi," was only a listing of crimes and their
punishments - whereas a thousand years earlier Sumerian kings had
promulgated codes of social justice, their laws protecting the
widow, the orphan, the weak, and decreeing that "you shall not take
away the donkey of a widow," or "you shall not delay the wages of a
"....The poetry of Sumer included a
substantial number of love and
lovemaking poems. Some, it is true, were related to Inanna/Ishtar
and her relationship with her bridegroom Dumuzi. Others were recited
or sung by kings to divine spouses. Yet others were devoted to the
common bride and bridegroom, or husband and wife, or parental love
and compassion.... It seems to us that this omission in Babylonia
was not accidental, but part of an overall decline in the role of
women and their status as compared in Sumerian times.
"....The remarkable role of women in all walks of life in
Akkad an its very marked downgrading upon the rise of Babylon, have
been lately reviewed and documented in special studies and several
"....The gathered evidence shows that in
Sumer and Akkad women
engaged not only in household chores like spinning, weaving,
milking, or tending to the family and the home, but also were
"working professionals" as doctors, midwives, nurses, governesses,
teachers, beauticians, and hairdressers. The textual evidence
recently culled from discovered tablets augments the depictions of
women in their varied tasks from the earlier recorded times that
showed them as singers and musicians, dancers and banquet-masters.
"Women were also appointed in business and property management.
Records have been found of women managing the family lands and
overseeing their cultivation, and then supervising the trade in the
resulting products. This was especially true of the "ruling
families" of the royal court. Royal wives administered temples and
vast estates, royal daughters served not only as priestesses (of
which there were three classes) but even as the High Priestess. We
have already mentioned Enheduanna, the daughter of Sargon I.... We
know that the mother of Gudea, Gatumdu, was a High Priestess in the
Girsu of Lagash.... There is no record of a comparable situation in
"....Consort-queens and queen mothers were even more frequent in
Sumer, but Sumer could also boast the first-ever queen in her own
right, bearing the title LU.GAL ("Great Man") which meant "king."
"....As time went on, womenís dress and garments, as well as their
hair- dos, became more elaborate and elegant, reflecting their
status, education, and noble demeanor.
"....W.G. Lambert titled the paper he had presented at the
Assyriologique "Goddesses in the Pantheon: A Reflection of Women in
Society?" We believe that the situation may well have been the
reverse: womenís status in society reflected the standing of the
goddesses in the pantheon. In the Sumerian pantheon, female Anunnaki
played leading roles along with the males from the very beginning.
If EN.LIL was "Lord of the Command" his spouse was
NIN.LIL, "Lady of
the Command"; if EN.KI was "Lord of Earth," his spouse was
"Lady of Earth...."
Suffice it also to point out that one of
Mardukís first acts was to
transfer to the male Nabu the functions of Nisaba as deity of
writing. In fact, all those goddesses that in the Sumerian pantheon
held specific knowledge or performed specific functions, were by and
large relegated to obscurity in the Babylonian pantheon. When
Goddesses were mentioned they were only listed as spouses of the
male gods. The same held true for the people under the gods: women
were mentioned as wives or daughters, mostly when they were "given"
in arranged marriage.
"We surmise that the situation (about womanís status) reflected
Mardukís own bias. Ninharsag, the "Mother of gods and men" was,
after all, the mother of his main adversary in the contest for the
supremacy on Earth, Ninurta. Inanna/Ishtar was the one who had
caused him to be buried alive inside the Great Pyramid. The many
goddesses that were in charge of the arts and sciences assisted the
construction of the Eninnu in Lagash as a symbol of defiance of
Mardukís claims that his time had come.... Their downgrading in
religion and worship was, we believe, reflected in a general
downgrading of the status of women in the post-Sumerian society.
"An interesting aspect of that was the apparent change in the rules
of succession. The source of the conflict between Enki and Enlil was
the fact that while Enki was Anuís firstborn, Enlil was the
Legitimate Heir because he was born to Anu by a mother who was
half sister. On Earth, Enki repeatedly tried to have a son by
Ninharsag, a half sister of his and Enlilís, but she bore him only
female offspring. Ninurta was the Legitimate Heir on Earth because
it was Ninharsag who bore him to Enlil.... All such matriarchal
lineages lost their significance when Marduk became supreme.
(Maternal lineage became significant again among Jews at the time of
the Second Temple).
"What was the ancient world experiencing at the beginning of the
Age of the 20th century B.C., in the aftermath of internal wars, the
use of nuclear weapons, the dissolution of a great unifying
political and cultural system, the displacement of a boundaryless
religion with one of national gods? We at the end of the 20th
century A.D. may find it possible to visualize, having ourselves
the aftermath of two world wars,
the use of nuclear weapons,
the dissolution of a giant political and ideological system,
displacement of centrally controlled and boundless empires by
religiously guided nationalism.
The phenomena of millions of war refugees on the one hand, and the
rearrangement of the population-map on the other hand, so
symptomatic of the events of the twentieth century A.D. had their
counterparts in the twentieth century B.C.
"For the first time there appears in Mesopotamian inscriptions the
term Munnabtutu, literally meaning "fugitives from a destruction."
In light of our twentieth century A.D. experience a better
translation would be "displaced persons" - people who had lost not
only their homes, possessions, and livelihoods but also the
countries to which they had belonged and were henceforth "stateless
refugees," seeking religious asylum and personal safe havens in
other peoplesí lands.
"As Sumer itself lay prostrate and desolate, the remnants of its
people (in the words of Hans Baumann, The Land of Ur) "spread in all
directions; Sumerian doctors and astronomers, architects and
sculptors, cutlers of seals and scribes, became teachers in other
"To all the many Sumerian "firsts," they have thus added one more as
Sumer and its civilization came to a bitter end: the first Diaspora...
"....one can learn where the "displaced persons" of
Sumer went by
looking at the foreign cultures that sprouted one after the other in
foreign lands - cultures whose script was the cuneiform, whose
language included countless Sumerian "loanwords" (especially in the
sciences), whose pantheons, even if the gods were called by local
names, were the Sumerian pantheon, whose "myths" were the Sumerian
"myths," whose tales of heroes (such as of
Gilgamesh) were of
"How far did the wanderers of Sumer go?
They went where new nation-states were formed within two or three
centuries after the fall of Sumer:
Assyria to Babylonís north,
* The Hittite kingdom to the northwest,
Hurrian Mittani to the west,
* The Indo-Aryan kingdoms that spread from the Caucasus on Babylonís
northeast and east, and
* Those of the "Desert Peoples" to the south and of the "Sealand
People" to the southeast.
"....It was in such lands that the Sumerian refugees were given
asylum all around Mesopotamia, serving at the same time as catalysts
for the conversion of their host countries into modern and
flourishing states. But some must have ventured to more distant
* The third Region of Ishtar, the
Indus Valley, to repopulate and
The Vedic tales of gods and heroes that they brought with them were
the Sumerian "myths" retold; the notions of Time and its measurement
and cycles were of Sumerian origin. It is a safe assumption, we
believe, that mingled into the Aryan migration were Sumerian
refugees; we say "safe assumption" because Sumerians had to pass
that way in order to reach the lands that we call the Far East.
* "It is generally accepted that within two centuries or so of 2000
B.C. a "mysteriously abrupt change" (in the words of William Watson,
China) had occurred in China; without any gradual development the
land was transformed from one of primitive villages to one with
"walled cities whose rulers possessed bronze weapons and chariots
and the knowledge of writing."
The cause, all agree, was the arrival of migrants from the west....
the migrations in the aftermath of the fall of Sumer....
"The prevalent opinion is that writing was introduced together with
Kingship by the Shang Dynasty; the purpose was significant in
itself: to record omens on animal bones. The omens were mostly
concerned with inquires for guidance from enigmatic Ancestors.
"....A major study by C. J. Ball (Chinese and Sumerian, 1913)....
proved conclusively the similarity between the Sumerian pictographs
(from which the cuneiform signs evolved) and the old forms (Ku Wen)
of Chinese writing.... What his research has shown was that not only
did the pictographs look the same, but they also (in a material
number of instances) were pronounced the same way....
"....Recent studies in linguistics, spearheaded by former Soviet
scholars, have expanded the Sumerian link to include the whole
family of Central and Far Asian or "Sino-Tibetan" languages. Such
links form only one aspect of a variety of scientific and
"mythological" aspects that recall those of Sumer.... such aspects
as the calendar of twelve months, time counting by dividing the day
into twelve double-hours, the adoption of the totally arbitrary
device of the zodiac, and the tradition of astronomical observations
are entirely of Sumerian origin.
* "The "mythological" links are more widespread. Throughout the
steppes of Central Asia and all the way from China to
religious beliefs spoke of gods of Heaven and Earth, and of a place
called Sumeru.... The Japanese Shintu religious belief that their
emperor is descended of a son of the Sun becomes plausible if one
assumes that the reference is not to the star around which Earth
orbits, but to the "Sun god" Utu/Shamash; for with the
the Sinai of which he had been in charge obliterated, and the
Landing Place in Lebanon in Mardukís hands, he may well have
wandered with bands of his followers to the far reaches of Asia.
Other plausible arrivals are:
* to the lands along the
Volga River, establishing its principal
city whose ancient name was Samara (it is now called
reaching the Baltic Sea. "This would explain why the unusual Finnish
language is similar to no other except to Sumerian....
* along the
Danube River, thereby corroborating the deep and
persistent belief among the Hungarians that their unique language
could also have had but one source: Sumerian.
"Have Sumerians indeed come this way? The answer might be found in
one of the most puzzling relics from antiquity that can be seen
where the Danube meets the Black Sea and what was once the
Celtic-Roman province of Dacia (now part of Romania). There, at a
site called Sarmizegetusa, a series of what researchers have called
"calendrical temples" includes what could well be described as
"Stonehenge by the Black Sea."
After explaining in detail this ancient complex,
"Who was the mathematical-astronomical genius who had devised all
that, and to what purpose?
"The spellbinding answer, we believe, also leads to a solution of
the enigmas of Quetzalcoatl and the circular observatories he had
built, the god who according to Mesoamerican lore left at one point
in time to go back eastward across the seas (promising to return).
Was it not just the Enlilite gods who had guided and led the
wandering Sumerians, but also Thoth/Ningishzidda (alias
Quetzalcoatl), the god of the Game of Fifty-two, who himself had
been displaced from his native land?
"And was the purpose of all the "stonehenges" in
Sumer, and South
America, and Mesoamerica, and the British Isles, and on the shores
of the Black Sea, not so much to adjust the lunar year to the solar
one, not just for calculating Earthly Time but - ultimately -
calculate Celestial Time, the zodiacal Ages?
"When the Greeks adopted
Thoth as their god Hermes, they bestowed on
him the title Hermes Trismegistos, "Hermes the thrice greatest."
Perhaps they recognized that he had thrice guided Mankind in the
observation of the beginning of a New Age - the changeover to
Taurus, to Aries, to Pisces.
"For that was, for those generations of
Mankind, when Time began.