III. The Gods as Architects


Pyramids, Platforms, Dolmens and Mounds

As is well known there are literally hundreds of pyramids of various styles scattered over the Earth, in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Far East, Southeast Asia and South Pacific, and in North and South America.


A few of these sites demonstrating the different styles are:

- Iraq: The reconstructed ziggurat-pyramid at Ur, in ancient Sumer.

- Egypt: The step pyramid at Saqqara.

- Egypt: The smooth-walled pyramids at Giza. Hancock and Bauval (1996) suggest that the ‘ground plan’ of the three great pyramids was physically established in 10,500 BC, but that the pyramids were built around 2,500 BC. This supports the notion that the pyramid base rock with its underground chamber was an early AA terminal, and the Sphinx was the associated landmark easily identified from space.

- Mexico: The highly decorated step pyramids at Chichen-Itza, Monte Alban, and elsewhere. In the Temple of Inscriptions at Palenque, a shaft runs from the tomb up to the temple floor, similar to some of the Egyptian pyramids. There was initially a 40 ft "comb" on the top. Was this an additional identifying marker?

- Mexico: The unusual elliptical pyramid at Uxmal.

- Mexico: The huge, unexcavated pyramid at Cholula (Fig 4-1), in the shadow of the volcano, Popocatepetl ("El Popo"). Its ancient name, Tlachihualtepetl, means "man-made mountain". On Quetzalcoatl’s pilgrimage his first stop was Cholula, which means ‘the place of flight’ in Nahuatl.


The huge "Piramide Tepanapa", 200 ft high and 1300 ft on a side, is the largest ancient pyramid in the Americas, and possibly the largest in the world. The earliest construction has been traced to 200 BC. It was covered with dirt to hide it from the invading Spaniards and a small shrine was placed at the top, which the Spanish replaced with a church (Fig 4-1). The small portion which has been excavated reveals remarkable masonry (Fig 4-2).

Fig 4-1

Fig 4-2

- Mexico: Tres Zapotes, an Olmec site (1300 – 400 BC), was the first adobe-brick pyramid site in Mesoamerica. (Mystery buffs please note: Before the arrival of Cortez ALL of the Olmec sites were destroyed, except El Tijin, which had been abandoned!)

- Mexico: The truncated cone pyramid of Cuicuilco. In 1917 Manuel Gamio, excavating off the road from Mexico City to Cuernavaca, found an overgrown hill called ‘Cuicuilco’ enveloped by pre-historic lava streams. It turned out to be an enormous ancient pyramid or truncated cone with four galleries and central staircase. It is one of the few remaining round stepped pyramids.


The base is 370 ft and it is about 60 ft high now, although it was originally much higher. Archeologist Paul Heinrich reports the age to be 800 to 600 BC, not 6000 BC as reported by others. (Miller, 2000)

- Mexico: The beautiful miniature pyramid at Cecilia, D.F.

- Mexico: The platform-pyramids at Teotenango, Tenayaca, and Tula.

- Mexico: The multi-platform style of the Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan. In his discussion of Teotihuacan, John Michel (1995) quotes another researcher:

"During the 1970s Hugh Harleston, Jr …established that ‘the basic unit of measurement at Teotihuacan was 1.0594 meters, the same unit which represents the ‘Jewish rod’ of 3.4757 ft., the same unit which represents the width of the Stonehenge lintels, a six-millionth part of the earth’s polar radius…’"

- Guatemala: The huge pre-classic (150 BC-150 ad) Mayan site of El Mirador with its dozens of pyramids, including the Tigre Pyramid rising 18 stories high, probably the largest pyramid ever built by the Maya.

- Peru: Moche Temple of the Sun. The earlier Moche built this temple-pyramid style pyramid from 140 million adobe bricks.

- Peru: Sipan Pyramid. This Moche pyramid-tomb near the town of Sipan proves that some of the early SA pyramids were tombs, as in Egypt and Mesoamerica.

- Peru: Pyramids of Cahuachi. A ceremonial site comprised of six pyramids, the highest being about 70 ft, overlooking a walled court of 4050 sq yards. (Morrison, 1988). Hadingham (1987) mentions that the "great temple" was a stepped pyramid. He quotes Helaine Silverman’s estimate that the period of most activity at Cahuachi was short lived, about 200 years, and the site was mysteriously abandoned around 200 ad, along with other several other important sites.

- Peru: The pyramids of Tucume.

"Covering over 540 acres and including 26 major pyramids as well as myriad smaller structures…first built around 1100 ad by people of the Lambayeque culture…"

The largest of the adobe brick pyramids, Huaca Larga, is 2300 ft long, 910 ft wide and 65 ft high. (Heyerdahl, 1995). Robert Schoch (1999) writes,

"The largest of the pyramids, called Tucume…was only a little over 200 feet high, but it contained one-third more volume that the Pyramid of Khufu at Giza."

- Peru: Huaca del Sol, Moche Valley. This is a 120 ft high pyramid on the Peruvian north coast. The 1.5 million mud brick pyramid is the largest man-made mound in SA. Facing Huaca del Sol across the main plaza was a smaller mound, Huaca del Luna. The site lies at the foot of Cerro Blanco, an obvious landmark from space for this ceremonial/feeding center (Hadingham, 1987)

- Bolivia: The Akapana platform-pyramid at Tiahuanaco. The Bolivian archaeologists date the site to 1580 BC. The Akapana measures 688 ft on a side and is 49 ft high. "The earthen interior was shaped like a stepped pyramid and faced with fitted stones." (Demetrio, 1983)

- Java: Cani Sukuh pyramid, resembling the Mexico pyramid style (Childress, 1996). Who carried this style across the Pacific?

- Ryukyu Islands: The Yonaguni underwater pyramid. This unique step-pyramid-platform, 240 ft long and 90 ft high, resting 75 ft underwater, has been dated to 8000 BC! (Dopatka, 2000)

- China: The White Pyramid, near Xi’an. Hartwig Hausdorf (1998) says there are 90-100 pyramids in China, near Xi’an, the tallest being about 200 ft. Xi’an incidentally is the site of the amazing ‘Terracotta Army’ of Qin Shi Huang.

- Polynesia: "modest pyramids" at Tongatabu; a temple-pyramid on Tahiti; the Langi stepped pyramid-platform at Tauhala (a large stone, 24 x 7 ft and weighing 30-40 tons, is in the wall).

- Ancient pyramids are also found on Samoa and Java. (Childress, 1996)

- Greece: Pyramid of Hellinikon, near Argos. The author writes, "…built in the style reminiscent of cyclopean walls…" Its base is 15 x 13 meters, and the tallest wall still standing it only 14 ft. From the photos it probably would have stood about 10 meters high when completed. Thermoluminescent analysis of the pyramid in 1997 yielded a construction date of 2720 BC, older than the archeologists state for the Cheops pyramid! (Tsoukalow, 2000)

- Canary Islands: The pyramids of Guimar. Thor Heyerdahl writes,

"…They were painstakingly built step-pyramids, constructed according to similar principles as those of Mexico, Peru, and ancient Mesopotamia."

- United States: Monk’s pyramid-mound at Cahokia, Illinois, a mud brick platform-pyramid. A large stone wall or room has recently been discovered inside the mound, but has not been excavated as of Oct 2000.

- Yonaguni: Situated between the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea, about 300 miles from Okinawa, is the island of Yonaguni-Jima. Off it's coast is a huge apparently manmade (god-made?) monument about 100 ft below the surface. Its a platform pyramid 600 ft wide, 90 ft high constructed of precisely hewn megalithic stones. The pyramid, apparently a part of a ceremonial center, has been dated to 8000 BC, 5000 years before the oldest pyramid in Egypt!

The best clue we have that the gods orchestrated the pyramid building is the tale of Gudea who built the temple-ziggurat at Lagash (apparently the god Kothar-Hasis was the only one authorized to design the temples. He was likely the same "Greek divine craftsman Hepahaestus" who built the temple-abode of Zeus, and the Egyptian god Thoth).


For Ninurta’s temple at Lagash Gudea was given elaborate and continuous instructions by the gods. He built a seven-tier ziggurat, named Eninnu, referring to a ingenious tablet which gave a plan view and 7 scales – one for each tier (Zecharia Sitchin describes this story in detail in his 1976 and 1993 books. See also figs 748, 749 of Pritchard, 1969).

Zecharia Sitchin makes an interesting connection with his statement that the three great pyramids of Giza are at 52 degree, but the later pyramids collapsed at this angle and were built at 43.5 degrees, and he maintains that the pyramids at Teotihuacan are also at 43.5 degrees.



"although the 2nd pyramid at Giza is shorter than the Great Pyramid, their peaks are at the same height above sea level because the 2nd one is built on higher ground; the same holds true at Teotihuacan where the smaller Pyramid of the Moon is built on ground some thirty feet higher than the Sun Pyramid, giving their peaks equal height above sea level."

We should note here also that both the Great Pyramid at Giza and the Sun Pyramid at Teotihuacan have a descending shaft burrowed into the bedrock on which the pyramids were built.

One of the problems in choosing a landing site for a vertical-lift aircraft is the dust and dirt generated by the exhaust. Before pyramids were built this problem was apparently minimized by landing on large rock outcrops.

The problem is better solved however by landing on step pyramids, or step platforms, since the tiers at each level would effectively deflect the exhaust (Fig 4-3).

Fig 4-3
Deflection of rocket exhaust
by stepped pyramid design

Fig 4-4
Zoser pyramid in Egypt

The ziggurats at Urand Babylon, the Zoser pyramid in Egypt (Fig 4-4), the Canary Island pyramids, and most of the Mexican pyramids and South American pyramids, employed this design.

Interestingly some of the Egyptian pyramids have multiple chambers which seem to have been built over periods of time, e.g. Sneferu’s pyramid has an underground chamber, a 2nd chamber near the surface, and a 3rd chamber up in the pyramid, as if the site was in use before, possibly long before, the pyramid was erected, probably as a landing and feeding site.


The chambers of the Great Pyramid also follow this pattern; the 1st one being deep underground, then the 2nd (‘Queens’) chamber built low in the center of the pyramid, and the 3rd (‘Kings’) chamber higher up. This pattern suggests that one goal was to provide continuous and increasing degrees of protection from above.

The pyramids of Mycerinus, Unas, Teti and most others also had underground chambers. In fact the pyramids of Mycerinus and some others did not even have chambers in the pyramids themselves - all chambers were underground! Obviously this design would make excellent bomb shelters, and I suspect that the large pyramids, and any hapless occupants, if they had been located at "ground zero" at Hiroshima or Nagasaki, would have survived. The pyramidal shape would have effectively deflected most of the blast wave and fireball, and the neutron and gamma-ray pulses would have been attenuated to negligible levels by the stone mass.

Zecharia Sitchin (1985) offers a rather fantastic function for the pyramids of Giza: that they were built by the Nefilim, not by mankind, as part of a guidance grid for "the Tilmun spaceport".


He develops a theory that ties the pyramids and the "sacred cities" into a guidance and communication grid for two approach corridors, one west-to-east over Mesopotamia and one west-to-east over the Sinai.

"Built by the gods (Anunnaki), they were landmarks and beacons for the spaceport in Sinai, and existed long before kingship began in Egypt.


"The great pyramid was "…the mountain by which Utu ascends…".

Regarding the Giza pyramids some scholars argue that the stones were pulled up long ramps on sleds, referencing the familiar painting from the tomb of Djehutihotepe of 204 workers moving his 60 ton statute on a sled (Fig 4-5). But this only proves that this statue was moved on a sled. I am not aware of a single image or inscription which depict the methods used to construct the great pyramids.


We simply do not know how it was done.

Fig 4-5

Incidentally Mark and Richard Wells (2000) have discovered an amazing similarity in the alignment and size of the three stars in Orion's belt and the alignment and size of the major pyramids at Giza, Egypt; Xi'an, China; Teotihuacan, Mexico. Don't miss their essay.

So we have pyramids of heights ranging from 30 ft to over 400 ft, lengths from 100 ft to 2300 ft; some with inner chambers and some solid throughout; stepped and smooth walled; square, round and elliptical bases; stone, mud and adobe brick construction; highly decorated or plain; some topped with small buildings.

From these various styles, sizes, and composition I think we can conclude that the pyramids had several functions: burial sites, landmarks, landing sites, feeding stations, bomb shelters, and ceremonial sites; and there is evidence that many of them served several functions simultaneously.


But one thing seems certain – the pyramids, platforms and mounds around the world were places where the gods and mankind came together.


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The Megalith Builders

Yahweh questions Job:

“Let me ask thee, and answer thou me: Where wast thou, when the Earth’s foundation I laid out? Say, if thou knowest science: Who hath measured it, that it be known? Or who hath stretched a cord upon it? By what were its platforms wrought? (my emphasis) Who hath cast its Stone of Corners?”
(Job 38:3-8 as translated by Sitchin, 1998)

The literature contains many references to the enormous hewn stones which were used in ancient construction around the world, a few of which are as follows (See also Cohane, 1977, chapter 12):


- Egypt, The Great Pyramid of Cheops:

“…consists of 2.5 million stones 1 to 40 tons each. It takes a 300 hp diesel engine and hydraulic lifter to pick up a 7 ton granite slab”.


“The biggest blocks at Giza weighed 200 tons. The biggest blocks at Tiahuanaco weighed 400 tons…

- Egypt, Zoser pyramid complex: “Mummified bulls were found in stone coffins weighing 80 tons.”

- Egypt, Aswan quarry:

“The ‘Unfinished Obelisk’ near Aswan still lies in its quarry, detached on all but its lower side. If it had been extracted, it would have been 41.75 meters (137 ft) high with a base about 4.2 meters on each side. The total weight would have been about 1168 tons, heavier than any piece of stone ever handled by the ancient Egyptians”.

- Egypt, Temple of Hatshepsut at Karnak: “…one of the largest standing obelisks remaining at Karnak. It is 29.5 meters (96.7 ft) high and weighs 323 tons.”

- Egypt, Karnak:

“The seventh and last of the Karnak obelisks…is the largest surviving obelisk, with a height of 36 meters.” This 118 ft obelisk was removed to Rome in antiquity and now stands in the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano. It was shortened to 32 meters (105 ft) when it was re-erected in the sixteenth century, and its current weight is 455 tons.” (Fig 5-2).

Fig 5-2
Obelisk at Karnak

- Egypt, Luxor:

“Ramesses II placed two obelisks before the Luxor Temple, only one of which remains, the other was taken to Paris. The Luxor obelisk is made of red granite; it is 25 meters (82 ft) high and weighs 254 tons.”

- Bolivia, Tiahuanaco and Puma-Punku:

“…stones weigh up to 400 tons…”
“…stones up to 100 tons each, were quarried 10 kilometers away.”
“One block of red sandstone in the platform of the Puma Punku weighs 131 tons. It had been hauled 10 kilometers.”

- England, Stonehenge:

“…160 stones, 4-37 tons each.”

“The ‘sarsen’ stones were moved 20 miles from Avebury, some weighing 30 tons and standing 30 ft high.”

- England, Avebury:

“There were two hundred or so stones in the circles, the largest of which were over 55 tons, to be dragged a mile or more from the Downs.”

- Ireland, Dublin:

“…The capstone of the megalithic tomb at Brenanstown, weighing approximately 67 tons.”

- Mexico, La Venta:

“…some of the (Olmec) stone “portrait” heads weighing as much as 25 tons.” “Stones weighing as much as 30 tons were found at Mitla.”

- Mexico, Quirigua:

“…the largest Mayan stele, at Quirigua, measuring 10.7 x 1.5 x 1.27 meters, and weighing 65 tons.” “the site of Quirigua is where the largest monolith in the Maya world stands. It is the Stella E, weighing 65 tons and standing 35 feet high. It was quarried about three miles away.”

- Peru, Sacsahuaman: “…a stone 27 ft high and weighing over 300 tons.”

- Peru, Ollantaytambo: Regarding the six colossal monoliths at Ollantaytambo,

“The gigantic stone blocks are from eleven to almost fourteen feet high, average six or more feet in width, and vary in thickness from about three to over six feet.”

“…some weighing up to 250 tons.”

“…the giant stone blocks were quarried on the mountain on the opposite side of the valley. The heavy blocks of red granite, after they had been quarried, hewed, and shaped, were then transported from the mountainside, across two streams, and up to the Ollantaytambo site, carefully raised, put precisely in place, and finally fused together.”

(Sitchin, 1990). (Notice the phrase "fused together".)

- Lebanon, Baalbek:

“…the colossal stones, the Trilithon, each weighs about 1100 tons; it is a weight no modern piece of equipment can even come close to lifting and moving.” (Fig 5-3).


“None of today’s machines could move these megaliths. The largest block is 21 x 4 x 4 meters and the two others are 19.50 x 4 x 4 meters. Together they are 60 meter in length and 960 cu meters in volume. The blocks were quarried 400 meters distant."

Fig 5-3
Trilithon at Baalbek

“The first of these blocks to the right (the Trilithon) measures 65’ in length, the second 64’10”, the third 63’2”. They were all 14’ 6 in height and 12’ in thickness”.

“…the stone in the quarry, Hajar-el-Hibla ("stone of the pregnant woman") is 69’ long, 16’ wide, and 13’10” high…this enormous stone weighs about 1000 tons” (Fig 5-4).


Apparently this is the largest construction stone in the world.

Fig 5-4. Hajar-el-Hibla at Baalbek

- Israel, Jerusalem, The Temple Mount:

“The stones were cut with such precision that no mortar was needed to fit them together. Some of these ashlars (columns) are as much as 35 feet long and weigh up to 70 tons.”

“The Royal Stoa at the southern end of the mount was built in the shape of a basilica with four rows of 40 columns each, each 50 feet high…would weigh about 85 tons each.”

“about 60 feet north of Wilson’s Arch…there are four blocks 11 feet high, one of which is 42 feet long and 14 feet thick, giving an estimated weight of 1,200,000 pounds…”

- France, Carnac: “…the 650 foot ‘long mound’ (Er-Grah), and its relationship to the Grand Menhir monolith, 65 feet tall and weighing 350 tons (now fallen)…”

- Malta:

“At Tarxien there are three temples and one Hal-Saflieni, a rock-cut hypogeum. The temples incorporate stone blocks weighing up to 24 tons each.”

- Greece, Mycenae, the ‘Treasury of Atreus’:

“One or the lintels over the entrance door measures 9x5x1.2, with an estimated weight of 120 tons.”
“…it is roofed by two enormous slabs, beautifully cut and polished, of which the inner one measure 3’9” in thickness, and 27.5’ in length on its lower and 29’ on its upper surface; its breadth is 17’, and it is computed that it weighs approximately 300,000 English pounds.”

- Easter Island, Rapa Nui: Of the 300 standing statues the highest is 65 ft; of the 200 unfinished statues in the quarry, one would have been 164 ft high.

Today, with high strength steel, we are able to move heavy objects on steel wheels, e.g. a 200 ton autoclave was moved 750 miles over US western roads on a rig having 112 wheels and powered by two large diesel tractors. However some things are too big to be moved on wheels, and instead steel rollers are used.


The 198-foot-high Cape Hatteras Lighthouse was moved about a half mile during 1999. It weights well over 1000 tons. To move the lighthouse a compacted gravel road was built, on which large steel plates were placed. Steel rails were then set on the road plates in the direction of the move. To accomplish the move steel roller “dollies” were placed on the rails and were driven by powerful hydraulic rams.


A total of 400 tons of steel was used directly under the light for support. The light would be moved a few feet and then the plates and rails behind it would be unbolted and moved to the front.

Kiloton objects can also be moved on “tank tracks” which are essentially steel rollers running on steel tracks.

Also steel cranes have been built which can lift several hundred tons. A New York engineering corporation has a huge hydraulic crane which can lift 500 tons, which is used to lift smaller cranes to the tops of buildings under construction. NASA constructed a crane having a lifting capacity of 430 tons, which is used to lift the shuttle during attachment to the fuel tanks.

Its been suggested that the huge stones in place at ancient megalithic sites were moved around on wooden rollers. I think these authors are not aware of the relative strength of wood and steel. While a steel T-beam, mounted vertically with both ends fixed, can support a load of about 100 tons, a 10 inch diameter wood beam of the same length can only support about 10 tons.


And if the wood beam is laid down so that the load is cross-grain rather than end-on, it will splinter under a much smaller load. Furthermore even if they don't splinter they will deform under the load and will slide instead of roll; this happened when 20 people tried to move a replica of one of the statues on Easter Island, and it only weighed 9 tons!


So can we really imagine a group of prehistoric people sliding the 1000 ton blocks at Baalbek? Some Egyptologists suggest that the huge obelisks were moved on wooden rollers but not a single one has ever been found. Clearly it’s just nonsense to maintain that these stones were moved on wooden rollers.

So, when we consider the kiloton stones used at ancient megalithic sites, especially the monsters at Baalbek, I see three possibilities:

  1. The first is that a technology comparable to our own existed at that time, employing high strength metal alloys, hydraulics and powerful engines. However, such a technology would involve the use of many materials, including gold and ceramics, which would last many millennia, and I am not aware of any reports of discoveries of any such artifacts.


    Additionally, since this technology existed all over the Earth, this possibility requires the difficult assumption that the members of this entire civilization disappeared, or at least “forgot” the technology, at about the same time, or in a worldwide conspiracy, disposed of all of the tools. This scenario seems highly unlikely.

  2. There are a few references to a second possibility which take us into the psi world - that the stones were moved by beings having the ability to control the local gravitational field:


    • Giza, Egypt: “Then said Pharaoh, ‘Where lies the papyrus on which Imhotep wrote the words of power that went to the building of the pyramid for Zoser, yes and for that of Seneferu my father also…The words of power can be found and spoken by none but he-and if he speaks them three great pyramids shall rise at Giza and stand there forever. But if he speaks them not, all that you build, and your son builds and your son’s son after him shall fall and crumble away and become as the sands of the desert.’”(Green, 1967). At his "Giza Oracle" site Patrick Cooke presents a compelling argument that the Great Pyramid was not built by ancient Egyptians.

    • Uxmal, Mexico: “…construction work was easy for them…all they had to do was whistle and the heavy rocks would move into place.”

    • Tiahuanaco, Bolivia: “…(the stones were) carried through the air to the sound of a trumpet”.

    • Giza, Egypt: “…a magician was said to have raised into the air a huge vault of stone 200 cubits long and 50 cubits broad”. (Hancock, 1995).


    However with our current level of technology, ideas concerning anti-gravity and levitation take us into the realm of the supernatural, and so are out-of-bounds in these pages.


  3. The third possibility is that aircraft and cables were available at that time which had the power and strength to lift and move the stones.

Of course we do not know for sure how these incredibly heavy stones were quarried, moved, and assembled, and short of a revelation, will likely never know. But we do know that even the heaviest construction today is not done with kiloton stones; it’s difficult, slow and expensive. Logically the only reason for the ancients to build with such huge stones is because it was easy for them to do so.

Consider Baalbek in Lebanon where we find a huge platform which underlies, and predates, the ruins of the magnificent Roman temple of Jupiter. It contains the largest stones ever used in construction. How was it built? And by whom?

Here are some clues:

- Michel Alouf (1999) discusses the many theories concerning the builders of the pre-roman portions of the site. He came to the conclusion that it was the temple Baalath built by Solomon, based on the following biblical passage (I Kings, IX; 17-19):

“And Solomon built Gezer and Beth-Horon, the lower, and Baalath and Tadmor (Palmyra) in the wilderness, in the land, and all the cities of store that Solomon had, and cities for his chariots, and cities for his horsemen, and that which Solomon desired to build in Jerusalem, and in Lebanon, and in all the land of his dominion.”

- Childress (2000) mentions the Kebra Negast, the spiritual guide of the Ethiopians, which says that Solomon had a flying vehicle; also that there are hilltops in Pakistan and Iran where Solomon is believed to have landed.

- By the tradition of the ancient Jews, Jehovah was not the only god in the universe, he was the “only god of this particular people”; and although by the act of the covenant the Israelites had committed themselves to the rule of Jehovah’s law, King Solomon (950 BC) had permitted the worship, apparently even in Jerusalem, of a rival god, Baal, whose main temple was at Baalbek (Baalath).

- Near the Golden Gate (Jerusalem) is a small mosque, the “Kurst Suleiman”. Here legend tells us that, “King Solomon sat watching the Jann and Genii laboring to build his great monuments in Jerusalem, Baalbek, and Palmyra.” (Cornfeld,1972) (Jann were a type of Persian Genii, or "Genius", who had the annoying habit of stealing cows – to eat, I suppose).

- Throughout the ancient Near East we find images of one or more people flying in “winged discs”. And we find “genie”, also called “bird-men” by scholars, who are represented as powerful humans with wings (Fig 5-5), and sometimes with the face of an Eagle, and called "eagle-men". Virginia Marin (www.Suite101.com) writes that Genie, or geniuses, were “…all-powerful. They had great natural and inventive ability. They were smart and possessed great mental capacity…”

Fig 5-5

I conclude this page by speculating that the stones were moved by being suspended from powerful aircraft operated by the AA “geniuses”.

Puedo estar loco, but the stones are there!

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Master Masons

Yahweh questions Job:

“Let me ask thee, and answer thou me: Where wast thou, when the Earth’s foundation I laid out? Say, if thou knowest science: Who hath measured it, that it be known? Or who hath stretched a cord upon it? By what were its platforms wrought? Who hath cast its Stone of Corners?”
(Job 38:3-8 as translated by Sitchin, 1998)

A unique characteristic of many of the megalithic sites is the polygonal stones which were used, the “Stone of Corners”.


At Sacsahuaman, above Cuzco, Peru there is the stone of Hatun Rumiyoc, a huge polygonal stone with 12 corners, which interlocks perfectly with adjacent stones. Polygonal stonework was used at several sites in Peru (Figs 6-1,2 ), Greece (Fig 6-3), Lebanon (Fig 6-4), Turkey, Egypt and Bolivia, and Easter Island, among others. Also near the base of the Cheops Pyramid.

Polygonal Masonry

                          PERU                                                          Delphi, Greece                Baalbek, Lebanon

Fig 6-1   Fig 6-2                                                                    Fig 6-3   Fig 6-4 

In addition to being exquisitely hewn and fitted, some of the stones were actually fused together.


I have examined the fused joints in the Coricancha in Cuzco (Fig 6-5, sometimes spelled Koricancha, which in Quechua means "the corral of gold"), at Ollantaytambo in Peru, inside the Great Pyramid of Egypt (Fig 6-6) (I was astonished at these joints), and at Delphi in Greece.


Regarding Ollantaytambo Sitchin (1990) writes that the gigantic blocks were “…carefully raised, put precisely in place, and finally fused together.”


Fused Masonry

Fig 6-5
Coricancha, Peru

Fig 6-6
Great Pyramid, Egypt

Another skill of the master mason was the use of single blocks carved as corners, in Egypt (Fig 6-7), and Peru, among others (see also Zink, 1979)

Fig 6-7
One-piece corner

So let's speculate about the technique of the master masons.


I’m inclined to think that the shaping and fusing of the polygonal stones might have been accomplished as follows: Two irregular stones are leaned against each other (Fig. 6-8a). A high temperature beam (acetylene or electric torch, laser, ion beam?) is passed back and forth across the contact point A of the stones, resulting in the first fused joint (b); a third stone is placed on top of the first two and high temperature shaving is performed at the contact points B and C (c), resulting in three fused joints (d).

Fig 6-8
Illustrating the joining and fusing of polygonal stones

This scenario of course requires that we accept that the builders of these ancient, and mostly prehistoric, structures could easily pick up kiloton stones and place them on top of each other and could produce a beam sufficiently hot to fuse them together.


I think they could.

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Desert Artists

"Reality must take precedence over public relations, for nature cannot be fooled"
– Richard Feynman

"Only within recent years, since the development of universal communications allowed us to compare the antiquities of our own countries with those of others, have we been able to see the extent of the vast ruin within which we all live. If we ignore all alterations to the landscape arising within the last three thousand years and consider the world as it must have looked in prehistoric times, the pattern that emerges is one so incompatible with our idea of civilization that it is easy entirely to miss its significance.


For what we find is this: A great scientific instrument lies sprawled over the entire surface of the globe. At some period, thousands of years ago, almost every corner of the world was visited by people with a particular task to accomplish.


With the help of some remarkable power, by which they could cut and raise enormous blocks of stone, these men created vast astronomical instruments, circles of erect pillars, pyramids, underground tunnels, cyclopean stone platforms, all linked together by a network of tracks and alignments, whose course from horizon to horizon was marked by stones, mounds and earthworks."
- John Michell(1995)

In 1975 I flew over the Nazca plain in Peru, since the figures and patterns can only be recognized from the air, along with a small intrepid group of fellow mystery-mongers.

For me the Nazca lines represent the most persuasive piece of physical evidence in support of the Ancient Astronaut (AA) hypothesis. Although hundreds of writers have generated thousands of pages about the lines and figures, I have not been able to find a sensible explanation of how they were made, or by whom, or for what purpose. It seems obvious that the lines were made from the air.


They could have been used as landmarks to be seen from space, or perhaps the AA’s were simply venting their artistic impulse on a convenient giant "etch-a-sketch"; however what I feel is most likely is that they used the Nazca plain to test and calibrate the instrument which they used throughout South America, and perhaps elsewhere on Earth, to delineate "roads" and radial "ceques" linking important sites. I think that the lines were probably created by using an instrument which could sweep away shallow paths of varying widths.


I think "the sweeper" was probably something as simple as a high-pressure water stream operating in much the same way as we use a garden hose to wash gravel from our driveways. Certainly, with the Nazca plain bordering on the sea, there would have been a plentiful water supply.

Some of the less precise drawings suggest that the sweeper might have been a gimbaled device which was guided by hand, similar to the machine-gun mounts on old bombers; however the great precision of many of the figures suggests that it more likely was a computerized device which used pre-stored images, such as modern computer driven routers. For these drawings the aircraft would have had to hover quite stably.

Here's how I think they were made:

The 2800 foot long "Needle and Thread" drawing (Fig 3-1, adapted from Discover Magazine, December 2000) begins at the bottom of the figure as a wide beam; the beam is focused to a line as it moves up the "needle"; the artist then uses a oscillatory motion to delineate the borders of a plateau; and ends up drawing a spiral, a common motif at ancient sites (perhaps that’s his signature telling us he is from the galaxy, which also happens to have the shape of a gigantic spiral!)

Fig 3-1. "Needle and Thread" Image, Nazca, Peru

Although most of the figures were simply outlined with narrow lines, the variable width feature of the sweeper, as one can also do with the nozzle of a water hose, permitted the drawing of "filled-in" figures.

The 140 foot long spider (Fig3-2) is one of the best known Nazca figures. The lines which extend from the rightmost hind leg of the spider establish that the drawing begins at this point. The entrance line, the parallel line to the right, started with a broad beam which was focused to a line, and the hindquarters of the insect were drawn first.

Fig 3-2. The "Spider"

Most of the other animal figures were drawn in this same manner, with an entrance line, an continuous line sketch of the animal, and an exit line parallel to the entrance line. In Fig 3-3 the entrance-exit line-pair join the "hummingbird" at the beak.

Fig 3-3. The "Hummingbird"

The "Trident of Paracas", a 600 ft high drawing over the bay of Paracas demonstrates that the beam power of the sweeper could be adjusted to provide a much deeper excavation than was used elsewhere; also the furrows of the spiral figure at Nazca were reported to be "about a foot deep". Incidentally the Trident is the largest petroglyph in south America.


Zecharia Sitchin (1990) makes a rather convincing argument that the Trident of Paracas was the symbol of the Sumerian god Adad, or ISH.KUR ("He of the far mountains") who was in charge of mining in SA. His other epithet was ZABAR DIB.BA ("He who bronze obtains and divides")

Apparently the AA’s sweeper helped the Incas create their remarkable 25,000 mile "road" system.


Hadingham (1987) relates that,

"Along the north coast…several sections of Inca roads run for 25 miles or more with scarcely any visible deviation. The major coastal artery, in particular, often ignores minor geographic obstacles, passing straight over rocky hills rather than curving around them."

For other references on the Nazca lines see Isbella (1978), McIntyre (1978), Hadingham (1987), Morrison (1988), Von Daniken (1998)

Although the Nazca lines are the most famous, similar lines have been reported in Bolivia, the USA, Chile, and as "ley" lines in Great Britain.

Other huge ground drawings can be found on the 2000 ft high Atacama Desert in Chili, about 600 mile south of Nazca. The desert is literally covered, for many miles, with "geo-glyphs". Together they constitute the "zoo of the Atacama", immense stylized figures.

Traveling another 250 miles south, in the region of Tarapaca province, on a mountain called Cerro Unitas, we find the "giant", a huge (600 ft) ground figure with "antennae" radiating from the side and top of it's head.


The drawing,

"cannot be recognized from the ground since it wraps up over the crest of the mountain."

(Clarke, 1982)

This I take to be hard evidence that these figures were created from the air. It’s location next to the "lone mountain" also suggests that it was a beacon. It is the largest known ground drawing of a stylized figure.

Zecharia Sitchin (1980) writes about the 30th parallel, reporting that on this line lie the Tilmun site and the "sacred cites" of Giza-Heliopolis (Egypt), Eridu (Mesopotamia), Persepolis (Persia), Harappa (Indus valley), and Lhasa (Tibet). He further suggests that "Indeed, were we to study all these sites, all of Earth would probably be encompassed."

The Nazca desert - a testing and calibration site for the devices used to mark the Earth? by AAs? from the air?


I think so!

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Back to Ancient and Modern Megaliths



IV. The Technology of the Gods


The Gods and Their Flying Machines

The major attribute of the gods is that they could fly. Here are a few clues:

- When flying Quetzalcoatl appeared to the ancient Mexicans as a feathered serpent:

“…first it flies, quite high up, well up it goes, and it just descends…”.

And when it flies or descends a great wind blows. Wherever it goes, it flies”

(Baldwin, 1998).

Don't you wonder what kind of aircraft might appear to the natives as a “plumed serpent” accompanied by a “great wind”?

- “…there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.”

(2 Kings 2:11).

- “And Jehovah was going before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them in the way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give light to them, to go by day and by night…”
(Exo 13:21).

- Yahweh lands on Mt Sinai.

“…And on the third day, it being morning, it happened. There were thunders and lightnings, and a heavy cloud upon the mountain, and the sound of a ram’s horn, very strong! And all the people of the camp trembled… And mountain of Sinai was smoking, all of it, because Jehovah came down on it in fire. And it’s smoke went up like the smoke of a furnace; and the mountain quaked exceedingly…”

(Exodus 19:16-18).

 “…And the spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the sound of a great tumult, saying, Blessed be the glory of Jehovah from his place; and the sound of the wings of the living creatures touching each other to the other; and the sound of the wheels along with them; and the sound of a great tumult…”

(Ezekiel 3:12).

- Jehovah comes down on the high places with a great heat:

“For behold, Jehovah is coming out of his place, and will come down and walk on the high places of the earth. And the mountains shall melt under him, and the valleys shall cleave themselves as wax before the fire, as waters poured out on a steep place…”

(Micah 1:3-4).

- A reference to flying gods in the Mahabharata:

“The gods, in cloud-borne chariots…bright celestial cars in concourse sailed upon the cloudless sky.”

(Sitchin, 1985).

- Sitchin (1985) also mentions the flying Maruts:

“…loud roaring as the winds make the mountains rock and reel…(as they) lift themselves aloft…these verily wondrous, red of hue, speed on their course with a roar over the ridges of the sky…and spread themselves with beams of light…bright, celestial, with lightning in their hands and helmets of gold upon their heads.”

- Egyptian King Pepi ascends:

“As an imperishable star; Flies who flies! He flies away from you, O men! He is no longer upon earth; he is in the sky! He rushes at the sky like a heron. He has kissed the sky like a falcon. He has leapt skyward like a grasshopper.”

(Frankfort, 1948).

- An angelic messenger announces to Manoah about the birth of Samson to his wife, and who, after telling Manoah that his name is secret,

“…ascends in a flame of fire from the altar.”
(Judges 13:2-15).

- Naymlap, the leading god of the Indians of Ecuador, was,

“taken heavenward by the god of the speaking stone”

(Sitchin, 1990).

- Von Daniken (1982) states that the “fiery heavenly chariots”, described by Enoch and Elijah are also found in Buddhist (Padmasambhava) and Hindu (Ardjuna) mythology. Apparently every child in India is well aware of ancient flying gods and their aircraft, which they called Vimanas.

- In the Sumerian tale of Nergal and Ereshkigal (Pritchard, 1975), there are hints that there were periods when the gods were not able to travel from one location to another, perhaps because their orbital positions or the planetary alignments were not favorable:

Anu opened his mouth to say to Kaka:


I will send thee, Kaka, to the Land of no Return,
To Ereshkigal…thou shalt say:

"‘Thou art not able to come up,
In thy year thou canst not ascend to our presence,
And we cannot go down,
In our month we cannot descend to thy presence…"

Probably the most familiar description of the AA’s aircraft (possibly spacecraft) is in the biblical book of Ezekiel. It is a very convincing description by a very astute observer. From this description former NASA engineer J. F. Blumrich designed and patented his impression of the vehicle (Blumrich, 1974) (Fig 7-1).


A small cockpit, where Ezekiel observed the "Lord", rested atop the body of the vehicle.

Fig 7-1.

The body, which Ezekiel called the "fiery firmament", terminated in a single main engine. Attached to the body were four helicopter engines and blades, which enabled the vehicle to land vertically without using the main engine, which would have either covered poor Ezekiel with rubble or blown him away!

Not so well known, and more interesting in my opinion, is the tale of the “Divine Throne-Chariot” from the Dead Sea Scrolls (Vermes, 1962). The introduction to the piece reads:

“The Divine Throne-Chariot draws its inspiration from Ezekiel(1:10) and is related to the Book of Revelation. It depicts the appearance and movement of the Merkabah, the divine Chariot supported and drawn by the cherubim, which is at the same time a throne and a vehicle. The ‘small voice’ of blessing is drawn from 1 Kings 19:112: it was in a ‘small still voice’ that God manifested himself to Elijah. In our Qumran text this voice is uttered by the cherubim and it is interesting to note that although the Bible does not define the source of the voice, the ancient Aramaic translation of 12 Kings (Targum of Jonathan) ascribes it to angelic beings called ‘they who bless silently.’”

“The Throne-Chariot was a central subject of meditation in ancient as well as in medieval Jewish esotericism and mysticism, but the guardians of Rabbinic orthodoxy tended to discourage such speculation. The liturgical use of Ezekiel’s chapter on the Chariot is expressly forbidden in the Misnah; it even lays down that no wise man is to share his understanding of the Merkabah with a person less enlightened than himself…”

Not being a "wise man" I guess I'm free to share my speculation regarding the Merkabah. Of course the ancient Hebrews did not have the words to describe the technology which they were observing; regardless Ezekiel did quite an impressive job with the words available to him.

The description of the vehicle in operation, excerpted from Vermes by Barnstone (1984) reads:

“…and the cherubim utter blessings. And as they rise up, there is a divine small voice and loud praise; there is a divine small voice as they fold their wings.

“The cherubim bless the image of the Throne-Chariot above the firmament, and they praise the majesty of the fiery firmament beneath the seat of his glory. And between the turning wheels angels of holiness come and go, as it were a fiery vision of most holy spirits; and about them flow seeming rivulets of fire, like gleaming bronze, a radiance of many gorgeous colors, of marvelous pigments magnificently mingled. The spirits of the Living God move perpetually with the glory of the wonderful Chariot.

“The small voice of the blessing accompanies the tumult as they depart, and on the path of their return they worship the Holy One. Ascending, they rise marvelously; settling, they stay still. The sound of joyful praise is silenced and there is a small voice of blessing in all the camp of God.”

Here it is again with my “interpretations” in parenthesis:

“…and the cherubim (and the objects with wings - the helicopters) utter blessings (make a soft sound resembling prayer). And as they rise up (as the helicopter blades rise into place), there is a divine small voice (the blades make a swishing sound in the air) and loud praise (along with the loud noise of the engine); there is a divine small voice as they fold their wings (when the main engine is stopped only the swishing sound of the blades is heard as they drop down and stop).

“The cherubim (The helicopters) bless the image of the Throne-Chariot above the firmament (make a soft sound like prayer), and they praise the majesty (and they speak louder, and in amazement, about the brightness) of the fiery firmament beneath the seat of his glory (of the glowing, idling engine under the main body of the aircraft).


And between the turning wheels (between the helicopter’s blades), angels of holiness come and go (wispy changing patterns), as it were a fiery vision of most holy spirits (of flames and vapors from the main engine); and about them flow seeming rivulets of fire, like gleaming bronze, a radiance of many gorgeous colors, of marvelous pigments magnificently mingled (the exhaust from the helicopter engines mingled with the multi-colored exhaust from the main engine).


The spirits (the helicopters) of the Living God move perpetually with the glory (always move with the flaming exhaust) of the wonderful Chariot (of the wonderful vehicle).

“The small voice of the blessing (the soft sound of the blades) accompanies the tumult (accompanies the roar of the main engine) as they depart, and on the path of their return they worship (they make a loud noise) the Holy One (the god-pilot). Ascending, they rise marvelously (the blades ascend quickly); settling, they stay still (the blades drop down and stop,).


The sound of joyful praise is silenced (the loud noise of the main engine ceases) and there is a small voice of blessing (the helicopter blades slow and drop down) in all the camp of God.”

I do not think there is a better description of Ezekiel’s “spaceship”!

Another interesting tale is that of Elijah meeting the Lord.


In I Kings 19:11-12, Yahweh makes himself known to Elijah (Eli-yahu):

“And, behold, the Lord passed by, and a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks before the earthquake; but the Lord was not in the wind: and after the wind an earthquake; but the Lord was not in the earthquake; and after the earthquake a fire; but the Lord was not in the fire; and after the fire a still small voice.”

My translation: As the spacecraft approaches the exhaust was first perceived as a powerful wind; as it descended on the mountain the engine caused the earth under it to vibrate; the engine’s fiery exhaust then came into Elijah’s view; finally, the main engines are stopped and only the sound of the helicopter blades is heard as they slow and stop.

Zecharia Sitchin (1998) gives an interesting description of Elijah’s ascent to heaven.


This apparently was also the time when Ezekiel wrote of his experiences with the Lord’s aircraft - about 592 BC:

“…a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, came. And they separated between them both (Elijah and Elisha), and Elijah went up in a tempest to Heaven. And Elisha was watching, and he was crying ‘My father, my father! the chariot of Israel and its Horsemen!’ And he did not see him again…”.
(2 Kings 2:11).

If your language did not include the words aircraft, or rocket, or spaceship, or any other thing that could carry men through the air, what could you possibly call it but a "chariot"? And it seems clear that some of them were what we now call VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft.

So I am left with no doubt that the AAs possessed the technology to come to Earth in spacecraft, and to move about the Earth in various kinds of aircraft which did not require runways.


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Ancient Nuclear Warfare

“We turned the switch, saw the flashes, watched for ten minutes, then turned everything off and went home. That night I knew the world was headed for sorrow”
– Physicist Leo Szilard, atomic bomb builder

“(It was) a single projectile, charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame, as bright as the thousand suns, rose in all its splendor…it was an unknown weapon...which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas…the corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable. The hair and nails fellout; pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white…after a few hours all foodstuffs were infected…”
– The Mahabharata.

During the first Egyptian “pyramid war”, between Horus and Seth, Horus strikes:

“…(and he) let loose against them a storm which they could neither see with their eyes, nor hear with their ears. It brought death to all of them in a single moment…”

(Sitchin, 1985)

This sounds to me like the gamma-ray and neutron pulse from a sub-kiloton nuclear weapon, which has no fireball and the nuclear radiation extends far beyond the blast wave.

Zeus battles the Titans:

“The hot vapor lapped around the Titans, of Gaea born, flame unspeakable rose bright to the upper air. The Flashing glare of the Thunder-Stone, its lightning, blinded their eyes-so strong it was. Astounding heat seized Chaos…It seemed as if Earth and wide Heaven above had come together, a mighty crash, as though Earth was hurled to ruin. Also were the winds brought rumbling, earthquake and dust storm, thunder and lightning.”

(Sitchin, 1985).

I would guess that this was a large nuclear weapon which was detonated on or close to the ground, thus producing a large mushroom cloud.

Zeus conquering Thyphon:

“A flame shot forth from the stricken lord in the dim, rugged, secluded valley of the Mount, when he was smitten. A great part of huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapor, melting as tin melts when heated by man’s art…in the glow of a blazing fire did the earth melt down.”

(Sitchin, 1985).

Biblical references to nuclear warfare:

- The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah:

“…(Abraham) looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah…and he beheld and saw a smoke rising from the earth, as the smoke of a furnace.”

(Gen 18:27).

- “…and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt.”

– Exodus 9:23

“And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were in the going down to Bethhoron, that the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword.”

– Joshua 10:11

“And the fire of God came down from heaven, and consumed him and his fifty.”

– 2 Kings 1:12

-“Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of thine anger: the Lord shall swallow them up in his wrath, and the fire shall devour them.”

– Psalms 21:9

“A fire goeth before him, and burneth up his enemies round about.”

– Psalms 97:3

“Thou shalt be visited of the Lord of hosts with thunder, and with earthquake, and great noise, with storm and tempest, and the flame of devouring fire.”

– Isaiah 29:6

There are many other clues regarding nuclear warfare. Childress (2000) discusses ancient atomic warfare, first Hattusas (Bogazkoy) in Turkey where “parts of the city are vitrified, and the walls of rock are partly melted.”


He then discusses Sodom and Gomorrah and compares them with Hiroshima and Nagasaki. He thinks Sodom, Gomorrah, Zoar, Admah and Zeboiim (Gen. 14:2) were destroyed, creating the Dead Sea.


He quotes L.M.Lewis, “Footprints on the Sands of Time”, who argues for atomic explosions.


And he quotes from the Mahabharata an excellent description of an atomic battle in which Arjuna is given a “celestial weapon” which he cannot use against humans “for it might destroy the world”, but he could use it against “any foe who is not human.”

From the Mahabharata, as quoted by Charles Berlitz (1972), is probably the best description of ancient atomic warfare one can find:

“…(it was) a single projectile, charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame, as bright as the thousand suns, rose in all its splendor…it was an unknown weapon, and iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas…the corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable. The hair and nails fell out; pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white…after a few hours all foodstuffs were infected…to escape from this fire the soldiers threw themselves in streams to wash themselves and their equipment.”

Steinhauser (1975) relates a story from the Ramayana:

“…when the god Rama was threatened by a ‘army of monkeys’ (men or robots?) he put a ‘magic arrow’ into action. This produces a flash of lighting ‘stronger than the heat from a hundred thousand suns’, turning everything to dust. The hair of survivors falls out, their nails disintegrate. We know of such magic weapons from Sodom and Gomorrah, and from Hiroshima and Nagasaki.”

Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, Pakistan: David Davenport (1996), who spent 12 years studying ancient Hindu scripts and evidence at the ancient site of Mohenjo-Daro, declared in 1996 that the city was instantly destroyed 2,000 years BC.


The city ruins reveal the explosion’s epicenter which measures 50 yards wide. At that location everything was crystallized, fused or melted. Sixty yards from the center the bricks were melted on one side indicating a blast… the horrible mysterious event of 4000 years ago was recorded in the Mahabharata.


According to that text,

“white hot smoke that was a thousand times brighter than the sun rose in infinite brilliance and reduced the city to ashes. Water boiled…horses and war chariots were burned by the thousands…the corpses of the fallen were mutilated by the terrible heat so that they no longer looked like human beings…”

From one of the oldest chronicles of India... the Book of Dzyan:

"Separation did not bring peace to these people and finally their anger reached a point where the ruler of the original city took with him a small number of his warriors and they rose into the air in a huge shining metal vessel. While they were many leagues from the city of their enemies, they launched a great shining lance that rode on a beam of light. It burst apart in the city of their enemies with a great ball of flame that shot up to the heavens, almost to the stars.


All those who were in the city were horribly burned and even those who were not in the city - but nearby - were burned also. Those who looked upon the lance and the ball of fire were blinded forever afterward. Those who entered the city on foot became ill and died. Even the dust of the city was poisoned, as were the rivers that flowed through it. Men dared not go near it, and it gradually crumbled into dust and was forgotten by men. When the leader saw what he had done to his own people he retired to his palace and refused to see anyone.


Then he gathered about him those warriors who remained, and their wives and children, and they entered their vessels and rose one by one into the sky and sailed away. Nor did they return."

Childress (1999) also presents sketches of the Citadel of Mohenjo-Daro and a discussion of its destruction by nuclear explosion. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were the main cites of the “Harappa Culture” of the Indus Valley, an amazingly uniform and advanced urban civilization existing between 2500 and 1500 BC, the beginnings of which remain obscure.

About Parshaspur near Srinagar, Kashmir, David Childress (2000) states,

“It is a scene of total destruction; huge blocks of stone are scattered about a wide area giving the impression of explosive annihilation.”

Zecharia Sitchin (1985) devotes an entire chapter to a discussion of nuclear warfare in ancient times in Mesopotamia and the Sinai peninsula. In this book he also suggests the destruction of the Sinai “space facilities” by nuclear weapons.


He offers as evidence,

“…the immense cavity in the center of the Sinai and the resulting fracture lines (see figure), the vast surrounding flat area covered with blackened stones, traces of radiation south of the Dead Sea, the new extent and shape of the Dead Sea – is still there, four thousand years later”.

He maintains that the radioactive fallout from this operation wiped out the area around Sumer for a period of 70 years, until 1953 BC.

So did the gods use nuclear weapons in their struggles with each other and with mankind?


You be the judge!


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The Biotechnology of the Gods

“There are 193 species of monkeys and apes, 192 of them are covered with hair. The exception is a naked ape self-named Homo Sapiens”
– Desmond Morris

“It is difficult to say what is impossible – for the dream of yesterday is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow”
– Robert Goddard

Tales from various sources suggest that the gods possessed an advanced knowledge of biology many millennia ago:

- The Egyptian god Thoth helped Isis, the wife of Osiris, to extract from the dismembered Osiris the semen with which Isis was impregnated to bear Horus.

- “The Telleriano-Remensis and Florentine codices declare that Quetzalcoatl, as great artificer, ‘formed’ and ‘molded’ the first human beings in his image, and that only he - and no other god - ‘had a human body’.”

(Baldwin, 1998).

- “Before I (the Lord) formed you (Jeremiah) in the belly I knew you; and before you came out of the womb I set you apart…”

(Green, Jay, 1986, Jeremiah 1:5).

- “…‘though it is said that in truth Zeus, King of the Gods, whom you call Amen-Ra, was her father’. Seti nodded when he heard this and murmured, ‘Even as Amen-Ra was the father of Hatshepsut. Yes, the gods can indeed be the fathers of the spirits that dwell in the bodies of kings and queens’.”

(Green, Roger, 1967).

- In the tale of the birth of Samson, Manoah’s wife, who was barren, was visited by “the Angel of Jehovah” who said,

“Behold now you are barren and have not borne. But you shall conceive and bear a son…(who shall be)…a Nazirite to God from the womb”

(Green, Jay, 1986, Judges 13:2-14)

(Nazirite: Endowed with special psychic or physical qualities to be used in God’s service).

- “The god Citlaltonac sent an ambassador to see the virgin Chimalma…The god told her that she was to conceive a son, which she did soon after…”

(Fernandez, 1982).

- Concerning the birth of the Toltec god Huitzilopochtli:

“…a woman called Coatlicue, who was charged with keeping clean a temple on the Cerro de Coatepec, near Tula, was sweeping the building when she saw a beautiful ball of feathers drop from the sky, and put it away in her bosom. When she had finished her work, and tried to find the feather ball, it was no longer there, it had disappeared. At that same moment she became pregnant, although she had been a widow for many years.”

(Demetrio, 1983).

- In his discussion of the Sumerian story of the creation of The Adam (" the earthling") from Mesopotamian texts (clay tablets), Zecharia Sitchin (1985) writes,

“…to achieve the feat Enki suggested that a ‘being that already exists’, Ape woman, be used to create the Lulu Amelu (‘the mixed worker’) by ‘binding’ upon the less evolved beings ‘the mold of the gods’. The goddess Sud purified the ‘essence’ of a young male Anunnaki; she mixed it into the egg of an Ape woman. The fertilized egg was then implanted in the womb of a female Anunnaki, for the required period of pregnancy. When the ‘mixed creature’ was born, Sud lifted him up and shouted: ‘I have created! My hands have made it!’”

These stories raise several interesting questions:

  • In prehistoric times how in fact did the gods incorporate their ‘essence’ into ape females, a different species (but possibly the same genus), to create modern humans, as ancient texts have suggested?

  • How could gods and humans, of different but possibly similar species, marry and reproduce as suggested in Genesis?

  • Within historical times how did the AAs incorporate their ‘spirit’ into the prophets, humans again of a different but probably similar species?

  • How could the ancient ‘god-kings’ of Mesopotamia and Egypt marry their immediate family members, as custom required, and reproduce without apparent damage to the family gene pool?

Before speculating on how these things were done it will be useful to list some of the bioengineering methods in use at the present time:

IVF: In-vitro fertilization. Sperm and egg of the same species is fused in-vitro. The embryo is implanted in the uterus. A common method of treating infertility since the 1978 British ‘test tube baby’.

CSCT: Cross-species cell transfer (or nuclear transfer). An in-vitro fertilization in which a somatic (e.g. skin) ‘donor’ cell is fused in vitro with the ‘host’ egg of a different but similar species (but of the same genus). The embryo is implanted in the uterus of the host.

CCSCT: Cloned cross-species cell transfer. Same as CSCT except the egg is de-nucleated, resulting in a clone of the donor animal (although a small amount of DNA, in the mitochondria, always comes from the egg). This was the method employed by Advanced Cell Technology, Inc, to regenerate the recently extinct Asian Gaur using an ordinary cow as host (which died shortly after - darn!).

RDNA: Recombinant DNA. Since, in most cases, DNA cannot be transferred directly from one organism to another, in this technique a desirable DNA fragment, isolated from the animal ‘donor’ cell, is incorporated into the plasmid of a benign bacteria (the vector). The bacteria reproduces the fragment as a part of it’s own DNA, and the hybrid bacteria cells are injected back into the animal. This is currently the method of human ‘gene therapy’, but one would expect that the technique could also be used for cross-species cell transfer if the bacteria were benign to both species.

HESC: Human Embryonic Stem Cells. A human somatic cell is fused in vitro with a de-nucleated egg of a different species. “These differentiated cells began to grow as an embryo and then reverted to become embryonic stem cells, which can grow into virtually any type of tissue for transplant use”

So let’s speculate.

Zecharia Sitchin’s statement concerning the development of the Adam sounds like our current technique of cross-species cell transfer (CSCT), the ‘essence’ being DNA fragments (genes) which the gods wanted incorporated into the Ape woman’s egg. The resulting Adam, a hybrid like mules or hinnies, was sterile. Later on some procedure was employed to enable the "mixed creatures" to procreate.

Incorporating the "spirit" (certain traits or abilities) of the gods into the prophets, apparently a partial and selective reprogramming of the central nervous system, could have been accomplished via the technique of recombinant DNA.

Finally, the custom of the ancient ‘god-kings’ of Mesopotamia and Egypt of marrying their sisters and reproducing without apparent damage to the family gene pool would have been possible using the technique of cloned cross-species cell transfer (CCSCT) in the following scenario:

  • Harvest an egg from a human female and remove the DNA.

  • Collect a skin cell from a living god, or a deceased god whose cells have been preserved by freezing (or embalming?).

  • Fuse the skin cell and egg in vitro, and electrically stimulate the embryo to start dividing.

  • Implant the embryo back into the female, whose immune system will accept it.

If all goes well the human will birth a clone of the god. Now repeat the procedure using a skin cell from a goddess. The cloned god-son and goddess-daughter would be totally genetically different, and could marry and reproduce without genetic damage or violating rules pertaining to incest. Furthermore, since the god-son and his mother are genetically different, they may marry, as was required in ancient Egypt, without violating taboos.

But what if the god and human are of a very different species, or even of a different genus?


That this is probable is evidenced by literature suggesting that some of the gods were frightful to look at, and took great care not to be seen by humans, except possibly by the highest priest:

- Concerning the appearance of (the angel) Eleleth. “…now as for that angel, I cannot speak of his power…No, truly, my mouth cannot bear to speak of his power and the appearance of his face.”

(Robinson, 1978, “The Hypostasis of the Archons’)

- In the tale of the birth of Samson, the wife of Manoah says, “A man of God has come to see me, and His appearance was like the appearance of an Angel of God, very terrifying.”

(Green, Jay, 1986, Judges 13:2-14) (This might have been an android).

- “Quetzalcoatl…only he, no other God, had a human body. He was ‘el hombre-dios’, the god made flesh, man embodied with divine spirit.”

- Fanged (Tlaloc) or grotesque (Xipe Totec - ‘The Flayed One’), the gods sometimes hid behind skins of flayed humans.

- “…now it is revealed to us concerning the race of the gods, and we confess it along with everyone else, that they have come into being out of a pure matter, and their bodies are heads only.”

(Robinson, 1978, the Asclepius tractate, 21-29)

- “…they (the first male and female earthlings-Adam and Eve?) saw that they were naked, and they became enamored of one another. When they saw their makers, they loathed them since they were beastly forms.”

(Robinson, 1978, “On the Origin of the World”).

In these cases probably the techniques of recombinant DNA or the generation of human embryonic stem cells was used. Scary as it sounds the “the hominid-animal mixtures” described by the Babylonian priest Berossus (Burstein, 1978) could have resulted from the modern human embryonic stem cells technique.


In fact when this experiment was announced two years ago by Advanced Cell Technology, biotechnology watcher Jeremy Rifkin strongly objected:

“They should never, ever have done this. We don’t know what kind of creature could develop from that.”

I think we now do know of at least one kind of creature that can “develop from that ” - the Adam!

In summary it appears that our current knowledge of animal biology and physiology permits a close understanding of how the gods might have accomplished their bioengineering feats. Furthermore, since we are assuming that the gods had this ability millennia ago, it’s exciting to speculate concerning their current biotechnology.


I suspect we would find it indescribable.


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The Immortals

“The more science learns what life is, the more reluctant scientists are to define it “
Leila M. Coyne

"Eternity is very long, especially near the end"
Woody Allen

A universal attribute of the “gods” was their immortality, or at least their very long lives compared to humans.


Several references to this characteristic follows:

- “For a thousand years, in your eyes, are as yesterday when it passes, and as a watch in the night.”

(Green, Jay, 1986, Psalm 90:4).

This represents a time dilation factor of 1/365,000.

- “…that one day with the Lord is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.”

(Green, Jay, 1986, 2 Peter 3:8).

Also a time dilation factor of 1/365,000.

- “…adding up to 1200 divine years of 432,000 Earth years”

– The Vishnu Purana, as quoted by Zecharia Sitchin


A time dilation factor of 1/360 or 1/432,000, whichever way it is interpreted.

- “Put not thy faith in length of years, for the gods regard a lifetime as but an hour.”

(Frankfort, 1948).

A time dilation factor of 1/52,840 for a 60 year lifetime.


- Mead (1921) writes,

Jesus tells his initiated of the dissolution of the universe after its expansion is completed ‘in the years of the light’. Mary Magdalene asks him:

‘My Lord, how many years of the years of the world is a year of the light?’ Jesus answered: ‘A day of the light is a thousand years in the world, so that thirty-six myriads of years and a half myriad of years of the world are a single year of the light.’”

Translating we have 1 day of light = 1000 Earth years; 1 year of the light = 365 days of the light = 365,000 Earth days = 36.5 myriads of Earth years, i.e. as used here "myriad" represents the multiplier 10,000.

- From The Vision of Isaiah:

“After taking Isaiah to Heaven, the angel was requested to return the prophet to Earth. Isaiah said: ‘Why so soon? I have only been here two hours.’ The angel said: ‘Not two hours, but thirty-two years…’” (Slemen, 2000).

A time dilation factor of 1/140,160.

These references seem to imply that the AAs did not live forever, but so much longer than humans that they appeared to be immortal. The texts report that the Sumerian goddess Inanna did age, but she was considered immortal.

One obvious advantage of being even relatively immortal is that one could move about the galaxy without having to achieve very high, and very expensive, speeds. As astronomer Sandy Faber noted,

“If we could live longer we wouldn’t have to accelerate to high speeds”.

Living longer instead of going faster is of course a familiar science fiction theme.

I can think of four possibilities to account for the alleged immortality of the gods:

(1) Organ replacement, if the gods are biological, or parts replacement if they are not (some of the ‘angels’ and other emissaries of the gods seemed suspiciously robotic:

“Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions, for my name is in him.” (Exodus 23:20-21)).

(2) Rejuvenation by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

(3) Time dilation via travel at relativistic speeds relative to Earth.

(4) Gravitational time dilation by orbiting a large black hole.

I am not aware of any references to organ or parts replacement by the gods; however rejuvenation was likely since there was a “Tree of Life” which the gods had access to but humans did not.


Zecharia Sitchin (1980) suggests that to be taken up in ancient Egypt meant that one would be immortal, so the rocket ship represented the “tree of life”, and was also symbolized by the obelisks. According to the ancient king lists the 1st god-king of Ur reigned for 28,800 Earth years, but the texts also mention that the goddess Inanna grew old and fat after being on Earth for an extended period.


So was the Tree of Life a repository of spare parts, a cellular rejuvenator, or was it a location such as the vicinity of a black hole?

Time dilation via high speeds seems unlikely, since the degree of time dilation implied by all of the foregoing statements would require velocities very close to the speed of light, which we currently consider to be impossible (although physicists have recently claimed to have transmitted photons, which have no mass, faster than the speed of light, moving a spacecraft faster than the speed of light would seem to require most of the energy in the entire universe).

Rejuvenation by somatic cell nuclear transfer was probably employed since the gods possessed a very advanced biotechnology.


In this,

“still largely theoretical procedure…(the procedure) can ‘rejuvenate’ an aged cell, restoring the proliferative capacity inherent in cells at the beginning of life.”

(West, 2000).

Rejuvenation (replacement) by cloning is also very probable. This procedure, which can be used to produce “young cells of any type”, avoids the "Hayflick limit" in which the “telemeres” on the ends of the chromosomes are reduced every time the cell divides until they are used up and division stops (Cibelli, 2000).

I think it’s also logical that the gods might reside, at least some of the time, in an equilibrium orbit about a black-hole which is massive enough to provide an acceptable tidal force across the width of their spacecraft.


How massive? If we assume a spacecraft of any length, but having a width of a kilometer (this is a big spaceship folks!), orbiting a black-hole of 32,425 solar masses, the tidal force across the width of the craft would be a comfortable 1g (the pull of gravity at the Earth’s surface).


For the case of “1200 divine years of 432,000 human years”, i.e. a time dilation of 0.00278, the ratio of the circumference of the event horizon to the circumference of the orbit of the spacecraft is 0.999992. Since the horizon circumference for this mass is only about 601,585 kms, our gods would need to drive very carefully! But in this orbit, one Earth year in the life of the gods is 360 years on Earth. The case of “…a thousand years, in your eyes, are as yesterday when it passes” is more difficult since the orbit of the spacecraft would essentially have to coincide with the event horizon.

But there is another clue. In the Sumerian tale of Nergal and Ereshkigal (Pritchard, 1975), there are hints that there were periods when the gods were not able to travel from one location to another, perhaps because their orbital positions or the planetary alignments were not favorable:

Anu opened his mouth to say to Kaka:

I will send thee, Kaka, to the Land of no Return,
To Ereshkigal… thou shalt say: "‘Thou art not able to come up,
In thy year thou canst not ascend to our presence, And we cannot go down,
In our month we cannot descend to thy presence…”

Gravitational time dilation is the logical explanation here.


The time dilation factor is of course 1/12, so that the 96,410 km radius of Anu's orbit is now a comfortable 665 km greater than the horizon radius. Notice that even this modest time dilation, if not close to a black-hole, would require a speed of 99.6% the speed of light - not possible according to current knowledge.

Although astronomers are convinced that the Milky Way’s core contains a massive black hole of about 2.6 million solar masses (Science News, 153:59) it is over 30,000 LY from Earth. So how likely is it that there is a suitably large black hole reasonably close to us, say in the Orion nebula? (The solar system used to be in the Orion nebula but is now about 1500 LY away).


One clue may come from Stephen Hawking’s (1988) observation that,

“The number of black holes may well be greater even than the number of visible stars (about 1011 in our galaxy)… then the black hole nearest to us would probably be at a distance of about a thousand million kilometers, or about as far away as Pluto…”.

Furthermore the Space Telescope Science Institute reports recent observations which suggest that they may be numerous:

“Two international teams of astronomers using NASA’S Hubble Space Telescope and ground based telescopes in Australia and Chile have discovered the first examples of isolated stellar-mass black holes adrift among the stars in our galaxy.”

(stsci, 2000) .

Finally astrophysicists have recently postulated that there may be as many as 25,000 black holes within 15 LYs of the center of our galaxy (Escude, 2000).

Lacking other clues I'll speculate that a combination of cellular rejuvenation for those that are biological, parts replacement for those who are not, and gravitational time dilation are probably how the gods achieved their incredibly long lives, relative to Earthlings.

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