I. The Ancient Astronauts (AA) Theory
Robert Graves (Graves 1968) writes,
"Mythology is the study of whatever
religious or heroic legends are so foreign to a student’s experience
that he cannot believe them to be true; hence the English adjective
‘mythical’ meaning ‘incredible’; hence the omission from standard
European mythologies of all Biblical narrative even when closely
paralleled by myths from Persia, Babylonia, Egypt and Greece."
For many modern skeptics the world’s oldest writings, on clay, stone and
papyrus, is simply myth. However, if we dismiss all of the ancient
literature and inscriptions - the Bible, the Koran, the Mahabharata, and
the thousands of clay tablets from Mesopotamia - as too incredible to
believe, we would still have to deal with the question of the physical
Who built the ancient megalithic structures?
How were they
Why the practice of building pyramids at ancient sites all over
Earth for a period or time, and then suddenly abandon them?
the Earth’s surface with gigantic lines and figures?
Who created the
astonishing artwork on Mars?
Why and how were these things done?
space age, with it’s remarkable technological advances, it is becoming
apparent that the "miracles", and other seemingly supernatural events
reported in ancient texts, the megalithic constructions, and the
enigmatic lines and artwork over the Earth, resulted from an advanced
technology which was incomprehensible and indescribable by the ancient
human observers. On these pages we take the position that there is a
reasonable explanation, within natural law, for these mysteries.
In this series of articles we will review the evidence that these
mysteries are attributable to ancient astronauts; extraterrestrials who
have visited Earth in prehistoric and historical times, and have
interacted with humans or their evolutionary predecessors, i.e. what
authors throughout history have referred to as "the gods".
Most authors, with the exception of Zecharia Sitchin (1976), who write
about ancient astronauts, take us to familiar sites around the world
where we get a "how-could-they-have-done-that?" feeling, but do not get
into details concerning the god’s technology, motivation, or their
By contrast, in these pages I attempt to touch on the following
What was the nature of the gods?
How did they accomplish their seemingly miraculous feats?
What did they value?
What was their connection to humans?
Where did they come from and where did they go?
Back to Contents
The Ancient Astronaut Theory
"And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, there were
thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice
of the trumpets exceeding loud; so that all the people that was in the
camp trembled…And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because
Lord descended upon it in fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the
smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly…And the voice of
the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder…"
– Exodus 19:16-19.
"Our sun is one of a 100 billion stars in our galaxy. Our galaxy is
of billions of galaxies populating the universe. It would be the height
of presumption to think that we are the only living thing in that
– Wernher Von Braun
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The AA Hypothesis in Brief
AAs (Ancient Astronauts) first came to Earth many millennia ago. They were beings whose
biology was similar to modern humans. They created modern mankind by
mixing their genetic makeup with that of sub-humans. The purpose of
mankind was to serve the AAs, principally by providing food and mining
and construction labor. The AAs did not allow humans to view them – only
their symbols (idols), suggesting that their appearance was frightening;
however humans were occasionally permitted to see their emissaries, e.g.
"geniuses" and "angels".
They also would not allow humans near them,
except priests who had cleansed and covered themselves and spread a
germicide, suggesting their susceptibility to earthly diseases. They
apparently moved about the Earth in spacecraft using chemical fuel, and
only landed on mountaintops or other rocky outcroppings; this reduced
the dust and provided physical protection from humans, and disease
The earliest sites had a cave under the rock that protected the
priests during the coming and going of the spacecraft. Later they built,
or provided humans with tools to build, cyclopean structures – huge
earthen, baked brick, or stone ceremonial platforms and pyramids, which
served as landmarks and as landing and feeding sites. Since they had
little defense against earthly bacteria, they developed methods to
nourish themselves with the vapors emanating from food and drink which
humans provided and burned for them.
The food and drink was provided
through the custom of sacrifice, the burning of the meat and blood of
animals, and sometimes humans, which the AAs demanded. These ceremonial
and feeding sites were located all over the world, most on or near the
current equator or near earlier pole-shifted equators.
humans agriculture, astronomy, engineering, and provided the first laws.
They then departed from the face of Mankind.
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Clues and More Clues
"The grand aim of all science is to cover the greatest number of
empirical facts by logical deduction from the smallest number of
hypothesis or axioms"
– Albert Einstein
The following twenty clues in support of the
AA theory come to mind:
The lines and figures which occur over the Earth, e.g. the
Peruvian Nazca lines and "roads", the Bolivian "ceques", the radial lines
emanating from ancient ceremonial sites, and the British "ley" lines,
precisely straight lines which connect ancient sacred sites.
The ubiquitous pyramids of various styles scattered over the Earth, in
Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Far East, and in North and
South America. They apparently had several functions, serving as burial
sites, landmarks, landing sites, bomb shelters, feeding stations, and
The megalithic constructions arrayed essentially all over the Earth;
built of enormous stones weighing up to two million pounds. Why and how
this was accomplished has not been adequately explained.
A unique and puzzling characteristic of the megalithic sites of both
hemispheres is the complex polygonal stones which were used in their
construction. Kiloton stones stacked, molded and sometimes fused
together. Why and how?
The Polar Rounds, the concentration of ancient sites on or near the path
of the current and shifted equators, suggesting that the ancient
astronauts approached the Earth thru the solar plane , probably to use
the planets for braking, and built very close to the equator. Chatelain
(1988) says, "The polar rounds and the shift of the equator also explain
why we have found traces of civilizations in regions of the Earth that
today seem unfit for human habitation…". Remarkably many of the most
mysterious sites lie on one of these ancient equators.
The many ancient writings about "gods" who could move through the air -
Enuma Elish, the Koran, the
Popol Vuh, the
Mahabharata, the Bible,
and the voyages of the gods as depicted on cylinder seals and stellae
from ancient Near Eastern civilizations.
The Heavenly Gateways - getting to and from the Earth. Before
construction of the large pyramids and platforms the landing sites were
simply a natural rock outcropping. A cave was excavated underneath which
protected the priests during the coming and going of the Gods, or were
some of them bomb shelters?, e.g.
Israel: Es-Sakhra, the sacred rock on the Temple Mount, Jerusalem. There
is a cave under the rock about 24 x 18 ft, and a hole in the ceiling
about 2.5 ft in diameter which permitted access to the surface (Ritmeyer,
Egypt: The Great Pyramid.
The Great Pyramid was built on a huge bedrock
bubble. About 115 ft under the surface, accessed via a 300 ft
passageway, is an underground chamber measuring about 46 x 27 ft.
Egypt: The Step Pyramid, with an elaborate multi-chambered cave
underneath, allegedly built by Imhotep.
Egypt: The pyramids of Mycerinus, Khafre, Unas, Teti and most other all
had underground chambers. In fact the pyramids of Mycerinus and some
others did not even have chambers in the pyramids - all chambers were
There is a cave under the Sun Pyramid with several
side chambers (Tompkins, 1976).
Peru: The Torreon,
Machu Picchu. A rock outcrop with a cave and altar
Peru: K’enko. A huge, rock outcrop with an altar underneath. A hole
above the altar allowed food to be passed to the surface.
There are many other constructions on the Earth which seem to have
served as ancient navigation aids from the air, e.g. the
next to the huge ceremonial site of Cahuachi, the Carnac stones and
"Fairy Stone" in Brittany, the
Sphinx at Giza, the Great Serpent Mound
in Ohio, and the "Giant" and other huge drawings in the Chilean and
The spiral motif was a favorite design of the ancient astronauts,
appearing at sites all over the world, e.g. Brittany; Cahuachi, Peru;
Chaco Canyon; Nazca, Peru; Kawhia, New Zealand; Mu’a, Tonga; New Grange,
Scotland; Tarxien, Malta.
Consider this: In 1969 at New Grange, Britain, a
Prof. O’Kelly proved
that on the winter solstice, December 21, the morning sun would enter
the passage and illuminate the spiral motif. Across the Atlantic, at
Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, light falling on the spiral also was used to
mark the equinoxes.
One legend has it that when we are awakening but still lightly sleeping,
we might "see" one or more spirals. When this happens we are able to
hear or see through the ears and eyes of someone nearby or share their
thoughts (please let me know if this works!) But to be serious the
spiral motif, occurring at ancient megalithic sites all over Earth,
obviously had some special significance; and we now know that our galaxy
has the shape of a beautiful spiral. Is that it? Is the spiral motif the
signature of those who built or provided the tools to build these
They constructed on Earth reflections of their celestial abode:
Maurice Chatelain (1988) says that the pattern of the most famous
cathedrals in 10 French cites "have the same configuration as the stars
in the constellation of Virgo."
Bauval and Gilbert (1994) demonstrate that the Giza pyramids exactly
mirror the stars in Orion’s belt on 10,540 BC.
Leviton and Coons (1987) believe that they have demonstrated the
coincidence of a pattern of prehistoric sites in central Somerset with
the constellation Canis Major.
Zecharia Sitchin (1990) finds a pattern in the Coricancha in Cuzco which
he feels closely resembles the constellation Cygnus.
Characteristics of site selection: Identification and access from the
air, security and disease control.
The important ancient sites seem to have been selected for easy
identification and access from the air; on mountain peaks (Mt. Sinai,
Machu Picchu, Mt. Olympus), on islands in lakes (Malta, Lake Titicaca),
or on large artificial platforms (Baalbek, The Temple Mount).
In addition various sites where the gods came and went were inaccessible
by most of the people of that time, on the tops of mountains or
pyramids. They would not allow humans near them, except priests who had
cleansed and covered themselves and spread a germicide, suggesting their
susceptibility to human diseases.
Green (1992) state that a sick person was considered to have
sinned, that is, committed an offense against moral or divine law. The
illness could be expelled or undone by a god whom the “patient” would
appeal to through prayer. They write, “The use of the word 'patient'
emphasizes the Babylonian view of sin as synonymous with disease. Sin
could be transmitted by relatives or inherited from parents…Babylonians
did not have a concept of original sin, but they believed that they were
all very prone to sin.” (i.e. disease). This apparently is also the
meaning of sin as used in the Old Testament.
And Jehovah said to
Moses, "Go to the people and sanctify them today and
tomorrow. And let them wash their clothes." (Exo 19:10). If you read the old testament substituting “disease” or “germs” for
“sin” and “sterilize” for “sanctify” you will be surprised.
And Jehovah said to
Moses, "Go down, warn the people lest they break
through to gaze at Jehovah, and many of them fall." (Exo 19:21).
"And also the priests, those approaching Jehovah, let them sanctify
(cleanse) themselves, that Jehovah not burst forth among them." (Exo
"And Jehovah said to him (Moses), ‘Come, go down. And you come up and
Aaron with you. And let not the priests and the people break through to
come up to Jehovah, lest He burst forth among them.’" (Exo 19:23).
"And if you make an altar of stone for Me, you shall not build them of
cut stones. When you swing your tool on it you defile it." (Exo 20:25).
Apparently some of the gods were frightful to look at, and took great
care to not be seen by humans, except possibly by the highest priests.
The feeding of large numbers of AAs by the "sacrifice" of animals, and
Genetic engineering. From various ancient texts we read of the creation
of mankind and "virgins" giving birth to god-kings and prophets. As our
own biotechnology evolves what were unfathomable mysteries for our
forefathers are now beginning to make sense.
Astronomy and mathematics. The ancient civilizations, which arose in
both hemispheres near the equator, possessed an extensive knowledge of
astronomy and mathematics.
The sudden appearance of a technologically advanced human civilization.
John Cohane (1977) writes, "Until one arrives at Cro-Magnon man, about
30,000 BC, it is impossible to hold up a single piece of fossil evidence
and say with assurance: ‘This came from an ancestor of man’." He
discusses other evidence and concludes, "…and this evidence indicating
that only 10,000 years ago there was a sudden and unaccountable
emergence of a full-blown intelligent civilization…".
The several references to the use of nuclear or other advanced weapons
during the god’s struggles with each other.
They must overcome the restraints of time, and there are several hints
of gravitational time dilation when comparing the lives of the ancient
astronauts with that of humans.
All of the ancient ceremonial sites, in both hemispheres, have been
abandoned. In the Americas the centers came to an abrupt and unexplained
end, with the exception of the Aztec centers, before the arrival of the
Tiahuanaco in Bolivia and the entire region were abandoned by
1050 AD. The AAs had all left the Earth.
Communication with the Gods. There is the suggestion that
only communicate with the Israelites via the Ark of the Covenant: "And
the Israelites inquired of the LORD, for the ark of the covenant of God
was there in those days, and Phinehas son of Eleazar, son of Aaron,
ministered before it in those days, saying..."
The Israelites were instructed to blow a trumpet to signal Jehovah
(probably also other AAs) to come to the sacrifice or to call God to an
assembly of the tribe, or to signal for God’s assistance during battle
(Numbers 10:2-10). This suggests that Yahweh could not receive the
prayers of the Israelites; however other passages suggest that Yahweh
could indeed receive the prayers of the Israelites if they were within
earshot of the Ark. But he apparently could not reply to them via the
Ark, only through the prophets within whom he had placed his ‘spirit’,
e.g. when Hezekiah prayed the Lord’s answer came through Isaiah who said
to Hezekiah, "So says Jehovah, the God of Israel. I have heard that
which you have prayed to Me…" ( 2 Kings 19:20).
Also when David
prayed to God, the answer came to David through his
"seer", Gad: "And Jehovah spoke to Gad, the seer of David, saying ‘Go;
and you shall speak to David, saying…’" (1 Chronicles 21:9).
Last and most important, the space colonization argument of the
SETI community. The argument is that the use of nuclear propulsion at, say,
1/10th the speed of light could easily be accomplished, and that if only
one advanced civilization existed in the galaxy it could colonize the
galaxy in a mere 1-10 million years. They then conclude that “we don’t
see them here; therefore they do not exist”. The following section
examines this clue in greater depth.
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The Galaxy Has Been Colonized
“This, then is the paradox: all our logic, all our anti-isocentrism,
assures us that we are not unique – that they must be there. And yet we
do not see them!”
– David Viewing
Physicist Enrico Fermi once asked:
"If there are extraterrestrials,
where are they?"
"If they existed," he said, "they would be here."
was a casual question over lunch, and I suspect that if he had thought
further about it he might have further speculated, “or have they been
here and have left?” We’ll never know, but his question, which became
known as the “Fermi Paradox” or “Space Travel Argument”, raised a great
deal of discussion in the SETI community.
The paradox lead a few scientists - Freeman Dyson, Michael Hart, David
Viewing and Frank Tipler among others - to speculate that any older
technologically advanced civilization would have colonized the galaxy by
now, and since they are not here, they don’t exist; therefore “SETI is a
waist of time and money”.
The “space colonization” proponents argue that the use of nuclear
propulsion at, say, 1/10th the speed of light could easily be
accomplished, and that if only one advanced civilization existed in the
galaxy it could colonize the galaxy in a mere 1-10 million years. They
then conclude that “we don’t see them here; therefore they do not
exist”. The argument apparently assumed that the alien’s would
physically occupy all the habitable planets rather than just develop
them. I think this was where they got off track.
Others have countered. Kuiper and Morris (1977) stated, “The search for
extraterrestrial intelligence should begin by assuming that the galaxy
has been colonized”. The paper was more wild speculation but the
positions and titles of the authors, and a few equations, were
apparently enough to get it into the journal Science.
But there is another reason we should assume that it has already been
"colonized". In a recent paper astronomer Dr Charles Lineweaver (2001),
studying the tricky business of terrestrial planet formation, argues
that "...this gives us an age distribution for life on such planets and
a rare clue about how we compare with other life that might inhabit the
Universe." From the age distribution he then concludes, "most of the
life forms in the universe have had two billion years longer to evolve
than we have." Apparently we're the new kid on the block.
As used here "Colonization" is probably a misnomer, since in our case
the ancient astronauts goal seemed to be the extension of their biology,
knowledge, laws, and technology, by example or by physical manipulation
of the biological blueprint of the most promising animal they found
here; sort of a galactic migration of intelligence, survival traits and
culture, rather then physical beings. It appears that when we attained a
certain technological level they got out of the way.
My thought here is that their argument is forceful but their conclusion
is incorrect. It is in fact a powerful statement in support of the
hypothesis - that the Earth, probably along with most habitable bodies
in the galaxy, has indeed been colonized by ancient astronauts and, at
least in part, we are them!
Curiously, to my knowledge, none of the AA
authors have appreciated the compelling logic of this argument and the
strong corroboration it gives to the AA theory.
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II. The Gods Meet Men in Prehistory
Polar Shift and the AA Theory
During most of the last century the scientific community has considered
the possibility that the Earth’s axis (and the poles), or the Earth’s
crust has shifted during the last 200,000 years or so, perhaps several
In 1958 (updated 1970) Charles Hapgood presented his theory
(along with 458 references!) that both the poles and the Earth’s crust
have shifted several times in the last 120,000 years. He maintained that
the last four rounds of the poles started 120,000 years ago when the
North Pole installed itself in the territory of Yukon in Canada at 63 N
and 135 W; then it went to the Greenland Sea at 72 N and 10 E about
84,000 years ago, moved from 54,000 until 48,000 years ago and settle in
the middle of Hudson Bay at 60 N and 83 W; it rested there for 30,000
years, then wandered again from about 18,000 to about 12,000 years ago
when it came to its present location.
He uses evidence from
geomagnetism, continental drift, the failure to explain the ice ages,
the failure to explain climatic changes, the sudden melting of the ice
sheets, the shaping of earth’s surface features, the evidence for
violent and rapid extinctions.
Recently F. Barbierio (1999) addressed the pole shift hypothesis
by arguing, using mind-numbing mathematics, that the Earth’s poles could
be rapidly shifted due to the impact of objects from space as small as a
half-kilometer diameter asteroid.
And so the argument continues in the scientific community.
Former NASA engineer Maurice Chatelain (1988)
discussed some very interesting consequences of the polar rounds. During
the Hudson Bay period (48,000 to 18,000 years ago) the equator was 30
degrees further south in South America, passing through central Chile
and Argentina, resulting in a much warmer climate over Antarctica. The
Antarctic peninsula and Little America were on only 40 and 60 degrees
south respectively. Chatelain states, “At least half of
Antarctica towards South America and the south Atlantic were free of ice
for 100,000 years…”. (does this support the business about the
Peri Reis map?)
He demonstrates that most of the important ancient megalithic sites lay
on the equators during the last 100,000 years, and that it was because
“It is preferable to land a spaceship near the equator than in a polar
region, just as it was with our landings on the moon.” (the speed at the
surface of the earth at the equator gives an added eastward push of
about 500 meters/sec). He says, "The polar rounds and the shift of the
equator also explain why we have found traces of civilizations in
regions of the Earth that today seem unfit for human habitation…". He
goes on to demonstrate that many of the ancient megalithic sites lie on
of close to one of these prehistoric equators.
Reading this it occurred to me that the remarkable concentration of
ancient sites on or near the path of the prehistoric equators suggested
that the AAs approached the Earth through the solar plane,
probably to use the planets for braking, lined up on the Earth's equator
to land, and built their sites very close to the equator. Seemed
reasonable - at the time.
In a superb up-to-date discussion of this observation Alison
(2001), using a bit of reverse engineering, lists nine
sites which would lie on the equator 120,000-84,000 years ago, another
six which would lie on the equator 84,000-48,000 years ago, and nine
sites which would lie on the equator 48,000-12,000 years ago (The site
lists are from Alison but the estimates of the time periods are
from Hapgood (1958)). Now if we assume that these sites were
located during the current pole position (12,000 - present) the
resulting pattern of the locations on the Earth is a precise harmonic
wave, as Alison nicely demonstrates.
Alison lists sites which are within 70 miles of the equator of
the time; however, when we consider that the poles wandered for about 5
thousand years before settling, I think we should allow a little slack
Using Alison’s coordinates for the poles the following is
Alison’s list with my additions of the sites which are
within 5 degrees of the last four equators (* indicates those from
These are just a few of the better known
locations; I suspect if one were to search a good archeological atlas
along the equators many more would be found.
- - - - - YEARS AGO - - - -
Columbia Arch Zone
*Cape Verde Isles
All of Sumer/Akkad
Here's what we have suggesting that the AAs lined up on
the ancient equators to land:
There is an undeniable
coincidence between many of the most important ancient sites and the
Oops - we have a
problem: None of the equators pass close to the Mesoamerican sites (Teotihuacan,
etc). Possible solution: archeologists think they were built much
Oops - we have a BIG
problem: None of the equators pass anywhere near the important
European sites (Stonehenge, Brittany, Bogazkoy, Malta, etc), and
these are very old.
Then let's make another
assumption - that they approached and landed along the solar plane (the
Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.5 deg from the solar plane, the
ecliptic). Within 5 degree of the equators here's what we have:
The pattern of the
landings on the Earth would indeed be a harmonic wave.
Yonagoni, Columbia Arch. Zone, Lhasa, Indus Valley, Mexico and
Yucatan Peninsula, Ethiopia, Nazca, Delphi would now fall on an
Oops - we still have a
BIG problem: Most of the sites in Alison's list above would not be
anywhere near one of the equators.
So about all we can conclude
landing/departure was parallel to the solar plane, as if they used
the planets for breaking (landing) or accelerating (departure), and
landing/departure was parallel to the Earth's equatorial plane, as
if they used the planets for breaking or accelerating, then lined up
on the equator to realize the benefits of the Earth's rotation.
Geologist Robert Schock (1999) discusses the theory of
Kirschvink and others that the "Cambrian explosion" was due to a
90 degree shift of the crust, not the interior of the Earth,
which he calls "true polar wander".
Tidbit 2: Zecharia Sitchin (1993) concluded that about 11,000 BC
(13,000 years ago) the Earth’s surface shifted causing the ice
cap to slip off, which in turn caused the deluge. They seems to
agree fairly well with Hapgood’s estimate of the last pole
shift, between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago).
Tidbit 3: Childress (1999) presents diagrams of the four yuga
cycles of the 6000 years from 22,000 BC to 2000 AD, and the
great yuga cycle from 46,000 BC to 22,000 BC. Interesting that
the great cycle corresponds closely to the period Hapgood gives
for the 3rd position of the polar axis (48,000 to 18,000 BC),
and that the recent cycle corresponds to the present pole
position (18,000 BC to present) (Hapgood, 1958).
tidbit: The Martian equator, like Earth's, has
apparently shifted over time, and in writing about the famous
Mars "face", astronomer Tom Van Flandern says that it has
"...a culturally significant location on the old Martian equator
and a culturally significant north-south orientation." (Van Flandern, 1997)
It’s well known that when
cultures are replaced their sacred sites are usually adopted and
incorporated into the current culture's traditions, apparently in an
effort to entice the people to the new culture. This happened throughout
the Americas during the Spanish conquest and evidently in England where
the ancient “old straight tracks”
(ley lines) now trace religious sites
erected within recent times.
Of course I am not suggesting that the structures currently at these
sites were built during the periods of the prehistoric equators (nor
does Alison), but I do suggest that most of the site locations were
first visited during these periods, and probably were points of contact
between AAs and humans in prehistory.
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Come to Dinner!
“For of all the cities
of mortal men which are built under the stars of heaven, I have
always loved best sacred Ilios, and King Priam, and the people of
that fine old soldier king! Their altar never lacked public feast,
or the savor of burnt-offering and drink-offering which is our
- “The Iliad”,
Has the god Zeus talk of
being fed by the mortal King Priam.
“When the gods were
conceived of as living up in heaven, they were believed to take
pleasure in the sweet savor of a burnt offering, and indeed to live
off the smoke.”
- Pinsent, 1969
Yahweh demanded huge amounts
“You shall offer a burnt
offering, an offering by fire, a pleasing odor to the Lord; one
bull, one ram, seven male lambs…also one male goat…in addition to
the regular burnt offering and its grain offering and its drink
Later on, as the number in his cadre on Earth increased, his demands
“One the first
day…thirteen young bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the
first year…and a goat”. He also demanded flour, oil, and a drink
offering. This goes on for seven days, so that close to 100 bulls,
100 lambs, and 20 rams were fed to his cadre during this one week.
There are several gruesome
tales of human sacrifices to feed the gods.
“The goddess Cihuacoatl
fed at her temple, Tlillan ("place of blackness"), which had no windows
or skylights. One had to go in on ones knees through a very small door
and only priests had access to it. The goddess was reputed to have a
vast appetite and required a human to be sacrificed every week.”
My impression of the site of K’enko in Peru was also one of the many
places where AAs were fed. Their aircraft landed on the rock above the
altar and scared it deeply (Fig 1).
There was a cave and altar under the
rock and legend has it that food was taken up into the craft through the
hole in the top of the altar (Fig 2).
“Sacred feasts: such
feasts celebrated according to the calendar and moveable feasts
falling on different dates; both were used for praising the gods,
giving them sustenance, and asking for their assistance.”
- Fernandez, 1982
Human sacrifice was
practiced at virtually all the ceremonial sites of ancient America. This
gruesome ceremony and other blood-letting practices, occurring in the
later stages of these societies, were apparently the last desperate
efforts to entice their gods to return.
Woolley (1965) writes that the prehistoric graves at Ur
revealed that humans were fed to the gods, but this custom was later
discontinued and animals were substituted
“The lamb is the
substitute for humanity; he hath given up a lamb for his life, he
hath given up the lamb’s head for the man’s head”.
Boulay (1999) also
writes about human sacrifice:
"One of the ways to
appease the gods and make 'bonus points' for eternity was by human
sacrifice. Before the Deluge human sacrifice was not only common but
demanded by the gods. Human sacrifice continued for some time after
the Deluge and seems to have ceased as a deliberate ritual about the
time of the aborted sacrifice of Isaac by his father Abraham.
Animals replaced humans and this change is clearly described in the
books dealing with the Exodus, where the 'burnt offering' can be
seen as an obvious cooked meal for the resident deity."
The astonishing assumption
underlying these clues is that the gods and Earth's animals (and humans)
shared the same biology!
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