Postscript

The story of the scrolls is, needless to say, unfinished.

 

The plot continues to unfold, taking new twists and turns. Much has happened since this book appeared in Great Britain in May 1991. By the autumn, things had built to a climax, and the scrolls were the subject of front page coverage, as well as editorials, in such newspapers as The New York Times. Even as the American edition of our book is being prepared for publication, other books and articles are appearing in print, conferences are being convened, media attention is intensifying, various protagonists are issuing new statements.

In May, the Israeli 'Oversight Committee' granted to Oxford University a complete set of photographs of all scroll material, and a centre for scroll research was established under the auspices of Gaza Vermes. Access, however, was still rigorously restricted, still denied to independent scholars. Interviewed on British television, Professor Norman Golb of the University of Chicago queried the purpose of such a centre. Was it, he asked, simply to be a centre of frustration?

On 5 September, the American press reported that two scholars at Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Professor Ben-Zion Wacholder and one of his doctoral students, Martin G. Abegg, had 'broken the monopoly' of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Using the concordance prepared by the international team in the 1950s, they had then employed a computer to reconstruct the texts themselves.

 

The results, said to be 80 percent accurate, were published by the Biblical Archaeology Society under Hershel Shanks. The surviving members of the international team were predictably furious. Professor Cross inveighed against 'piracy'.

'What else would you call it,' the deposed John Strugnall fulminated, 'but stealing?'

On 7 September, however, an editorial in The New York Times endorsed Wacholder's and Abegg's action:

Some on the committee might be tempted to charge the Cincinnati scholars with piracy. On the
contrary, Mr. Wacholder and Mr. Abegg are to be applauded for their work - and for sifting
through layer upon layer of obfuscation. The committee, with its obsessive secrecy and cloak-and-
dagger scholarship, long ago exhausted its credibility with scholars and laymen alike. The two
Cincinnatians seem to know what the scroll committee forgot: that the scrolls and what they say
about the common roots of Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism belong to civilization, not to a few
sequestered professors.

A more electrifying revelation was soon to follow. On 22 September, the Huntingdon Library in California disclosed that it possessed a complete set of photographs of all unpublished scroll material.

 

These had been entrusted to the library by Betty Bechtel of the Bechtel Corporation, who had commissioned them around 1961. Having learned of the photographs' existence, members of the international team had demanded them back. The Huntingdon had responded with defiance. Not only did the library make its possession of the photographs public but it also announced its intention of making them accessible to any scholar who wished to see them.

 

Microfilm copies were to be offered for as little as ten dollars.

'When you free the scrolls,' said William A. Moffett, the library's director, 'you free the scholars.'

Again, of course, members of the international team kicked up a rumpus, this time more petulant than before. Again, there were charges of 'theft of scholarly work'.

 

One independent professor replied, however, that most people,

'... will regard [the Huntington] as Robin Hoods, stealing from the academically privileged to give to those hungry for... knowledge.'

Amir Drori, head of the Israeli Antiquities Authority, accused the Huntington of sundry legal transgressions - even though the photographs had been taken long before the scrolls passed into Israeli hands as spoils of war. Magen Broshi, director of the Shrine of the Book, spoke darkly of legal action. The Huntington stood its ground.

'There's either freedom of access or not. Our position is that there should be unfettered access.'

By that time, release of the photographs was already a fait accompli, and any attempt to reverse the process would have been futile. 'It's too late,' the Huntington declared.

'It's done.'

On 25 September, the Israeli government gave way, carefully distancing itself from Drori's and Broshi's pronouncements. Drori and Broshi were said to have been 'speaking as individuals, not as representatives of the Israeli government.' Yuvel Ne'eman, Israel's Minister of Science, issued a press statement asserting that... every scholar should be granted free access to examine the scrolls and publish his findings. It is fortunate that this opportunity has now become feasible through public exposure of the scrolls' photographic collection by the Huntington Library.

In the meantime, at 11:05 that morning, Robert Eisenman's name had gone down on record as that of the first scholar formally to request and obtain access to the Huntingdon's photographs of scroll material.

 

The battle for access had been won.

 

There still remains, however, the process of dismantling the 'orthodoxy of interpretation' promulgated for the last forty years by the international team.

By the time the events chronicled above had hit the headlines, Eisenman had begun to pursue his research on other fronts as well. In 1988, he had pointed out that the excavations at Qumran were far from complete, far from exhaustive. The surrounding terrain is, in fact, ideal for the preservation of manuscripts, and virtually all experts in the field agree that there are more discoveries to be made.

 

It is not just possible, but probable, that additional scroll material still exists, buried under landslides and rock-falls. Many caves have yet to be excavated properly - that is, through the rubble of fallen roofs and down to bed-rock. Other caves, previously explored only by the Bedouin, have to be explored anew, since the Bedouin tended to overlook some concealed documents and to leave behind many fragments; and, in any case, officially sanctioned Bedouin excavations effectively ceased with the 1967 war.

 

There are other sites in the general vicinity of Qumran that have yet to be thoroughly explored. Nine miles to the south, for example, on the shores of the Dead Sea, at a place called En el-Ghuweir, an Israeli archaeologist found Qumran-style graves and the ruins of a Qumran-style (albeit smaller) residence.1 It is certainly reasonable to suppose that the caves in the nearby wadis, hitherto unexcavated, may also be repositories for scrolls.

With these facts in mind, Eisenman determined to embark on his own archaeological explorations. His primary objective was, of course, to look for additional scroll material. Such material might - as proved to be the case with the 'Temple Scroll' - be entirely new. But even if it duplicated material already in the hands of the international team, it would render pointless any continued suppression.

 

Quite apart from the prospect of additional scroll material, however, Eisenman wanted to build up as complete a picture as possible of the population in the entire region, from Qumran on south towards Masada. There might have been, he concluded, other Qumran-style communities. In consequence, he undertook to look for evidence of any other kind - evidence of water control, for example, such as terraces, aqueducts and cisterns, which might have been constructed to sustain livestock and support agriculture.

To date, Michael Baigent has accompanied Robert Eisenman and his team of archaeologists and volunteers on two exploratory expeditions, in January 1989 and in January 1990. In the first of them, they concentrated on the excavation of a cave roughly a mile south of Qumran, some 500 feet up the cliff. The cave opened into a series of chambers extending at least eighty feet back into the rock.

 

Part of the interior had a smooth floor made of palm fronds and packed mud. No scrolls came to light, but a number of Iron Age remains were found - a juglet, an oil lamp, and, uniquely, an arrow shaft and arrowhead in perfect preservation after 3,000 years. The expedition proved, for the first time, that some at least of the caves around Qumran had been inhabited -not just used as temporary refuges during brief periods of danger, but occupied on a more permanent basis.

The second expedition endeavored to explore as much as possible of the Dead Sea coast south of Qumran and the adjacent cliff-face. The purpose of this undertaking was to compile an inventory of all hitherto unexplored caves that might warrant subsequent exhaustive excavation. Dividing itself into small teams, the expedition searched some thirteen miles of cliff, rising precipitously as high as 1,200 feet.

 

Apart from caves, there were found the remains of artificial terraces and walls, of constructions for water control and irrigation - all attesting to human inhabitation and cultivation. Altogether, 137 habitable caves were located and subjected to preliminary examination without excavation. Of these, 83 were deemed worthy of systematic excavation: they will become the focus of future archaeological activity.

Of particular and revolutionary importance to any such activity will be a new system of 'high-tech' ground radar known as 'Subsurface Interface Radar' (SIR). We had been discussing with Eisenman the likelihood of there being other caves in the vicinity of Qumran and along the shore of the Dead Sea, as well as of caves, rooms, cellars, passages and/or other subterranean structures under the ruins of Qumran itself.

 

De Vaux, the only person to attempt any excavation of the actual site, never looked for anything of the sort, never really probed beneath the surface. Yet it is virtually unknown for a construction of the kind attested to by the Qumran ruins not to have underground chambers, passages, dungeons or escape tunnels. It is generally acknowledged that something of the sort must indeed exist. But some fairly major excavations would be necessary, involving much trial and error and probably damage to the site.

The prospect, therefore, of finding anything under Qumran seemed, a priori, doomed in advance by the magnitude of what would have been entailed. But in the autumn of 1988 we chanced on a newspaper article about a 'secret burial vault' of possible relevance to Shakespearean scholars, found under a church near Stratford-on-Avon.

 

What interested us about this article was the fact that the vault had apparently been located by a species of underground radar scanning system, operated by a firm based in the south of England.

The possibilities offered by SIR proved exciting indeed. It was a terrestrial equivalent of a ship-based sonar recording system. The apparatus was portable. When moved at a constant speed over the ground, it produced a computer-generated image of subterranean features. The image in turn was produced through the building up of a profile of 'interfaces' - that is, points at which earth or rock or any other substance of density and solidity gave way to air. The entire system was thus ideal for locating underground caves and cavities. At the very least, it would register interfaces 30 feet below the surface. Under good conditions, it could penetrate as deep as 120 feet.

The manager of the company that operated the radar proved keen to help. He had, it transpired, read and enjoyed the books we had previously published. The prospect of his equipment being employed at Qumran intrigued him. He even offered to come along on an expedition and operate the apparatus himself. As a result of this offer, Eisenman's 1990 expedition made a special point of noting sites warranting investigation by radar.

 

We are now waiting for permission from the Israeli government to bring the equipment into the country and employ it at Qumran.

The Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1947 were not the first such ancient texts to come to light in the Judaean desert. Indeed, there are reports of such texts being found as early as the 3rd century AD. The theologian Origen, one of the early Church Fathers, is alleged to have made one such discovery. According to the Church historian Eusebius, Origen found several different versions of Old Testament texts, some of which had been lost for many years.

 

He is said to have 'hunted them out of their hiding places and brought them to light'.2 One version of the psalms, we are told, 'was found at Jericho in a jar during the reign of Antoninus, Son of Severus'.3 This reference allows us to date the discovery to somewhere between AD 211 and 217.

More intriguing still is a letter dating from some time shortly before AD 805, written by Timotheus, Patriarch of Seleucia, to another ecclesiastic:

We learned from trustworthy Jews who were being instructed... in the Christian faith that ten
years ago, near Jericho, some books were found in a cave... the dog of an Arab hunter followed
an animal into a cave and didn't return. The Arab went in after it and found a small cave in which
there were many books. The Arab went to Jerusalem and told the Jews there who then came out
in large numbers and found books of the Old Testament and other books in Hebrew characters.

As the person who told this story to me was a learned man... I asked him about the many
references in the New Testament which are referred to as originating in the Old Testament but
which cannot be found there... He said: they exist and can be found in the books from the cave...4

Similar discoveries have continued to occur through the centuries, up until modern times. One of the most famous is that of Moses William Shapira, an antique dealer with a shop in Jerusalem in the late 19th century.5

 

In 1878, Shapira was told of some Arabs who, on the run from the authorities, had sought refuge in what is now Jordanian territory, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. Here, in a cave at Wadi Mujib, directly across the Dead Sea from En Gedi, they were reported to have found a number of old bundles of rags which they tore open, hoping to find valuables of some kind. They found only a number of dark leather scrolls. One of the Arabs took these away with him and later claimed that possession of them had brought him luck.

 

This was said to be his reason for not wanting to sell them or for raising the price.

Shapira, who sold antiquities to European collectors and museums, was intrigued. Through a sheik with whom he was friendly, he managed to purchase what purported to be the entire corpus of material. This comprised fifteen strips of parchment, each about three-and-a-half by seven inches in size. After studying his acquisition for some weeks, Shapira realized that what he had was an ancient version of the Book of Deuteronomy, one which differed markedly from the established biblical text.

In 1883, after a number of vicissitudes and consultations with experts, Shapira brought his scroll fragments to London. He was preceded by great excitement and extensive coverage in the press. British experts pronounced the fragments genuine, and translations of them were published in The Times. The Prime Minister, William Gladstone, came to see them and discussed their possible purchase with Shapira. A sum of 1 million was apparently mentioned - a staggering figure for the time.

The French government sent a prominent scholar, one of Shapira's old enemies, across the Channel to examine the fragments and compile a report. Shapira refused to let the Frenchman inspect the fragments closely or to handle them. The Frenchman was allowed only a cursory look at two or three fragments. He was then reduced, by Shapira's intransigence, to spending two days looking at two additional fragments on display in a glass case, jostled by other visitors to the museum.

 

Out of spite, and a probably justified exasperation, the Frenchman at last pronounced the fragments to be forgeries. Other scholars, without even bothering to look at the fragments, echoed this conclusion, and the affair quickly degenerated into farce. Shapira had effectively ruined himself. Repudiated and discredited, he shot himself in a Rotterdam hotel room on 9 March 1884.

 

His scroll fragments were purchased by a London antiquarian book-dealer for 10 5s.

Since then, they have disappeared - though they might conceivably still turn up in someone's attic or among the belongings of some private collector. According to the last attempt to trace them, they may have been taken to Australia with the effects of a dealer in antiquities.

A number of modern authorities - including Allegro, who made a special study of Shapira have become convinced that Shapira's fragments were probably genuine. Had they been discovered this century rather than last, Allegro maintained, they would in all likelihood have proved to be as valid as the material found at Qum-ran.6 But in the late 19th century, egos, scholarly reputations and vested interests were as much 'on the line' as they are today. As a result, something of potentially priceless value has, almost certainly, been irretrievably lost.

At the same time, discoveries such as Shapira's continue to be made. Thus, for example, in the late 1970s, when we ourselves had little more than a cursory knowledge of the Dead Sea Scrolls and other such documents, we were telephoned by a friend from Paris, a collector of antiques. He asked if, on virtually no notice, we could meet him at a restaurant in London, not far from Charing Cross. Michael Baigent, who'd done much professional photography, was particularly requested. He was asked to bring a camera along - and keep it hidden.

Baigent found our associate in the company of three other men - an American collector, a Palestinian dealer and a Jordanian engineer. He accompanied them to a nearby bank, where they were ushered into a small private room and two wooden chests were produced, each locked with three padlocks. 'We don't know what's in these chests,' one of the bank's officials said pointedly.

'We don't want to know what's in them.'

The officials then left, locking Baigent and his four companions in the room.

A telephone call was made to Jerusalem and some sort of permission was obtained. The Jordanian engineer then produced a bunch of keys and proceeded to open the two chests. Inside, there were literally hundreds of thin cardboard sheets, each holding (attached by adhesive tape!) a dozen or so fragments of ancient parchment and/or papyrus.

 

The fragments obviously spanned a considerable period of time, derived from a number of diverse sources and had been inscribed in several different languages -Aramaic, for example, Hebrew, Greek and Arabic. As might be expected of so eclectic and haphazard an assemblage, not everything was of value. Many of the fragments proved subsequently to be worthless - receipts and documents pertaining to ancient commercial transactions that might have been ferreted out of some archaic rubbish tip.

 

But there were others as well.

The collection had come to London through the clandestine scroll market active in Jerusalem and Bethlehem during the 1950s and 1960s, and had been brought out of Israel during, or shortly after, the 1967 war. It was now supposedly being offered for sale to a certain unnamed European government, for an alleged price of 3 million.

 

Baigent was asked to make a selection of photographs, to be displayed as samples of what was available. He took approximately a hundred photographs. But there were hundreds of sheets and, altogether, upwards of two thousand fragments, most of them relatively large.

In the dozen or so years since this incident, we have heard nothing further about the collection. If a sale was indeed negotiated, it was done so quietly, with no public announcement of any kind. Alternatively, the entire collection may still be sequestered in its London bank, or in some other similar depository elsewhere, or amongst the treasures of some private dealer.

Transactions such as the one to which we'd been peripherally privy were not, we subsequently learned, at all uncommon. During the course of the next decade, our research was to bring us into contact with an intricate network of antique dealers and collectors engaged in subterranean scroll traffic. This network is international and deals on a scale comparable to that of networks trafficking in paintings or gems.

 

Hundreds of thousands of pounds can be produced on virtually immediate notice and be transferred on the basis of a handshake.

Two factors have conducted to the dissemination of the underground scroll market. One was the action of Yadin and the Israeli military in the immediate aftermath of the 1967 war, when the dealer known as Kando was held for interrogation and forced to divulge the existence of the 'Temple Scroll'. Not surprisingly, this action upset the existing 'truce' and fostered a profound mistrust between Israeli and Arab dealers.

 

As a result, much material found by the Bedouin, which would ordinarily have passed into Israeli hands, now finds its way illegally to Amman or Damascus or even further afield. From there, it passes to the West via such routes as Turkey or the Lebanon.

A second spur to the subterranean scroll market was a law instituted under the auspices of UNESCO, according to which any antiquities smuggled out of a country must be returned to their point of origin. This law was made retroactive. In consequence, individuals who had invested large sums in scroll material, or hoped to obtain large sums for scroll material, could not afford to make their holdings public. In effect, the law drove the clandestine traffic in scrolls even further underground and, of course, caused a dramatic increase in prices.

How does the underground scroll trade operate?

 

Much of it is controlled by certain families well known in the antique trade, who supply many of the legal antiquities on sale in Israel and abroad. During the course of the last half-century, these families have established their own intelligence networks, which maintain close contacts with the Bedouin and keep abreast of all rumors, whispers, legends and reported discoveries of antiquarian interest.

 

When a potentially fruitful site is located, the land will be rented for a year and a large black Bedouin tent - ostensibly a domicile -will be erected. At night, excavations will be conducted under the tent. When all antiquities of value have been removed, the tent will be dismantled and its occupants will move on. A similar process occurs in towns, and particularly in Jerusalem, which has proved especially fertile territory. Sites will be rented for short periods or, if necessary, purchased. If a house does not already exist, one will be constructed.

 

The occupants will then excavate downwards from the cellar to bedrock.

Through such procedures as these, much scroll material has found its way into the hands of private collectors and investors. This material entirely circumvents the world of 'official' archaeology and biblical scholarship. Indeed, the world of 'official' archaeology and biblical scholarship often does not even realise it exists. Unknown to the academics, there is at present a substantial quantity of Qumran and related material in the hands of collectors or for sale. We ourselves know of numerous fragments.

 

We know of a well-preserved copy of one Qumran text, called the 'Book of Jubilees'. We know of a handful of letters by Simeon bar Kochba. And there are substantial grounds for believing that other documents - documents of a much more explosive nature, utterly unique and undreamed of by the world of scholarship also exist.

In the course of the next few years, major developments can be expected from any or all of three distinct quarters. The most obvious of these, needless to say, is the Qumran material itself. Now that the entire corpus of this material is readily accessible, independent scholars, without preconceptions, without axes to grind and vested interests to protect, can get to work.

 

The international team's 'orthodoxy of interpretation' has already begun to come under attack; and as this book has demonstrated, the supposed archaeological and paleographical evidence with which they support their position will not withstand close scrutiny. In consequence, we can expect a radical revision of the process whereby dates have been assigned to a number of particularly important texts. As a result, new contexts and interpretations will emerge for already familiar material.

 

And new material will emerge in perspectives that would have been cursorily and high-handedly dismissed a few years ago.

At the same time, there is also the possibility, enhanced by each new archaeological expedition Eisenman and his colleagues undertake to Qumran and the shores of the Dead Sea, that wholly new material may come to light. This possibility will be further enhanced - now that the Israeli government has granted permission for its use - by deployment of the 'Subsurface Interface Radar' system.

Finally, there is the clandestine scroll market, which may at any moment cough up something of unprecedented consequence -something hitherto kept secret, at last released into public domain. As we have said, such material exists. The question is simply if and when those who hold it decide it can be divulged.

Whatever the quarter or quarters from which new material might issue, fresh and, in some cases, very major revelations are bound to be forthcoming. As this occurs, we can expect ever more light to be shed on biblical history, on the character of ancient Judaism, on the origins of both Christianity and Islam. One should not, of course, expect a disclosure of such magnitude as to 'topple the Church', or anything as apocalyptic as that.

 

The Church today, after all, is less a religious than a social, cultural, political and economic institution. Its stability and security rest on factors quite remote from the creed, the doctrine and the dogma it promulgates. But some people, at any rate, may be prompted to wonder whether the Church - an institution so demonstrably lax, biased and unreliable in its own scholarship, its own version of its history and origins should necessarily be deemed reliable and authoritative in its approach to such urgent contemporary matters as overpopulation, birth control, the status of women and the celibacy of the clergy.

Ultimately, however, the import of the Qumran texts resides in something more than their potential to embarrass the Church. The real import of the Qumran texts resides in what they have to reveal of the Holy Land, that soil which, for so many centuries, has voraciously soaked up so much human blood blood shed in the name of conflicting gods or, to be more accurate, not very dissimilar versions of the same God.

 

Perhaps the documents yet to be divulged may confront us a little more inescapably with the scale and pointlessness of our own madness - and shame us, thereby, at least by a degree or so, in the general direction of sanity. The Dead Sea Scrolls offer a new perspective on the three great religions born in the Middle East.

 

The more one examines those religions, the more one will discern not how much they differ, but how much they overlap and have in common - how much they derive from essentially the same source - and the extent to which most of the quarrels between them, when not precipitated by simple misunderstanding, have stemmed less from spiritual values than from politics, from greed, from selfishness and the presumptuous arrogance of interpretation. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are all, at present, beset by a resurgent fundamentalism.

 

One would like to believe though this may be too much to hope for that greater understanding of their common roots might help curb the prejudice, the bigotry, the intolerance and fanaticism to which fundamentalism is chronically prone.

17 January 1991 - 13 October 1991

Back to Contents




Notes and References


Note

The full bibliographical details, when not cited here, are to be found in the Bibliography.

Preface

1 Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p.xvi.

1 The Discovery of the Scrolls

1 The true story of the discovery will probably never be known. All the various accounts differ in certain details. Arguments over the correct sequence of events continued into the 1960s. For the different accounts, see: Allegro, The Dead Sea Scrolls, pp.l7ff; Brownlee, 'Muhammad Ed-Deeb's own Story of his Scroll Discovery', pp. 236ff; 'Edh-Dheeb's Story of his Scroll Discovery', pp.483ff; 'Some New Facts Concerning the Discovery of the Scrolls of 1Q', pp.417ff; Harding, The Times, 9 August 1949, p. 5; Samuel, 'The Purchase of the Jerusalem Scrolls', pp.26ff; Treasure of Qumran, pp.l42ff; Trever, 'When was Qumran Cave 1 Discovered?', pp.l35ff; The Untold Story of Qumran, pp.25ff; Wilson, The Dead Sea Scrolls 1947-1969, pp.3ff.

2 See, for example, Brownlee, op. cit., p.486, and n.6; Allegro, op. cit., p.20.

3 Wilson, op. cit,, p.4.

4 Van der Ploeg, The Excavations at Qumran, pp. 9-13.

5 Interviews, Miles Copeland, 10 April and 1 May 1990. A search of CIA archives requested under the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act has failed to locate the photographs.

6 Interview, 21 May 1990.

7 Yadin, The Message of the Scrolls, pp. 15-24, quoting Sukenik's private journal.

8 Ibid., p. 14.

9 Trever, The Untold Story ofQumran, p.85.

10 Time Magazine, 15 April 1957, p.39.

11 Allegro, op. cit., pp.38-9.

12 Ibid., p.41.

13 Pliny, Natural History, V, xv.

14 De Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls, pp. 134-5.

15 Reports of this survey can be found in the following: de Vaux, 'Exploration de la region de Qumran', pp.540ff.; Reed, 'The Qumran Caves Expedition of March 1952', pp.8ff.

16 Ibid.

17 Allegro, The Treasure of the Copper Scroll, p.35.

18 Time Magazine, op. cit., p.38.

19 Yadin, op. cit., p.40.

20 Ibid., pp.41-52.

21 Sharon to Eisenman, 16 January 1990.

2 The International Team

1 Pryce-Jones, 'A New Chapter in the History of Christ?', p,12ff.

2 Ibid., p. 14.

3 Ibid.

4 Pryce-Jones to authors, 11 January 1990.

5 Interview, Magen Broshi, 12 November 1989.

6 Interview, Frank Cross, 18 May 1990.

7 Private communication.

8 Interview, Abraham Biran, 4 December 1989.

9 Interview, James Robinson, 3 November 1989.

10 North, 'Qumran and its Archaeology', p.429.

11 Interview, Norman Golb, 1 November 1989.

12 Interview, Shemaryahu Talmon, 8 November 1989.

13 Time Magazine, 14 August 1989, p.44.

14 BAR, May/June 1989, p.57; September/October 1989, p.20.

15 Interview, James Robinson, 3 November 1989.

16 See Robinson, 'The Jung Codex: the Rise and Fall of a Monopoly'; see also Robinson, 'Getting the Nag Hammadi Library into English'.

17 A total of three volumes of Discoveries in the Judaean Desert dealing with the Cave 4 fragments have been published to date. There remain, so far as the projected publication schedule is concerned, fifteen further volumes dealing with Cave 4 texts and one more of Cave 11.

18 New York Times, 26 June 1989, p.B4.

19 BAR, September/October 1985, p.6.

20 Ibid., p.66. The magazine adds: 'Obviously, the existence of this factor is controversial and disputed.'

21 Ibid., p.66.

22 New York Times, op. cit., pp.Bl, B4.

23 The Chronicle of Higher Education, 5 July 1989, p.A7.

24 Cross, The Ancient Library of Qumran, p.30.

25 Allegro, The Dead Sea Scrolls, p.50.

26 This letter and many following are to be found in the private correspondence file of John Allegro's papers.

3 The Scandal of the Scrolls

1 Wilson, The Dead Sea Scrolls 1947-1969, p. 77.

2 Ibid., pp.97-8.

3 Ibid., p.97.

4 Interview, Philip Davies, 10 October 1989.

5 There was, however, one 'rash' statement made by Wilson which, for the record, should be dismissed. De Vaux told Wilson a story of events during the Six Day War, when, according to Wilson's report, the Israeli troops, upon entering the grounds of the Ecole Biblique on 6 June 1967, sat priests, two at a time, as hostages in the open courtyard. The threat was that they should be shot if any sniper fire should come from the buildings of the Ecole or the associated Monastery of St Stephen. See Wilson, op. cit., p.259. Interviews in Israel have indicated that this event did not take place but was a tale foisted upon Wilson by de Vaux. Wilson did not apparently check this statement with any Israeli sources.

6 Interview, Shemaryahu Talmon, 8 November 1989.

7 Given to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres on 26 May 1950. Reported in Le Monde, 28-9 May 1950, p.4.

8 Brownlee, 'The Servant of the Lord in the Qumran Scrolls I', p.9.

9 Allegro to Strugnell, in a letter undated but written between 14 and 31 December 1955.

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid.

12 New York Times, 5 February 1956, p.2.

13 Ibid.

14 The Times, 8 February 1956, p.8.

15 Allegro to de Vaux, 9 February 1956.

16 Allegro to de Vaux, 20 February 1956.

17 Ibid.

18 Allegro to de Vaux, 7 March 1956.

19 Ibid.

20 Allegro to Cross, 6 March 1956.

21 The Times, 16 March 1956, p. 11.

22 The Times, 20 March 1956, p. 13.

23 Ibid.

24 Allegro to Strugnell, 8 March 1957.

25 Smyth, 'The Truth about the Dead Sea Scrolls', p.33.

26 Ibid., p.34.

27 Allegro to Claus-Hunno Hunzinger, 23 April 1956.

28 Harding to Allegro, 28 May 1956.

29 The Times, 1 June 1956, p. 12.

30 Allegro to Harding, 5 June 1956.

31 Ibid.

32 Ibid.

33 Allegro to Cross, 5 August 1956.

34 Allegro to de Vaux, 16 September 1956.

35 Allegro to team member (name withheld), 14 September 1959.

36 Team member (name withheld) to Allegro, 21 October 1959.

37 Allegro to de Vaux, 16 September 1956.

38 Ibid.

39 Allegro to Cross, 31 October 1957.

40 Ibid.

41 Allegro to James Muilenburg, 31 October 1957.

42 Allegro to Muilenburg, 24 December 1957.

43 Ibid.

44 Allegro to Dajani, 10 January 1959.

45 Ibid.

46 The Times, 23 May 1970, p.22.

47 The Times, 19 May 1970, p.2.

48 The Times, 26 May 1970, p.9.

49 The Daily Telegraph, 18 May 1987, p.ll.

50 The Times, 5 October 1970, p.4.

51 Wilson, op. cit., p. 125.

52 Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective, pp. 23-4.

53 Times Literary Supplement, 3 May 1985, p.502.

54 Ibid.

55 Eisenman has pointed to mention of 'the Poor' in the War Scroll; see Eisenman, op. cit., p.43, n.23; p.62, n.105. This text states that the Messiah will lead 'the Poor' to victory against the armies of Belial (The War Scroll, XI,14 (Vermes, p.116 - Vermes for his own reasons translates 'Belial' as 'Satan') ). For a more detailed discussion, see Eisenman, 'Eschatological "Rain" Imagery in the War Scroll from Qumran and in the Letter ofjames', p. 182.

56 Interview, Emile Puech, 7 November 1989.

57 BAR, March/April 1990, p. 24. This fragment is coded 4Q246 and was first found and privately translated by the scholars in 1958.

58 Ibid.

4 Opposing the Consensus

1 The Times, 23 August 1949, p.5.

2 Ibid.

3 Jean Carmignac, review of Roth, The Historical Background of the Dead Sea Scrolls. See Revue de Qumran, no.3, 1959 (vol.i, 1958-9), p.447.

4 De Vaux made this assertion in 'Fouilles au Khirbet Qumran', Revue biblique, vol.lxi (1954), p.233. He repeated it in his 'Fouilles de Khirbet Qumran', Revue biblique, vol.lxiii (1956), p.567, and in 'Les manuscrits de Qumran et l'archeologie', Revue biblique, vol.lxvi (1959), p. 100.

5 Roth, 'Did Vespasian Capture Qumran?', Palestine Exploration Quarterly, July-December 1959, pp.l22ff.

6 Driver, The Judaean Scrolls, p.3.

7 De Vaux, review of Driver, The Judaean Scrolls. See New Testament Studies, vol.xiii (1966-7), p. 97.

8 Ibid., p. 104.

9 Albright, in M. Black, ed. The Scrolls and Christianity, p. 15.

10 Eisenman to authors, 13 June 1990.

11 Eisenman to authors, 27 September 1989.

12 BAR, September/October 1985, p.66.

13 Ibid., p.6.

14 Ibid., p.66.

15 Ibid., p.70. BAR first called for the publication of the unpublished scrolls in May 1985.

16 Ibid.

17 Benoit to Cross, Milik, Starcky and Puech, Strugnell, E. Ulrich, Avi (sic) Eitan, 15 September 1985.

18 Eitan to Benoit, 26 December 1985.

19 Interview, Yuval Ne'eman, 16 January 1990.

20 Ibid.

21 Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p.xvi.

22 Eisenman to authors, 5 July 1990.

23 It is called 'MMT' from the first letters of three Hebrew words occurring in the opening line: Miqsat Ma'aseh ha-Torah, 'Some rulings upon the Law'. The text essentially gives the position of the Qumran community on a selection of rules from the Torah.

24 Catalogue of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 07/04/81.

25 Eisenman to authors, 15 September 1990.

26 A copy of this timetable was published in BAR, July/August 1989, p.20. Mrs Ayala Sussman of the Israeli Department of Antiquities confirmed for us that this was the timetable. Interview with Ayala Sussman, 7 November 1989.

27 Letter, Eisenman and Davies to Strugnell, 16 March 1989.

28 Letter, Eisenman and Davies to Drori, 2 May 1989.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Letter, Strugnell to Eisenman, 15 May 1989.

32 BAR, September/October 1989, p.20.

33 Letter, Strugnell to Eisenman, 15 May 1989.

34 Davies, 'How not to do Archaeology: The Story of Qumran', pp.203-4.

5 Academic Politics and Bureaucratic Inertia

1 Florentino Garcia-Martinez to Eisenman, 4 October 1989.

2 New York Times, 9 July 1989, p.E26.

3 BAR, May/June 1990, p.67.

4 BAR, July/August 1990, p.44.

5 BAR, July/August 1989, p. 18.

6 BAR, November/December 1989, p.74.

7 BAR, July/August 1989, p. 18.

8 Ibid., p. 19.

9 Los Angeles Times, 1 July 1989, Part II, pp.20-21.

10 International Herald Tribune, 16 November 1989, p.2.

11 BAR, July/August 1990, p.47.

12 Time Magazine, 14 August 1989, p.44.

13 BAR, March/April 1990, cover.

14 BAR, July/August 1990, p.6.

15 Interview, Ayala Sussman, 7 November 1989.

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid.

18 Interview, Shemaryahu Talmon, 8 November 1989.

19 Ibid.

20 Ibid.

21 Interview, Shemaryahu Talmon, 9 November 1989.

22 Interview, Jonas Greenfield, 9 November 1989.

23 Conversation with Ayala Sussman, 10 November 1989.

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid.

26 Interview, Hilary Feldman, 4 December 1989.

27 Ibid.

6 The Onslaught of Science

1 Letter, Allegro to Muilenburg, 24 December 1957.

2 Letter, Strugnell to Allegro, 3 January 1956.

3 Wilson, The Dead Sea Scrolls 1947-i969, p. 138.

4 Allegro's suspicions about the international team were raised during his summer at the 'Scrollery' in 1957. They crystallised during the debacle of his television programme, the filming of which took place in Jerusalem, Qumran and Amman in October 1957. He planned to try to break up the international team and open the scrolls to all qualified scholars. Then, in a letter to Awni Dajani (curator of the Palestine Archaeological Museum) dated 10 January 1959, Allegro wrote: 'I think it would be a ripe opportunity to take over the whole Museum, scrolls and all...' Allegro returned to this theme in September 1966. On 13 September of that year he wrote to Awni Dajani saying that he was very concerned about the situation and that the Jordanian government should act. It is clear, though, from a letter of 16 September 1966 (to Joseph Saad), that Allegro had been told that the Jordanian government was planning to nationalise the museum at the end of the year. Allegro then began a series of letters regarding the preservation of the scrolls and ideas for raising funds for research and publication. Then, as adviser on the scrolls to the Jordanian government, he produced a report on the present state and the future of scroll research which he sent to King Hussein on 21 September 1966. The same day he also sent a copy of the report to the Jordanian Prime Minister. The Jordanian government nationalised the museum in November 1966.

5 BAR, July/August 1990, p.6.

6 Interview, Philip Davies, 10 October 1989.

7 Interview, Norman Golb, 1 November 1989.

8 Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement, 1887, p. 16.

9 De Rosa, Vicars of Christ, p. 179.

10 For a detailed account of the personal and political machinations which lay behind the promulgation of this dogma, see Hasler, How the Pope became Infallible.

11 Ibid., p.246.

12 Fogazzaro, The Saint, p.242.

13 Schroeder, Pere Lagrange and Biblical Inspiration, p. 13, n.7.

14 Ibid., p. 15.

15 Letter, Allegro to Cross, 5 August 1956.

16 Murphy, Lagrange and Biblical Renewal, p.60.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid., p.62.

19 Ibid., p.64.

20 Ibid.

21 Ibid., 61-2.

22 De Vaux to Golb, 26 March 1970.

23 Interview, Norman Golb, 1 November 1989.

24 BAR, July/August 1990, p.45.

25 BAR, January/February 1990, p. 10.

26 Jerusalem Post Magazine, 29 September 1989, p. 11.

7 The Inquisition Today

1 New Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol.xi, p.551.

2 Ibid.

3 Annuario pontificio, 1989, p. 1187.

4 Annuario pontificio, 1956, p.978.

5 Annuario pontificio, 1973, p. 1036.

6 Annuario pontificio, 1988, p. 1139.

7 New Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol.xi, p.551.

8 Benjamin Wambacq, 'The Historical Truth of the Gospels', The Tablet, 30 May 1964, p.619.

9 Ibid.

10 Hebblethwaite, Synod Extraordinary, p. 54. According to Pope John Paul II, 'the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has no other purpose than to preserve from all danger... the authenticity and integrity of... faith'; see Hebblethwaite, In the Vatican, p.90.

11 Annuario pontificio, 1969, pp.967, 1080.

12 Schillebeeckx argues that the 'apostolic right' - the rights of the local leaders of Church communities - 'has priority over the Church order which has in fact grown up'. See Ministry: A Case for Change, p.37.

13 Kung, Infallible? An Enquiry, p. 196.

14 Ibid., p. 102.

15 Ibid., p.18.

16 Kung, 'The Fallibility of Pope John Paul II', Observer, 23 December 1979, p. 11.

17 Ibid.

18 Sunday Times, 2 December 1984, p. 13.

19 Ibid.

20 Observer, 27 May 1990, p.l.

21 Independent, 27 June 1990, p. 10.

22 The Times, 27 June 1990, p. 9.

8 The Dilemma for Christian Orthodoxy

1 The Community Rule, III, 7ff. (Vermes, p.64). (As Vermes's translations of the Dead Sea Scroll texts are the easiest to obtain for the English speaking reader, page references to his work will be added.)

2 Acts, 2:44-6.

3 The Community Rule, I, llff. (Vermes, p.62).

4 Ibid., VI, 2-3 (Vermes, p.69).

5 Ibid., VI, 22-3 (Vermes, p.70).

6 Eisenman, in James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, p.32, n.16, draws important parallels between the ruling council of Qumran and that of the 'early Church' in Jerusalem, under James.

7 The Commentary on Psalm 37, HI, 11 (Vermes, p.291). See also Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p. 108 (Ebion/ Ebionim), and pp.xiv, xvi, and 62-3.

8 The War Scroll, XIV, 7 (Vermes, p. 120).

9 The Community Rule, VIII, 21 (Vermes, p.73). See also Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p.42, n.21; pp. 89-90; p. 109 for Tamimei-Derech.

10 The Community Rule, X, 21-2 (Vermes, p. 77).

11 The Community Rule, VIII, 7 (Vermes, p.72). See also Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p.80.

12 The Community Rule, I, 1 (Vermes, p.61-2).

13 The Habakkuk Commentary, VIII, 2-3 (Vermes, p.287). See also Eisenman, James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, pp.3740.

14 The Community Rule, I, 2-3 (Vermes, pp.61-2).

15 The Community Rule, VIII, 22ff. (Vermes, p.73). See also Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p.xii.

16 The Community Rule, II, 19 (Vermes, p.63).

17 Driver, The Judaean Scrolls, pp.316-30; Talmon, The World of Qumranfrom Within, pp.147-85.

18 The Community Rule, VI, 4-6 (Vermes, p.69).

19 The Messianic Rule, II, 20-21 (Vermes, p. 102).

20 Danielou, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Primitive Christianity, p.27.

9 The Scrolls

1 Newsweek, 27 February 1989, p. 55.

2 The Community Rule, VII, 3 (Vermes, p.71; Vermes gives the words: 'whoever has deliberately lied'; these words do not exist in the Hebrew original, which reads 'if he has spoken unwittingly').

3 Ibid, I, 16ff. (Vermes, p. 62).

4 Ibid., Ill, 6ff. (Vermes, pp.64).

5 Ibid., V, 9 (Vermes, p.67).

6 Ibid., IX, 23 (Vermes, p.75; translated by Vermes as 'zealous for the Precept', which tends to obscure this important phrase).

7 Ibid, VI, 16ff. (Vermes, p.71).

8 Ibid., VIII, 3ff. (Vermes, p.72). See also Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p.42, n.21; for a detailed discussion, see James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, p. 8.

9 The Community Rule, IX, 11 (Vermes, p.74).

10 The War Scroll, VI, 7 (Vermes, p.Ill; Vermes calls this document 'The War Rule').

11 Ibid., XI, 7 (Vermes, p. 116; Vermes translates 'Messiah' as 'Thine anointed' which obscures the import of this passage). See also Eisenman, 'Eschatological "Rain" Imagery in the War Scroll from Qumran and in the Letter of James', pp. 180-82.

12 The Temple Scroll, LXVI, lOff. (Vermes, p. 158). See also Eisenman's appendix to James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, entitled 'The "Three Nets of Belial" in the Zadokite Document and "balla/BELA" in the Temple Scroll', pp.87-94.

13 Eisenman, ibid., p.89.

14 Ibid., demonstrating the niece-marriage connection to Herodians.

15 Parts of eight copies of the 'Damascus Document' were found in Cave 4, parts of another in Cave 5 and one more in Cave 6.

16 Eisenman, appendix to James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, 'The "Three Nets of Belial" in the Zadokite Document and "balla/bela" in the Temple Scroll', pp.87-94.

17 The Damascus Document, VIII, 21-21b (Vermes, p.90). (All line numbers for this document are from the edition of C. Rabin.)

18 Ibid., XX, 15 (Vermes, p.90).

19 Ibid., MS 'A', VII, 18-20 (Vermes, p.89).

20 Ibid., VII, 21a (Vermes, p.88); XX, 1 (Vermes, p.90); XII, 23 (Vermes, p.97); XIII, 20 (Vermes, p.98); XIV, 19 (Vermes, p.99).

21 See Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p. 68, n.120; p.69, n.122.

22 Ibid., p.42, n.19. In addition to the documents we have mentioned, reference to the 'Liar' or to those who reject the Law can be found in the Psalm 37 Commentary and other Qumran texts.

23 Ibid., p.xv.

24 Josephus, The Jewish Wars, VI, vi. See also Driver, The Judaean Scrolls, pp. 211-14; Eisenman, James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, p.27.

10 Science in the Service of Faith

1 See, for example, Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, pp.29, 31; de Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls, pp.116-17.

2 Driver, The Judaean Scrolls, p.211.

3 De Vaux, in New Testament Studies, vol.xiii (1966-7), p.91.

4 Ibid., p.93.

5 Ibid.

6 Eisenman, in Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, exposes de Vaux's treatment of Driver; see p.47, n.47; p.56, n.92; p.57, n.93; p.72, n.129; p.83 (n.155).

7 North, 'Qumran and its Archaeology', p.434.

8 A British architect with previous experience of repairing earthquake-damaged buildings was in charge of the reconstruction of the Qumran ruins for the Jordanian government prior to the war of 1967. He stated that there was no evidence that the Qumran buildings were damaged by earthquake and gave, as his opinion, that the crack in the cistern was caused by the weight of water coupled with faulty construction or repair. See Steckoll, 'Marginal Notes on the Qumran Excavations', p.34.

 

9 Callaway, The History of the Qumran Community, p.45.

10 Milik, Ten Years of Discovery in the Wilderness of Judaea, p. 52.

11 De Vaux, 'Fouilles au Khirbet Qumran', p.233. This article appeared in 1954.

12 De Vaux, in New Testament Studies, vol.xiii (1966-7), p. 104.

13 De Vaux, 'Les Manuscrits de Qumran et l'archeologie', p. 100.

14 Cross, The Ancient Library of Qumran, p.47.

15 Roth, 'Did Vespasian capture Qumran?', p. 124.

16 De Vaux, L'archeologie et les manuscrits de la mer morte, p.32, n.l; Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls, p.40, n.l. In addition, it is worth noting that in the absence of any complete publication of de Vaux's excavation results certain doubts linger about all his coin discoveries. The Israeli coin expert Ya'acov Meshorer told Eisenman that neither he nor anyone else he knew had ever seen de Vaux's coins. Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p.93, n.173. See also p.94, n.175 for the so-called '10th Legion' coin.

17 De Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls, p.67.

18 Ibid., pp.19, 22, 34, 37, 44-5. It is difficult to be precise about the exact numbers of coins found and their identification until the long-delayed publication of de Vaux's final report on the excavation. The archaeological reports published in Revue biblique have, by de Vaux's own admission, been incorrect with regard to the coin identification. See ibid, p. 19, n.3.

19 Ibid., p. 109.

20 Eisenman, op. cit., p.34.

21 Ibid., p.92 (n.168).

22 De Vaux, op. cit., p.43.

23 Driver, op. cit., p.396.

24 Ibid., p.394.

25 De Vaux, in New Testament Studies, vol.xiii (1966-7), p.99, n.l.

26 Danielou, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Primitive Christianity, pp.1212.

27 De Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 28. See also Eisenman, op. cit., p.94, n.174.

28 Cross, op. cit., p.51.

29 Driver, op. cit., p.397.

30 Golb, 'The Dead Sea Scrolls', p. 182. In Science Times, 21 November 1989, p.C8, Golb said of Qumran, 'There's nothing to show it was anything but a fortress.'

31 Golb, 'The Problem of Origin and Identification of the Dead Sea Scrolls', p.5.

32 Cross, op. cit., pp.86-7.

33 Cross, 'The Development of the Jewish Scripts', in Wright, The Bible and the Ancient Near East, p. 135. See also Eisenman, op. cit., pp.28-31; p.82, n.155; p.84, n.156 and n.157; p.86, n.158 and n.159; p.87, n.l61;p.88, n.163.

34 Cross, ibid., p. 191, n.20.

35 Birnbaum, The Hebrew Scripts, p. 130. This was first pointed out by Eisenman, op. cit., p.85 (n.157).

36 Eisenman, op. cit., p.85 (n.157).

37 Davies, 'How Not to do Archaeology: the Story of Qumran', p. 206.

38 Eisenman, op. cit., p.29.

39 Ibid., p.30.

40 Eisenman to authors, 7 July 1990.

41 Roth, 'The Zealots and Qumran: The Basic Issue', p.84.

11 The Essenes

1 The main classical references to the Essenes are found in: Josephus, Life; The Jewish Wars, II, viii; Antiquities of the Jews, XVIII, i Philo Judaeus, Every Good Man is Free, XII-XIII; Hypothetica, 11 Pliny, Natural History, V, xv.

2 Josephus, The Jewish Wars, II, viii.

3 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XV, x.

4 Josephus, The Jewish Wars, II, viii.

5 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XV, x.

6 Ibid. This close relationship between the Essenes of Josephus' description and King Herod the Great was explored in detail in Eisenman, 'Confusions of Pharisees and Essenes in Josephus', a paper delivered to the Society of Biblical Literature Conference in New York, 1981.

7 Josephus, The Jewish Wars, II, viii.

8 Quoted by Dupont-Sommer, The Essene Writings from Qumran, p. 13.

9 Ibid.

10 Cross, The Ancient Library of Qumran, pp.37-8.

11 The standard elaboration of the consensus hypothesis is in de Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls, pp.3-45.

12 Josephus, The Jewish Wars, II, viii.

13 Philo Judaeus, Every Good Man is Free, XII.

14 De Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls, pp. 12-14.

15 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XV, x. See also on this, Eisenman, James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, p. 79.

16 Philo Judaeus, Every Good Man is Free, XII.

17 Cross, The Ancient Library of Qumran, p.51.

18 Philo Judaeus, Every Good Man is Free, XII.

19 Vermes, 'The Etymology of "Essenes" ', p.439. See also Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective, p. 126.

20 Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p. 6.

21 Ibid., p. 108 (Derech, 'the Way'; ma'aseh, 'works'/'acts'); p. 109 (Tamimei-Derech, 'the Perfect of the Way'; Tom-Derech, 'Perfection of the Way'). See also the discussion on p.41, n.17.

22 Ibid., p. 109.

23 Epiphanius of Constantia, Adversus octoginta haereses, I, i, Haeres xx (Migne, 41, col.273).

24 Eisenman, op. cit., p. 44, n.30.

25 Black, 'The Dead Sea Scrolls and Christian Origins', in Black, The Scrolls and Christianity, p. 99.

26 Eisenman, James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, p.99 (Nozrei ha-Brit).

27 Ibid., pp.vii-x.

28 The Habakkuk Commentary, XII, 7ff. (Vermes, p. 289).

12 The Acts of the Apostles

1 Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, pp. xiii, 46.

2 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XVIII, i. See also ibid., p.59, n.99.

3 Eisenman, op. cit., pp. 10-11, 22-3. For arguments regarding the 'Stephen' episode being a reworking of an attack upon James as recorded in the Recognitions of Clement (I, 70), see p.76, n.144, and also James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, p.4, n.ll; p.39.

4 Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadotites, Christians and Qumran, p. 41, n.17.

5 Ibid., p.68, n.120; p.69, n.122. Eisenman sees both 'Damascus' references as generically parallel.

6 The Community Rule, VI, 14-23 (Vermes, p.70). The sense is not entirely clear: this novitiate period was at least two years with the third year being the first of full membership; or, the novitiate itself took three years with the fourth year being the first of full membership. See Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, p. 7.

7 Eisenman, James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, pp. 30-32.

8 Eisenman points to the psychological attitude demonstrated in Paul's first letter to the Corinthians where he, among other precepts, explains the necessity of 'winning':

So though I am not a slave of any man I have made myself the slave of everyone so as to win as many as I could. I made myself a Jew to the Jews, to win the Jews ... To those who have no Law, I was free of the Law myself ... to win those who have no Law ... All the runners at the stadium are trying to win, but only one of them gets the prize. You must run in the same way, meaning to win. (1 Corinthians 9:19-27).

9 Eisenman, James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, pp. 30-32.

10 Ibid.; see also p.57, n.39 (where Eisenman reviews Paul's 'defamation of the Jerusalem leadership' in his letters).

11 The Damascus Document, XV, 12-14 (Vermes, p.92).

12 Acts 23:23 states unequivocally that there were 200 soldiers, 200 auxiliaries and 70 cavalry as the escort.

13 Eisenman, James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, p. 3.

13 James 'The Righteous'

1 While Acts never explicitly states that James is the 'leader' of the Jerusalem community, in Acts 15:13-21 and 21:18 he has a prominent role. The latter tellingly states that 'Paul went... to visit James, and all the elders were present'. This puts the elders in a subordinate position to James. Paul, in his letter to the Galatians (2:9), states: 'James, Cephas and John, these leaders, these pillars'. Later, this same letter (2:11-12) clearly shows that Cephas is subordinate to James (Cephas = Peter). John is barely mentioned in Acts after the introduction of Paul. Later Church writers specifically call James the leader of the early 'Christians'.

2 For example, James 2:10: 'if a man keeps the whole of the Law, except for one small point at which he fails, he is still guilty of breaking it all'. See Eisenman, James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher, p.2, n.6; p.21, n.l; p.25; p.58 (n.39).

3 In the Greek text it reads as here. Curiously, The Jerusalem Bible translated primarily by de Vaux and the members of the Ecole Biblique obscures the sense with the reading: 'It was you who condemned the innocent and killed them...'

4 Recognitions of Clement, I, 70.

5 Ibid.

6 Eisenman, when discussing this incident, notes that six weeks later, when in Caesarea, Peter mentions that James was still limping as a result of his injury. As Eisenman says, 'Details of this kind are startling in their intimacy and one should hesitate before simply dismissing them as artistic invention.' See Eisenman, op. cit, p.4, n.ll.

7 Recognitions of Clement, I, 71.

8 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XX, ix.

9 Eusebius, The History of the Church, 2, 1; 2, 23.

10 Ibid., 2, 1.

11 A number of the older monasteries in Spain have, since their foundation, systematically collected all available texts both orthodox and heretical. As these monasteries have never been plundered, their holdings remain intact. Unfortunately, access to their libraries is severely restricted.

12 Eusebius, op. cit., 2, 23.

13 Eisenman, op. cit., p.3.

14 Ibid.

15 Eusebius, op. cit., 2, 23.

16 Eisenman, op. cit., p. 10.

17 Eusebius, op. cit., 2, 23.

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid. See also Eisenman, op. cit., p.28, n.12; p.60, n.40 (referring to Origen, Contra celsum, 1.47; 2.13).

20 Herod Agrippa II.

21 Eisenman, op. cit., pp.63-5.

22 The Habakkuk Commentary, II, 2 (Vermes, p.284).

23 Ibid., II, 3-4 (Vermes, p.284).

24 Ibid., V, 11-12 (Vermes, p.285).

25 Ibid., X, 9-10 (Vermes, p.288).

26 Ibid., X, 11-12 (Vermes, p.288).

27 For a comprehensive review of Paul's sensitivity to the charge of lying, see Eisenman, op. cit., p.39, n.24.

28 Eisenman, op. cit., p.viii, points out the important difference between the 'Liar' and the 'Wicked Priest'. This distinction must be made before any historical sense can be made of the texts. The consensus position is that the 'Liar' and the 'Wicked Priest" are the same person. See Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, p.30.

29 The Habakkuk Commentary, IX, 2 (Vermes, p. 287). See Eisenman, op. cit., pp.50-51, where he explains that the passage would read more accurately as: 'they took vengeance upon the flesh of his corpse'. This relates the passage very closely to the known facts of Ananas' death. See also Eisenman, 'Interpreting "Arbeit Galuto" in the Habakkuk Pesher', which connects this phrase to the Sanhedrin trial of James.

30 The Habakkuk Commentary, XII, 7ff. (Vermes, p. 289).

31 Eisenman to authors, 22 August 1990.

32 The Habakkuk Commentary, VIII, Iff. (Vermes, p.287). See also Eisenman, op. cit., pp.37-9, for a discussion of this reference to 'faith'.

33 Eisenman, ibid.

14 Zeal for the Law

1 Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p. 44, n.30.

2 Ibid., p.6.

3 Ibid., p.8; p.45, n.36 (quoting Wernberg-Meller).

4 Ibid., p. 12; p.49, n.58; see also p.26.

5 Ibid., p. 12.

6 Ibid., p. 13; p.49, n.58. See Numbers 25:7ff. Mattathias invokes this covenant in his dying speech (1 Mace. 2:54): 'Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covenant of everlasting priesthood.' (Revised Standard Version)

7 Eisenman to authors, 29 August 1990.

8 Ibid., pp. 13-16; p.45, n.36.

9 Ibid., p.44, n.30.

10 Ibid., p. 10.

11 Ibid., p.90, n.164. This terminology of 'purist' and 'Herodian' Sadducees derives from Eisenman. The 'purist' Sadducees, or the 'Zealots', were, after 4 BC, 'Messianic' in their ideology. Hence Eisenman refines his terminology on occasion to speak of the post-4 BC groups rather as 'Messianic Sadducees' and 'Boethusian Sadducees' - the latter after Simon ben Boethus, whom Herod established as high priest. In our text, we have retained the simpler division into 'purist' and 'Herodian' groups. This approach provides the key to understanding the 'MMT' document.

12 Josephus, The Jewish Wars, II, i. See Eisenman, op. cit., pp.25-6.

13 Josephus, op. cit., II, iv.

14 Ibid., II, viii.

15 Eisenman, op. cit., p.53, n.79; p.75, n.140.

16 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XVIII, i.

17 Ibid., XVII, x.

18 Josephus, The Jewish Wars, II, xvii.

19 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XVIII, i.

20 This material received an early public airing in a paper given by Eisenman to the Society of Biblical Literature at its meeting in New York in 1981, 'Confusions of Pharisees and Essenes in Josephus'.

21 The Interlinear Greek-English New Testament, Acts 21:20.

22 Eisenman, op. cit., pp.5-9.

23 Ibid., p.58, n.95.

24 Ibid., pp.36-7; p.90, n.164; p.96 (n.179).

25 Josephus, The Jewish Wars, VII, x; the translation of G.A. Williamson is used here (The Jewish War, pp.392-3).

26 Eisenman, op. cit., p.96, n.180.

27 Ibid., pp.25-6.

28 Ibid., p.73, n.132; listing The Damascus Document, VII, 18-21; The War Scroll, XI, 5ff; A Messianic Testimonia (4QTest), 9-13.

29 The Damascus Document, VII, 18-21.

30 Tacitus, The Histories, V, xiii; the translation of K. Wellesley is used here (p.279). See also Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Vespasian, 4; translation by R. Graves (p.281).

31 Eisenman, op. cit., p.25.

32 Gichon, 'The Bar Kochba War', p. 88.

33 Ibid., p.92.

34 Ibid., pp.89-90.

35 Gichon to authors, 12 January 1990.

15 Zealot Suicide

1 The last sentence of this quote from Matthew is a pure Qumran-style statement opposing the methods of 'the Liar'.

2 Josephus, The Jewish Wars, VII, ix.

3 Ibid., VII, viii; the translation used is that of G.A. Williamson, The Jewish War, p. 387.

4 Ibid. (Williamson, p.390).

5 Ibid., Ill, viii.

6 Yadin, Masada, pp. 187-8. Yadin makes nothing of this fact. See Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p. 22; p. 67 n.117.

7 Ibid., p.62 n.105.

8 The War Scroll, I, 6-8 (Vermes, p. 105).

16 Paul - Roman Agent or Informer?

1 Especially 1 Corinthians 9:19-27. See above, Chapter 11, n.8.

2 Eisenman to authors, 24 August 1990.

3 Eisenman, James thejust in the Habakkuk Pesher, p.16, n.39; p.59, n.39.

4 Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran, p.62, n.105, makes the point that 'Paul's "Gentile mission", overriding the demands of the Law and addressed equally "to Jews and Gentiles alike" ... is perfectly in line with the exigencies of Herodian family policy.' Eisenman has made a detailed examination of all the evidence surrounding Paul's links with the ruling families in a paper 'Paul as Herodian' delivered to the Society of Biblical Literature, 1983.

Postscript

1 Bar-Adon, 'Another Settlement of the Judean Desert Sect'.

2 Eusebius, The History of the Church, VI, 16 (p.256).

3 Ibid.

4 Braun, 'Ein Brief des Katholikos Timotheos I', p.305.

5 The full story of Shapira is told in Allegro, The Shapim Affair.

6 Ibid., pp. 114-19.

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