by Maureen Hickman
Nexus Magazine, Volume 7,
Many parents have
been charged with murder for allegedly shaking their babies to
death, but medical evidence suggests that vaccinations are to
blame in a large number of these cases.
About the Author:
Maureen Hickman, JP, has been a para-legal in Sydney law
firms for over 25 years and currently works part-time at Carters
Law Firm. She is the author of Vaccination: The Right Choice?
(reviewed in NEXUS 7/04, June-July 2000).
For additional background information, refer to "Shaken
Baby Syndrome: The Vaccination Link" by Viera
Scheibner, PhD, published in NEXUS 5/05, August-September 1998.
PO Box 274
Ettalong Beach, NSW 2257
Telephone: +61 (0)2 4342 5294
Fax: +61 (0)2 4342 5379
Throughout history, mankind has been plagued by infectious diseases. With
the advent of modern biochemical antibiotics, many of these To loving,
caring parents, the act of child abuse is abhorrent. However, it must be
recognized that child abuse has occurred in the past and inevitably will
occur in the future. Medical professionals have the unenviable task of
establishing, by applying sound medical practice and scientific evidence, if
child abuse has in fact occurred.
Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) was described in medical literature in the early
1970s1 but was recognized as a form of severe child abuse as far back as
1860.2 It is a collective term for internal head injuries which a baby or
young child may sustain from:
(a) being violently
shaken (child abuse)
(b) a combination of medical problems exacerbated by a serious
vaccine adverse event
(c) a lone serious vaccine adverse event
According to New Scientist,3
researchers may be on the way to identifying a biochemical signature that
can help distinguish between brain injuries caused by accidents and those
resulting from violent abuse. Whilst this research may identify SBS, it may
not identify underlying medical problems which have been exacerbated by a
serious vaccine adverse event or a lone serious vaccine adverse event.
Unless sound scientific evidence
is initiated swiftly to diagnose the difference, parents could find
themselves in the position of a father in Sydney, Australia, who in 1995 was
charged with the murder of his child.
THE TRAGIC DEATH OF
RIKKI LEE WALTERS
Scott Warren Walters was charged with the murder of his four-month-old baby
daughter, Rikki Lee Walters, by allegedly shaking the baby to death on 22
April 1995. Rikki Lee was born on 23 January 1995 at 41 weeks' gestation.
The apgar scores (the scale, from 1 to 10, upon which a baby's physical
health is judged) were 8 at one minute and improved to 9 at five minutes.
She was vaccinated on 19 April 1995, 72 hours prior to her death.
given were triple antigen (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis), Hibtiter (Haemophilus
influenzae), hepatitis B and polio syrup.
The transcript of an electronically recorded interview between the police
and Scott Warren Walters is significant:
Q: Did she have any medical
problems which you were aware of any time in between those two visits to
A: Oh, we were worried about her chest, 'cause she was, um, breathing a
bit heavy and like, we took, the doctor said she's just got a cold.
Q: When did the doctor say that?
A: When we took her to, um, get her needles and that, she was...
Q: So, you were worried about her chest when you took her to the
A: Yeah, we were; her chest was, since she was born, like she had
a...she caught a cold, and, you know, through the month...through, like,
the second month, she's caught a cold and it hasn't gone away; it was
just...her breathing was just heavy.
The transcript of the police
interview with the mother is also significant:
Q: Did Rikki Lee receive any
A: Yeah; the other day it was her two-month-old needles, 'cause she had
a cold when they were due; ones for polio, hepatitis B, measles and
mumps, all that type of thing.
Q: Did Rikki Lee have diarrhoea?
Q: Did she have vomiting?
A: She's always been a vomity baby after she is fed, but no more than
Q: Did she have cold symptoms?
A: She's had a snuffly chest and nose, she had a really bad reaction to
the needles. She only had them on Wednesday; she had a runny nose since
this. [Author's emphasis in italics.]
The fact that Rikki Lee had a
bad reaction to vaccination was also noted by the police in the "Report of
Death to the Coroner", dated 23 April 1995:
"The deceased received
two-monthly injections on Wednesday 19.4.95 on her three-monthly period
because she had been sick. The deceased then suffered a bad reaction to
the injections; however, the mother did not return her to the doctor. "
[Signed by constable.]
It is noted that the medical
practitioner said the following in a statement to police:
"I cannot recall this
consultation; however, it [is] my usual practice to observe the child
and ask general questions as to the child's health. If the child had
been obviously unwell with fever, the vaccination would not have been
ordered. Further, the child did not appear to have any physical injuries
or [to be] suffering from neglect; and if the child had been, I am aware
of the guidelines in relation to [my] contacting the Department of
Community Services. The child received the vaccinations from nursing
staff, as this is usually the normal practice at the centre."
[Author's emphasis in
We know that the child was ill
because both parents alluded to this fact when giving police statements. Did
the medical practitioner give adequate information to the parents on the
risks and benefits of vaccination so an informed decision could be made?
The father alleged that the
medical practitioner, in a consultation lasting three to four minutes, did
not take any notes of the consultation, did not examine the child for
contraindications to the administration of a vaccine, did not question the
parents on the health of the child, and did not explain the risks and
benefits of vaccination.
If the medical practitioner did not recall the consultation, how could he
remember whether there were any physical injuries or whether the child was
suffering from neglect? Remember, the doctor took no notes according to the
parents. The doctor made the statement:
"If the child had been obviously
unwell with fever, the vaccination would not have been ordered."
however, that the doctor admitted only to observing the child, so how could
he make a diagnosis of whether the child had any contraindications for the
administration of the six vaccines?
The Australian Immunization Procedures Handbook4 is distributed by the
National Health and Medical Research Council to give medical practitioners
guidance about vaccination and to encourage them to maintain the highest
standards in the provision of vaccination services.
The 5th edition of this
handbook, distributed in October 1994, is very clear on the issue of consent
and advises practitioners that informed consent must be obtained from the
person being vaccinated or, in the case of a child, the child's parent or
guardian. The handbook advises that consent should be obtained prior to each
vaccination, after the recipient's fitness and suitability have been
established, and that the person being vaccinated or the parent/guardian
should be informed of all possible side effects.
It does appear that the medical practitioner in this instance was clearly
negligent because he did not follow government guidelines in the provision
of vaccination services. He did not establish Rikki Lee's fitness for
vaccination correctly, as she was subsequently found to have been suffering
from viral pneumonia. Seventy-two hours later, disastrous results emerged
from his carelessness.
Following this vaccination, Rikki Lee slept for 10-11 hours on Friday night,
21 April 1995, the night before her death. Was this "excessive somnolence"?
This is defined by Peter O. Behan, Professor of Neurology at Southern
General Hospital, Glasgow, as "a state of drowsiness" and is an adverse
reaction to vaccination.6
"Albeit, this may be
difficult to quantitate but, normally, mothers will be aware that the
child will be difficult to arouse, will not take its food, and most
mothers will note that the child is sleeping excessively."
According to the transcript from
an additional police interview, Scott Warren Walters was asked about feeding
details on the day Rikki Lee died:
A: ...she only, she didn't
have it; she wouldn't have been two minutes; she was on the bottle and
Q: About two minutes on the bottle?
Q: And what, she wasn't interested in the food?
A: No, no.
The father admitted that Rikki
Lee, following the administration of the vaccines, had shown signs of
excessive drowsiness, projectile vomiting and diarrhea, had not been taking
the full amount of her formula and was on continual doses of Panadol every
DOCTORS CALLED BY
CROWN LEGAL TEAM
In the case of Regina v Scott Warren Walters,5 heard by Acting Judge Black
in the NSW Supreme Court in April 1998, the Crown called three expert
witnesses: a forensic pathologist, a pediatrician and a neuropathology
The forensic pathologist reported:
"There were no fractures of
the skull; subdural hemorrhage was present diffusely across the
superior surface of the right cerebral hemisphere. There was no evidence
of bruising of the neck. There were no fractures of the rib cage. No
digested food was seen in the intestine and there was minimal fecal
material within the colon. An X-ray skeletal survey was performed, and
no evidence of old or recent trauma or other bony disease was seen."
Acting Judge Black commented on
the forensic pathologist's testimony in his Judgment:
"Examination of the fixed
eyes noted hemorrhages around both sides of the optic nerve and diffuse
retinal hemorrhages... There was laryngopharyngitis and moderate
microvesicular steatosis present in the liver... Cytomegalovirus was
isolated from a nasal swab. She said that cytomegalovirus was a viral
pneumonia which she would not expect to cause death but would expect to
cause something like a bad cold, maybe bronchitis... She was not able to
say how long Ricki Lee had been suffering from viral pneumonia.
"The microscopic examination of the subdural hemorrhage told her that
the hemorrhage occurred within around 12 hours prior to Ricki Lee's
The forensic pathologist
determined that the direct cause of death was subdural hemorrhage occurring
up to approximately 12 hours prior to death. No antecedent causes or other
significant conditions that may have contributed to the death were listed.
In cross-examination, the following questions and answers were put and
Q: And first of all, it is
the case, is it not, that there is some controversy within the medical
profession about this whole issue of shaken baby syndrome?
Q: There are those who would debunk the whole idea completely?
A: There are certain people that say that shaking alone is insufficient
to cause injuries, that there must be impact as well; and there are
others that say that the shaking is sufficient.
The pediatrician, Chairman of
the Child at Risk Committee at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, reported:
"The clinical and
pathological findings are almost certainly the result of a violent
shaking injury to the child in the short time prior to her death."
Slightly later in his report, he
"The only other possible
explanation for a spontaneous hemorrhage into the brain would be some
form of hemorrhagic disease such as vitamin K deficiency in the
neonatal period. I understand that she did receive her vitamin K
injection and this would virtually rule out this possibility."
In his Judgment, Acting Judge
Black commented on the pediatrician's findings:
"In the course of his
evidence, the pediatrician had said that he felt strongly about his
position and I asked him to clarify what he meant by that. He said it
was not because he was trying to make out that he was zealous about the
matter; it was just that because of the range of injuries within the
brain, he felt it was consistent with violent shaking, way out ahead of
any other possibility; in terms of percentages, something like 99 per
cent, something like that.
"He was not aware that the child had been vaccinated about three days
before her death.
"He says that the presence of cytomegalovirus would not be a
contraindication for immunizing the child. He said the current advice is
that immunization should be done unless there is a particularly serious
"In relation to the microvesicular steatosis found by the forensic
pathologist, he [pediatrician] did not refer to it in his report. He
said in relation to it:
'It is not something I
think I could comment on, but I think I was concentrating largely on
the injuries that were documented but it is obviously important in
'Q: When you say you cannot comment on it, are you saying you cannot
comment on microvesicular steatosis?'
'A: Yes, I would have to be told what that is. I don't know what
"I am surprised [said Judge
Black], in view of those answers, that the pediatrician felt able to be
as positive in his conclusions as he was."
A neuropathology professor also
gave evidence for the Crown. Commenting on his testimony, Acting Judge Black
wrote in his Judgment:
"Injuries are consistent
with the child having been shaken. He was asked, 'Would it be possible
for a child to have received these injuries and to appear normal to a
number of adults over a period of hours?' A: 'Yes.' When asked to put a
time frame on this, he said,
'The injuries could have
happened twenty-four to forty-eight hours prior to the arrival of
the ambulance on the Saturday night'.
He was unaware that the
child had been vaccinated three days prior to the death. He noted the
presence of cytomegalovirus but that did not cause him any concern, nor
did he see any relationship between that and the vaccination.
"He did not consider whether scurvy was a problem and said, 'Scurvy is a
diagnosis that...again I am no [more] expert on the clinical aspects of
vitamin deficiencies than I am on the vitamin aspects of brain problems,
but scurvy does not normally cause any brain pathology'."
It was clear from the medical
evidence tendered that the subdural hemorrhage was the cause of death and
was probably less than 24 hours old. The retinal hemorrhage would have
occurred near the time of death and could have been caused by resuscitation.
In other words, there were two instances of hemorrhage allegedly caused by
the baby being shaken.
DOCTORS CALLED BY
DEFENSE LEGAL TEAM
Two medical practitioners were called on behalf of the defense in the case
of Regina v Scott Warren Walters.
Dr Mark Donohoe, MB, BS, gave the following testimony:7
"The contributing and
unusual factors in this case do make it difficult to attribute the
intracranial bleeding to a single cause.
The range of contributing
and potentially causative factors include:
abnormality (as evidenced by the microvesicular steatosis of the
antibiotic use in the
infection causing pneumonia
poor feeding and fluid
intake causing a depletion in glutathione
vaccination administered while she was suffering a significant viral
adverse reaction to the
the use of paracetamol
to manage her high temperature
deficiencies, including vitamins K and C"
This is an extract from Acting
Judge Black's Judgment concerning Dr Donohoe's testimony:
"In summary, his [Dr
Donohoe's] report focuses on the moderate microvesicular steatosis
present in the liver, found by the forensic pathologist. He says this
condition arises from an inherited or acquired disorder of hepatic
mitochondrial function. This was either inherited by Rikki Lee from her
mother or caused by a toxic drug reaction.
This type of hepatic damage
would be expected to cause coagulation and bleeding disorders. In his
view, the administration of an antibiotic when Rikki Lee was eleven days
old, the presence of the cytomegalovirus infection, the administration
of the vaccines, the administration of Panadol and possible vitamin
deficiencies all combined to the possible sudden onset of spontaneous
bruising and bleeding in a previously apparently healthy child.
"He disagreed with the forensic pathologist's evidence that the
steatosis of the liver was consistent with viral infection from the
cytomegalovirus. He said the literature and research in the last five
years had been fairly definitive that microvesicular steatosis is a
"I [Judge Black] have considered the forensic pathologist's evidence
about this carefully, and on this issue I am not satisfied that Dr
Donohoe is wrong."
Dr Archie Kalokerinos, MB, BS,
well-known (retired) general practitioner and author of the book Every
Second Child,8 also gave evidence for the defense. This is an extract from
"A possible cause of Rikki
Lee's death was scurvy hemorrhage precipitated by pertussis vaccine.
"The precipitating factor giving rise to scurvy is the endotoxin
contained in pertussis vaccine, and the amount of endotoxin varies
tremendously from one batch to another. In addition, endotoxin is more
likely to be stimulated in production because bottle-fed babies do not
have normal bowel flora. Also, the administration of antibiotics can
stimulate the production of excessive amounts of endotoxin. Vitamin C
neutralises the effects of endotoxin; however, infants exposed to
endotoxin can develop a sensitivity which can precipitate extremely
acute and even fatal symptoms occurring without warning.
"The presence of a viral infection means more utilization of vitamin C
and probably causes the production of endotoxin in the gut. All the
factors necessary for the production of scurvy haemorrhages are present
in this case."
Regarding Dr Kalokerinos and his
evidence, the Acting Judge noted:
"He said from his own
experience and from the research he had done, hemorrhages can occur in
scurvy. The hemorrhages noted by the forensic pathologist could all have
been caused by scurvy. The vitamin deficiencies and problems arising
there from are far more common amongst Aboriginal and part-Aboriginal
children than amongst Caucasian people. (It is noted here that the
accused's evidence was that he was Aboriginal.)
He says, in the present
case, the vitamin C deficiency was a very likely possibility, 'much more
likely than any other possibility'. He disagreed with the professor's
evidence that scurvy did not normally cause any brain pathology.
"It will be remembered that the professor had disclaimed any expertise
in vitamin deficiency. Further, the professor had not said that scurvy
could not cause any brain pathology; the words he used were 'does not
normally cause'. Accordingly, I am not satisfied beyond reasonable doubt
that scurvy cannot cause brain pathology."
Acting Judge Black, in the
Supreme Court of New South Wales, Criminal Division, in handing down
Judgment on 24 April 1998, said:
"In relation to those two
doctors [i.e., doctors for the defense], I had the opportunity of seeing
them both give their evidence and be carefully and comprehensively
cross-examined in the witness box. I have also paid attention to the
written submissions provided to me by the respective counsel. I did not
form the view that either of those doctors was putting forward a
fanciful, untenable proposition. Perhaps, putting the burden the correct
way, I am not satisfied that their evidence should be rejected as
unreliable, nor am I satisfied that their propositions are unreasonable.
"...Suffice it then to say, in this case, having regard to all the
evidence before me including, in particular, that given by witnesses
whom I have seen, my verdict is that the accused is not guilty."
[Author's emphasis in
An innocent man would have been
jailed in this matter if the Judge had not found that the medical
practitioners for the defense were presenting reasonable propositions for
alternative medical reasons, including a vaccine adverse event, rather than
SBS for the death of the baby. Other accused parents have not been so
COMPARISON WITH SBS/VACCINE
CASES IN UK & USA
In the United States, a father has been jailed for life after a jury found
him guilty of causing SBS. Baby A.9 was born in September 1997 and
vaccinated eight weeks later with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP),
hepatitis B, polio syrup and Hib (Haemophilus influenza)--exactly the same
vaccines that were administered to baby Rikki Lee.
It is interesting to note that Baby A. had advanced bilateral pneumonia,
whilst Rikki Lee was diagnosed as having viral pneumonia. Both mothers noted
that their babies had chest congestion from birth to death and had a
falling-off of feeding patterns and increased lethargy following the
administration of vaccines.
Clearly, the medical condition of both babies following birth should have
precluded them from undergoing any vaccination, and especially not six
vaccines at the one time. It is obvious that the babies in the two cases
mentioned had underlying medical problems that were exacerbated by the
administration of multiple vaccines and that a vaccine adverse event
contributed to each death.
The post-mortem findings on Rikki Lee found subdural hemorrhage of the
right cerebral hemisphere and retinal hemorrhages were noted. In the case
of Baby A., the findings found subdural hemorrhages of the right and left
cerebral hemispheres as well as retinal bleeding. It is also interesting to
note that both mothers had urinary tract infections during pregnancy and
were treated with antibiotics.
The father of Baby A. is fighting for his life and is presently seeking
sufficient worldwide medical expertise to file an appeal. Many medical
professionals around the world have responded to his request for support,
including Dr Archie Kalokerinos who gave evidence in the Walters trial.
Another tragic case in the United States is that of a mother who has been
jailed for life for allegedly shaking her quadruplets. The naturally
conceived quadruplets were born two months prematurely, weighing around
three pounds each. When the babies were three weeks old, they were given
hepatitis B vaccine--following which, all four babies became ill and
required hospitalization. Two babies ultimately required insertion of shunts
in their brains to release blood and fluid as a result of subdural
Immediately the babies were hospitalized, the medical professionals made a
diagnosis of SBS. These four babies are now scheduled for adoption and the
maternal grandmother has been dismissed by state authorities as a possible
In the United Kingdom, a 35-year-old lawyer was recently convicted of the
double murder of her baby sons. Christopher died in 1996 and Harry in 1998.
Sally Clark was accused of
shaking Harry to death. Because of that accusation, it was alleged that it
was too much of a coincidence to believe that Christopher did not die in
1996 in exactly the same way, even though death at the time was attributed
to "natural causes". Harry was diagnosed with retinal hemorrhage; however,
one medical expert prior to the trial had doubts about this diagnosis, as he
claimed he had been looking at the wrong slides.
This disclosure weakened other
medical experts' evidence of SBS, but it was not sufficient to sway the jury
from a verdict of guilty. Christopher was vaccinated 23 days before his
death, and Harry on the day he died; so it is feasible that both of these
babies could have died from a severe vaccine adverse event.10
There was a divergence of medical opinion at the trial of Sally Clark as
well as at the trial of the father of Baby A. The question must be asked
whether juries are capable of understanding complex, conflicting medical
evidence empowering them to judge a person's guilt or innocence in such
cases. It is interesting to note that in the Australian case of Walters, a
Judge alone found the defendant not guilty.
It should be noted that SBS may not always result in the death of a baby. In
New South Wales recently, parents of a child suffering a serious vaccine
adverse event were suspected of SBS. The baby has been removed from the care
of the parents and placed with a Department of Community Services (DOCS)
The law in New South Wales11
gives representatives of DOCS the right to attend on the residential address
of any parent suspected of abusing children. A notice12 is served on them to
present their child forthwith to a nominated medical practitioner at a
hospital or some other place so specified so a medical examination of the
child can take place.
Under the law, the Director-General of the Department of Community Services
may keep the child for "such period of time as is reasonably necessary for
the child to be examined". A court of law will ultimately decide the fate of
the baby, i.e., whether the baby would be returned to the care of the
parents or whether it would be fostered out to family or other carers.
Following a hearing, it is
possible that the court could refer the matter to the police. The situation
may then arise where a person is charged with a criminal offence (SBS), even
though the injuries to the baby may well have been reported to the
appropriate authorities by that person as a serious vaccine adverse event.
It is clear that the diagnosis of SBS requires meticulous medical
investigation. This investigation will be made much more difficult in the
future with the recent endorsement by governments around the world of
hepatitis B vaccination of all newborns. As more vaccines are released onto
the market, the number of serious vaccine adverse events--including
death--will increase in our children and at a younger age.
The problem is the failure of medical professionals to recognize that
vaccine adverse events do occur and that they are guilty of labeling them
"coincidental" or "by chance".13 In Australia, six deaths14 have been
reported from vaccines in the 27-month period from 6 June 1997 to 2
Because of the under-reporting
and under-recognition of such events, it is likely that death and other
serious injuries occur in much higher numbers than the public has been led
to believe. In other words, it is more politically correct to label the
death or injury of a baby as SBS than to investigate the safety and
effectiveness of vaccines which are considered by governments and the
majority of the medical profession as the only panacea for the treatment of
Clinical trials prior to licensure of vaccines are notoriously small, and
this inhibits researchers' ability to establish accurately the cause and
effect relationship between vaccines and serious adverse events. Vaccine
trials are usually funded by vaccine manufacturers themselves and are
unlikely to quantify accurately the true "risks vs benefits" ratio, lest it
reflect on sales and marketing strategies.
What is seriously lacking is independent scientific research with large
numbers of trial participants, where one half is given the vaccine and the
other half is given a placebo.
Dr Mark Donohoe, the Sydney medical practitioner who gave evidence for the
defense in the Walters trial, was very explicit in his SBS research when he
"There exist major data gaps
in the medical literature regarding SBS.
These are summarized as:
Lack of clear definition
of cases. There is an urgent need for standard criteria, to identify
certain cases for the purpose of homogeneity in trials and
identification of the unique features of SBS as opposed to other
abuse, other medical conditions and normals.
Lack of useful and
specific laboratory or other markers proven to identify SBS.
Poor definition and
quantification of the social and family risk factors to provide
guidance on likelihood of abuse for a given set of circumstances.
There is a strong need
for a checklist or other diagnostic or management tool to assess
cases and to quantify index of suspicion of shaking."
A paper in the British Medical
"Subdural hemorrhage is
common in infancy and carries a poor prognosis; three quarters of such
infants die or have profound disability. Most cases are due to child
abuse, but in a few the cause is unknown."
[Author's emphasis added.]
The authors of the paper believe
that the clinical investigation of such children should include:
a full, multidisciplinary,
an ophthalmic examination
a skeletal survey supplemented with a bone scan or a skeletal survey,
repeated at around 10 days
a coagulation screen
a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging
However, according to Dr Mark Donohoe:
"There is an urgent need for
properly controlled, prospective trials into SBS, using a variety of
controls. Until such studies are complete, published and replicated, the
current opinion on the link between SDH/RH and SBS cannot be sustained."
THE LEGAL AND MEDICAL PROFESSIONS
The correct diagnosis of Shaken Baby Syndrome is a problem for those being
accused of this syndrome around the world. The cases mentioned are only a
small number that have occurred over the past few years.
It is hard to imagine the distress, confusion and despair suffered by the
accused and their families, especially those who have been jailed for life
for a crime they claim they did not commit.
Juries and lawyers rely heavily on what medical experts tell them. If
medical experts are guilty of grossly misleading a court of law by providing
skewed evidence from inadequate medical research on SBS, then innocent
individuals are suffering unnecessarily. Let us hope that the SBS medical
experts comprehend that they are not infallible and realize the untold human
tragedy that can occur if they are wrong.
The key terms in the identification of SBS are alleged to be:17
Cerebral edema: fluid
collecting in the brain, causing tissue to swell
Haematoma: a localized accumulation of blood in tissues as a result of
Hemorrhage: a condition of
bleeding, usually severe
Retinal hemorrhage (RH):
bleeding of the retina, a key structure in vision located at the back of
Subdural Hematoma (SDH): a
localized accumulation of blood, sometimes mixed
with spinal fluid, in the space of the brain beneath the membrane covering
called the dura matter.
1. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine (Olendorf, Jeryan, Boyden, editors), Gale
Research, Detroit, MI, vol. 4, 1999, p. 2604.
2. "Abuse and Neglect of Children", Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics (Behrman,
Kliegman, Jenson, eds), W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 2000, 16th
edition, chapter 35, p. 113.
3. Baker, Mitzi, "That was no accident: Biochemical markers could one day
help identify battered children", New Scientist, 28 November 1998, p. 21.
4. The Australian
Immunization Procedures Handbook, National Health and
Medical Research Council, 5th edition, October 1994 and revised 5th edition,
5. Regina v Scott Warren Walters, Supreme Court of New South Wales, Criminal
Division, No. 70031 of 1998.
6. Behan, Peter O., MD, FACP, FRCP (Professor of Neurology, Glasgow
University, Scotland), "Report on the Neurological Complications of
Pertussis Vaccination in Children", August 1995; and letter from Professor
Behan to Sydney solicitors, dated 13 October 1993, regarding a vaccine
7. Dr Mark Donohoe's research on Shaken Baby Syndrome, prepared for the case
of Regina v Scott Warren Walters, heard in Sydney, Australia, in 1998.
8. Kalokerinos, Archie, MD, Every Second Child, Pivot/Health Books/Keats
Publishing, CT, USA, 1981 (first published by Thomas Nelson Australia Ltd,
1974), ISBN 0-87983-250-9.
9. Information provided to the writer by the father of Baby A. in written
correspondence and history, taken by Harold E. Buttram, MD, and F. Edward
Yazbak, MD, of the Woodlands Healing Research Center, Quakertown, PA, USA,
dated 25 May 2000.
10. Driscoll, Margarette, "Shadow of Doubt", Sunday Times News Review, UK,
28 November 1999. The article reports that Christopher was vaccinated on the
day before his death; but Dr Viera Scheibner has learned that the boy was
vaccinated 23 days before he died--one of the critical days, according to
her studies linking SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) with vaccinations.
11. New South Wales Children (Care and Protection) Act 1987, No. 54.
12. ibid., section 23, pp. 30-31.
13. The Australian
Immunization Procedures Handbook, 7th edition, March
2000, pp. 22, 259; also, Drs Gordon Ada and David Isaacs, Vaccination: The
Facts, The Fears, The Future, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 2000, pp. 91, 94, ISBN
14. Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, Communicable Diseases
Intelligence Bulletins: 21(20):313, 2 October 1997; 21(23):364, 25 December
1997; 22(7):146, 9 July 1998; 22(10):234, 1 October 1998; 23(1):34, 21
January 1999; 23(9):255, 2 September 1999.
15. Dr Mark Donohoe's research on Shaken Baby Syndrome, prepared for the
case of Regina v Scott Warren Walters, ibid.
16. Jayawant, S., Rawlinson, A., Gibbon, F., Price, J., Schulte, J.,
Sharples, P., Sibert, J.R., Kemp, A.M., "Subdural hemorrhages in infants:
population-based study", British Medical Journal 317:1558-1561, 5 December
17. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, op. cit.