by Michael Arbuthnot
Zawyat Al Aryan
No city, Army/The Gesh
Birak Al Khiyam
No City, Agricultural Fields
No City, Agricultural Fields
No City, In the Desert
Ausim, Letopolis, Khem
Giza, Nazlet Al Samman
Giza, Nazlet Al Samman
Giza, Nazlet Al Samman
The philosopher H. Butterfield
"But the supreme paradox of the
scientific revolution is in the fact that things in which we
find it easy to instill into the boys in school... things which
would strike us as the ordinary natural way of looking at the
universe... defeated the greatest intellects for centuries."
(The Origin of Modern Science, 1949)
I have been in contact with Eric Wilson (* "Eric Wilson" is a
pseudonym to protect the identity of Arbuthnot's co-researcher)
since meeting him at a presentation in July of 1996.
independent Egyptologist in Los Angeles Eric Wilson is an ex-naval
navigator with experience in naval intelligence. He has been
diligently studying Egypt and her mysteries for over eighteen years.
It has only been in the last two years, however, that Wilson has
begun to receive his rightful recognition as a pioneering researcher
and independent Egyptologist.
He has recently accepted the title of
Associate Field Researcher for The American Anthropological Research
Foundation (AARF). In addition, Wilson has also been lecturing in
the west and southwest portions of the United States. This has
earned him several guest appearances on Art Bell's Coast to Coast
(the largest nationally syndicated late-night radio-talk show).
Nurturing a new-found curiosity for Egyptology, I became
increasingly interested in Wilson's extensive knowledge and, more
specifically, in his technique of archaeoastronomy.
Archaeoastronomy is a division of Anthropology that looks to
artifacts and ancient architectures for their connections to
celestial movements and/or bodies. In this way it searches for
answers concerning the origins of calendars, astronomical practices,
celestial lore, religions, and worldviews.
Although non-traditional in his approach to archaeoastronomy,
Wilson's methodology was startlingly pragmatic. Wilson has labeled
his unique brand of research "astro-geo-archaeology."
It was last
December that I had a chance to join him in the field and see it at
III. THE ORION PYRAMID THEORY
Before proceeding, it is important to clarify that Eric Wilson did
not personally hypothesize the theory unto which we shall soon
The theory was originally presented by Robert Bauval and
Adrian Gilbert in
The Orion Mystery. Subsequently, the hypothesis
has been espoused on several television specials and documentaries.
Robert Bauval discovered what Egyptologists have overlooked for
He simply superimposed the constellation of Orion (which
Dynastic Egypt considered the celestial counterpart of their god
Osiris) onto the terra of Giza and surrounding regions. The idea was
that the three belt stars of Orion: Alnitak, Alnilam, and
coincide precisely via angular alignments to the three pyramids at
Giza: Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.
If this correlation were correct, then
one would expect that other structures might coincide with the other
stars in the constellation. Indeed, Bauval claimed to have located
two such structures. (For reference, all pyramids correlating to the
Orion constellation shall be referred to as "Orion Pyramids". Those
include the 3 pyramids at Giza as well as the pyramids at Abu Ruwash
and Zawyat Al Aryan).
According to Bauval, the remains of a pyramid north of Giza at Abu Ruwash and similar remains south of Giza at
Zawyat Al Aryan seemed
to correlate to the stars Saiph and Bellatrix. Saiph is the star
considered to be Orion's right knee and Bellatrix is Orion's left
shoulder (using Orion's perspective rather than Earth's).
Wilson was intrigued by Bauval's original proposal, but apparently
found an incongruity. It appeared that Bauval had incorrectly placed
the superimposition of Orion onto the topography of Giza. Wilson
found that based upon the precise relationship of angulation between
the three pyramids at Giza and the stars in Orion's belt, the
terrestrial coordinates for Saiph and Bellatrix would not place them
at Abu Ruwash and Zawyat Al Aryan, but elsewhere.
Even more intriguing, Wilson discovered
that the pyramids present at Abu Ruwash and Zawyat Al Aryan aligned
perfectly to the right ascension and declination (celestial latitude
and longitude) of the stars Rigel (Orion's left knee) and Betelgeuse
(Orion's right shoulder).
In other words, Wilson discovered that by
swiveling the constellation so that the star Rigel lay over the
pyramid at Abu Ruwash, and the star Betelgeuse lay over the pyramid
at Zawyat Al Aryan, the angulation became exact!
Using the Global Positioning Satellite System (Wilson was able to
enter his knowns - i.e. the positions of the pyramids at Giza), and
calculate the longitudinal and latitudinal positions of Orion's
stars relative to their right ascensions and declinations. Then it
was simply a matter of letting the United States' 24 orbiting
satellites show the way, as they did for us in December, 1996.
Not only did the GPS confirm Abu Ruwash and Zawyat Al Aryan as the
stars Rigel and Betelgeuse, but it predicted the true locations for
Saiph and Bellatrix. Wilson succeeded in locating these positions
and found evidence that subterranean remains still exist, and/or
structures one existed, at both sites.
However, Wilson calculated the terrestrial positions for the stars
that make up Orion's head (Meissa) and dagger (M42/M43).
Additionally, Wilson located the terrestrial position for the star
Leporis in the constellation of Lepus (adjacent to Orion).
of these sites exhibit curious evidence in support of The Orion
IV. ZAWYAT AL ARYAN and
It is important to know that one unique aspect of the pyramids at
Giza are their block characteristics.
The core blocks are limestone
and white in color, chalky and granular. Some of the stones possess
artificial, parallel grooves and/or distinctive fossilized numlites.
Numlites are a prehistoric foraminifera (a shelled sea-creature).
These particular examples date to roughly 125,000,000 ybp.
These limestone blocks are said to have been quarried in Tura and
ushered across the Nile. Regardless of their origin, it can
generally be stated that any limestone block in the greater Giza
area with such distinctive features indicates it was artificially
On December 5th, 1996, Eric Wilson, myself, and three members of our
support team approached the remains at Zawyat Al Aryan.
Al Aryan pyramid was once a glorious step-pyramid and is known to
Egyptologists as the "Layer Pyramid."
drawing of the Step Pyramid.
The substructure is
also indicated on this drawing.
Source: Lehner, Complete Pyramids, p. 95.
It is believed to have been
built during the 3rd Dynasty by Pharaoh Kha`ba; thus pre-dating the Giza pyramids.
A vessel inscribed with the name Kha`ba found nearby
is the sole basis for this dynastic assignment. (Atlas of Ancient
Egypt, by John Baines & Jaromir Malek, 1993)
We located the Zawyat Al Aryan pyramid via Wilson's astro-geo-archaeological
technique. As the exact topographical representation of the star Betelgeuse, the Zawyat Al Aryan pyramid's mere location implies that
it was part of a master plan to replicate the Orion constellation in
and around Giza. Therefore, one must naturally assume its original
construction date would be in the vicinity of the other celestial
representatives; give or take a few hundred years.
Yet, the pyramid at Zawyat Al Aryan is constructed in a step-fashion
and is composed of very manageable, brick-like building stones. This
construction technique and average block size is quite different
from the other Orion Pyramids, which consist of megalithic blocks in
the standard pyramidal form. However, since a coincidental
celestial-terrestrial correlation is highly unlikely, why then is a
step-pyramid located upon one of the Orion sites?
Surrounding the Zawyat Al Aryan remains are rolling sand dunes.
Within these dunes, and likely beneath the present structure, one
finds heavily-weathered, megalithic building stones. Although almost
indistinguishable from the natural landscape, these severely
deteriorated block still exhibit their original divisions and
dimensions. Unlike the dark brown blocks of the Zawyat Al Aryan
step-pyramid, these gigantic blocks are a white limestone.
They bare an uncanny resemblance to the
core stones used at Giza and Abu Ruwash: the Orion Pyramids to the
north. We have yet to find a text with a description and/or date for
these enigmatic stones. The heavily-eroded state of these megalithic
blocks is an indication of their ancient placement. In contrasts to
the less-eroded stones of the step-pyramid, it is clear the blocks
have far greater antiquity.
In addition to their relative erosion, the block dimensions and
composition also make it apparent their constructive industry is
different from that of the present pyramid. A different constructive
industry is a telltale sign of different constructive periods.
industry they do resemble, however, is that of the other Orion
Pyramids. In this light, the megalithic blocks appear to mark the
vestiges of a much larger, and much more ancient compound. This
compound being contemporaneous with the other Orion pyramids.
This conclusion, however, is problematic if one believes the Orion
Pyramids (including those at Giza and Abu Ruwash)
were built during
the 4th Dynasty. In other words, how can a pyramid assigned to the
3rd Dynasty (earlier) lie atop remains which resemble the 4th
Dynasty's (later) constructive industry? Relative dating deems this
impossible. Either the step-pyramid at Zawyat Al Aryan was built
after the 4th Dynasty, or the ancient blocks of the Orion Pyramids
are older than orthodox Egyptology currently believes.
Why is a step-pyramid built upon an Orion site? Perhaps the builders
of the step-pyramid used the ancient ruins for a utilitarian
purpose. The remains may have provided a strong building foundation
or a strategic vantage point.
Or perhaps they used the remains for symbolic reasons. The ruins may
have been significant to their belief system and/or history. It is
also possible that the sand-covered remains may have made a sacred
mound or hill. These distinct possibilities are not mutually
It is undeniable that the Zawyat Al Aryan pyramid sits on the exact
topographical location for the star Betelgeuse.
This fact, supported
by the Giza Pyramids' precise connection to the stars Alnitak,
Alnilam, and Mintaka (Orion's belt stars), make The Orion Pyramid
Theory begin to sparkle with life.
V. ABU RUWASH and RIGEL
Wilson and I were blasted by the desert winds as we crested the red
This was the place called Abu Ruwash and the site
of the pyramidal representation of the star Rigel. It was December
4th, 1996, and we were approaching the ruins of an ancient
structure, lonely and desolate on a wind-swept hill.
The pyramid at Abu Ruwash is believed to be a 4th Dynasty
construction built by the Pharaoh Ra`djedef. Although Ra`djedef was
the son and successor of the famed Pharaoh Khufu, his reign lasted
but 8 short years (2528 BC - 2520 BC). It was Khafre, Khufu's other
son who became the prominent Pharaoh that is recognized as the
builder of the second largest pyramid at Giza.
Ra'djedef was given credit for the partial construction of Abu
Ruwash based on two pieces of relatively weak evidence. First, a
large but damaged granite bust of the pharaoh was found just north
of the pyramid. Second, the megalithic limestone blocks used within
the pyramid are generally associated with those used during the 4th
Since Ra`djedef was a 4th Dynasty pharaoh, and a broken
sculpture in his image was found near the pyramid site, the case was
closed. The historical lack of excavation at Abu Ruwash however,
deems any absolute dynastic designation somewhat premature.
According to orthodox Egyptology, the pyramid at Abu Ruwash was
never completed. This explains why Ra`djedef's pyramid lies in ruin,
while his brother's pyramid at Giza stands hardly scathed in
comparison. This does not explain, however, why the powerful Pharaoh Khafre, at the height of Egyptian civilization, would allow his
brother's pyramid to remain unfinished. The completion of this
relatively small pyramid would have been easy in comparison to the
grandiose structure built on the Giza plateau.
It is also interesting to note that in the early 1900's, several 1st
Dynasty artifacts were uncovered at Abu Ruwash. Several of these
objects were inscribed with the names Aha and Den; both of whom were
1st Dynasty Pharaohs.
As a result of this and other finds, orthodox
Egyptologists believe that the Abu Ruwash site had been an
administration center from pre-dynastic times forward. (Atlas of
Ancient Egypt, by John Baines & Jaromir Malek, 1993)
Once again, we are faced with the amazing celestial-terrestrial
corollary coincidence. Could the construction of an administration
center atop an isolated hill just coincidentally fall on the
topographical location for the star Rigel? It is highly unlikely.
The coincidence would be statistically inconceivable. Therefore, it
is our belief that form must follow function. Whoever first
constructed on the Abu Ruwash site knew of its celestial connection.
Could the ancient pyramid have already been at Abu Ruwash during the
1st Dynasty? We established that the original builders at this
location likely knew of its celestial connection. Additionally, a
reoccurring theme at all the visible Orion sites are structures or
remains built of the unique megalithic limestone blocks. It would
make sense that the original builders, knowing well of the Orion
connection, built at Abu Ruwash with these distinctive blocks.
might explain why the pre-dynastic Egyptians selected this
particular location for their administration center. There was
already a structure in place!
Speculation? Yes, but remember, blocks of an identical industry at
Zawyat Al Aryan apparently predate the 3rd Dynasty. This fact,
coupled with the weak evidence used to credit Ra`djedef with the
pyramid's construction, make the possibility tantalizingly real -
perhaps even statistically more likely than a placement theory
relying on pure coincidence alone.
The far more threatening implications of such a possibility fall
upon the Orion Pyramids at Giza. If there is ample evidence to
indicate that the Orion Pyramids at Zawyat Al Aryan and Abu Ruwash
presage the 3rd Dynasty, then what about the Giza Pyramids? Could
they as well?
Although the pyramids at Giza are the core Orion Pyramids (Orion's
belt stars), orthodox Egyptology is adamant about their 4th Dynasty
However, would those who designed the Orion complex
have started with the outlying pyramids, and then have moved in to
complete the center of the constellation at a later date? During the
This sequence seems counter-intuitive. One would imagine that the
ancient architects would have started with the center of the
constellation at Giza, and subsequently moved outwards. Following
this logical progression, one is immediately forced to question the
4th Dynasty assignment of the Giza Pyramids.
Interestingly enough, the only carbon-dating as yet done to the Giza
pyramids is in support of a pre-4th Dynasty construction date. This
issue is briefly detailed later. Although this is not the time to
delve into such matters of ambiguity, this question should be
addressed by orthodox Egyptologists.
What is to be addressed now, is the Abu Ruwash pyramid's connection
to the star Rigel. Again, like the pyramids at Zawyat Al Aryan and
Giza, the structure at Abu Ruwash sits on the exact topographical
location for a star in the Orion constellation. Coincidence? Not
The Orion Pyramid Theory is now sizzling with legitimacy.
VI. THE GESH and BELLATRIX
December 6th took us into the desert southwest of the pyramids.
the GPS as our guide and horses as transportation, we went in search
of the structure that would truly represent the star Bellatrix.
After no more than two hours, the GPS began to sound. Like
clockwork, the predicted coordinates were precise.
We were just within the boundaries of an Egyptian military compound
when we found a pile of the familiar yet distinctive rocks; isolated
and standing out from the surrounding desert stones. Approximately
13 meters in diameter and scattered across the desert floor were
hundreds of pyramidal stones. These rocks were unquestionably of the
same material as the Giza pyramids as they displayed the distinctive
numlites and were white in color. It was far too great a coincidence
that these particular stones be located in this desolate region.
celestial-terrestrial connection was once again affirmed. But where
was the structure?
Local Egyptians had used pyramid stones to construct Cairo and other
buildings in the area. It was remotely possible they had used all
the rocks in the "Gesh" (meaning "Military" in Arabic and Wilson's
name for the area containing the ruins of Bellatrix) for
construction purposes. Yet this seems unlikely when one considers
the remoteness of the Gesh site.
It would make little sense for the
Egyptians to have completely dismantled this pyramid, while leaving
other more accessible pyramids, like Abu Ruwash, partially intact.
In addition, if it had been dismantled, one would expect to find a
larger scattering of rocks, perhaps an exposed entrance or chamber
(as are commonly found), and/or evidence of human tampering, but
none of these were apparent.
It seems likely that whatever remains at the Gesh is subterranean.
One likely explanation for its burial are the high desert winds. The
desert sands are notorious for burying buildings in a single storm
(It is common knowledge that the Sphinx's enclosure has been cleared
of sand many times in recent history). However, the only way to
verify whether or not such a subterranean structure exists is with
ground-penetrating radar; which has yet to be done.
Additional evidence for the pyramid's underground presence comes
from an Egyptian named Ahmed Abdel Romain Shire. Ahmed lives in the
village of Nazlet Al Samman and was an antiquities watchman at Giza
for over thirty-five years. He says that he accompanied an Egyptian
archaeologist to the Gesh site some twenty years ago. The doctor, he
says, was looking for an entrance to the north side of a buried
Despite the fact that no obvious structure was apparent at the Gesh
site, the isolated presence of the limestone deposit, on the exact
terrestrial location for the star Bellatrix, was too uncanny for
Additionally, the testimony of Ahmed Abdel Romain Shire
further supports the possibility of subterranean remains at the Gesh
site. These factors strongly indicate the validity of the Orion
Concrete confirmation is only as far away as the nearest
set of ground-penetrating radar equipment.
VII. BIRAK AL KHIYAM and SAIPH
December 7th took us to the village of Birak Al Khiyam, which is
located to the northeast of Giza. Birak Al Khiyam is a small farming
village and the terrestrial location for the star Saiph.
As in the Gesh, there was not an obvious structure present, but a
plethora of evidence was found. A sewage canal had been dredged a
few years earlier and had exposed the same large, white limestone as
found at Giza. As we walked up and down the canal, there were
hundreds of these distinctive rocks seemingly out of place. A local
told us the canal had been dredged roughly 15 meters down and had
exposed the limestone.
The GPS directed us into the middle of a cabbage field just a few
meters from the canal. Here stood an old cattle shed. The foundation
of this building consisted of the limestone detritus with more
modern-looking stones beginning half-way and continuing to the roof.
An elderly Egyptian farmer said that the shed, in its present state,
had been there for at least 500 years.
The man's construction date
likely marked the renovation of an existing structure or foundation,
which would suggest that its limestone foundation predates his 500
year estimation. This, in turn, demonstrates that local Egyptians
have been using the limestone debris for well over 500 years.
As we returned to our taxi, Wilson called my attention to a large
stone wall that encircled a timeworn house. The wall's plaster
casing had begun to crumble and dislodge itself in certain places,
thus revealing glimpses of its core. Not surprisingly, the core
stones were the same familiar white limestone blocks.
Wilson then turned my attention to the old house. The house revealed
the same phenomenon. The blocks were present around the house's
foundation where the plaster had chipped off.
The residents were kind enough to let us tour the inside of their
home, where we observed the same thing. In several places where the
plaster had crumbled, the limestone was apparent. It was common
practice, according to one Egyptian local, for builders to collect
rocks from the fields and surrounding areas to use in their
It is this kind of evidence that leads us to believe that there are
more than cabbage fields in and around Birak Al Khiyam. Yet, to
truly determine whether or not the remnants of a structure exists
somewhere beneath its soil, ground penetrating radar is necessary.
However, the presence of the distinctive stones within the canal and
in several localized structures was intriguing - again lending
credence to the Orion connection.
VIII. M42 and M43
A similar experience was had when Wilson and I went to locate the
structures associated with M42 and M43. These are the stars that
make up Orion's dagger or sheath. Once again the GPS led the way,
however this time our horses had been replaced by a motorcycle.
The satellites led us to the western edge of Cairo, across an
irrigation canal, and into a cabbage field. As we zig-zagged between
the agricultural fields, an entourage of curious Egyptian farmers
began to follow.
Again the distinctive, out-of-place stones were present, suggesting
the remains of an ancient artificial structure, possibly still
somewhere below. Suggesting also, that such a structure was likely
of the Orion Pyramids' construction industry.
Similar to the Birak Al Khiyam region, there were several structures
in which the limestone blocks had been incorporated. A helpful
farmer said that the local buildings had been constructed of stones
they had found while tilling the fields. The stones, he said, were
scattered about the whole area - again, providing additional
confirmation that a structure of some sort happened to have fallen
on the terrestrial equivalent to a celestial body.
It is worthy of note that within 200 meters of the GPS focal point
was a mosque. We were near sacred ground. However, any connection
between the mosque and ancient ruins was not apparent.
Not yet, anyway.
IX. THE DESERT and MEISSA
More recently (June, 1997), and in my unfortunate absence, Wilson
and a colleague returned to Egypt.
On this expedition, Wilson not
only located the terrestrial counterpart to Orion's head (Meissa),
but also pinpointed the terrestrial location for the star Leporis;
not-so-coincidentally falling next to a mosque where the ancient
city of Letopolis one stood.
Wilson and his companion took a motorcycle several miles south of
Giza into the Egyptian desert. In no time they found themselves at
Meissa's topographical cousin. Wilson claims the experience was, in
many ways, similar to what we had experienced at the Gesh site, yet
still very different in several important aspects.
When the GPS signaled their arrival, Wilson and his companion stood
roughly 6 km south and slightly west of the southern axis of the
Great Pyramid. The rolling desert lay barren and lifeless about
Thirteen kilometers to the north, the mesa upon which the Abu Ruwash Pyramid rests was just visible through the mid-morning mist.
From this slightly elevated vantage point, all the major Orion sites
were visible, with the exception of the Zawyat Al Aryan ruins to the
east, which were blocked by an erupting dune.
The distinctive limestone remnants scattered about the Gesh site had
weighed up to 30 pounds.
However, the limestone remains at the Meissa site were considerably larger by comparison. In the same
fashion as the Gesh site, these blocks were concentrated in one
particular region of an otherwise vacuous wasteland. This particular
location, playing host to such ancient remains, again lends powerful
support to The Orion Pyramid Theory; thus leaving the coincidental
correlation for such a position almost as remote as the site itself.
Another important difference between the Meissa site and the Gesh
site was evidence of human tampering. It was unclear to Wilson
whether it had been archaeologists or grave-robbers (more likely the
later, according to Wilson), but someone had dug several large holes
in Meissa's immediate vicinity - evidently searching for something.
As Wilson kicked aside the sand and uncovered the tops of several
very large limestone blocks, he wondered who had been so interested
in this remote part of the desert. Did someone else know of the
celestial-terrestrial connection? Did someone else suspect a
subterranean ruin? The predictable pattern of ancient remains via
astro-geo-archaeology would be an invaluable formula for the
determined grave-robber, he thought. Perhaps too valuable to
Had the Meissa site been host to a pyramid? It had been host to
something, but once again, such questions can only be answered by
ground-penetrating radar and/or excavations. Thus far, such
confirmations have evaded us.
What has not evaded us, however, is that a terrestrial
representation to the star Meissa once resided in this portion of
the ancient Egyptian desert.
Orion Pyramid Theory stands strong.
X. LETOPOLIS and LEPORIS
Approximately 15.75 km north of Giza lies the ancient city of Khem
or Letopolis, which is known today as Ausim.
In ancient times, this
was the sacred city of Horus. It was in Letopolis that an ancient
temple, far older than the pyramids themselves (supposedly), was
Letopolis was also an important point in the Osiris funerary
procession. Once the procession had crossed the Nile from Heliopolis
to the east, it turned south in Letopolis and headed for Giza.
However, Letopolis is significant for another important reason as
well. It happens to be the terrestrial location for the star Leporis.
Knowing well of Letopolis' rich Egyptian heritage and the implicit
celestial connection made by Robert Bauval in The Orion Mystery,
Hunter plotted the coordinates for the star Leporis. When they
arrived at their calculated position, the celestial-terrestrial
connection again seemed to be confirmed. This time, however, the
connection extended beyond Orion's mighty grasp and into
star-pattern of Lepus.
Hunter and his comrade arrived in Letopolis, situated on the western
outskirts of Cairo, to find a sacred mound crowned by a mosque.
Hunter was informed by a local Egyptian that the whole area,
encompassing roughly a quarter of a kilometer in diameter, rested
upon a sacred hill. The GPS directed Hunter towards the top of the
knoll and to within a few hundred meters of an aged mosque. The
hand-held GPS monitor then buzzed and a new position was acquired;
bearing due north of the Great Pyramid.
Intrigued by this nexus, Hunter circled the mosque looking for
evidence of the distinctive limestone blocks and/or any other
telltale signs of an ancient structure which may have once been
present. However, Hunter's investigation was cut short when he and
his comrade were accosted by a group of suspicious Muslims. Buttons
were ripped from shirts and bodies pushed. Hunter was soon forced
from the area. Were the Muslims hiding something or just wary of
curious foreigners? Time will tell.
Nonetheless, Hunter's brief stint in Letopolis did reveal some
curious correlations: A sacred mound on the site of the star Leporis.
An ancient mosque just meters from Leporis' focal point and
adamantly protected by its congregation.
His experience also raises a number of questions: Why was this mound
sacred? Is something concealed beneath the centuries of soil and
sand? Is the mound a buried and/or deteriorated pyramid?
Ground-penetrating radar is necessary for verification.
Another curiosity the Letopolis mound raises is the possible
connection between Orion sites and sacred Egyptian ground. In two of
the Orion sites that do not host pyramidal structures (M42/M43
region and Letopolis), mosques happen to be closely aligned (within
a few hundred meters) to the GPS target location.
Indeed, mosques are prevalent throughout Cairo, but were the
correlations mere coincidence? One might well-speculate that the
mosque at the M42/M43 region is constructed atop sacred ground as
well. Sacred archaic sites have long been ideal temple locations.
Could the long-forgotten legacies of these sacred regions find their
roots in the Orion and Lepus constellations? The mosques' mere
locations would imply so.
In addition, their locations continue to support the
celestial-terrestrial connection presented in this analysis of The
Orion Pyramid Theory.
XI. THE CONTROVERSY
The most controversial issue concerning The Orion Pyramid Theory is
the severe and tragic implications it has to dynastic assignments
and canonized dating.
Along with the sequential ambiguities, the
Orion connection also presents a number of questions concerning
construction motivations and Egyptian technologies. Under the
premises of The Orion Pyramid Theory, the ancient Egyptians had far
greater astronomical and geodetic knowledge than we give them
Despite such controversial claims, dogmatic dating cannot refute The
Orion Pyramid Theory. When the theory is eventually verified by
academic Egyptology, it will be the element of precedence. Dating
will have to conform to its repercussions.
Skeptics might find it interesting that the only absolute dating
analysis that has been applied to the Giza pyramids was done by Dr.
Mark Lehner. Lehner is a professor at Chicago University's Oriental
Institute and one of today's top Egyptological authorities. Working
under the auspices of the Edgar Cayce Foundation at the time, Lehner
found traces of burnt wood and ash within the gypsum mortar mixture
used to seal the core stones of the Great Pyramid. It was Lehner's
belief that this was material residue from campfires built by the
In 1986 Lehner conducted a series of carbon-tests on this organic
material. Surprisingly enough, the tests revealed dates that ran
from 3809 BC to 2869 BC; averaging 400 to 450 years older than
orthodox Egyptologists expected. In the PBS Nova special (1997),
Lehner admitted the testing averaged 374 years earlier than the 4th
Even this conservative estimate places the
construction of the Giza necropolis roughly 225 years after Menes
unified upper and lower Egypt (which would have been an
extraordinary accomplishment for such a young civilization). Point
being, a definite 4th Dynasty assignment for the Giza pyramids seems
presumptuous in this context.
The dates Lehner arrived at, however, do not contradict any of the
assertions made in this explication.
In fact, the Orion Pyramid
Theory is assisted by these absolute dates. If the Giza pyramids can
be shown to have been built prior to the 3rd Dynasty, the sequential
ambiguities at Zawyat Al Aryan are solved. If the Giza pyramids can
be shown to have been built during, or prior to, the 1st Dynasty,
the sequential ambiguities at both Zawyat Al Aryan and Abu Ruwash
One must ask, why do Lehner's absolute dates continue to be ignored
in favor of less-substantial and circumstantial evidence? It seems
the flaws of competitive Egyptology are lurking once again.
scientific process is being stifled.
The chance celestial-terrestrial correlations of Zawyat Al Aryan,
Abu Ruwash, and the Giza pyramids are statistically near impossible.
Due to these pyramids' topographical locations and constructive
industries, it makes much sense to conclude there was a specific
intention in mind - that being a terrestrial representation of the
Additionally, there is evidence that strongly indicates the
connection extends to the Meissa and Bellatrix (The Gesh) sites.
Both of these locations exhibit the remains of ancient structures
which have either been dismantled, eroded, or buried. Again, the
chances of such remains being coincidentally located in these
remote, but precise locations, is inconceivable. The evidence begs
for continued research.
Although lacking the near concrete connection of the aforementioned
sites, the M42/M43, Birak Al Khiyam, and Letopolis sites also pose
some interesting linkages. As these sites are in the midst of modern
civilization, finding solid evidence of ancient structures has
proven to be somewhat difficult. However, the presence of the
signature limestone is encouraging. A concentrated, thorough, and
well-financed expedition would surely turn positive results.
Despite the many problematic issues raised by The Orion Pyramid
Theory concerning dynastic assignments, the connection cannot be
ignored. Now that the The Orion Pyramid Theory has been made public,
these enigmas must be examined in detail.
For as eternal as the stars in the night's sky, the Orion
celestial-terrestrial connection is not going away anytime soon.
To truly determine whether or not such subterranean structures exist
at the Gesh, Birak Al Khiyam, M42/M43, Meissa, and Letopolis sites,
ground-penetrating radar and/or excavations are necessary.
subterranean structures can be verified, as we confidently think
they will be, it would shed a conclusive light on the pyramid
builders' original plans, as well as force academic Egyptology to
reconsider its canonized dating and dogma.
Such verification would open up a new chapter of Egyptology into the
next millennium, as well as establish astro-geo-archaeology as a
However, The Orion Pyramid Theory may have far greater ramifications
still hidden below the horizon of Egyptology's future. Such
ramifications have been suggested by the location of Leporis in
Letopolis - extending the celestial-terrestrial connection outside
the constellation of Orion and into Lepus.
For surely a plan of the Orion Pyramids' grandeur does not stand
There is work to be done.