No amount of theorizing can replace the solid answers presented by a working model. The running model confirms that the output was through the “dead end” shaft. Also confirmed is the existence of a tunnel out through the bottom of the subterranean chamber’s pit that lead down to the Nile River. The running model is capable of elevating water to any part of a would be pyramid model and can be run without the pyramid structure. If the entire pyramid can be removed and the pump still functions then why put forth the tremendous effort of pyramid construction? This points to the idea that the subterranean assembly is a part of a larger machine. This machine may well have been a power plant as described by Chris Dunn in his book, “The Giza Power Plant”2.


The subterranean chamber is a complex assembly with no immediately obvious reason for the complexity. For a control group, the subterranean chamber assembly was removed and a straight pipe with a “tee” was installed (see Figure 12). The pump still functions with similar output. The primary differences being the presence of a large reverse pulse at the reservoir and the output flow was more erratic. I was surprised to discover that the subterranean chamber changed most of the fluid‘s shock wave into a vertical compression wave in the cement assembly. In his book, Chris Dunn states, “The equipment that provided the priming pulses was most likely housed in the Subterranean Pit.“2 (pg 220)


The equipment may well have been water-hammer and from the pit it came.

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The subterranean chamber utilized two distinctly different forces: Fluid dynamics and acoustics. I constructed two separate models to examine each force in detail.

Acoustic Model: The acoustic model is the original pump model (model #3) that has been modified over the years (see Figures 11, 21). To overcome water pressure and hydraulic hammer spikes, the model is built from fiberglass and epoxy. It was then placed within a mold that was filled with rebar and cement. This 500 pound model was placed alongside a seasonal creek with a small pond acting as the moat or reservoir. The pump model is dubbed the “pulse generator” model because of the powerful pulses generated. The pulses can be felt through the ground at 20 feet and can be heard at 100 feet. The "pulse generator" model also pumps water to various elevations.


It seems possible that the subterranean chamber can shake the whole pyramid and can elevate water to any part of the Giza plateau - pyramid peaks included.

FIGURE 13. The Fluid Dynamics and Acoustical Dynamics

The sound wave striking the perpendicular surface reflects the majority of the pulse back towards the source. When the fluid jet strikes a perpendicular surface, it spreads in a 360° pattern perpendicular to the jet. The subterranean chamber incorporates fluid dynamics and acoustical dynamics.

Fluid dynamics model: This model (model #4) has a glass top and glass eastern wall, which enables viewing of the water flow. I fitted it with 25 individual ink injection locations (see Figure 15).


The various water flows can be demonstrated by varying which ink injection ports are open.

FIGURE 14. Westward Views of the Fluid Dynamics Model

Looking towards the step gives a perspective of the fin arrangement. (Upper Right) Looking through glass eastern wall with pit in foreground. (Lower right) Glass eastern wall can be seen as well as glass topped ante chamber.

FIGURE 15. The Fluid Dynamics Model with Glass Top and Ink Jets

The glass topped fluid dynamics model showing 10 of the 25 ink injection valves. By placing the injectors at strategic locations, the exact fluid dynamics were able to be established. Running the glass topped model in the pump/pulse mode causes the glass to immediately shatter. (Right) Ink being injected into seven ports on the step show the precision and beauty of the fluid design.

The water flows within the subterranean chamber are complex and precise. The dynamics are on par with that of computerized storm analysis: somewhere between hurricane dynamics and tornado dynamics (see Figures 17, 18, 19, 20). While compiling the graphics for these flows it became apparent how much water erosion is actually within this room (see Figures 16, 17, 20). The best signs of erosion are out of tourists reach on the ceiling. The erosion not only shows that the machine was in operation but also allows for calculation of operational time frame.


The erosion patterns confirm the existence of a tunnel from the pit to the Nile.

FIGURE 16. Water Erosion in Subterranean Chamber

(Left) The antechamber before the subterranean chamber shows significant erosion on the ceiling where trapped air allowed turbulence and splashing of water. Photo: Edgar Brothers (Right) Reconstruction of a fin shows extent of erosion in finned area. The builders always used angular sufaces as opposed to the curved surfaces that are present in the fins.


The fin on the right shows more extensive damage. Photo:

FIGURE 17. Looking into Subterranean Chamber from the Antechamber

(Left) The entrancer jet (yellow) shoots from the horizontal passage across the subterranean chamber to the entrance of the “dead end“ shaft (red X). The “dead end” shaft is a water output. The left wall is continuous from the antechamber through to the “dead end“ shaft and functions as a guide. As part of the jet strikes the far wall, it is deflected up and to the right (orange). (Right) The entrance jet is shown shooting across the room. Because the pit is offset from the far wall, the ceiling-to-pit flow misses the jet. Extensive erosion on the ceiling exactly matches the flow patterns. The area at the top of the picture appears to be cavitation damage from the extreme low pressure rarefaction wave. Photo: Edgar Brothers

FIGURE 18. Fluid Dynamics in the South Eastern Quadrant

(Left) Looking down on model shows ink being injected in entrance jet. The entrance jet shoots across the room where part of the flow is deflected by the far wall. (Right) Ink is being injected in six ports around the “dead end” shaft. The yellow entrance jet shoots towards the entrance of the high pressure output. The orange arrows show the deflection around the “dead end” shaft.


Notice how there is a flow from the ceiling down into the pit. The pit is offset from the eastern wall to prevent this ceiling-to-pit flow from interfering with the yellow entrance jet. This completely explains the pit’s offset from the wall. The sloped area at the top of the pit is erosion caused by a major flow into the pit.


At Giza, this area has been filled with bricks to accommodate hand-rails.

FIGURE 19. Fluid Dynamics at the Step Channel

(Left) Looking down on the step face as well as the pit, the ink shows the flow running along the face of the step. As it arrives at the step channel this flow is diverted. Erosion on the floor exactly matches this pattern. The pit’s diagonal offset is exactly aligned with the tunnel to the Nile. (Right)


Ink is injected into the step channel showing flow direction and that it diverts the face flow.

FIGURE 20. Fluid Dynamics in the Western Sector

In the subterranean chamber looking at the step and the primary flows. There exists significant erosion on the floor, walls, and ceiling that exactly matches these flows. Designing this room for the complex three dimensional fluid dynamics would have been a monumental task, not to mention the simultaneous acoustic dynamics. Photo: Santha Faiia


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The well shaft and grotto (see Figure 5) have long been debated regarding their functions and when they were added. Some believe that the tunnel was used as an escape or rescue route5. Others believe that it was added for an inspection shaft for possible earthquake damage5. Considering that the shaft starts near the bottom of the descending passage and targets a specific location some 170 feet away then it is reasonable to assume that whoever dug the tunnel had the original plans. I believe that the well shaft was bored by the original builders and that it was part of the original design.

In a standard hydraulic ram pump (see Figure 3), the well shaft is analogous to the stand pipe. A stand pipe is utilized to maximize the potential pulse rate by creating a short cut for the reverse pulse to reach air and return back down to the compression chamber assembly. Stand pipes are normally two times the diameter of the drive pipe. Yet, at Giza we find the stand pipe to be 25% smaller than the drive pipe. In the model this has the interesting effect of lowering the elevation of the pulsing water to below the water height of the reservoir. The specific elevation correlates to the height of the grotto (see Figure 8). The grotto serves as a reservoir to allow for stabilization and regulation of the reverse pulse (see Figure 21). There exists a block of granite within the grotto that fits within the pipe that I believe was some type of choke or regulator.

Edward Kunkel theorized that water was pumped up through the well shaft and out through the King’s chamber air shafts. He believed that the well shaft was an area of increased pressure. But what we find is that the water in the well shaft is below the moat elevation and therefore is a reduced pressure zone. This observation destroys a large part of Kunkel‘s theory.

Effects of well shaft:

  • Maximizes the pulse rate of the pump assembly.

  • Allows for drainage of fluids entering the Queen’s chamber.

  • Reduces the reverse surge out of the descending passage.

  • Reduces pumping efficiency.

  • Reduces pulse intensity.

FIGURE 21. Running Model with Well Shaft Open

(Left) The “pulse generator” model cemented in place and running. Water is being output through the ”dead end” shaft line. The well shaft is the second vertical line and has a clear plastic top where the grotto is located. The clear grotto allows viewing of the reverse pulse height. The descending passage is the brown and white pipe. (Right) The well shaft is in operation because the valve is open. The output through the “dead end” shaft has decreased by 68% as compared to when the well shaft is closed.

On the model, the well shaft increases the pulse rate from 60 beats per minute to 80 beats per minute. To gain perspective on the well shaft’s effect on the pump’s efficiency, four pump configurations are compared. Two possible pump outputs demonstrate a circulating pump and an elevating pump.

In the circulating pump configuration, the well shaft reduces the efficiency by 29%. More significantly, in the elevating pump configuration, the well shaft reduces the efficiency by 68%. If the well shaft was incorporated in the original pyramid design, as I believe it was, then the pumping efficiency was not of prime importance. If the pumping efficiency was not of prime importance then the pump function is not the most important function.


This raises the question, “What was the primary function of the subterranean machine”?

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The pulse is directed towards the King’s chamber causing it to resonate (see Figure 22).

FIGURE 22. The Subterranean Chamber’s Compression Wave

The primary functions of the subterranean section is to provide pulse for King’s chamber to start the pyramid running or to create a "mass particle" in the Queen's chamber.

The King’s chamber has design features of a resonating chamber. The granite walls are freestanding and isolated from the surrounding limestone masonry. This allows the room to freely resonate. The Orthodox camp labels the five layers of granite ceiling beams as stress relieving. But Chris Dunn demonstrates that these extra layers add nothing to the strength of the ceiling. A much simpler design similar to the lower Queen’s chamber could have been utilized (see Figure 23). Rather, the extra layers of granite beams are resonating chambers utilized to amplify the rooms resonance.2


Extensive sound testing has been done within this room by Thomas Danley2, John Reid10, Chris Dunn2, and others.

FIGURE 23. Simpler King’s Chamber Design - after Chris Dunn

The five layers of granite beams above the King’s chamber have been called “stress relieving” chambers, yet they relieve no stresses. (Inset) A much simpler design similar to the Queen’s chamber has equal strength. Did the builders forget structural design as they moved higher up into the building? Did they enjoy cutting and moving 70 ton ceiling beams?

Some of the most exciting new research has come from Joe Parr4. Joe has discovered an energy bubble around the pyramid. “This bubble or energy field can also be energized and turned off and on with sound.”4(pg 161) Joe Parr has discovered the frequency of the force field to be 51.5 Hz, and the slope of the Great Pyramid is almost exactly 51.5 degrees. “This specific sound frequency intensifies the entire pyramid force field. Now if we can turn this frequency on and off inside the Great Pyramid, the force field would also turn on and off. When the force field turns off, the energy in the force field collapses and allows a group of particles to travel through the pyramid and down the energy conduit.


Dan Davidson, a physicist, believes this pulse travels towards Orion. In 1997 Joe Parr and Dan Davidson traveled to Giza to conduct experiments. Joe built a special signal generator with an attached audio amplifier. Their object was to gain access to the pit chamber of the Great Pyramid where they believed that the energy bubble just enters the room. The room would amplify the effects of the generated signal and consequently control the bubble.”4(pg 162)


Might the energizing of the King’s resonating chamber by the subterranean chamber be the means of turning on and off the force field?

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There needs to be a simple means to compensate for variance in water temperature and atmospheric pressure since these factors change the velocity of the compression wave. The “dead end” shaft pumps water (see Figure 24), but mainly allowed for fine-tuning the compression wave timing and frequency. Adjusting backpressure by adjusting a gate valve at the end of the shaft allows for changes in timing. Testing has shown that the pulse rate can be varied by at least 30 percent.


Adjusting the backpressure {67psi to 3360psi at Giza} also changes the water’s density thereby changing the compression wave’s velocity and frequency. This easily allows for fine-tuning of the lower assembly to create a standing wave in the subterranean chamber and wastegate line.

FIGURE 24. Testing Multiple Options

One of many pipe layouts used to find the best possible configuration for what is under the Giza plateau. Multiple valves were used to verify or negate possibilities, and this layout had 256 binary possibilities. A much simpler layout proved to be the best. To prevent damage to model's “dead end” shaft output, the pipe is stabilized by running it through a cement barrier and then doubling back towards the model.


This double back layout is for convenience and does not reflect the Giza layout.

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Indigenous teachings speak of a tunnel from the area of the Sphinx leading to the Great Pyramid.3 This four foot square tunnel leads from the bottom of the pit to the area just east of the Sphinx. This tunnel did not pass under the Sphinx but exited about 100' in front of the Sphinx temple. It dumped into the ancient Nile River.

Edward Kunkel was also taught the indigenous teachings that a tunnel existed from the Sphinx area that led to the Great pyramid.1 However, he failed to make the connection of the tunnel to the subterranean chamber’s pit. Kunkel believed that the pit had a permanent bottom and that no tunnel exited it. He believed that the pit‘s only function was to form a whirlpool. He also believed that the wastegate was connected to the “dead end“ shaft and exited in the boat pit at the level of the base of the pyramid. This is why Kunkel was unable to make a working model. Although it is tragic that Kunkel was given such an incomplete vision, his part of the vision has been carried forth.


I’m still amazed by his original vision.

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The wastegate is horizontal and is essentially a reversed check valve (see Figure 25). It consisted of one rectangular moving block within a passage. This valve is probably 4’x4’x6’, granite or basalt, and may have been a tuned box (sarcophagus). The valve is closed by the flowing water. This closing of the valve causes a compression wave (shockwave) that is sent up the tunnel11 to the subterranean chamber. Testing has shown that the valve is reopened by the rarefaction wave that immediately follows the compression wave (see Figure 26).


The time required for the water hammer shockwave to travel from the valve to the end of the pipe and back, as well as the increase in pressure caused by the shockwave can both be calculated11.

FIGURE 25. The Final Wastegate

(Left) Piston striking valve seat stops water flow instantaneously and causes compression of the water. The compression of the water causes high pressure compression wave and low pressure rarefaction wave. The low pressure rarefaction wave reopens the valve. (Right)


The submerged horizontal wastegate in action. It runs better once the valve is submerged.

FIGURE 26. The Valve and Fluid Motion at Wastegate

Fluid moving down wastegate line starts valve in motion. Valve accelerates towards valve seat. Closing valve stops water and causes water to compress. Compression wave and rarefaction wave heads back up the line. Low pressure rarefaction wave moves valve to open position.


No water moves past valve until pressure wave returns.

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