Isis is A Virgin Mother!

by Acharya S
15 August 2010

from FreeThoughtNation Website


This article represents my next installment in this series, which began with my essay, "HORUS IS A SUN GOD!!!"


Here I provide the ancient testimony and primary sources for the contention that Isis, the mother of the Egyptian god Horus, was considered and deemed a virgin long before Jesus was a twinkle in his Father's eye.

Firstly, it should be noted that the matter of pre-Christian and non-Christian virgin mothers is not only well established, but it also has its own field of academic studies relating to what is called the "parthenos" in Greek. Indeed, numerous goddesses and other figures - including gods such as Zeus, of all characters - were deemed "parthenos" or virginal, despite whether or not they gave birth once, twice or an infinite amount of times.


Included in these virgin mothers are several in the ancient Indian text the Mahabharata. (See the ZEITGEIST Sourcebook for more on that subject.) The virgin birth itself is called "parthenogenesis" within academia.

In consideration of these facts, it would be astounding for one of the most popular goddesses of the Roman Empire and all time not to be classified in this parthenos category. As it turns out, we would be completely wrong and utterly unscholarly to assert that Isis was not a virgin, as so many have been doing around the internet and elsewhere.

The fact of Isis's perpetual virginity is demonstrated in the ZG Sourcebook, where the information is carefully cited. It is repeated here for the reader's ease of reference.




The virginity of Horus's mother, Isis, has been disputed, because in one myth she is portrayed as impregnating herself with Osiris's severed phallus.


In depictions of Isis's impregnation, the goddess conceives Horus "while she fluttered in the form of a hawk over the corpse of her dead husband"... in an image from the tomb of Ramesses VI, Horus is born out of Osiris's corpse without Isis even being in the picture.


In another tradition, Horus is conceived when the water of the Nile - identified as Osiris - overflows the river's banks, which are equated with Isis. The "phallus" in this latter case is the "sharp star Sothis" or Sirius, the rising of which signaled the Nile flood.


Hence, in discussing these myths we are not dealing with "real people" who have body parts.

'Osiris... begetting a son by Isis, who hovers over him in the form of a hawk.'
(Budge, On the Future Life: Egyptian Religion, 80)

As is often the case with mythical figures, despite the way she is impregnated, Isis remained the "Great Virgin," as she is called in a number of pre-Christian Egyptian writings.


As stated by Egyptologist Dr. Reginald E. Witt, in Isis in the Ancient World:

The Egyptian goddess who was equally "the Great Virgin" (hwnt) and "Mother of the God" was the object of the very same praise bestowed upon her successor [Mary, Virgin Mother of Jesus].

One of the inscriptions that calls Isis the "Great Virgin" appears in the temple of Seti I at Abydos dating to the 13th century BCE.


As stated by professor of Old Testament and Catholic Theology at the University of Bonn Dr. G. Johannes Botterweck, in the Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament:

...The Pyramid Texts speak of "the great virgin" (hwn.t wr.t) three times (682c, 728a, 2002a...); she is anonymous, appears as the protectress of the king, and is explicitly called his mother once (809c). It is interesting that Isis is addressed as hwn.t in a sarcophagus oracle that deals with her mysterious pregnancy.


In a text in the Abydos Temple of Seti I, Isis herself declares:

"I am the great virgin"...

It should be noted that the king or pharaoh, whose mother is called "the great virgin," is also the living Horus; hence, his great virgin mother would be Isis.


Also, in the temple of Neith and Isis at Sais was an ancient inscription that depicted the virgin birth of the sun:

The present and the future and the past, I am. My undergarment no one has uncovered. The fruit I brought forth, the sun came into being.

As Dr. Botterweck also writes:

In the Late Period [712-332 BCE] in particular, goddesses are frequently called "(beautiful) virgins," especially Hathor, Isis, and Nephthys.

During the Greco-Roman period, Isis was equated with the constellation of Virgo, the Virgin, as I relate in Christ in Egypt:

...The identification of Isis with the made in an ancient Greek text called The Katasterismoi, or Catasterismi, allegedly written by the astronomer Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE), who was for some 50 years the head librarian of the massive Library of Alexandria.


Although the original of this text has been lost, an "epitome" credited to Eratosthenes in ancient times has been attributed by modern scholars to an anonymous "Pseudo-Eratosthenes" of the 1st to 2nd centuries AD/CE. In this book, the title of which translates as "Placing Among the Stars," appear discussions of the signs of the zodiac.


In his essay on the zodiacal sign of Virgo (ch. 9), under the heading of "Parthenos," the author includes the goddess Isis, among others, such as Demeter, Atagartis and Tyche, as identified with and as the constellation of the Virgin.


In Star Myths of the Greeks and Romans, Dr. Theony Condos... translates the pertinent passage from the chapter "Virgo" by Pseud-Eratosthenes thus:

Hesiod in the Theogony says this figure is Dike, the daughter of Zeus [Dios] and Themis... Some say it is Demeter because of the sheaf of grain she holds, others say it is Isis, others Atagartis, others Tyche...

(For more information, including the original Greek, where the father-god Zeus is termed Dios, meaning the "Divine One" or "God," see Christ in Egypt)

Also, there exists at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York an ancient Carnelian ring stone from the Imperial period (1st - 2nd cents. AD/CE) that is an "adaptation" of a Greek artifact from the fourth century BCE. The ring stone possesses an image of the Greco-Egyptian hybrid god Serapis-Hades and Isis standing before him holding an "ear of wheat and the sistrum."


The Greek inscription reads:



The phrase is translated as "The Lady Isis, Immaculate," the latter word from the Greek verb agneuw, meaning "to be pure or chaste."

Serapis-Hades and 'The Lady Isis, Immaculate'; carnelian ring stone,

Metropolitan Museum of Art; 1-2nd cents. AD/CE

In addition, according to early Church father Epiphanius (c. 310-403), the virgin mother of the god Aion - also considered to be Horus - brought him forth out of the manger each year.


This account is verified earlier by Church father Hippolytus (c. 236), who, in discussing the various Pagan mysteries (Refutation of All Heresies, 8.45), raises the idea of a "virgin spirit" and remarks:

"For she is the virgin who is with child and conceives and bears a son, who is not psychic, not bodily, but a blessed Aion of Aions."

Egyptologist Dr. Bojana Mojsov concludes:

As the redemptive figured of the Egyptian god [Osiris] loomed large over the ancient world, Isis came to be worshipped as the Primordial Virgin and their child as the Savior of the World.

Bojana also says:

The cult of Isis and Horus-the-Child was especially popular. Hundreds of bronze figurines of Isis nursing her infant found in temples and households became models for the Christian figures of the Virgin and child. Steadily, the story of Osiris had spread beyond Egypt and around the entire Mediterranean.

As we can see, despite her manner of impregnation Isis is clearly a virgin mother, considered as such beginning many centuries before the common era and continuing well into it.

Back to Contents






Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity
by Marguerite Rigoglioso, PhD
reviewed by D.M. Murdock/Acharya S

from TruthBeKnown Website



"The lack of commentary on the tremendous female power embedded in some of our oldest religious stories has rendered virgin motherhood essentially invisible from the start...
...a Virgin Mother [is one] who produced life from within herself without a male consort."
Dr. Marguerite Rigoglioso

Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity (15, 51)

Whatever one takes away from Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity by Dr. Marguerite Rigoglioso, the book certainly is a tour de force.


Phrases like "parthenogenetic creator deity" and "virgin creatrix" readily convey the concept of a virgin mother from remotest times, like a splash of cold water waking up our long dormant female spiritual traditions. There can be no doubt that the virgin-mother concept did not originate with Christianity and that, in my opinion, the idea of the Virgin Mary as a historical personage appears unsupportable from this and much more evidence.

Suddenly, it all makes sense: Of course, the Great Creator of the Universe has been viewed as a female - a goddess - during a significant period of human culture. Evidence in many places points to this idea of a self-generative - essentially virginal - female creator preceding the development of a male counterpart.


For, if God the Father or Yahweh is the creator, yet he has no consort, according to Christian tradition, and is basically asexual, then he too is virginal.


Like Isis and so many others, God the Father is the Great Virgin. Nevertheless, like them he too begets. He is the Virgin Father - a concept applied to the Greek god Zeus as well, despite how many times he is said to procreate, since he is called in antiquity "parthenos" or virgin.


As mythologist Robert Graves says,

"Thus the Orphic hymn celebrates Zeus as both Father and Eternal Virgin."

(Graves, 361)

Rigoglioso also discusses Zeus as virgin creator, as in Orphic fragment 167:

Zeus's parthenogenetic capacity is expressed here in the idea that all existence was "created anew" in the moment of his ingesting of the older god [Phanes].

(Rigoglioso 2010, 46)

The role of Greek influence in much important religious thought is also highlighted in Dr. Rigoglioso's earlier work, The Cult of the Divine Births in Ancient Greece, which she frequently cites in her quest to show the omnipresent divine Virgin Mother Goddess in pre-Christian religion and mythology, dating back several thousand years.


In any event, the various concepts predate their origin in Greece and can be found in numerous other places in antiquity, such as Asia Minor and Egypt.

As Rigoglioso thoroughly demonstrates in Virgin Mother Goddesses, ancient parthenogenetic female creators include:

  • Chaos, Nyx and Ge/Gaia

  • Athena/Neith/Metis

  • Artemis

  • Hera

  • Demeter and Persephone/Kore

  • Gnostic Sophia (essay by Angeleen Campra)

Space does not permit me to recount all the remarkable evidence and insights Rigoglioso provides; suffice it to say that my copy of Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity is full of plastic sticky tabs marking what seems to be every other paragraph.



Neith the Egyptian Prime Mover

While reading about the Egyptian virgin-mother goddess Neith, I was struck once more with how spiritually and religiously sophisticated were the Egyptians.


Their high culture as revealed in their social structure and architecture is also expressed in their religion, mythology and spirituality. In many ways, in the Egyptian culture we are looking at an advanced level of civilization seldom reached since then.

Regarding Neith, Rigoglioso relates:

As a divinity of the First Principle, Neith was an autogenetic [self-begetting] goddess who, in the ultimate mystery, created herself out of her own being... an inscription on a statue of Utchat-Heru, a high priest of Neith, relates that she,

"was the first to give birth to anything, and that she had done so when nothing else had been born, and that she had herself never been born."

(Rigoglioso 2010, 29)

Neith, Virgin Goddess, Form of Isis


After studying the attributes of Neith as a 7,000-year-old Virgin Mother, the parthenogenetic or virgin-birth capacity of other ancient goddesses becomes so blatantly obvious and cosmologically sound that discussions of whether or not a figure was "really a virgin" seem absurd.


As does nitpicking a certain term, as to whether or not it might mean "virgin" or just a "maiden" who is fertile. The bottom line is that we are discussing a cosmological ideal, not real women who possess body parts.

The idea of the self-generating creator is logically female, based on observing nature - that is the virgin-mother concept in a nutshell, and the childish and unsophisticated fairytales placing this entity on Earth as a "real person" pale by comparison. These myths are, in fact, foolish when taken literally.


As literal "facts," they are also degrading to women's sexuality, as opposed to the empowerment provided by the concept of the cosmic, formless and transcendent Virgin Mother.



Hera and Heracles

Although I have been studying Greek religion and mythology for decades, including in college and post-graduate studies in Greece itself, I was nonetheless intrigued to review the evidence concerning not only the antiquity of the pre-Olympian goddess Hera as a virgin mother but also her primacy over the male gods, who appear to be later interlopers and usurpers.

(Rigoglioso 2010, 69ff)

Indeed, the struggle reflected in the mythology between Hera and Zeus, or the goddess and the god, in ancient Greece appears to have begun around 1,000 BCE and may have lasted some 300 or so years, before the Olympians finally ascended to the throne.


As Rigoglioso remarks:

Before the Greeks as we know them existed, a series of invaders from the east and northeast successively overran the Greek peninsula throughout the second-millennium B.C.E. Such invasions culminated with the Indo-European Dorians, who entered Greece about 1100 B.C.E. and brought what became the language of Greece. They also brought a patriarchal social structure and religion.

(Rigoglioso 2010, 11)

Marguerite further states:

Strong indicators that Hera was originally conceived as a parthenogenetic goddess can be found in association with her cult on the island of Samos, located off the coast of ancient Anatolia (Turkey).


On Samos, one of the primary and earliest seats of her worship, she was known as Hera Parthenia, "Hera the Virgin"... Such a title was apparently not uncommon in association with this goddess...

(Rigoglioso 2010, 69)

Renewing her virginity annually in a river, Hera was nonetheless the mother who gave birth parthenogenetically to the Greek god of the forge, Hephaistos.

Hephaistos, Dionysus and Hera

(Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio)

While Rigoglioso depicts the Greek hero and demigod Heracles (Hercules) as an antagonist to parthenogenesis, I would have liked to have seen a discussion of his own alleged virgin birth both from the mortal woman Alcmene and from Hera herself, as suggested by an older version of the myth that likewise reflects male domination of the matrilineal hierarchy.


Speaking of Hera, Dr. Jane Ellen Harrison says,

"Her first husband, or rather consort, was Herakles."

(Harrison, 491; see also Jung, 539)

In this scenario, Hera and Heracles take on the typical role as found around the Near East and Asia Minor: The virgin-mother goddess and her consort-son.


The later myth of Zeus raping Alcmene, virgin daughter of Amphitryon, appears to have been serve as yet another instance of the violent usurpation of the virgin-mother goddess motif by the invasion of patriarchal religion.

Also, whereas Rigoglioso (92ff) sees in Heracles's labors the same male-dominant Olympians' overthrow of the goddess, the 12 tasks clearly possess astronomical or astrotheological meanings; yet, her thesis could help explain why these astrotheological events, rather than being joyous events as is found in other myths, are labors in this particular one.


It is precisely these sort of factors that shape universal myths and make them culturally unique.



Inviolable Wisdom


Celsus Library, Ephesus, Turkey; Photo: Radomil


The concluding chapter, "The Gnostic Sophia: Divine Generative Virgin" by Dr. Angeleen Campra, ties the subject together nicely by providing a bridge between Paganism and Judeo-Christian tradition, as it shows precisely how this ages-old concept of the divine feminine as primordial creator was demoted, at precisely the same time when Christianity was being formed, with its subordinate female figure of the Virgin Mary.


Says Campra:

Sophia rose out of a patriarchal worldview, but I argue that both iterations - Hochma/Sophia of the Wisdom literature of the fifth to first centuries B.C.E. and Sophia of the Valentinian Gnostic myth of the first centuries C.E. - reveal the attributes of the more ancient Virgin Mother deities from the areas neighboring West Asia.

(Rigoglioso 2010, 193)

Campra's extensive survey clearly reveals that parthenogenesis was part of the enigmatic Gnostic doctrine, which brings this extremely ancient concept right down to and into the Christian era, with its evident remake of the Virgin Mother Goddess in Mary, whom I and many others contend is a mythical not historical figure, largely based on this widespread and ancient goddess concept.



The Great Matriarchy v. Patriarchy Debate

Rigoglioso's important study goes a long way in resurrecting the works of Marija Gimbutas, Riane Eisler and Merlin Stone in the "Great Matriarchy v. Patriarchy Debate," in which their thesis of Goddess or female primacy has been assailed and claimed to be "discredited," replaced with more oblique terminology describing "partnership" versus "dominator" cultures.


Indeed, in this regard Marguerite has come out in support of this earlier research (Rigoglioso 2002) and says in VMGA (9):

Critics of the theory that a matriarchal phase of human history preceded patriarchy will no doubt deride the fact that I am even considering such a concept as basis for this book. Haven't we thoroughly trounced the notion and shown it to be archaeologically and anthropologically untenable or unprovable, after all? Haven't we shown, in fact that matriarchies never existed?

I would argue, no.

Concerning Gimbutas in specific, Rigoglioso also remarks:

Although controversy surrounds Gimbutas's methods and conclusions..., the viewpoint I adopt is in accord with those of archaeologists and other scholars who are verifying and expanding on various aspects of Gimbutas's theories... I believe that, because prominent classics scholars... independently held to similar theoretical views, the assumption of an early matriarchal substratum in Greece, upon which my analysis is based, is built on firm, if not conclusive, footing.

(Rigoglioso 2010, 210-11)

Riglioso even suggests that the derision of the opposition to the matriarchal thesis represents,

"women-on-women violence."

(Rigoglioso 2002)

In the same essay, Marguerite also says of this academic debate, in which the goddess movement has been assailed:

So the attack has been particularly virulent - involving the even more vicious tactic of professional discrediting when scorn alone won't do - because we pose a threat to the reigning paradigm.

In the end, Rigoglioso's work also clearly shows the Goddess primacy being overthrown by the male gods and patriarchy, demonstrated through myths and religious, historical and cultural developments over the centuries.



The Root of Female Oppression

It is not simply the solid evidence Rigoglioso puts together so abundantly Patriarchy v. Matriarchy that delights, it is also her very thesis itself that is enticing and refreshing.


I thoroughly enjoyed her conclusions, albeit they reflect a tragedy, a violent usurpation riddled with sexism and misogyny that have led to incalculable suffering worldwide over the past three millennia or so.


Yet, I was relieved to see this sensible explanation for female oppression within religion and mythology coming to light, as I always am when I read the writings of other writers such as Barbara G. Walker.


Indeed, Walker's fantastic work on women's spirituality is beautifully complemented by Rigoglioso's undertaking.


These endeavors go far in restoring dignity and respect to the female aspect of creation, so badly derogated, abused, oppressed and enslaved by the patriarchal Abrahamic and other religions the past several thousand years.



Drawbacks and Omissions

The only serious criticism I have of the book is its price, which is unfortunately that of an academic press and too great for the average reader, who will thus miss out on all the fascinating and important information.


As a publisher, I know I could make this tome for far less and with many images to boot! Fortunately, it is likely that the book will become available in paperback, as is the case with Rigoglioso's previous work The Cult of Divine Birth.

Moreover, for the average reader this book may seem dense and, at times, tedious, as well as challenging because of the academic style of citation that includes the author, year and page number parenthetically in the text, rather than as footnotes or endnotes. Non-scholars may find the style initially distracting or intimidating, but they may also get used to it in their quest to pull out all the gems, which are plentiful.

At certain points, I felt as if the author was overreaching in her conclusions, but such is always the case when one is seriously attempting to prove a controversial thesis with as much evidence as is possible - and it is my studied opinion that Rigliogoso has proved her main thesis of the widespread presence of the virgin-mother goddess concept in antiquity, as well as this mythological motif's overthrow by the male-dominated cultus.

Artemis of Ephesus


In addition, as a scholar and enthusiast of the astrotheological meaning of much religious doctrine and many mythical motifs, I would like to have seen more of a discussion of the virgin birth theme as reflecting characteristics of celestial bodies or events, as well as their interaction with the earth and its inhabitants.


In this regard, in ancient myths we find a theme of the virgin and inviolable dawn goddess giving birth to the new, morning sun.


Likewise, many parthenogenetic goddesses are equated with the earth, moon, Venus and Virgo. In this regard, I was interested in various brief references by Rigoglioso to the moon as it related to certain goddesses, such as the African Nyame and the Greek Artemis.

Importantly, Marguerite and I differ substantially in our conclusions as to what this evidence means in the overall scheme of things.


While she avers that the Virgin Mary was a real person, I evince in my numerous books and articles that these various characters, including the Christian figures, represent mythical motifs reflective of ancient nature worship, solar mythology and astrotheology.


In this regard, I am of the opinion that VMGA is one of the great works to be used in proving the mythicist position.


To wit, while many of the ancients did indeed perceive certain figures such as Hercules or Osiris to have been "real people" who "walked the earth" in remote times - a notion explored most famously by the Greek philosopher Euhemerus (c. 330-260 BCE) - these characters were in fact anthropomorphizations of very ancient, cosmic ideals and concepts.


As ancient writers attest and as we know from such simple notions as the days of the week, many of our most important gods and goddesses are unquestionably astrotheological in nature, including the sun and moon gods and goddesses, as well as the various iterations of the planets and constellations. In other words, the personifications of the celestial bodies are clearly not real people, whether or not divine.

Moreover, in the chapter on Demeter and Persephone, whom she demonstrates were "originally conceived as Virgin Mothers", Rigoglioso goes into a lengthy discussion of the rape of the virgin goddess and the ritual use of a phallus by initiates into the Eleusinian Mysteries, both male and female.


This section is important for historical purposes, but it may make some readers uncomfortable in its frankness and graphic depictions.




From her style and thoroughness, Dr. Rigoglioso is clearly a first-rate scholar.


Yet, some of her thesis will undoubtedly be uncomfortable for many, and if she had composed this work a century ago based on those conclusions she may have been deemed "third rate" by the Catholic Encyclopedia, for example, which disparages with just such a moniker scholars of an earlier era who came to the same deductions.


Obviously, these facts are threatening to Christian dogma, showing that the virgin birth is unoriginal and firmly rooted in mythology, not history.

As a passionate scholar of mythical motifs such as the virgin birth, which I have been discussing for nearly 20 years, including in The Christ Conspiracy in 1999, I can only wish and hope for other professional scholars like Rigoglioso to tackle all the other common mythical motifs in the same rigorous and unbiased manner.


Another such effort that comes to mind is The Riddle of the Resurrection by Dr. Tryggve N.D. Mettinger, which basically proves that the motif of a god or goddess resurrecting from the dead is present in the religion and mythology of several pre-Christian cultures, as we would logically expect it to be.

Although it is a scholarly work that may be difficult for some to tackle, Virgin Mother Goddesses readily proves Rigoglioso's major points, including and especially the existence in the human psyche, religion and mythology extending back millennia of the concept of a self-generating or parthenogenetic female divine creator.


Regardless of the author and my different opinions as to its overall significance, I feel that Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity is an indispensable resource for scholars and students of comparative religion and mythology, as well as women's spirituality and goddess studies, and I personally will be using it for years to come.




Graves, Robert. The White Goddess. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1966.
Harrison, Jane Ellen. Epilegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. Kessinger, 2003.
Jung, Carl Gustav. Psychology of the Unconscious. New York: Moffat, Yard and Co., 1916.
Rigoglioso, Marguerite. "Women's Spirituality Scholars Speak Out: A Report on the 7th Annual Gender & Archeology Conference at Sonoma State.", 2002.
 - The Cult of the Divine Birth in Ancient Greece. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
 - Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Back to Contents







Who is The Virgin Mary?
by Acharya S/D.M. Murdock

excerpted from 'Suns of God: Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled'


Moon Mary - Queen of Heaven

"The goddesses have stories to tell. One such story - far too long ignored - is that, in their original, unadulterated form, they were parthenogenetic. The word parthenogenesis comes from the Greek parthenos, 'virgin' more or less, and gignesthai, 'to be born.' It means, essentially, to be born of a virgin - that is, without the participation of a male.


For a goddess to be 'parthenogenetic' thus means that she stands as a primordial creatrix, who requires no male partner to produce the cosmos, earth, life, matter and even other gods out of her own essence.


Plentiful evidence shows that in their earliest cults, before they were subsumed under patriarchal pantheons as the wives, sisters and daughters of male gods, various female deities of the ancient Mediterranean world were indeed considered self-generating, virgin creatrixes."
Dr. Marguerite Rigoglioso, Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity (1)

"There is but one god and goddess, but many are their powers and names: Jupiter, Sol, Apollo, Moses, Christ, Luna, Ceres, Proserpinfa, Tellus, Mary. But have a care in speaking these things. They should be hidden in silence as are the Eleusinian mysteries; sacred things must needs be wrapped in fable and enigma."
Konrad Muth (1471-1526)

Virgin Mary adored in heaven


As is the case with Jesus Christ himself, the godman's parents, Joseph and Mary, never appear in the contemporary historical record of the time they allegedly existed.


Nor are they mentioned in non-gospel Christian writings earlier than the purported time of church father Ignatius (d. 107 CE).


Oddly enough, the Islamic sacred text, the Koran, places Jesus and Mary in the same era as Moses, or the 13th century BCE. Arabs believed that Jesus was Joshua, the Old Testament prophet, and that Joshua's mother was "Mirzam," the Miriam of Exodus, sister of Moses and Aaron. (Robertson, CM, 297)


In this regard, Joshua is Jesus in Greek, and both Mirzam and Miriam are equivalent to Mariam or Mary.


As Strong's Concordance (Gk. 3137) relates:

"Mary or Miriam = 'their rebellion.'"

The Persians likewise believed that Joshua's mother was the Mosaic Miriam. Hence, according to Near Eastern tradition there appeared a Jesus, son of Mary, over a thousand years prior to the Christian era.


Moreover, like Jesus, who was called "Emmanuel" (Mt. 1:23), a,

"Persian title of 'the god Immani,' or E-mani,' venerated in Elam as a sacred king-martyr," the Persian savior Mani was said to have been "born of a virgin named Mary."

(Walker, 428)



The Virgin Goddess

In reality, the ancient world abounded with traditions, prophecies, fables and myths of miraculous conceptions and births, long before the Christian era, and the virgin-mother motif is common enough in pre-Christian cultures to demonstrate its unoriginality and non-historicity within Christianity.


In early Christian times, Mary herself was believed to have been born of a virgin, which, if taken literally, would represent a virgin [or miraculous] birth prior to Christ, rendering his own nativity unoriginal and mundane, rather than miraculous and divine.


One source of Mary's immaculate conception was Christian writer and saint John of Damascus (c. 676-c. 754-787), who asserted that Mary's parents were,

"filled and purified by the Holy Ghost, and freed from sexual concupiscence."

Concerning this matter, the Catholic Encyclopedia ("Immaculate Conception") states that "even the human element" of Mary's origin,

"the material of which she was formed, was pure and holy." In other words, Roman Catholic doctrine dictates that, like Jesus, "the Blessed Virgin Mary" was "conceived without sin."

(Hackwood, 17)

In order to maintain the "uniqueness" of Christ's virgin birth, however, this contention regarding Mary is not taken seriously.


What it proves, nonetheless, is that fabulous Christian claims are based on pious speculation, not historical fact, speculation by the faithful that changes from era to era, depending on the need.

Virgin Mary adored in heaven


As it turns out, the Virgin Mary is, like Jesus Christ, a mythical character, founded upon older goddesses.


Following on the heels of goddesses such as Aphrodite, Astarte, Cybele, Demeter, Hathor, Inanna, Ishtar and Isis, Mary is,

"both virgin and mother, and, like many of them, she gives birth to a half-human, half-divine child, who dies and is reborn."

(Baring, 548)

Regarding the Great Mother Goddess, upon whom Mary is based and whose names are legion, in Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity (II, 45) Francis Legge says:

"Her most prominent characteristics show her to be a personification of the Earth, the mother of all living, ever bringing forth and ever a virgin…"

In Pagan and Christian Creeds (159-161), Edward Carpenter recites a long list of virgin mothers:

Danae impregnated by Zeus as a golden shower

Greek Red Figure ware, c. 5th cent. BCE


Zeus, Father of the gods, visited Semele… in the form of a thunderstorm; and she gave birth to the great savior and deliverer Dionysus.


Zeus, again, impregnated Danae in a shower of gold; and the child was Perseus… Devaki, the radiant Virgin of the Hindu mythology, became the wife of the god Vishnu and bore Krishna, the beloved hero and prototype of Christ.


With regard to Buddha, St. Jerome says:

"It is handed down among the Gymnosophists of India that Buddha, the founder of their system, was brought forth by a Virgin from her side."

The Egyptian Isis, with the child Horus on her knee, was honored centuries before the Christian era, and worshipped under the names of "Our Lady," "Queen of Heaven," "Star of the Sea," "Mother of God," and so forth.


Before her, Neith the Virgin of the World, whose figure bends from the sky over the earthly plains and the children of men, was acclaimed as mother of the great god Osiris…

The old Teutonic goddess Hertha (the Earth) was a Virgin, but was impregnated by the heavenly Spirit (the Sky); and her image with a child in her arms was to be seen in the sacred groves of Germany. The Scandinavian Frigga, in much the same way, being caught in the embraces of Odin, the All-father, conceived and bore a son, the blessed Balder, healer and savior of mankind.


Quetzalcoatl, the (crucified) savior of the Aztecs, was the son of Chimalman, the Virgin Queen of Heaven. Even the Chinese had a mother-goddess and virgin with child in her arms; and the ancient Etruscans the same…

Black Madonna and Child, Anjony, France, c. 17th cent.

(Photo: Francis Debaisieux)


In addition to the omnipresent mother-and-child imagery beginning at least five millennia ago are the black virgin-mother statues found all over the Mediterranean and especially in Italian churches, representing the very ancient Egyptian goddess Isis, as well as the later Mary, having been refigured or "baptized anew" as the Jewish Mother of God.


Concerning this development, in its article the "Virgin Birth of Christ" the Catholic Encyclopedia ("CE") remarks:

"A first class of writers have recourse to pagan mythology in order to account for the early Christian tradition concerning the virgin birth of Jesus. Usener argues that the early Gentile Christians must have attributed to Christ what their pagan ancestors had attributed to their pagan heroes; hence the Divine sonship of Christ is a product of the religious thought of Gentile Christians… Conrady found in the Virgin Mary a Christian imitation of the Egyptian goddess Isis, the mother of Horus…"

Concerning the usurpation of the Virgin Mother by Christianity, which simply constituted the changing of the goddess from one ethnicity to another, in The Paganism in Our Christianity apologist Sir Arthur Weigall observes:

Isis nursing her Divine Son, Horus…


"While the story of the death and resurrection of Osiris may have influenced the thought of the earliest Christians in regard to the death and resurrection of our Lord, there can be no doubt that the myths of Isis had a direct bearing upon the elevation of Mary, the mother of Jesus, to her celestial position in the Roman Catholic theology…


In her aspect as the mother of Horus, Isis was represented in tens of thousands of statuettes and paintings, holding the divine child in her arms; and when Christianity triumphed these paintings and figures became those of the Madonna and Child without any break in continuity: no archaeologist, in fact, can now tell whether some of these objects represent the one or the other."

Like the Christian Mary and Egyptian Isis, the Canaanite goddess Astarte, mentioned in the Old Testament, was,

the "Virgin of the Sea," as well as the "blessed Mother and Lady of the Waters."

(Baring, 459)

Another virgin goddess was the mother of the Phrygian god Attis, whose widespread worship "must have influenced the early Christians."


As Weigall (115-116) recounts:

Attis was the Good Shepherd, the son of Cybele, the Great Mother, or alternatively, of the Virgin Nana, who conceived him without union with mortal man, as in the story of the Virgin Mary…


In Rome the festival of his death and resurrection was annually held from March 22nd to 25th; and the connection of this religion with Christianity is shown by the fact that in Phrygia, Gaul, Italy and other countries where Attis-worship was powerful, the Christians adopted the actual date, March 25th, as the anniversary of our Lord's passion.

The pre-Christian virgin goddess Myrrha was the mother of the god Adonis, who tradition holds was born at Bethlehem,

"in the same sacred cave that Christians later claimed as the birthplace of Jesus."

Indeed, Myrrha was,

"identified with Mary by early Christians who called Jesus's mother Myrrh of the Sea."

(Walker, 10)

Buddha born through the side of his mother, Maya.

Gandharan frieze, 2nd cent. AD/CE


Also a product of a virgin birth, the Indian avatar Buddha's conception is portrayed as coming to his mother, Maya, in a dream, similar to the conflicting gospel tales of Joseph's dream or the angel appearing to Mary.


Regarding Buddha, in Christianity Before Christ (87) Dr. John Jackson states:

"He was said to have been born of the Virgin Maya, or Mary. His incarnation was accomplished by the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Virgin Maya.


The infant Buddha, soon after birth, spoke to his mother, saying:

'I will put to an end to the sufferings and sorrows of the world.'

As these words are uttered, a mystical light surrounded the infant Messiah."

This mythical theme is not uncommon, as the birth through the side of the virgin was also claimed of Jesus by early Christian "heretics." It was likewise said that Julius Caesar was born through the "side of his mother," whence comes the term "Caesarean section."


So too was the Egyptian sun god Ra "born from the side of his mother" (Bonwick, 107), a motif that reflects the relationship between the sun and moon. Part of the "lunar phenomenon," the mother's womb symbolizes the moon, in which the solar child can be seen growing.


Hence, Buddha's mother, Maya, was depicted as transparent, as was the pregnant Mary,

"as may be seen in Didron's Iconography!".

(Massey, 181)

Like Buddha's mother, Queen Maya, the carpenter's wife Mary is also a "queen," as in "Queen of Heaven." Precursor of Mary, the immensely popular Isis's status as "Queen of Heaven" was established eons before, and continued well into, the common era.


In his Latin novel of the second century ce, The Golden Ass (XI.2), Lucius Apuleius describes Isis's introduction of herself to the "hapless quadruped" as follows:

"I am she that is the natural mother of all things, mistress and governess of all the elements, the initial progeny of worlds, chief of the powers divine, queen of heaven, the principal of the gods celestial, the light of the goddesses.


At my will the planets of the air, the wholesome winds of the seas and the silences of hell are disposed.


My name, my divinity, is adored throughout the world, in divers manners, in variable customs and in many names, for the Phrygians call me the mother of the gods; the Athenians, Minerva; the Cyprians, Venus; the Candians, Diana; the Sicilians, Proserpina; the Eleusinians, Ceres; some Juno, others Bellona, others Hecate; and principally the Ethiopians who dwell in the Orient, and the Egyptians… do call me Queen Isis."

(Siculus, 31fn)

As can be seen, Isis was fervently revered as the epitome of Divinity, long before Mary achieved that rank.

Winged Isis in cruciform, Tomb of Seti I



Mary, Goddess of the Moon

The virgin-goddess "Queen of Heaven" is prevalent in the ancient world for the reason that she is astrological or astrotheological, symbolizing the moon, the earth, Venus, Virgo and the dawn.


The many goddesses thus resolve themselves to variants on a theme, one of which is the moon, a feature of the ubiquitous sun-god mythos, in which the moon, by mirroring the sun's light, "gives birth" to the sun.


In Christ Lore (30-31), Hackwood describes the astrotheological development of this theme:

Virgin Mary with Stars atop a Crescent Moon.

Albrecht Durer


"The Virgin Mary is called not only the Mother of God, but the Queen of Heaven.


This connects her directly with astronomic lore. The ornamentation of many continental churches often includes a representation of the Sun and Moon "in conjunction," the Moon being therein emblematical of the Virgin and Child….

"As the Moon…is the symbol of Mary, Queen of Heaven, so also a bright Star sometimes symbolizes him whose star was seen over Jerusalem by the Wise Men from the East.

"The many depictions of Mary with the crescent moon reflect her status as the ancient moon goddess, exemplified by the Egyptian goddess Isis."

In his book dating to the first century BCE on Egyptian antiquities, Greek writer Diodorus Siculus affirms that the Egyptian god Osiris symbolizes the sun while his wife/sister, Isis, is the moon:

Isis with moon and lunar horns nursing Horus


"Now when the ancient Egyptians, awestruck and wondering, turned their eyes to the heavens, they concluded that two gods, the sun and the moon, were primeval and eternal; and they called the former Osiris, the latter Isis, assigning each of these names according to some relevant characteristic…

"…Now Isis, in translation, signifies 'ancient' - a name bestowed for her ancient and immortal origin. They depict horns on her head, both from the moon's horned appearance when in its crescent, and because the horned cow is sacred to her among the Egyptians."

Concerning Isis's prototype, the Egyptian lunar virgin goddess Neith, who predated the Christian era by millennia, in The Ancient Gods, Rev. James observes:

…She too was the virgin mother of the Sun-god, having given birth to Re [Ra] as the great cow, and was identified with Isis as the wife of Osiris, later becoming one of the forms of Hathor.


Indeed, she was "the Great Goddess, the mother of all the gods."…

…She was eternal, self-existing, self-sustaining and all-pervading, personifying the female principle from very early times. She was believed to have brought forth the transcendent Sun-god without the aid of a male partner, very much as in the Memphite Theology Ptah created all things virtually ex nihilo by thinking as the "heart" and commanding as the "tongue."

The virgin-mother goddess represents not only the moon but also the constellation of Virgo.


This important information regarding the Virgin is found in ancient texts, such as the Eclogues (37 BCE) of the Roman poet Virgil, in which is described or "prophesied" the,

"return of the virgin," i.e., Virgo, who would bring about "a new breed of men sent down from heaven," as well as the birth of a boy "in whom… the golden race [shall] arise."

This virgin-born "golden boy" is in actuality the sun.

Commenting on the Virgo-Sun relationship, the author of Christianity Mythology Unveiled (CMU, 105) notes:

In the ancient zodiacs of India and Egypt, there is seen this virgin nursing a male child, with sun rays around his head…which is emblematical of the infant sun at the winter solstice, and of his being then in the sign of the Virgo.

Regarding the solar nativity, in The Golden Bough Sir Frazer further explicates:

Egyptian Virgo, from Oedipus Judaicus

by Drummond


The ritual of the nativity, as it appears to have been celebrated in Syria and Egypt, was remarkable. The celebrants retired into certain inner shrines, from which at midnight they issued with a loud cry,

"The Virgin has brought forth! The light is waxing!"

The Egyptians even represented the new-born sun by the image of an infant which on his birthday, the winter solstice, they brought forth and exhibited to his worshippers.


No doubt the Virgin who thus conceived and bore a son on the twenty-fifth of December was the great Oriental goddess whom the Semites called the Heavenly Virgin or simply the Heavenly Goddess…

As does Latin authority Macrobius (5th cent. CE), the Paschal Chronicle recounts that the newborn sun (Horus) was presented to the public every year at the winter solstice, as a babe in a manger.


The pertinent part of the Chronicle reads as follows:

"To this day, Egypt has consecrated the pregnancy of a virgin, and the nativity of her son, whom they annually present in a cradle, to the adoration of the people; and when king Ptolemy, three hundred and fifty years before our Christian era, demanded of the priests the significance of this religious ceremony, they told him it was a mystery."

(CMU, 100)


The Chronicle author(s) further confirms that Christianity is a continuation of the ancient astrotheological religion when he states that the "Annunciation of our Lady," i.e., the conception of Christ by the Virgin Mary, occurred on March 25th, the vernal equinox, exactly nine months prior to the December 25th birthdate, at the winter solstice.

(CP, 166)

Virgin Mary, Clothed in the Sun


While the masses have been kept in the dark, the knowledgeable elite have been aware of what the Virgin truly represents, even as they have attempted sophistically to explain "her" relationship to the "earthly" life of "our Lord."


Concerning the astrotheological nature of the gospel story, including the virgin birth/immaculate conception, the famous Christian theologian and saint Albertus Magnus, or Albert the Great (1193?-1280), admitted:

"We know that the sign of the celestial Virgin did come to the horizon at the moment where we have fixed the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ. All the mysteries of the incarnation of our Savior Christ; and all the circumstances of his marvelous life, from his conception to his ascension, are to be traced out in the constellations, and are figured in the stars."

(CMU, 97-98)

The virgin birth thus refers to the hour of midnight, December 25th, when the constellation of Virgo rises on the horizon.

Assumption of the Virgin Mary


Another example of the ancient astrotheology appears in the observance of the "Assumption of the Virgin," celebrated in Catholicism on August 15th, when the Virgin Mary was "assumed" or "taken up."


The observance is not representative of an actual event that happened to an historical character but commemorates the time when the constellation of the Virgin is,

"rendered invisible by the solar rays."

(Higgins, 6)

In other words, the summer sun's brightness blots out Virgo.


Mary's Nativity, observed on September 8th, occurs when the constellation is visible again.

The goddess is not only the moon and Virgo but also the dawn, who daily gives birth to the sun. By eminent Christian Egyptologist E.A. Wallis Budge's assessment (cxiv), the versatile Isis is likewise "the deity of the dawn," which, according to very ancient mythology, would make her "inviolable" and "eternal," i.e., a perpetual virgin.


Even Christian writers have understood the connection between the Virgin and the dawn, as exemplified in "one of the homilies of St. Amedus on the Virgin," which includes the following regarding Mother Mary:

"She is the Fountain that waters the whole earth, the Dawn that precedes the True Sun. She is the health (salus) of all, the reconciler (conciliatrix) of the whole world, the inventress of grace, the generatrix of life, the mother of salvation."

(Lundy, 221)

Isis suckling Horus, Mary nursing Jesus


As is evident, the worship of the Virgin Isis was eventually and nearly seamlessly transformed into that of the Virgin Mary:

"The worship of the Virgin as the Theotokos or Mother of God, which was introduced into the Catholic Church about the time of the destruction of the Serapeum, enabled the devotees of Isis to continue unchecked their worship of the mother goddess by merely changing the name of the object of their adoration, and Prof. Drexler gives a long list of the statues of Isis which thereafter were used, sometimes with unaltered attributes, as those of the Virgin Mary."

(Legge, I, 85)

As Weigall (204-208) elucidates, Christianity in general constitutes a rehash of Paganism:

From Pagan mythology Christianity had unconsciously taken over many a wonderful story and had incorporated it into the life of Jesus

…many of the old heathen gods had been taken into the Church as saints. Castor and Pollux became St. Cosmo and St. Damien; Dionysos, many of whose attributes were attached to St. John the Baptist, still holds his place as St. Denis of Paris…


All over Christendom, pagan sacred places were perpetuated by the erection of Christian chapels or churches on the same sites; and there are hundreds of shrines dedicated to the Madonna on ground once sacred to nymphs or goddesses, while the holy wells or springs of heathendom are now the holy wells of the Church.


The statues of Jupiter and Apollo became those of St. Peter and St. Paul; and the figures of Isis were turned into those of the Virgin Mary…

Not only was the worship of Isis usurped by that of Mary but also the countless apparitions believed by prior worshippers to be the Egyptian goddess were subsequently asserted to be appearances by the Virgin Mary.


Although many Christians feel that such visions of "Mary" and "Jesus" prove the validity of their belief system, the fact is that apparitions of numerous gods and goddesses to their millions of followers have been quite common globally, in a wide variety of cultures, beginning centuries and millennia prior to the Christian era.


The purported appearance of a god or goddess does not, therefore, prove the validity of any particular religion, or it would ensue that every faith in which believers have allegedly seen their god or gods would constitute the "one, true religion."

In the end, like her Son the Sun, the Virgin Moon Mary is a mythical character based on older goddesses who were themselves astrotheological personifications of celestial and earthly bodies and principles.


In its most poetic, feminine manifestation, the ancient astrotheology reached exquisite zeniths befitting the Divine Mother of All, flawlessly formless beyond all cultural camouflage and ethnic exteriority.




Anonymous, The Christian Mythology Unveiled, Printed privately, 1842?
Baring, Anne and Cashford, Jules, The Myth of the Goddess: Evolution of an Image, Arkana/Penguin, London, 1993.
Bonwick, James, Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought, Falcon's Wing, CO, 1956.
Budge, E.A. Wallis, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Dover, NY, 1967.
Carpenter, Edward, Pagan and Christian Creeds (1921), Health Research, 1975.
Catholic Encyclopedia,
Chronicon Paschale: 284-628 AD, trs. Michael and Mary Whitby, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, 1989.
Dupuis, Charles Francois, The Origin of All Religious Worship, Garland, New York/London, 1984.
Doane, Bible Myths and Their Parallels in Other Religions (1882), Health Research, WA, 1985.
Hackwood, Fredk. Wm., Christ Lore: Being the Legends, Traditions, Myths, Symbols, Customs & Superstitions of the Christian Church, London, 1902.
Higgins, Godfrey, Anacalypsis (1836), A&B Books, NY, 1992.
Jackson, John G., Christianity Before Christ, American Atheist Press, Texas, 1985.
James, E.O., The Ancient Gods, Putnam, NY, 1960.
Legge, Francis, Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity: From 330 B.C. To 330 A.D., University Books, NY, 1964.
Lundy, John P., Monumental Christianity: The Art and Symbolism of the Primitive Church, Swan Sonnenschein & Co., London, 1889.
Macrobius, The Saturnalia, tr. Percival Vaughan Davies, Columbia University Press, NY, 1969.
Massey, Gerald, Gerald Massey's Lectures, A&B Publishers, NY, 1992.
McCabe, Joseph, The Story of Religious Controversy,
Robertson, J.M., Christianity and Mythology, Watts & Co., London, 1910.
Rigoglioso, Marguerite. Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2010.
Siculus, Diodorus, The Antiquities of Egypt, tr. Edwin Murphy, Transaction Publishers, 1990.
Strong's Concordance,
Virgil, Eclogues,
Walker, Barbara, The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, Harper, San Francisco, 1983.
Weigall, Arthur, The Paganism in Our Christianity, Hutchinson & Co., London, 1928.

Back to Contents





Neith, Virgin Mother of the World

from TruthBeKnown Website


Neith-Isis, Virgin Mother Goddess of Egypt, with shuttle on her head

'A Handbook for Travellers in Lower and Upper Egypt.' London: John Murray, 1888; p. 082a

The worship of the Egyptian goddess Neith, a sometime mother of the solar deity Horus, is traceable to around 7,000 years ago, according to Dr. Wim van Binsbergen, chairman of the Foundations of Intercultural Philosophy at Erasmus University, who calls her an example of,

"female parthenogenetic cosmogenesis."

(van Binsbergen, 35)


"Neith never engaged in any kind of sexual union; that is, she was eternally a virgin. Yet, as the primordial Being, she was also generative. Thus, in Neith we have one of the earliest appearances of the archetype of the Virgin Mother, the Holy Parthenos, in her original, unadulterated form."

Regarding the very ancient Neith and her parthenogenetic capacity, in her book Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity Dr. Marguerite Rigoglioso remarks:

...Neith was unequivocally portrayed as an autogenetic/parthenogenetic creatrix in the inscriptions of the middle and late periods in Egypt, a depiction that may have characterized the goddess in her earliest cult as well.


She specifically was both creator and "virgin," a being whose peplos, or dress, no one had lifted. As one of the oldest deities of Egypt, who most likely was worshipped throughout ancient Libya, she thus represents one of the earliest appearances of the archetype of the Virgin Mother goddess in the ancient Mediterranean world.

It is important in discussing Neith as autogene, or self-created Virgin Mother...first to establish her preeminence in the Egyptian pantheon. Neith... was one of the oldest of all Egyptian deities and one of the most important divinities during the early historic period. There is strong evidence that her worship was widespread in predynastic times... She is first documented iconographically in the last phase of the predynastic period (c. fourth millennium B.C.E.)...

As a divinity of the First Principle, Neith was an autogenetic goddess who, in the ultimate mystery, created herself out of her own being.


Budge notes... that an inscription on a statue of Utchat-Heru, a high priest of Neith, relates that she,

"was the first to give birth to anything, and that she had done so when nothing else had been born, and that she had herself never been born."

We see her autogenetic aspect echoed in both Egyptian and Greek texts.


Plutarch... refers to an inscription on her statue in Sais...:

"I am everything that has been, and that is, and that shall be, and no one has ever lifted my garment (peplos)."...

That in the above-noted Saitic inscription Neith's "garment" remained perpetually "unlifted" is also a sexual reference... The inscription therefore communicates that Neith never engaged in any kind of sexual union; that is, she was eternally a virgin. Yet, as the primordial Being, she was also generative.


Thus, in Neith we have one of the earliest appearances of the archetype of the Virgin Mother, the Holy Parthenos, in her original, unadulterated form.

Respected Egyptologist Dr. Claus Bleeker concurs with this assessment regarding Neith, remarking in The Rainbow: A Collection of Studies in the Science of Religion (139-140):

It appears that the connection between Neith and the primeval cow has several implications. Neith is not only a primeval deity but also a goddess of the universe.


An echo of the conviction that she exercises the latter function can be heard in the inscription on her statue in Sais, as it is quoted by Plutarch:

["The present and the future and the past, I am. My undergarment no one has uncovered. The fruit I brought forth, the sun came into being."] Her quality as primeval deity is indicated in the explanation of her name which Plutarch offers, i.e. ... "I came (into existence) out of myself."... It is confirmed by a line in the myth of creation at Esna, which reads: "apparue d'elle-même" ["appeared from herself"].

The idea that Neith is a goddess who produces life out of herself is also expressed in the notion that she is androgynous.... She has no partner beside her. In Esna she is accompanied by two sons. She is the virgin goddess who procreates children without male assistance.

It is therefore not surprising that she is considered as a creator.

It should be recalled that Neith is identified in antiquity with both the Greek goddess Athena, who is likewise a parthenogenetic creatrix or virgin mother, as well as Isis, about whom the same can be and is said. Among others, Isis is identified with the constellation of Virgo, the Virgin, likewise in antiquity.


There are many such manifestations of the virgin mother, long before Christianity was ever conceived.




Bleeker, Claus J. The Rainbow: A Collection of Studies in the Science of Religion. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1975.
Rigoglioso, Marguerite. Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2010.
van Binsbergen, Wim M.J. "Skulls and tears: Identifying and analyzing an African fantasy space extending over 5000 kilometers and across 5000 years" (1998),

Back to Contents