significance of 19.5° was actually first brought
to mankind’s attention through another celestial body much closer to
Earth – the Red Planet.
This is not as strange as it sounds.
For instance, Mars happens to
be intertwined with
ancient Egypt in curious ways:
The Egyptian capital Cairo, situated adjacent to Giza, derives its
name from Al Qahira denoting Mars. (More literally it means ‘the
The ancient Egyptians called Mars ‘Horus of the Horizon’ (Horakhti),
which was the very same name given to the Great Sphinx. Mars was
also called ‘Horus the Red’ (Hor Dshr), and for a long time the
Sphinx was painted red.
Just as the Great Sphinx is the hybrid of man and a lion, in ancient
Hindu myths Mars is Nr-Simha, the ‘Man-Lion’.
The term ‘pyramid’ derives from the Greek term
pyr meaning ‘fire’,
as in Mars the ‘fire planet’. (Mars is often referred to as pyroeis
As for the angle 19.5°, it resides at the heart of the geometric
‘message’ claimed to have been found on the deceptively barren
Indeed, the first sign of the ‘Martian message’ emerged through
certain structures that were not only pyramidal but also
These apparent pyramids were captured on camera in 1972 by NASA’s
Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to enter Mars orbit in history. As
it flew over a region called Elysium Quadrangle, the probe just
happened to detect this ‘tip of the iceberg’ – as they would turn
out to be – quietly sitting there.
While no serious scientific investigation was launched, it was
certainly anomalous enough for celebrated scientist
Carl Sagan to
comment that these ‘beckoning pyramids’, as he called them, did
‘warrant… a careful look’.
Following this little prelude came Cydonia.
‘Oh my God, look at this!’, exclaimed
Tobias Owen of JPL (Jet
Propulsion Laboratory) as he came across a photograph labeled 35A72,
sent from Mars by Viking 1 in 1976. What he saw was the now infamous
‘Face on Mars’ situated in a region called Cydonia.
It was a rock formation resembling a huge human face silently
staring up into space.
While seemingly a silly notion, there was at least some symbolic
coherence here, as noted by
Richard Hoagland, in that the Egyptian
name given to the ‘Martian god’ Horus was Heru, which could also
The first picture of the ‘Face on Mars’ (35A72)
taken by the
Viking spacecraft in 1976
Then came Vincent Dipietro, a
NASA computer scientist, who discovered another
in 1979 that showed the same object still looking like a face.
But more importantly, DiPietro
along with Gregory Molenaar found another peculiar feature in the
vicinity of the ‘Face’. This was a gigantic and seemingly five-sided
pyramidal structure, nicknamed the ‘D&M Pyramid’ (after DiPietro and
Unlike the ‘Face’, this pyramid proved to be more effective in
determining the involvement of intelligence, thanks to its geometric
nature. And shocking was what the subsequent analysis revealed: the
inferred design of the D&M Pyramid seemed to express Pythagorean
mathematics and geometry! 
Geometric analysis of the ‘D&M Pyramid’ model.
NASA, however, simply could not be bothered to look into the growing
Understandably frustrated, Dipiero and Molenaar resolved to write Unusual Mars Surface Features – which would catch the attention of
Richard Hoagland, a science writer and former space program
consultant. (He presently heads ‘The Enterprise Mission’, a group
devoted to investigating space anomalies as well as anything
Doing some investigation of his own, Hoagland found other anomalous
objects in Cydonia, such as what he nicknamed the ‘City’, ‘Fort’,
‘Cliff’, and ‘Tholus’.
Increasingly fascinated by those ‘Monuments of Mars’ and driven by
pure curiosity, he went on to establish the Independent Mars
Investigation (IMI) funded by
SRI International, a renowned think
tank in California involved with cutting-edge science and
technology. This eventually evolved into the ‘Mars Mission’ and then
into ‘The Enterprise Mission’.
Among the members were:
anthropologist Randolpho Pozos
plasma physicist John Brandenberg
SRI scientists Lambert Dolphin and Bill Beatty
image-processing expert Mark Carlotto
cartographer Erol Torun
These independent researchers then managed to accumulate ample
evidence to strongly support the structures’ artificiality – the
most compelling being the geometric attributes of the D&M Pyramid
model found by Torun:
What Torun discovered was a mathematically rich figure whose
geometry contains the mathematical bases for the hexagon, the
pentagon, and the classic proportions of the Golden Ratio…
the model’s internal angles, angle ratios, and trigonometric
functions redundantly express three square root values, sqrt 2, sqrt
3, sqrt 5, and two mathematical constants, pi (the ratio of the
circumference of a circle to its diameter) and e (the base of the
natural logarithms) with a mean error of one-half of one percent…
Except for sqrt 2 and sqrt 3, the constants do not appear alone, but
in seven different mathematical combinations... The most redundant
values discovered were e/pi, e/sqrt 5, and sqrt 3. These values are
repeated four times each in at least two different modes of
The investigators additionally revealed that the geometry of the D&M
Pyramid seemed to emphasize key tetrahedral angles such as 19.5° and
In particular, the ‘tetrahedral constant’ 19.5° was found
encoded everywhere in the region of Cydonia. There was, for
example, a set of sixteen little ‘mounds’ in the ‘City’ area
examined by Horace W. Crater, a physicist and pattern-analysis
expert at the Tennessee Space Institute.
Crater was astounded to discover that the mounds were definitely not
randomly placed features. Many of the angles made by the mounds, he
had to conclude, were decidedly tetrahedral and functions of
Tetrahedral geometry, therefore, had firmly emerged as the ‘message
And on this point, Hoagland states in
The Monuments of
The key… now unmistakably centers on the geometric and geodetic
properties of an inscribed tetrahedron… surrounded by a sphere,
communicated so redundantly through the inter-locking geometry,
angles, mathematical constants, and their associated trigonometric
functions discovered so redundantly across Cydonia.
[Hoagland's 'Geometric Relationship Model' of Cydonia]
If these findings are accurate, it would amount to one of the
biggest revelations in history – the first sign of intelligence
outside of our own planet.
And yet, today the general public is
largely oblivious to this development. Most people’s knowledge on
this does not go beyond the mere existence of ‘the face-like thing
on Mars’, as they are utterly unaware of all the remarkable
Not so, according to Stanley McDaniel, professor emeritus and former
chairman of the philosophy department at Sonoma State University, a
man most suited for evaluating this kind of issue for he is
specifically trained in reasoning – man’s only true friend in
As McDaniel writes in The McDaniel Report:
On the Failure of Executive, Congressional, and Scientific
Responsibility in Investigating Possible Evidence of Artificial
Structures on the Surface of Mars and in Setting Mission
Priorities for NASA’s Mars Exploration Program (1993):
My initial approach was one of considerable skepticism… [But] over
the course of the investigation my appreciation for what these
researchers had done, and the underlying scientific integrity of
their work, began to grow. I found that the occasional faults in
their work were far outweighed by the solidity of the data and their
responsiveness to the needs of what is, after all, the first study
of its kind in history.
The data collected in the course of these investigations appears to
be highly reliable.
The most advanced techniques of image
enhancement, photoclinometry and fractal analysis, confirmed by
cross-checking and thoroughly documented, have been used. The
investigators are acknowledged experts in their fields with strong
academic and professional qualifications. In every test, the data
has consistently tilted in the direction of artificial, rather than
natural, origin. Moreover, the various tests performed, including
anthropometric and aesthetic evaluation, have been mutually
As it was done by ‘an impeccable, unquestionably academic source’,
The McDaniel Report represented ‘a major scientific and political
breakthrough for the entire subject of Cydonia’.
So why, we must ask again, have the Martian findings not made the
headlines all over the world, as they surely deserve? We find that this is largely thanks to the strange reaction of the
establishment – namely NASA – to Cydonia.
On this, McDaniel writes:
As my study of the work done by the independent investigators and
NASA’s response to their research continued, I became aware not only
of the relatively high quality of the independent research, but also
of glaring mistakes in the arguments used by NASA to reject this
With each new NASA document I encountered, I became more
and more appalled by the impossibly bad quality of the reasoning
used. It grew more and more difficult to believe that educated
scientists could engage in such faulty reasoning unless they were
following some sort of hidden agenda aimed at suppressing the true
nature of the data.
Eventually my original naïve view – that all
'NASA scientists were sincerely interested in the truth' – was utterly
Seventeen years [as of 1993] of ridicule by NASA and a small handful
of scientists whose field of expertise is severely limited has
encouraged many people to ignore the data and dismiss the [issue] as
Instead of carrying out legitimate scientific inquiry, NASA
has regularly sent false and misleading statements regarding the
landforms to members of Congress and their constituents. NASA has
condoned efforts to unfairly ridicule and discredit independent
researchers… despite the fact that the only real scientific study of
the landforms indicates a clear possibility that they are
The issue concerning the ‘hidden agenda’ of NASA is ultimately too
complex and obscure to delve into here.
But suffice it to say that
there are those behind the scenes who seem to know much more than
the general public, academia, media, and even the government do, and
they seem to wield an invisible but strong influence on our
perception of ‘reality’. And for whatever reason, it appears that
‘they’ do not want the matter of extraterrestrial artifacts taken
While there are certainly many layers of reasons and agendas
involved here, on a basic level anthropologist Randolfo Pozos was
probably on the mark when he stated:
The greatest difficulty posed by these curious landforms on Mars
occurs… at the level of beliefs and fundamental values… In essence
these landforms on Mars are intellectual land-mines.
It is also quite feasible that the apparent suppression of the
information has much to do with the ultimate meaning of the ‘message
of Cydonia’, which, according to Richard Hoagland, concerns what he
calls ‘hyperdimensional physics’.
This is a form of ‘hyperspace’ theory that basically
dimensions to the normal four dimensions of space and time to
explain physical phenomena. In the model promoted by Hoagland,
stemming from the Cydonia research, tetrahedral geometry and angular
momentum are viewed as the key to uniting the physical and
And this unification, if achieved,
would lead to the harnessing of an entirely new form of energy or
If valid and developed further, it has the potential to quickly and
completely upset the societal structure and utterly undermine those
in control of the world’s economy – as the new physics would easily
translate to something akin to ‘free energy’, which in turn
translates to dramatically decreased dependency on oil and other
conventional energy sources.