by Kakha Margiani


from Cosmogeology Website




The mysteries of Saturn, the seventh natural planet from the Sun, have always enticed researchers.


Scientists are perplexed (clue is in the book only) why Saturn, releases more energy than it absorbs from faint sunlight. Titan is also the only moon in the solar system to retain a substantial atmosphere, one even thicker than Earth's.


The Saturnian moon Titan - the ringed planetís largest satellite with a diameter of 5150 kilometers - is a highly complex body in the Solar System. It is larger than the planet Pluto and in many ways more resembles a planet than a moon. It is the only moon in our planetary system with a dense atmosphere, which is one of the reasons why it is of such interest to scientists.


Like the atmosphere of Earth, Titanís atmosphere is mainly composed of the gas nitrogen. This is combined with approximately 3% methane and about 1% argon.


The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft's first radar images of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, have revealed a diverse frozen landscape of bright streaks that may be ice ridges or wind-driven deposits, and dark regions that are probably smooth basins (sub-glacial seas and lakes) filled with dirty chemical ice of methane, ethane, water, etc.

Cassini has discovered evidence that points to the existence of the chemical ice of water, methane, ethane and ammonia on Saturn's moon Titan. The findings would be made decoding radar measurements of Titan's rotation.


The findings were made using radar measurements of Titan's rotation.

"With its organic dunes, lakes, channels and mountains, Titan has one of the most varied, active and Earth-like surfaces in the solar system," said Ralph Lorenz, lead author of the paper and Cassini radar scientist at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Maryland, USA.


"Now we see changes in the way Titan rotates, giving us a window into Titan's interior beneath the surface."

Using data from the radar's early observations, the scientists and radar engineers established the locations of 50 unique landmarks on Titan's surface.


They found that prominent surface features had shifted from their expected positions by up to 30 km. A systematic displacement of surface features would be difficult to explain by other means then asthenosphere existence under crust.


Unless the moon's icy crust was decoupled from its core by an internal liquid ocean of water making it easier for the crust to move. It means about 100 km beneath the chemical ice and lithosphere platforms and organic-rich surface is an internal fiery ocean of liquid asthenosphere.

The combination of an organic-rich environment, sub-glacial liquid water in the seas and lakes is very appealing, for further investigations.


Further study of Titan's will let us understand the watery interior of the seas and lakes better, which are covered by thick water ice as well as ammonia end hydrocarbon ices.


Seas and lakes


Titanís and Earthís great lakes


If it's not a sub-glacial sea, it could be a sub-glacial lake covered by chemical ices, but that was impossible, Titan could disappears whole water masses and save the all other light chemical admixtures.

We are seeing canals of rivers and coast of seas but that does not necessarily mean that is liquid now, channels are dried. It looks like water and other chemical admixtures has flowed for hundreds of millions years to make those channels.

Iím very sorry; one of two data channels used to record measurements is thought not to have been working on Cassini-Huygens. As a result, some images taken by Huygens may be missing. But the other channel had worked well.

On March 13, 2007, JPL announced that it found strong evidence of seas of methane and ethane in the northern hemisphere. At least one of these is larger than any of the Great Lakes in North America. Cosmogeological explanation: It means water ice crust of the great lakes on the titan is covered by thin ice crust of methane and ethane.


The Cassini-scientist measurements can decode surface chemical structure only, but it doesnít mean under the decoded chemical structure existence of water impossible.

Observing space-photos of Titan cosmogeologist can decode much more secrets then modern astronomer.


The reason is very simple: astronomersí knowledge is connected to the wrong theory of the universe evolution still.

During geo-evolution, Titan-like embryonic gaseous space-body partially ejects atmospheric gasses in the surrounded space (light chemical admixtures mainly). Itís impossible to believe; Titan has lost all water and did not lose all methane or ethane, for billions of years of geo-evolution.


Cosmogeological regulation of the evolution tells another tale. A small space-body has small gravitation and loses whole surrounded gasses, average bodies partially loses gasses and giants-doesnít lose gasses. Main part of the water within the space-body is forming at the initial stage, into the fiery interior as a result of endless chain different chemical reactions.


Other chemical gasses are formed as well, but water is the main product of the chemical reactions, almost into all space-bodies.


Because of chemical properties, liquid water and its icy-crust formation to the last stages is most abundant than hydro carbonate ices. Hydrocarbons admixtures circulation begins after finish of water circulation.


Each admixture needs own conditions for circulation to form rivers, lakes and to be evaporated within atmosphere.



Continental lithosphere platform and small coastal zone of dry rivers on Titan.

Icy crust, hills, and coastal zone of sub-glacial sea, islands and folding structures.


What cosmogeologist can decode on the image (above). Titan has passed the second stage of geo-evolution.


Now, itís to the final phase of the third stage. In the middle of the third stage, whole Titan was an excellent warm moon. Source of warm were inside and around fiery heavy metals nucleus. Dried river beds are proof about circulation water for hundreds of millions years.


The image is an Earth-like land a lot. Like most Earthís landscape crust-forming events on Titan was almost same. When the temperature of Titanís crust began fluctuation at the 0Oc boundary, that time water - level on Titan had reached to the maximum. After hundreds of millions years water circulation had changed by methane and ethane circulation. There was began endless epoch of glaciations.


Eternal freezing of Titanís crust sometimes is disturbing by volcano eruption. Volcanic gaseous streams could melt and evaporate temporally chemical ices and create temporary chemical rivers as well. Crystals of hydro-carbon ice and other volcanic admixtures are dispersed on the surface. There are formed sedimentary thin layers on the land and on the frozen sub-glacial seas and lakes.

Titan passed milliards of yearís during of geo-evolution stages. It would be formed as the Earth, if it would be evolved near the Sun.

Titansí channels could be formed only by the water circulation for a long time. Circulation of the methane and ethane was possible only within middle phase of glacier, when the temperature in the high layers of atmosphere fell down under -161įC.


Now the temperature in the high layers Titan is approximately -290įC, and circulation of methane is impossible. Within such conditions, only nitrogen exists within the atmosphere of Titan.


A giant methane-spewing volcano has been spotted in close-up images of Saturn's giant moon Titan.



Methane melting point   -182.5 įC,  91 K, -297 įF

Approximately temperature on Titan is -290OC and in these conditions there is ice of methane only.

Methane boiling point   -161.6 įC,  112 K, -259 įF

Ethane melting point    -182.76 įC (90.34 K)

Approximately temperature on Titan is -290OC and in these conditions there is ice of Ethane only.

Ethane boiling point    -88.6 įC (184.5 K)

After the freezing of the seasí and lakesí surface, water circulation on Titan ceased, and river - beds became empty and the empty river - beds became frozen.


Rivers on Titan were feeding by the rains, snows, underground waters and glaciers as the Earthsí rivers during warm epoch. There is epoch of sub-glacial seas and lakes by means of absence scared surface.


Existence of the sub-glacial seas and lakes is connected to the fiery asthenosphere under the crust.

Little by little, at the beginning stage of glaciations, begins growing of the ice layers on Titanís land. The surface of land was frozen fully but surface of seas and lakes had frozen later. The inside heat of Titanís fiery nucleus still feeds oceans by warmth. The oceansí water vapor had changed aggregation state and covered the whole land by snow and ice.


Circulation of water within the atmosphere ceased, after freezing seasí and lakesí surface and later began circulation of methane, ethane and other admixtures.


It means chemical snowing, chemical raining, chemical rivers and formation of methane and ethane and other admixturesí frozen layers on the frozen seas and lakes of water.

Now, Titan is in the middle stage of glaciations. There is much water under the frozen surface of the seas and lakes still. In fact, the proof is absence of scarred surface of the frozen seas and lakes. Like Europeís surface there are not cracked everything still.


On the last phase of the glaciations, the ocean water will freeze till to the ocean bed, to grow up the ice tiles in different heights from the bed seas and lakes. All sub-glacial water under the frozen surface must freeze within the depth about 9 km to increase the ice chunkís height approximately one kilometer.


The seas and lakes surface of Titan has no cracks. That is proof about a thin chemical ice layer on the surface. Water under the ice layers would be conclusive evidence that the geo-evolution within Titan is not over yet. That means the crust-quakes and volcanic eruptions still happen on Titan. There are a lot of huge tracks of aEBa geo-transfers over the crust and is conclusive evidence about formation thick and thin lithosphere platform.


Volcanoes may be either dormant (having no activity) or active (currently erupting) or extinct (no longer active at all).