by Michael Bara


from LunarAnomalies Website


LO-III-123M sent to me by Steve Troy showing his original markups and recommended sectionals.

I have added scale markers and references.


Hortensius is an equatorial [6 degrees N, 28 degrees W] near-side 14 km crater just southwest of Copernicus. The region is dominated by a series of volcanic domes stretching several hundred miles north of the crater itself.

When I originally got LO-III-123M and the sectionals from Steve I wasnít all that excited. Sure, there were some interesting patterns and the "volcanic" domes of this area donít look all that volcanic, but I had basically decided this would be a backburner project. Then I looked at the sectionals.

They revealed a vast expanse of regular geometric patterning that seemed to flow in the same directions, parallel to each other all the way across the frames and crossing at very regular perpendicular angles. They were also not in line with the "grain" of the films and were substantial enough to be blatantly obvious with a magnifying glass. You can even note them on the highly compressed crude scan above. The fact that Hortensius is reasonably close to Copernicus and itís possible box like structure added some extra interest. Volcanic fracturing can certainly cause parallel patterns, but perpendicularity over a vast (100 square kilometers) area is far harder to explain away as volcanic. In addition, the patterning seemed to be more like channels or tubes rather than a fracture pattern.

The really weird thing though was that a lot of this pattering was on top of the feeble ejecta blanket around Hortensius (the big crater in the lower middle) itself, hinting that it either came after the formation of the crater or was only partially obliterated by the thin ejecta layer.

Now, completely setting aside for the moment the strange lack of "spew" from such a large impact, my eyes were drawn to the area to the right of Hortensius between it and Hortensius C, the smaller (about 7 km diameter) crater at the imageís right edge. In here, I noted (as Steve had) some very significant geometry and some overt structures.

Note rectilinear pattern all across the sectional image and especially the very odd looking "dunes" in the area of the arrow. I also thought that the underside of the crater just above the right corner of the arrowhead looked quite strange, and Steve had noticed the bright triangular region just to the left of this crater (above the framelet line) and dubbed it the "Fan". I proceeded to scan these two areas at high resolutions.

The "Factory Complex"

Wide perspective

Contrast enhanced version

This stunning region is about 4 x 3 kilometers, judging by the size of Hortensius C. It is dominated by triangular "hanger doors" leading to semi-recessed bunker like structures, and a stunning black box shaped object the size of a 10 story building. In addition, the pronounced right angle pattern in the foreground is reminiscent of barely covered tunnel network. There is also a striking symmetry in the exposed areas (the T-shaped feature behind the "building" for instance).


There are parallel terraces all along the right side of this "Factory", and perpendicular striations (access roads?) around the "bunkers". Conceivably, the "Tunnel Network" could be lava tubes formed in the ancient past similar to riles and ridges seen in other regions of the moon. However, it should also be observed that such tubes have been proposed as ideal locations for eventual human bases on the Lunar surface because they provide easily sealed off cavities with natural protection from the harsh radiation and temperature variations that would be encountered.[1]

"Bunker Row"

This series of raised, parallel triangular openings are recessed into the surrounding terrain, and compare favorably to the Iraqi Hardened Aircraft Bunkers shown at right. Notice the similarity of structure and scale between the features in each photo. The major difference is that the Iraqi bunkers are exposed in the flat Persian Gulf desert, while the Hortensius openings are dug in to terraced Lunar topography. This reinforces the impression of a factory or storage complex. Note also the straight line behind the first set of "bunkers" and compare it with the access roads behind the Iraqi site. Organized facilities display regular, repeating patterns and identical features over wide distances. Natural formations are far more random.

The shadows cast by the bunkers are inconsistent with oval cratering caused by ejecta impacts. To say this arrangement of objects is anomalous is a wild understatement. They are flatly inexplicable in a currently accepted or theorized geologic model.

In the upper right of the image is a rectilinear spine-like formation, again showing regular repeating geometry on the same scale over a significant area. Note also that this is 90į to the horizontal "road" behind the forward row of bunkers.

The Lincoln Memorial

Quite simply, there is no conventional natural explanation for this set of objects. Indeed, there is no conceivable geologic process or set of processes which can account for these structures. The large black "monolith" in the center of the image is resting on a rectangular "plank" stretching across a gaping chasm ( I hesitate to refer to it as a crater, since it has virtually no crater-like characteristics). If there is a crater there, it is decidedly rectangular, and has some very strange aspects to itís appearance.


Notice that there is no discernable rim, and compare it with countless other examples of sharp edged impact regions across the Lunar landscape. The "Lincoln Memorial" itself is a roughly cubic shape, with spherical nodes or buttresses at the base along the "plank". There is a strange webbing behind the "Memorial", faintly visible in the darkness of the recessed area. Lincoln also seems to have a "head", approximately spherical and casting a vast shadow over his "chest". To the right, a canister like object seems to be linking the "plank" to the main body of the facility.

Note the shadow cast beneath "Lincoln" seems to be a hollow area with no visible support for the structure. The "plank" itself would seem to be only thing holding the "Memorial" up.

This ultra-high resolution scan of the top of the "Lincoln Memorial" displays many exotic aspects of this unique structure. Note the overall symmetry, the flat platform underneath the shadow and the spherical nodes at either end. The "Head" itself is revealed as a rounded shape, and it is clearly in front of the odd "webbing" in the background. The flat projection at the base of the shadow appears to be an opening or landing platform. This "platform" has a wall like enclosure which seems to have a partially closed door mechanism.

The "Truss"

The "Truss" has cylindrical central body spanning the "plank" and the edge of the "terraces". It is anchored at both ends by a half-slot shaped end cap which extends to the ground on each side. The archway underneath the cylindrical shape is plainly visible. This object would appear to be a support or reinforcing member holding the "plank" up.

The "Overhang"

Just to the upper right of the "Factory" area is another anomalous feature. Jutting from the top of a darkened recess is this symmetrical disk shaped object. Notice it is supported from the upper rear by a strut, and that the surrounding terrain seems to flow into the darkness below it, as if this were the entrance to an underground bunker or complex. Given itís location adjacent to the "Factory", this may indeed be precisely that. Note the generally square shape of the opening, and again the even symmetry of the both the "Overhang" itself and chasm it seems to guard. There is also a light, dome shaped node just beneath the "Overhang" in the darkened area which may be indicative of light (from the nearly directly overhead sun) creeping through thinned areas of the "Overhang" itself, or possibly of some form of self luminescence. A final possibility is that the "Overhang" itself has a light source in its central disk and this is projecting downward.

This highly overexposed and enlarged view of the area (image left) shows that the light source may be a dome shaped object, or perhaps a feature similar to the wedge shaped object to the left of the disk which has broken off from a symmetrical mount on the right hand side. Consider the image right.

By flipping the left half of the image I was able to create a proposal for how the area may have looked if in fact the bright area is a broken symmetrical arrangement. This is for visualization purposes only and is presented as an example of one possible explanation.

The "Square"

This area between the "Crater" and the "Factory" appears to be a shallow, rectangular depression roughly 300 X 400 yards. Itís vertices run absolutely parallel to the major features of the "Overhang" the "Factory" and the "Bunkers". Given the sun angle, the shadow indicates a deep chasm inconsistent with cratering. A platform extends into this dark area with "ramps" on either side. By itself, the feature is nothing particularly unusual, but in context with the other features it is representative of pattern of artificiality throughout the vicinity of Hortensius.

Arcological Comparisons


Many characteristics of the "Factory", and indeed the entire Hortensius region are evocative of the "Arcology" concept first described by Paolo Solari. Note the tiered, protected portions backed by raised structures, enclosed by yet larger structures. The "Factory" represents one of the best illustrations of the use of this concept. This resemblance alone is a significant pillar of the artificiality argument.

The "Dish" and the "Fan"

Enlargement of "Dish" and "Fan" and exposed structural girders.

Just above and to the right of the "Factory" region is another set of anomalous features. Beyond the familiar pitted terrain, there are a number of features that are difficult to explain as natural. The crater itself is approximately 2 KM across and seems to be of the collapse variety. The bright triangular area just above the framelet line was what Steve Troy originally noted and dubbed the "Fan".


On closer inspection the fan seems to consist of two intersecting structural members barely poking through the regolith. They are very linear and have regularly spaced "Lightening holes", or dark areas, in them. There is also a dark rectangular depression just above the "Fan" that has sides perpendicular to the proposed structural girders.

The "Fan" with the dark box marked up                         The "Fan" showing proposed girders and lightening holes

Close-up of the crater rim. Note the distinct lower lip and rounded edge.

As I studied the image I was struck by what appeared to be an edge to the crater on lower left side just below the framelet line. Note that there is a distinct rim in this portion of the image.


Given the shadow length, I was also a bit disturbed by the dark zone just below and to the right of the crater rim. If this were a normal crater, the area should be illuminated rather than pit black. It occurred to me that there must have been a collapse of the surface skin in this dark zone.


By all rights, this should be a lopsided partial crater with a significant build up of collapse material in the dark zone. The problem then becomes; "What is providing the structural stiffness of the crater itself?"

The Strut and Girder

The simple fact is that unless the crater is an extremely stiff structural object, it should probably have collapsed into the recessed dark area. Given that it did not, I considered the winding, striated feature in the left center of the object as a possible support strut. It projects from the surface at a 45 degree angle and an apparently anchors under the rim of the crater.


Note also the parallel lines making up segments of the "Strut" are aligned at this same angle, rather than running along the direction of the surrounding terrain. It has all the earmarks of an spring loaded strut, similar to the earthquake absorption systems in modern office buildings. There is also an odd jagged edge on the right portion of the deeply shadowed area, as if a plate or board was broken by an impact.

The shadowed area, support "Strut" and "Girder", and marked up version, right.

Underneath the "Strut" is an object easily recognizable as "I-Beam" or girder with lightening holes. This is similar to other such girders just North of the "Dish" in the "Fan" area. It seems to be slightly stressed and bent under the "Strut". It has a central web, raised sides (or flanges) and equally spaced "Lightening Holes". I believe that the middle Lightening Hole is slightly distorted by the vertical line (which may be a defect) passing just through the middle of it. Compare it with the crude sketch below.

Top and side views of a typical structural girder.


This area, approximately 4 X 4 km, is an astonishingly structured complex series of rectilinear patterns southeast of the "Factory". It is seated in a much broader pattern of rectilinear features in the adjacent territory which are parallel to each other along a vast network.


The highly ordered internal geometryís are "walled-in" by a raised right-angular pattern reminiscent of a building foundation, but on a much vaster scale. Note also the square crater just below the framelet line, the twin double or "keyhole" craters, and the "ramps" descending into the complex from the middle-right.


(This view has not been orthographically corrected, excluding that as a possible explanation of the "Square" crater.)

Steve has compared this area to a well-known "D" shaped (presumably) natural depression in the Apennine mountain region.

I cannot concur with this assessment. The caldera in question is a clear depression, while "Jerhico", is level with the surrounding terrain and the walls are raised above by a significant distance.

The combination of features suggest a constructed rather than erosive explanation for this formation, especially when taken in context with the nearby "Factory" and other anomalies.


When the mark-up version is compared to the larger enhancement above, the outlines of this foundation become clear. This organized internal structure separates it from the more random "D" shaped caldera and are suggestive of a city or town viewed from the air.


The "Factory" is, in my opinion, the best evidence yet of a prior inhabitation of the Moon. Not only are all the features plainly visible in both the analog and digital data sets, they defy any reasonable prosaic geological explanation. Since a traditional impact model cannot possibly be entertained as an explanation of the features, a complex collapse/magma flow scenario is the only possibility for this area.


The presence of volcanic domes and possible lava tubes in the immediate vicinity encourage the adoption of this model as the alternative to the artificiality hypothesis. Unfortunately, the volcanism explanation fails miserably when faced with the indisputable fact that it bears no resemblance to any volcanic region either on the Moon or elsewhere in the Solar system. The terraced multi-level topography and recessed bunker formations are indicative of military installations in remote areas of Earth, and the "Lincoln Memorial" evokes comparisons with power plants other large-scale facilities.

The "Overhang", "Crater" and "Fan" areas adjacent to the "Factory" are also well outside traditional Lunar geologic modeling. They appear to be part of a massive and well organized underground facility in the region, and they reveal damaged and exposed support structures that make architectural sense while simultaneously defying natural explanation. These individual features are also well within the limits of the enhancement process, and it is unlikely we have mistaken their true form due to shading anomalies. The quality of the photographic negatives and scanning artifacts must also be rejected as explanations for these unusual formations, since the NSSDC provided 8 X 10 negatives are pristine and the scans match feature by feature.

"Jerhico" is less challenging to the traditional ideas of Lunar geology, but still falls beyond the boundaries of conventional reasoning. Itís rectilinear exterior walls and internal geometry are very similar to man-made architectures (such as the Pentagon) when viewed from orbit. However, a better close-up view of this feature would be required to make any final conclusions regarding itís origins.

Finally, I extend an invitation to geologists or planetary scientists to provide images of features similar to the ones posted here anywhere on the Lunar surface. Until and unless they can be found to be common naturally selenographic features, I must assert a 90% probability of artificial origin for the Hortensius anomalies.