Chapter Twenty-four

The area of "nonlethal" technologies has in recent years gained increased public attention. The various agencies of the federal government for over a decade gradually increased public releases regarding this technology. The "sensitizing" of people to the acceptance of these new weapons has slowly worked its way into open view. Introducing these technologies has been carefully orchestrated to avoid "change shock" and to increase the probability of public acceptance.

The possibilities offered to the defense, justice and intelligence communities in "nonlethal" systems development were enthusiastically embraced by the various agencies, Eldon Byrd of the Naval Surface Weapons Center was commissioned in 1981 and 1982, to investigate the potential for developing electromagnetic devices which could be used as 'non-lethal' weapons for riot control, hostage removal, embassy security and other clandestine operations.


Byrd concluded that remote manipulation of the mind was feasible. Funding was discontinued in 1982 as far as the public knows. It is more likely that this type of research was classified and moved to other facilities and to new researchers284 in the "black" world of hidden research projects.


This type of technology would not advance beyond the concept stage without becoming a "black" project based on "national security" assertions by the military.

The Nonlethal Conference

In 1986, the United States' attorney general held a conference on the development of these new high-tech weapons. It was summarized the following year285 in a report discussing problems and solutions for what was believed to be an area with significant future possibilities. Several areas were reported to offer new possibilities for the Department of Justice.


284 "The Mind Fields", by Kathleen McAuliffe, Omni Magazine, February 1985.

285 Report on the Attorney General's Conference on Less Than Lethal Weapons, by Sherri Sweetman, March 1987, U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

The Department of Justice's report disclosed that:

"Participants also discussed the use of various wave lengths and forms of administration of electromagnetic energy as a non-lethal weapon. A substantial amount of preliminary research has been conducted in this area...One conference participant noted that scientific knowledge of human physiology is progressing to the point where it may soon be possible to target specific physiologic systems with specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation to produce much more subtle and fine-tuned effects than those produced by photic driving."

Photic driving is the use of visible light pulsed at frequencies which have been shown to impact the brain. In some people they cause epileptic seizures. The report went on:

"There is some evidence (and a good deal of supposition) that sustained, extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation can produce nausea or disorientation, One researcher has subjected animals to ELF electromagnetic radiation through electrode implants, and feels that similar results could be produced from afar, without electrodes. One participant suggested that ideally, one might like to develop the ability to design these electromagnetic fields for specialized use, for instance to produce sleep or confusion. It is known that sleep can be induced by electrodes in the brain, and Russian scientists claim to be able to produce sleep from afar (electrosleep). "286

What these conference participants were referring to was the work conducted by Dr. Jose Delgado of Yale University and the Russian Lida machine tested by Dr. Adey, referenced earlier.

Los Alamos and Friends

The report on the Department of Justice's 1986 conference also noted,

"The nature of weapons to be tested and the necessity for the tests must not be a secret of the kind whose 'leak' would result in an exaggerated expose and associated public outcry."

The report went on to recognize that the military had made a number of advances in these areas but that these advances were classified. It also recommended that the military should develop the technologies for less than lethal weapons, because defense contracts were large and technically sophisticated enough to do the job.

The concern about open investigation must have been lain aside when the true extent of the military advancements were eventually realized. The idea of an open discussion of these emerging areas was abandoned to the shadowy world of secrecy and hidden agendas. The next major conference where the military unveiled its new technologies to the Justice Department was classified and not open to the press or public.287 That which was to be open had become buried in secrecy by some of the same people who limited access to knowledge in the past. The public outcry they sought to avoid is now justifiably being made by many opposed to such weapons.

In November, 1993 about 400 scientists gathered at John Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab to discuss their work in developing non-lethal weapons technologies, including radiofrequency radiation (RF), electromagnetic pulse (EMP), ELF fields, lasers and chemicals. The meeting was classified, and no detailed reports were ever publicly released.288


According to the press statements and the conference agenda (which was released) the programs developing the technologies had made significant advances, Enough advancement had been made to establish a secrecy veil and classify the conference.


This conference took the whole program of nonlethal weapons a step forward by bringing the leading experts together for this event. The conference was sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory and focused on both military and law enforcement uses for these technologies.

286 Report on me Attorney General's Conference on Less Than Lethal Weapons, by Sherri Sweetman, March 1987, U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
287 The Wall Street Journal, "Nonlethal Arms, New Class of Weapons Could Incapacitate Foe Yet Limit Casualties, by Thomas E. Ricks, January 4,1993, page A1 and A4.
288 Microwave News November/December1993,MilitaryonNonlethalWeapons: 'Avery Attractive Option'.

Dr. Edward Teller and U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno were the scheduled keynote speakers at the conference, although Reno was unable to attend.289 (The same Dr. Teller, "father of the H-bomb", had sold the use of thermonuclear weapons to make deep water ports in Alaska in the early 1960's, promoted a Star Wars weapons system for the North Slope of Alaska in the late 1980's, and was now the cheerleader for nonlethal electromagnetics.)

Dr. Clay Easterly of Oak Ridge National Laboratories led a session on ELF/EMFs.

"My major point was that there seem to be some biological sensitivities or responses to ELF fields that could be useful for nonlethal technology."

He could not discuss the specific applications because the information was classified by the military. He went on to say that the military was interested in the use of non ionizing (non thermal) radiation which could be used for disabling enemy electronics, although his presentation dealt with uses which would affect people.290 This again demonstrates the level of knowledge which the military ignores in HAARP disclosures to the public - potential uses or risks associated with the generation of ELF radiations over large areas of Alaska and eventually, the planet.

A number of papers were presented at the conference, and gave the latest information on applied technologies in this area. Dr. Henry Brisker from the U.S. Army Research Laboratory presented work dealing with High Power Microwave Technology, while Dr. George Baker of the Defense Nuclear Agency, presented a paper titled "RF Weapons: A Very Attractive Nonlethal Option".

What is obvious from the number of participants and the scope of the subject matter is that the development of these ideas in new military hardware did not just arrive on the scene but rather, had been a part of the military agenda for some time. The current emphasis on these technologies reflects the level of interest of the government, and the increased visibility the government is giving these areas indicates an intention to use these systems in a more open manner.291


It is common practice to let things like these types of technological advances come out in small bits in order to "test the waters" of public opinion. In this way the population can be co-opted into accepting greater levels of intrusion by governmental agencies. The idea is to indoctrinate by being taught to believe, Tather than being given all of the facts so that a prudent person could think about the issues and make reasoned decisions. The contrast can be better stated as; "propaganda - versus-persuasion by reason".

These technologies extend beyond the Air Force, CIA and Navy.

"The U.S. Army has its own product - a radiofrequeney (RF) weapon. In the August 24, 1987 issue of Defense News, John Rosado of Harry Diamond Labs in Adephi, MD, is quoted as saying that 'the nature of warfare will be completely changed by the use of (RF) weapons."


Rosado also noted that RF radiation could be used over a wide battlefield with phased arrays... ".292

289 Microwave News November/December 1993, Military on Nonlethal Weapons: 'A very Attractive Option'.

290 Ibid.

291 Non-Lethal Defense, a classified Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory, November 16-17,1993.

292 Microwave News, May/June, 1988.

A phased array antenna system is what HAARP uses to send its signals to the ionosphere.

From Adversaries to Allies

Now that the "Cold War" is over and there is increased cooperation between the superpowers and former foes, Russian and American scientists have begun cooperating in a number of research efforts including electromagnetics. The Soviet counterpart to Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arzamas-16 located east of Moscow, has begun collaborating with the U.S.A.

In the early 1990's, the two tabs worked together on research regarding "an electromagnetic super generator capable of creating a pulse of electrical power greater than any found in nature." A second test was planned for "America's only similar pulsed power program", located at Los Alamos National Laboratory.293 The nuclear detonations in the upper atmosphere which were once used to create electromagnetic pulses could now be created using the technology developed in the Eastlund patents.

Electromagnetic pulse weapons also are the subject of ongoing research into new "nonlethal" systems. These types of systems present the greatest challenges and risks to health. HAARP represents more than an experimental atmospheric physics device. It has the potential for profound and far reaching effects by delivering dangerous electromagnetic pulses (BMP).

The Russian "non-lethal" or perhaps more accurately, the lethal technologies, were discussed in a 1993 article. It discloses the Cold War development of a device called a "gyrotron", which was designed to "sweep the sky of Western warplanes" by using high energy micro-waves. The article described this weapon as being able to cleanse the atmosphere of chemicals which cause ozone depletion. In developing the weapon system, the Russians discovered that this technology could be used to help the ozone problem or otherwise alter the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere294.

The technology designed to sweep the sky of warplanes has the same use envisioned by Nikola Tesla in the 1940's when he offered his technology to the United States government. Further, Eastlund described how his patents could be used to alter the chemical composition of the ionosphere, including adding ozone or destroying other selected chemicals.

The gyrotron described in the article was developed as one of the "woodpecker" radio transmitters, and works on the same principles as the Western devices. During the Cold War, the Russians' work was much more advanced than the work being done in the United States. Scientists from Russia are now collaborating with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on these projects.


293 "From Russia with Los Alamos?, Intelligence Report, Parade Special Supplement, 1993?

294 "Calif.'s Livermore Weighs Plan to Use Russian Technology", by Tom Schmitz, The Journal of Commerce, April8, 1993.

From National Defense to the Justice Department

On July 21, 1994, Dr. Christopher Lamb, Director of Policy Planning, issued a draft Department of Defense directive which would establish a policy for nonlethal weapons. The policy was intended to take effect January 1, 1995, and formally connected the military's non-lethal research to civilian law enforcement agencies.

The government's plan to vise pulsed electromagnetic and radio frequency systems as a nonlethal technology for domestic Justice Department use rings the alarm for some observers. Nevertheless, the plan for integrating these systems is moving forward. Coupling these uses with expanded military missions is even more disturbing. This combined mission raises additional constitutional questions for Americans regarding the power of the federal government.295

In interviews with members of the Defense Department the development of this policy was corrfirmed.296 In those February 1995, discussions, it was discovered that these policies were internal to agencies and were not subject to any public review process.

In its current draft form, the policy gives highest priority to development of those technologies most likely to get dual use, i.e. law enforcement and military applications. According to this document, non-lethal weapons are to be used on the government's domestic "adversaries".


The definition of "adversary" has been significantly enlarged in the policy:

"The term 'adversary' is used above in its broadest sense, including those who are not declared enemies but who are engaged in activities we wish to stop. This policy does not preclude legally authorized domestic use of the nonlethal weapons by United States military forces in support of taw enforcement."297

This allows use of the military in actions against the citizens of the country that they are supposed to protect. This policy statement begs the question; who are the enemies that are engaged in activities they wish to stop, what are those activities, and who will make the decisions to stop these activities?

An important aspect of non-lethal weapon systems is that the name nonlethal is intentionally misleading. The Policy adds,

"It is important that the public understand that just as lethal weapons do not achieve perfect lethality, neither will 'non-lethal' weapons always be capable of precluding fatalities and undesired collateral damage".298

In other words, you might still destroy property and kill people with the use of these new weapons.

295 Department of Defense Directive, Policy for Non-Lethal Weapons, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Draft July 21, 1994.

296 Interviews in late February by Nick Begich.

297 Department of Defense Directive, Poiicy for Non-Lethal Weapons, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Draft July 21,1994.

298 Ibid.

Pentagon officials said they would like to get $41 million in 1995, for developing these weapons which include their electromagnetic pulse systems.299 This "meager" sum has a good deal of reach, because it is for implementing already understood technology, for building prototype weapons out of mostly "off the shelf parts. The only challenge would be putting them together.


The basic research for these technologies was done with "black budget" money. (These are funds which are so secret even the Congress does not know how the money will be spent, behind which organizations like the CIA, government laboratories run by the military and other intelligence organizations, hide their programs.)


The Pentagon actually received $50 million to be used jointly with the Department of Justice in developing these "non-lethal" weapons.300

In press statements, the government continues to downplay the risks associated with such systems, even though the lethal potential is described in context of their own usage policy. In Orwellian double speak, what is nonlethal can be lethal.

The development of these technologies is being jointly managed by the Non-Lethal Weapons Steering Committee, which is co-chaired by the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict.301 This crystallizes the new Justice Department and Department of Defense alliance for future law enforcement and military initiatives, in the United States.

The weaving together of Department of Defense missions with civilian Department of Justice missions is unprecedented. Not since the Civil War has the military machinery - except in very limited riot control actions - been turned against United States citizens. The idea of using these dangerous and intrusive systems is counter to good public policy.


This raises serious questions regarding use of our Department of Defense for domestic police actions, which may be a violation of constitutional law by being in conflict with the narrowly-defined federal use of the military "for the national defense".

International Alarm Bells Begin to Sound

Questions are not just being raised by the authors of this book, they are being raised by the International Committee of the Red Cross. In their report from mid-1994,302 a number of points were raised.

The idea of "war without death" was not new but began in the I950's, according to the report. The military interest in these systems dealt with chemical weapons, later advancing to radiation weapons. The report looked at the ramifications of international law regarding use of these new technologies.


299 The wall street Journal, "Nonlethal Arms, New Class of Weapons Could Incapacitate Foe YetLimit Casualties, by Thomas E. Ricks, January 4,1993, page A1 and A4.

300 Warren Hough, "High-Tech Civilian Control Studied; Secret Pentagon - DoJ Memo of Understanding, 'Non-lethal' weapons under development, are being added to the government arsenalin its war against its own citizens.", The Spotlight, July 31, 1995.

301 Perry Plans to Launch Nonlethal Warfare Effort, Defense News September 19-25, 1994.
302 "Expert Meeting on Certain Weapon Systems and on Implementation Mechanisms inInternational Law", Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland,May 30 - June 1, 1994. Issued July 1994.

It pointed out weaknesses in the international conventions regarding the use of chemical weapons:

"Therefore, when the Convention (Chemical Weapons Convention) comes into force next year, activities involving them - activities such as development, production, stockpiling and use - will become illegal, unless their purpose is a purpose that is expressly not prohibited under the Convention.


One such purpose is 'law enforcement including domestic riot control purposes'303 Unfortunately, the Convention does not define what it means by law enforcement' (whose law? what law? enforcement where? by whom?), though it does define what it means by 'riot control agent', namely 'any chemical...which can produce rapidly in humans sensory irritation or disabling physical effects which disappear within a short time following termination of exposure'.


States parties are enjoined 'not to use riot control agents as a method of warfare' ". 304

303 Chemical Weapons Convention, Article II 9(d).

304 "Expert Meeting on Certain Weapon Systems and on Implementation Mechanisms in International Law", Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland, May 30 - June 1, 1994. Issued July 1994.


In other words, we can use on our own citizens what we cannot use in warfare with real enemies who are threats to national security. This explains why the development of nonlethals has moved out of the Department of Defense into the Department of Justice. For the Department of Defense to continue to work on these weapons, as instruments of war, is now illegal under international law. The Red Cross report went on to discuss the shift from weapons of war to police tools which they called - "riot control agents".

What does this mean for Americans?


This places Americans, and citizens of other counties, in a lesser protected class than individuals seeking to destroy our counties - our real adversaries. This language really represents a way for countries to continue to develop these weapons. This is a loop hole in the agreement. So while the treaty looks good on the surface, it is hollow rhetoric underneath.

In another section of the report, "Future Weapons Using High Power Microwaves" are discussed at length. This section describes microwave frequencies, for HAARP developed for use in weapons against machines and people.

One of the uses described is an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) weapon which gives an operator the same ability to wipe out electronic circuits as a nuclear blast would provide. The main difference is that this new technology is controllable, and can be used without violating nuclear weapons treaties.

This section of the report then described energy levels needed for the following to occur:

  • "Overheats and damages animal tissue"

  • "Possibly affects nervous system"

  • "Threshold for microwave hearing"

  • "Causes bit errors in unshielded computers"

  • "Burns out unprotected receiver diodes in antennas"

The effects are based on radio frequency radiation being pulsed "between 10 and 100 pulses per second". The report confirmed that non-thermal effects were being researched. These non-thermal effects included damage to human health when the effects occurred "within so-called modulation frequency windows (10 Hertz is one such window305) or power density windows306".

The way these weapons work was clearly described when the report noted their effect on machines:

"A HPM (High Power Microwave) weapon employs a high power, rapidly pulsating microwave beam that penetrates electronic components. The pulsing action internally excites the components, rapidly generating intense heat which causes them to fuse or melt, thus destroying the circuit."

Tesla described his speed of light system as being able to melt aircraft hundreds of miles away. The Red Cross report echoes Tesla:

"HPM (weapons) attack at the speed of light thus making avoidance of the beam impossible, consequently negating the advantage of weapon systems such as high velocity tactical missiles."

In other words, with this kind of weapon there is no machine which could get by this invisible wall of directed energy. HAARP sets in motion the beginning of a system which could have these effects over the entire world.

In the last section of the report, the power levels that the Red Cross expects by the end of the decade are set at 100,000,000,000 watts 307 - the same 100 gigawatt level "desired" by HAARP planners.308

Another report on non-lethal technologies, issued by the Council on Foreign Relations points out that,

"The Nairobi Convention, to which the United States is a signatory, prohibits the broadcast of electronic signals into a sovereign state without its consent in peacetime. "309

305 Discussion with Dr. Patrick Flanagan on August 2, 1995 (by co-author Begich).

306 "Expert Meeting on Certain Weapon Systems and on Implementation Mechanisms in International Law", Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland, May 30 - June 1, 1994. Issued July 1994.

307 "Expert Meeting on Certain Weapon Systems and on Implementation Mechanisms in International law", Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland, May 30 - June 1, 1994. Issued July 1994.

308 PL/GPTechnicalMemorandumNo.195;"Presentations from the HAARP Workshop on Ionospheric Heating Diagnostics, 30 April - 2 May1991, Phillips Laboratory (AFSC), Hanscom AFB, MA. 01731-5000"; Editor, Major Drew Fisher; October 22,1991.

309 "Non-Lethal Technologies; Military Options and implications", Report of an Independent Task Force sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations, Malcom H. Weiner, Chairman, released June 22, 1995.

This report opens discussion of the use of these weapons against terrorists and drug traffickers.310


The CFR report recommends that this be done secretly so that the victims do not know where the attack is from, or if there even is an attack. There is a problem with this approach. The use of these weapons, even against these kinds of individuals, may be in violation of United States law in that it presumes guilt rather than innocence.


In other words the police, CIA, DEA or other enforcement organization becomes the judge, jury and executioner.

The Universal Tool - HAARP

In a summary document produced at Maxwell Air Force Base, the real potentials of these weapon applications for the universal military tool, HAARP, are described. Although the HAARP literature produced by the military is silent on the topics discussed below, the Air Force showed, by this publication, that they are well aware of the potential use of a transmitting system like HAARP. More importantly politically is the "Newt Gingrich spin" placed on the development efforts in the foreword, by today's Speaker of the House, to the military's report on this subject.

The foreword to Low-intensity Conflict and Modern Technology was written by Congressman Newt Gingrich in 1986 before he rose to the position of Speaker. This position makes him currently the third most powerful person in the United States government. Gingrich's views on "low intensity conflicts" become relevant when considered along with the development of non-lethal technology. He focuses on creating approaches to conflict which can dispense with radicals who, in his words,

"engage quietly in dirty little wars in faraway places with almost no regard for legal nicety or the technical problems of international law".311

The ability of the United States to meet these challenges is also discussed in the foreword as Gingrich wrote:

"The organization of power in the State and Defense Departments and the relationships between Congress, the news media, and the executive branch are all unsuited to fighting low-intensity conflict effectively."

He goes on to describe the limits of the military in addressing these types of conflicts, and commends the military for developing the policy doctrine and the new technology directions of the Air Force put forward in the book. Newt Gingrich apparently remains a fan of non-lethal weapons, which he views as useful technology for domestic law enforcement.


Specifically, he said, when commenting on these technologies, that they "are our real peace dividend" and that they will,

"preserve the defense industrial base, stimulate jobs in high-technology industry, and provide needed new options to local police and law enforcement authorities."312

310 Non-Lethal Technologies; Military Options and Implications", Report of an Independent Task Force sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations, Malcom H. Weiner, Chairman, released June 22, 1995.

311 Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology. Lt Col. David J. Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Canter for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, June 1986.

312 "Armageddon Killing Them Softly" by Russell Shorto, GQ, March 1995.

Another interesting issue to contemplate is the Defense Department's new Policy on non-lethal weapon systems, where "adversaries" and "enemies" have been more broadly deftned, as here the use of such systems against American citizens. The idea that these systems can be used almost without detection to manipulate the behavior and thinking of people raises moral questions.


This use also appears to be in conflict with Constitutional rights regarding free expression and speech. The fact that the military together with the United States Justice Department can now use these technologies, under their broad definitions, should sound an alarm for all people, not just Americans.313

In our opinion, the only redeeming discussion in Low-Intensity Conflict, and Modern Technology, (a compilation of papers presented in 1984) was that some at the meeting saw the "new" technologies for what they were, and began heated debates about the morality of using these weapon systems.


In the closing page of the technology overview the following was written:

"Paul Tyler also discusses the application of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) to low-intensity conflict. He surveys ongoing scientific research into the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. Tyler tells us current evidence indicates that specific biological effects can be achieved by controlling the perimeters of electromagnetic radiation directed at human subjects. Thus there is the potential to use EMR to control human behavior or even to maim or kill adversaries. Tyler urges that the United States should devote considerable resources to exploring the possibilities of developing EMR weapons technology, which could be of particular value in low-intensity scenarios. "314

It becomes increasingly obvious that the inner circle of the Department of Defense placed a substantial amount of effort and emphasis in these areas.

The writer continued:

"Both Tyler's and Ruotanen's (another contributor to Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology) papers created heated discussions. Some panel members questioned the advisability of employing nuclear, EMP (electromagnetic pulse), and EMR (electromagnetic radiation) weapons. They felt the ever-present danger of escalation would negate any advantage to be gained from surgical ground or atmospheric nuclear burst. Some on the panel saw Tyler's article as bordering on moral heresy.


It is acceptable to have weapons and strategies to blow bodies into little pieces or burn them to a crisp, but not to use medical research and techniques to develop more subtle ways of eliminating or controlling enemies. There was some feeling that any benefit to be gained from research into EMR effects - dangerous in itself - might well be overshadowed by indignant outcries against the use of EMR weapons on human beings. "315

313 Department of Defense Directive, Policy for Non-Lethal Weapons, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Draft July 21,1994.

314 Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology,. Lt Col. David J. Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, June 1986.
315 Ibid.

The development of these new weapons helps demonstrate the general immorality of war, particularly when the military establishment presents mind manipulation as a preferable outcome to death. The authors of Angels Don't Play This HAARP believe that we need open debate on these types of weapons. These discussions should be similar to nuclear arms talks.

Another revealing section of this military compiled book apparently aimed at a rationale which would make sense in the minds of defense planners and would help them deal with the moral issues:

"The articles and discussions in the technology panels generated quite a bit of heat and quite a bit of light. Chief among the concepts brought into the light was that the application of technology to low-intensity conflict should not hinge on the debate over simple or advanced systems, or high versus low technologies...The key is to recognize specific requirements and apply suitable systems and technologies to meet those requirements. "316

316 Low-lntensity Conflict and Modern Technology. Lt Col. David J. Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air ForceBase, Alabama, June 1986.


Stated differently, the military's means justifies the military's end. (For Ruotanen's comments on electromagnetic pulses see our chapter, "Thermonuclear Weapons Replaced By Electropulse.")

Obviously, these concepts were well understood by the military in 1984 when the original work was presented which led to this book's publication in 1986. The system's development moved forward-most likely within "black budgets" from 1984 onward. The HAARP system is the largest concept-delivery system ever constructed by the military which could create the effects described in 1984.

The next chapter in Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology is the section written by Captain Paul Tyler. Tyler discusses, to some degree, the application of non-ionizing radiation using external fields including radiofrequency radiation and other electromagnetic radiations. He discusses some of the beneficial effects of this energy for healing wounds, bone regeneration in fractures, electro-anesthesia, acupuncture and pain relief.

He then jumps into the military applications of this technology:

"The potential applications of artificial electromagnetic fields are wide-ranging and can be used in many military or quasi-military situations... Some of these potential uses include dealing with terrorist groups, crowd control, controlling breaches of security at military installations, and antipersonnel techniques in tactical warfare. In all of these cases the EM systems would be used to produce mild to severe physiological disruption or perceptual distortion or disorientation. In addition, the ability of individuals to function could be degraded to such a point that they would be combat ineffective.


Another advantage of electromagnetic systems is that they can provide coverage over large areas with a single system. They are silent and countermeasures to them may be difficult to develop... One last area where electromagnetic radiation may prove of some value is in enhancing abilities of individuals for anomalous phenomena. "317

Tyler's comments point to applications which may already be somewhat developed. He refers to an earlier Air Force document about the uses of radio frequency radiation in combat situations, (note that HAARP is the most versatile and the largest radio frequency radiation transmitter in the world.) He also points out that the uses may include enhancement of "anomalous phenomena" in individuals. Anomalous phenomena are those kinds of things which are not readily explained. You might say these are the quirks in human potentials. These could be called extrasensory or supernormal phenomena. This significant area is carefully screened in the writing. He refers to Eastern European research and the Soviet work also, without disclosing what exactly they were doing with this technology.

Another document prepared for the Air Force in 1982 reveals the direction that branch of the armed services took the technology. While commenting on radio frequency radiation usages the report stated:

"Biotechnology research must consider the significant advances that can be made in electromagnetic radiation weapons and defenses that could be in place by the year 2000.. .Research is first needed to develop and apply methods for assessing pulsed RFR (radio frequency radiation) effects. Techniques are needed for depositing RFR at selected organ sites.


Mathematical models and physical measurement capabilities must be developed to track, real time, RFR energy distributions within these organ sites as a function of physiological processes such as diffusion and blood flow. These studies will require prudent extrapolation of physical and physiological data obtained from laboratory animals to humans in operational environments. "318

This 1982 report called for research to develop hardware that could deliver the radiation through new weapons for the Air Force.

A research publication commissioned by the Air Force - Radio Frequency Dosimetry Handbook - described these models, in time to meet the schedules they had put forward in 1982.319 The book gives mathematics for calculating the dosages (Dosimetry) of radio frequency radiation necessary to cause changes in animals and humans.


The book compiled research spanning five decades, and contains a bibliography which is 29 pages long. It is the only book of its kind available on the subject in the world. This book, and more importantly the research behind it, forms the matrix of thought and theory for the finest electromedical devices for healing yet contemplated.


However, this military research is not being used to heal; it is being used to develop better methods of killing.

317 Low-lntensitv Conflict and Modern Technology, Lt Col. David J. Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, June 1986, pages 249-251.

318 Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000. Volume I, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, 1982, pg. 44.

319 Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook , United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, October 1986.

One of the principal reviewers of the Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook for the Air Force was Dr. Herman P. Schwan. Dr. Schwan was also the largest contributor to the book, having two full pages of his work alone cited in the bibliography.


His basic research is being used for the development of military hardware for use by the West. His recruitment for this is another case of the "military means justifying the military ends". An interesting aside to this individual's history Includes his work in Nazi Germany during World War II, where he worked in scientific laboratories. He was later admitted to the United States under a special military operation called "Project Paperclip"320, a program designed to bring to the United States prominent scientists who had been employed in Nazi laboratories during the war.321


In 1957, Dr. Schwan was working for the Biological Warfare Laboratories at Fort Detrick, Maryland, where the United States military gave him a "Top Secret" security clearance.322


Dr. Schwan is now working at University of Pennsylvania.

Going back for a moment to the 1982 Air Force report referred to earlier, the use of radiofrequency radiation in the new weapon systems contemplated by the Air Force was intended to change the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and the respiratory system. We were distressed to read about the idea of using this technology to alter the way people think in order to make the "enemy" of the government incapable of waging war.323


This type of use of a technological advancement is inherently evil, in the opinion of the authors of this book. Thinking is a fundamental right of all people. No individual or government should interfere with the free will of individuals in this way. Moreover, the fact that these technologies are classified - and hidden from the medical community - denies humanity the opportunity to explore these areas for healing people rather than for destructive purposes.

The report speaks about using this technology in a way which could interact with biological or chemical agents, The report states,

"it may be possible to sensitize large military groups to extremely dispersed amounts of biological and chemical agents. It should be noted that this may require relatively low level RFR."324

The idea expressed here is that depositing small amounts of chemicals in a person's physiological system, in amounts below normal levels where negative physical effects are known to occur, will ensure they have no perceivable effect until radio frequency radiation (RFR) is introduced. Once introduced, the RFR creates physiological reactions which are detrimental to the host.


This would allow individuals who are not exposed to the chemicals to then enter the area of the RFR without harm to their own bodies.

320 Proiect Paperclip, by Dr. Clarence Rasby, Athenaeum Press, 1975,

321 Memorandum, Office of the Deputy Director of Intelligence, Headquarters European Command, October 30, 1947. (provided by: International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive Microwave Weapons)

322 Memorandum, Headquarters Second United States Army, Fort Meade, Maryland, September 5, 1957. (provided by: International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive Microwave Weapons)

323 Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000, Volumes I and II, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, 1982.

324 Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000, Volumes 1 and II, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, 1982.

When an operator tunes the RFR in just the right way, changes are caused in the energy state of atoms, which cause chemical reactions in the body, which in turn manifest as physiological or psychological changes.

The introduction of small amounts of chemicals is a very important concept when cyclotron resonance is considered. The HAARP transmitter uses cyclotron resonance in radiating its energy transmissions into the ionosphere. This causes a large increase in reactions in the ionosphere and in living organisms. Cyclotron resonance occurs when, as a result of complex electromagnetic interactions, a charged particle or ion begins to go into a circular, or orbital, motion.


The speed of the orbits is determined by the ratio between the charge and weight of the particle and the strength of the applied field. Once this happens, and a specific charged particle frequency determined, if an electric field is added that is in harmony with this frequency at right angles to the magnetic field, energy is transferred from the electric field to the charged particle.

Many activities in living cells involve charged particles. Cyclotron resonance allows for the transfer of energy to cause ions to move more rapidly. It is cyclotron resonance which allows very low strength electromagnetic fields, together with Earth's magnetic field, to produce major biological effects. It happens because the total effect impacts very specific particles when tuned to the right frequency. To some degree, this explains why non-ionizing levels of radiation produce the effects which they do.325 The right weapon system could literally be tuned like a radio by an operator for the maximum negative effect. The principle could also be applied for healing purposes, and this area is being researched in some quarters.

Cyclotron resonance can be visualized as a particle being spun like a coiled spring and then screwed right through the cell wall into the cell. Here, reactions can lead to good, neutral or negative health effects. This effect is one of the major factors in electromedicine.

When combined with the Earth's normal magnetic fields, it is important to note, only ELF (1-100 Hertz) frequencies can cause controlled or accidental negative health effects. As far as is generally known, this is true until the strength of radiation escalates to the ionizing level.

The concept of cyclotron resonance was applied to the research carried out by the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center. They were able to apply external fields in a way which affected the brain chemistry of animals. They were able to affect the lithium ion to create the same effect as if they had treated the animal with the chemical lithium (lithium is used as a strong anti-depressant).326


In other words, affecting a chemical which was already in the body, or one that is introduced to the body, a person could literally amplify the effect of the chemical to the point where a very significant effect is caused, even death. Many naturally occurring chemicals are not dangerous in the amounts present in the body. If these chemicals are affected by

325 Cross Currents. The Perils of Electropoliution. The Promise of Electromedicine. by Robert O. Becker, M.D., pg 236-237.

326 Cross Currents. The Perils of Electropoliution. The Promise of Electromedicine. by Robert O. Becker, M.D., pg 236-240.

RFR, however, their potency increases to the point of being dangerous. The introduction of RFR causes a change in energy states, which cause chemical reactions. The results depend on wave form, frequency and energy level introduced, among other things. HAARP could be used to deliver the type of radiofrequency radiation described by Tyler and others. The use of HAARP in this way could be intentional or accidental, depending on the level of knowledge held by the equipment operators.

The 1982 report, Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000. went on to describe graphically the research efforts, breaking them into three primary areas.

  • "Pulsed RFR Effects" which covered a research period from 1980 through 1995, emphasized "considerably increased efforts" in this area.

  • "Mechanisms of RFR with Living Systems" was referred to as a "continuation of ongoing research" beginning in 1980 and forecast to conclude around 1997.

  • The last area of emphasis was "RFR Forced Disruptive Phenomena", which they considered a "major new initiative".

It was to begin around 1986 and continue until 2010. This last area could be characterized as applied technology, scheduled to begin at the same time as the Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook's completion. The handbook gave the basic information needed to develop new and powerful weapon systems which would have a negative effect on humans and electronics, but would leave other property unscathed.327 By the mid-1990's, the timeline for development was on or ahead of schedule.


The above report grew into a second volume, which gave a more detailed account of the Air Force's 1982 level of knowledge of radio frequency radiation (RFR) impacts on people. This report says,

"As the technological race continues, knowledge of mechanisms of action of RFR with living systems and the assessment of pulsed RFR effects will demonstrate the vulnerability of humans to complex pulsed electromagnetic radiation fields in combination with other stresses."328

The Air Force document laid out the aims and approaches for developing technological expertise to make adversaries helpless. The use of the technologies crystallized in the Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook, previously cited. The researchers' intent was to monitor the effects of the radiofrequency radiations at a chemical, molecular and atomic level.


The document stated,

"Currently available data allow the projection that specially generated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) fields may pose powerful and revolutionary antipersonnel military threats. Electroshock therapy indicates the ability of induced electric current to completely interrupt mental functioning for short periods of time, to obtain cognition for longer periods and to restructure emotional responses over prolonged intervals.


Experience with electroshock therapy, RFR experiments and the increasing understanding of the brain as an electrically mediated organ suggest the serious probability that impressed electromagnetic fields can be disruptive of purposeful behavior and may be capable of directing and/or interrogating such behavior. Further, the passage of approximately 100 milliamperes through the myocardium can lead to cardiac standstill and death, again pointing to a speed-oflight weapons effect. "329

327 Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000. Volumes I and II, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.

328 Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000. Volumes I and II, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, pg. 181-188.
329 Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000, Volumes I and II, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, pg. 181-188.

The advances in wireless transmission of energy for these kinds of weapons has reached the stage where we could see them used in the coming decade. It is likely that the research will give technicians increasingly more versatile and controlled effects.

The document then built into a wild scheme which, upon first reading, escaped our research focus. We couldn't quite get the idea of what the Air Force meant by "interrogating", and how this would fit into the picture of radiofrequency radiation weapons hardware.

It became clear when we read the following:

"While initial attention should be toward degradation of human performance through thermal loading and electromagnetic field effects, subsequent work should address the possibilities of directing and interrogating mental functioning, using externally applied fields within the possibility of a revolutionary capability to defend against hostile actions, and to collect intelligence data prior to conflict onset. "330

330 Ibid.


What this seemed to say was that the objective of the research would be toward mind manipulation at a distance, where the military could alter what people thought and, at the same time, know what they thought. It seemed too much like a science fiction novel.

  • How in the world could this effect be possible?

  • How long had research been underway, so that the military would be so bold as to publish this kind of material in an unclassified document?

  • Could it be that they had quietly advanced their research into these technologies under a veil of secrecy?

Then again, the Neurophone technology had been around since the 1960's. It had been thoroughly investigated and most likely used in forming the basis for new weapons. After all, the military had confiscated and controlled the technology under a secrecy order decades before (see Chapter Twenty-two)

The report went on to describe a system which again pointed to the HAARP project. The report called for the development of:

"A rapidly scanning RFR system [which] could provide an effective stun or kill capability over a large area. System effectiveness will be a function of waveform, field intensity, pulse widths, repetition frequency and carrier frequency. The system can be developed using tissue and whole animal experimental studies, coupled with mechanisms and waveform effects research."

This is what HAARP is, among other things. Page V of the HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program. Joint Program Plans and Activities specifies that the RFR heater must have a rapid scanning capability. Other HAARP documents define the waveform and frequency characteristics as if the same writer had written all of the documents.331 It is the new tool for the military in meeting their self imposed challenge of a "technological race." HAARP is the one-size-fits-all RFR universal tool.


331 Ionospheric Research Instrument (HAARP), March 6,1992, Attachment to contract PR. No.N00014-92-C-0210 issued to ARCO Power Technologies, inc. pages 15-19.

The grossly unfortunate part of this type of experimentation is how it is used. In our opinion, using RFR and other energies to destroy human life, as opposed to enhancing it, is immoral. The new directions of the energy sciences in healing people and enhancing health are not considered by the military - a travesty and a disservice to us all.


At a time when health care costs are rising, and the threats of major conflict declining, our government continues to spend billions on killing rather than on enhancing the human experience. These areas are important, and the research should be available so that more prudent uses can be developed. If this happened, we believe it would speed the positive developments being pursued by those who have great energy and creativity; but limited resources.

Unfortunately, the idea of using RFR for destructive purposes negates the entire area of positive life science applications. The research in life sciences using electromagnetic radiations (EMR) is advancing outside of the mainstream medical establishment, but is beginning to be used there as well. Some genetic engineering researchers for example, are already using this knowledge in their work.

Going back to the text by Captain Paul Tyler, we can look at the debate between classical theories and recent research. There is a gulf of conflict between these two schools of thought. The debate centers on the classical idea that only ionizing radiation (that which generates heat in tissue) can cause reactions in the body, while new research indicates that subtle, small, amounts of energy can cause reactions as well. What Tyler wrote in 1984, as an officer in the Air Force, puts the debate simply.


He said,

"Even though the body is basically an electrochemical system, modem science has almost exclusively studied the chemical aspects of the body and to date has largely neglected the electrical aspects. However, over the past decade researchers have devised many mathematical models to approximate the internal fields in animals and humans. Some of the later models have shown general agreement with experimental measurements made with the phantom models and animals.


Presently most scientists in the field use the concept of specific absorption rate for determining the Dosimetry (dosages) of electromagnetic radiation. Specific absorption rate is the intensity of the internal electric field or quantity of energy absorbed... However, the use of these classical concepts of electrodynamics does not explain some experimental results and clinical findings.


For example, according to classical physics, the frequency of visible light would indicate that it is reflected or totally absorbed within the first few millimeters of tissue and thus no light should pass through significant amounts of tissue. But it does. Also, classical theory indicates that the body should be completely invisible to extremely low frequencies of light where a single wave length is thousands of miles long. However, visible light has been used in clinical medicine to trans illuminate various body tissues. "332

In other words, the classical theories are partially wrong in that they do not fully explain all of the reactions which are observed in the body. The Navy has abstracted over a thousand international professional papers by private and government scientists which explore these issues. The Navy is well aware of the current research which shows the non-thermal effects of various electromagnetic radiations when they interact with living tissue,

Tyler continues,

"A second area where classical theory fails to provide an adequate explanation for observed effects is in the clinical use of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. Researchers have found that pulsed external magnetic fields at frequencies below 100 Hertz (pulses/cycles per second) will stimulate the healing of nonunion fractures, congenital pseudarthroses, and failed arthroses. The effects of these pulsed magnetic fields have been extremely impressive, and their use in orthopedic conditions has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. "333

Even the FDA, one of the most vigorous regulatory authorities in the country, accepts these non-thermal effects.

Tyler adds,

"Recently, pulsed electromagnetic fields have been reported to induce cellular transcription (this has to do with the duplication or copying of information from DNA, a process important to life). At the other end of the non ionizing spectrum, research reports are also showing biological effects that are not predicted in classical theories. For example, Kremer and others have published several papers showing that low intensity millimeter waves produce biological effects. They have also shown that not only are the effects seen at very tow power, but they are also frequency-specific."

Tyler goes on to discuss the results of this new thinking and the possible effects of these low energy radiations in terms of information transfer and storage, and their effects on the nervous system. Research has shown that very specific frequencies cause very specific reactions, and, once a critical threshold is passed, negative reactions occur.334 The key to Pandora's box has been turned, and the box has now been opened.


Will it result in life or death?

Tyler's paper created a good deal of controversy but was based upon good research and an in-depth knowledge of the subject matter covered. In the decade since its publication, the public debate on the material has continued to grow, even though many of the sources cited in these pages have limited distribution.

332 Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology. Lt Col. David J. Dean USAF, Edit of, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, June 1986.

333 ibid.

334 ibid.

The topics in this section could elevate the debate on military technologies. What will these areas of research yield? Should citizens take a greater interest in public affairs and remove the layers of secrecy which mask these research efforts?


These are the issues we all face now, and will continue to face as we move further down the road of new technology.

"If you adequately educate your community, you will find that the politicians will be scrambling to become better educated themselves."
Helen Caldicott, M.D.,

Missile Envy

Back to Contents


Back to Non-Lethal Weapons - "Psychotronics" and "Silent Sound"