ZAPPING THE "NONLETHAL" WAY
The area of "nonlethal" technologies has in recent years gained
increased public attention. The various agencies of the federal
government for over a decade gradually increased public releases
regarding this technology. The "sensitizing" of people to the
acceptance of these new weapons has slowly worked its way into open
view. Introducing these technologies has been carefully orchestrated
to avoid "change shock" and to increase the probability of public
The possibilities offered to the defense, justice and intelligence
communities in "nonlethal" systems development were enthusiastically
embraced by the various agencies, Eldon Byrd of the Naval Surface
Weapons Center was commissioned in 1981 and 1982, to investigate the
potential for developing electromagnetic devices which could be used
as 'non-lethal' weapons for riot control, hostage removal, embassy
security and other clandestine operations.
Byrd concluded that
remote manipulation of the mind was feasible. Funding was
discontinued in 1982 as far as the public knows. It is more likely
that this type of research was classified and moved to other
facilities and to new researchers284 in the "black" world of hidden
This type of technology would not advance beyond
the concept stage without becoming a "black" project based on
"national security" assertions by the military.
The Nonlethal Conference
In 1986, the United States' attorney general held a conference on
the development of these new high-tech weapons. It was summarized
the following year285 in a report discussing problems and solutions
for what was believed to be an area with significant future
possibilities. Several areas were reported to offer new
possibilities for the Department of Justice.
284 "The Mind Fields", by Kathleen McAuliffe, Omni Magazine,
285 Report on the Attorney General's Conference on
Less Than Lethal Weapons, by Sherri Sweetman, March 1987, U.S.
Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
The Department of Justice's report disclosed that:
"Participants also discussed the use of various wave lengths and
forms of administration of electromagnetic energy as a non-lethal
weapon. A substantial amount of preliminary research has been
conducted in this area...One conference participant noted that
scientific knowledge of human physiology is progressing to the point
where it may soon be possible to target specific physiologic systems
with specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation to produce
much more subtle and fine-tuned effects than those produced by
Photic driving is the use of visible light pulsed at frequencies
which have been shown to impact the brain. In some people they cause
epileptic seizures. The report went on:
"There is some evidence
(and a good deal of supposition) that sustained, extremely low
frequency (ELF) radiation can produce nausea or disorientation, One
researcher has subjected animals to ELF electromagnetic radiation
through electrode implants, and feels that similar results could be
produced from afar, without electrodes. One participant suggested
that ideally, one might like to develop the ability to design these
electromagnetic fields for specialized use, for instance to produce
sleep or confusion. It is known that sleep can be induced by
electrodes in the brain, and Russian scientists claim to be able to
produce sleep from afar (electrosleep). "286
What these conference participants were referring to was the work
conducted by Dr. Jose Delgado of Yale University and the Russian
Lida machine tested by Dr. Adey, referenced earlier.
Los Alamos and Friends
The report on the Department of Justice's 1986 conference also
"The nature of weapons to be tested and the necessity for the
tests must not be a secret of the kind whose 'leak' would result in
an exaggerated expose and associated public outcry."
The report went
on to recognize that the military had made a number of advances in
these areas but that these advances were classified. It also
recommended that the military should develop the technologies for
less than lethal weapons, because defense contracts were large and
technically sophisticated enough to do the job.
The concern about open investigation must have been lain aside when
the true extent of the military advancements were eventually
realized. The idea of an open discussion of these emerging areas was
abandoned to the shadowy world of secrecy and hidden agendas. The
next major conference where the military unveiled its new
technologies to the Justice Department was classified and not open
to the press or public.287 That which was to be open had become
buried in secrecy by some of the same people who limited access to
knowledge in the past. The public outcry they sought to avoid is now
justifiably being made by many opposed to such weapons.
In November, 1993 about 400 scientists gathered at John Hopkins
University Applied Physics Lab to discuss their work in developing
non-lethal weapons technologies, including radiofrequency radiation
(RF), electromagnetic pulse (EMP), ELF fields, lasers and chemicals.
The meeting was classified, and no detailed reports were ever
According to the press statements and the
conference agenda (which was released) the programs developing the
technologies had made significant advances, Enough advancement had
been made to establish a secrecy veil and classify the conference.
This conference took the whole program of nonlethal weapons a step
forward by bringing the leading experts together for this event. The
conference was sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory and
focused on both military and law enforcement uses for these
286 Report on me Attorney General's Conference on Less Than Lethal
Weapons, by Sherri
Sweetman, March 1987, U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute
287 The Wall Street Journal, "Nonlethal Arms, New Class of Weapons
Could Incapacitate Foe Yet
Limit Casualties, by Thomas E. Ricks, January 4,1993, page A1 and
288 Microwave News November/December1993,MilitaryonNonlethalWeapons:
Teller and U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno were the scheduled
keynote speakers at the conference, although Reno was unable to
attend.289 (The same Dr. Teller, "father of the H-bomb", had sold
the use of thermonuclear weapons to make deep water ports in Alaska
in the early 1960's, promoted a Star Wars weapons system for the
North Slope of Alaska in the late 1980's, and was now the
cheerleader for nonlethal electromagnetics.)
Dr. Clay Easterly of Oak Ridge National Laboratories led a session
"My major point was that there seem to be some
biological sensitivities or responses to ELF fields that could be
useful for nonlethal technology."
He could not discuss the specific
applications because the information was classified by the military.
He went on to say that the military was interested in the use of non
ionizing (non thermal) radiation which could be used for disabling
enemy electronics, although his presentation dealt with uses which
would affect people.290 This again demonstrates the level of
knowledge which the military ignores in HAARP disclosures to the
public - potential uses or risks associated with the generation of
ELF radiations over large areas of Alaska and eventually, the
A number of papers were presented at the conference, and gave the
latest information on applied technologies in this area. Dr. Henry
Brisker from the U.S. Army Research Laboratory presented work
dealing with High Power Microwave Technology, while Dr. George Baker
of the Defense Nuclear Agency, presented a paper titled "RF Weapons:
A Very Attractive Nonlethal Option".
What is obvious from the number of participants and the scope of the
subject matter is that the development of these ideas in new
military hardware did not just arrive on the scene but rather, had
been a part of the military agenda for some time. The current
emphasis on these technologies reflects the level of interest of the
government, and the increased visibility the government is giving
these areas indicates an intention to use these systems in a more
It is common practice to let things like these types
of technological advances come out in small bits in order to "test
the waters" of public opinion. In this way the population can be
co-opted into accepting greater levels of intrusion by governmental
agencies. The idea is to indoctrinate by being taught to believe, Tather than being given all of the facts so that a prudent person
could think about the issues and make reasoned decisions. The
contrast can be better stated as; "propaganda - versus-persuasion by
These technologies extend beyond the Air Force, CIA and Navy.
U.S. Army has its own product - a radiofrequeney (RF) weapon. In the
August 24, 1987 issue of Defense News, John Rosado of Harry Diamond
Labs in Adephi, MD, is quoted as saying that 'the nature of warfare
will be completely changed by the use of (RF) weapons."
noted that RF radiation could be used over a wide battlefield with
phased arrays... ".292
289 Microwave News November/December 1993, Military on Nonlethal
Weapons: 'A very Attractive Option'.
Defense, a classified Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National
Laboratory, November 16-17,1993.
292 Microwave News, May/June, 1988.
A phased array antenna system is what HAARP uses to send its signals to the ionosphere.
From Adversaries to Allies
Now that the "Cold War" is over and there is increased cooperation
between the superpowers and former foes, Russian and American
scientists have begun cooperating in a number of research efforts
including electromagnetics. The Soviet counterpart to Los Alamos
National Laboratory, Arzamas-16 located east of Moscow, has begun
collaborating with the U.S.A.
In the early 1990's, the two tabs worked together on research
regarding "an electromagnetic super generator capable of creating a
pulse of electrical power greater than any found in nature." A
second test was planned for "America's only similar pulsed power
program", located at Los Alamos National Laboratory.293 The nuclear
detonations in the upper atmosphere which were once used to create
electromagnetic pulses could now be created using the technology
developed in the Eastlund patents.
Electromagnetic pulse weapons also are the subject of ongoing
research into new "nonlethal" systems. These types of systems
present the greatest challenges and risks to health. HAARP
represents more than an experimental atmospheric physics device. It
has the potential for profound and far reaching effects by
delivering dangerous electromagnetic pulses (BMP).
The Russian "non-lethal" or perhaps more accurately, the lethal
technologies, were discussed in a 1993 article. It discloses the
Cold War development of a device called a "gyrotron", which was
designed to "sweep the sky of Western warplanes" by using high
energy micro-waves. The article described this weapon as being able
to cleanse the atmosphere of chemicals which cause ozone depletion.
In developing the weapon system, the Russians discovered that this
technology could be used to help the ozone problem or otherwise
alter the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere294.
The technology designed to sweep the sky of warplanes has the same
use envisioned by Nikola Tesla in the 1940's when he offered his
technology to the United States government. Further, Eastlund
described how his patents could be used to alter the chemical
composition of the ionosphere, including adding ozone or destroying
other selected chemicals.
The gyrotron described in the article was developed as one of the
"woodpecker" radio transmitters, and works on the same principles as
the Western devices. During the Cold War, the Russians' work was
much more advanced than the work being done in the United States.
Scientists from Russia are now collaborating with Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory on these projects.
293 "From Russia with Love...at Los Alamos?, Intelligence Report, Parade Special Supplement,
294 "Calif.'s Livermore Weighs Plan to Use Russian Technology", by Tom Schmitz, The Journal of
Commerce, April8, 1993.
From National Defense to the Justice Department
On July 21, 1994, Dr. Christopher Lamb, Director of Policy Planning,
issued a draft Department of Defense directive which would establish
a policy for nonlethal weapons. The policy was intended to take
effect January 1, 1995, and formally connected the military's
non-lethal research to civilian law enforcement agencies.
The government's plan to vise pulsed electromagnetic and radio
frequency systems as a nonlethal technology for domestic Justice
Department use rings the alarm for some observers. Nevertheless, the
plan for integrating these systems is moving forward. Coupling these
uses with expanded military missions is even more disturbing. This
combined mission raises additional constitutional questions for
Americans regarding the power of the federal government.295
In interviews with members of the Defense Department the development
of this policy was corrfirmed.296 In those February 1995,
discussions, it was discovered that these policies were internal to
agencies and were not subject to any public review process.
In its current draft form, the policy gives highest priority to
development of those technologies most likely to get dual use, i.e.
law enforcement and military applications. According to this
document, non-lethal weapons are to be used on the government's
The definition of "adversary" has been
significantly enlarged in the policy:
"The term 'adversary' is used above in its broadest sense, including
those who are not declared enemies but who are engaged in activities
we wish to stop. This policy does not preclude legally authorized
domestic use of the nonlethal weapons by United States military
forces in support of taw enforcement."297
This allows use of the military in actions against the citizens of
the country that they are supposed to protect. This policy statement
begs the question; who are the enemies that are engaged in
activities they wish to stop, what are those activities, and who
will make the decisions to stop these activities?
An important aspect of non-lethal weapon systems is that the name
nonlethal is intentionally misleading. The Policy adds,
important that the public understand that just as lethal weapons do
not achieve perfect lethality, neither will 'non-lethal' weapons
always be capable of precluding fatalities and undesired collateral
In other words, you might still destroy property and
kill people with the use of these new weapons.
295 Department of Defense Directive, Policy for Non-Lethal Weapons,
Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Draft July 21, 1994.
296 Interviews in late February by Nick Begich.
297 Department of
Defense Directive, Poiicy for Non-Lethal Weapons, Office of the
Assistant Secretary of Defense, Draft July 21,1994.
Pentagon officials said
they would like to get $41 million in 1995, for developing these
weapons which include their electromagnetic pulse systems.299 This
"meager" sum has a good deal of reach, because it is for
implementing already understood technology, for building prototype
weapons out of mostly "off the shelf parts. The only challenge would
be putting them together.
The basic research for these technologies
was done with "black budget" money. (These are funds which are so
secret even the Congress does not know how the money will be spent,
behind which organizations like the CIA, government laboratories run
by the military and other intelligence organizations, hide their
The Pentagon actually received $50 million to be used
jointly with the Department of Justice in developing these
In press statements, the government continues to downplay the risks
associated with such systems, even though the lethal potential is
described in context of their own usage policy. In Orwellian double
speak, what is nonlethal can be lethal.
The development of these technologies is being jointly managed by
the Non-Lethal Weapons Steering Committee, which is co-chaired by
the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology and the
Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations
and Low Intensity Conflict.301 This crystallizes the new Justice
Department and Department of Defense alliance for future law
enforcement and military initiatives, in the United States.
The weaving together of Department of Defense missions with civilian
Department of Justice missions is unprecedented. Not since the Civil
War has the military machinery - except in very limited riot control
actions - been turned against United States citizens. The idea of
using these dangerous and intrusive systems is counter to good
This raises serious questions regarding use of our
Department of Defense for domestic police actions, which may be a
violation of constitutional law by being in conflict with the
narrowly-defined federal use of the military "for the national
International Alarm Bells Begin to Sound
Questions are not just being raised by the authors of this book,
they are being raised by the International Committee of the Red
Cross. In their report from mid-1994,302 a number of points were
The idea of "war without death" was not new but began in the I950's,
according to the report. The military interest in these systems
dealt with chemical weapons, later advancing to radiation weapons.
The report looked at the
ramifications of international law regarding use of these new
299 The wall street Journal, "Nonlethal
Arms, New Class of Weapons Could Incapacitate Foe YetLimit
Casualties, by Thomas E. Ricks, January 4,1993, page A1 and A4.
Warren Hough, "High-Tech Civilian Control Studied; Secret Pentagon - DoJ Memo of Understanding, 'Non-lethal' weapons under development,
are being added to the government arsenalin its war against its own
citizens.", The Spotlight, July 31, 1995.
301 Perry Plans to Launch Nonlethal Warfare Effort, Defense News September 19-25, 1994.
302 "Expert Meeting on Certain Weapon Systems and on Implementation
Mechanisms inInternational Law", Report of the International
Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland,May 30 - June 1,
1994. Issued July 1994.
It pointed out weaknesses in the
international conventions regarding the use of chemical weapons:
"Therefore, when the Convention (Chemical Weapons Convention) comes
into force next year, activities involving them - activities such as
development, production, stockpiling and use - will become illegal,
unless their purpose is a purpose that is expressly not prohibited
under the Convention.
One such purpose is 'law enforcement including
domestic riot control purposes'303 Unfortunately, the Convention
does not define what it means by law enforcement' (whose law? what
law? enforcement where? by whom?), though it does define what it
means by 'riot control agent', namely 'any chemical...which can
produce rapidly in humans sensory irritation or disabling physical
effects which disappear within a short time following termination of
States parties are enjoined 'not to use riot control
agents as a method of warfare' ". 304
303 Chemical Weapons Convention, Article II 9(d).
Meeting on Certain Weapon Systems and on Implementation Mechanisms
in International Law", Report of the International Committee of the
Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland, May 30 - June 1, 1994. Issued July
In other words, we can use on our own citizens what we cannot use in
warfare with real enemies who are threats to national security. This
explains why the development of nonlethals has moved out of the
Department of Defense into the Department of Justice. For the
Department of Defense to continue to work on these weapons, as
instruments of war, is now illegal under international law. The Red
Cross report went on to discuss the shift from weapons of war to
police tools which they called - "riot control agents".
What does this mean for Americans?
This places Americans, and
citizens of other counties, in a lesser protected class than
individuals seeking to destroy our counties - our real adversaries.
This language really represents a way for countries to continue to
develop these weapons. This is a loop hole in the agreement. So
while the treaty looks good on the surface, it is hollow rhetoric
In another section of the report, "Future Weapons Using High Power
Microwaves" are discussed at length. This section describes
microwave frequencies, for HAARP developed for use in weapons
against machines and people.
One of the uses described is an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) weapon
which gives an operator the same ability to wipe out electronic
circuits as a nuclear blast would provide. The main difference is
that this new technology is controllable, and can be used without
violating nuclear weapons treaties.
This section of the report then described energy levels needed for
the following to occur:
"Overheats and damages animal tissue"
"Possibly affects nervous system"
"Threshold for microwave hearing"
"Causes bit errors in unshielded computers"
"Burns out unprotected receiver diodes in antennas"
The effects are based on radio frequency radiation being pulsed
"between 10 and 100 pulses per second". The report confirmed that
non-thermal effects were being researched. These non-thermal effects
included damage to human health when the effects occurred "within
so-called modulation frequency windows (10 Hertz is one such
window305) or power density windows306".
The way these weapons work was clearly described when the report
noted their effect on machines:
"A HPM (High Power Microwave) weapon employs a high power, rapidly
pulsating microwave beam that penetrates electronic components. The
pulsing action internally excites the components, rapidly generating
intense heat which causes them to fuse or melt, thus destroying the
Tesla described his speed of light system as being able to melt
aircraft hundreds of miles away. The Red Cross report echoes Tesla:
"HPM (weapons) attack at the speed of light thus making avoidance of
the beam impossible, consequently negating the advantage of weapon
systems such as high velocity tactical missiles."
In other words, with this kind of weapon there is no machine which
could get by this invisible wall of directed energy. HAARP sets in
motion the beginning of a system which could have these effects over
the entire world.
In the last section of the report, the power levels that the Red
Cross expects by the end of the decade are set at 100,000,000,000
watts 307 - the same 100 gigawatt level "desired" by HAARP
Another report on non-lethal technologies, issued by the
Foreign Relations points out that,
"The Nairobi Convention, to which
the United States is a signatory, prohibits the broadcast of
electronic signals into a sovereign state without its consent in
305 Discussion with Dr. Patrick
Flanagan on August 2, 1995 (by co-author Begich).
306 "Expert Meeting on Certain Weapon Systems and on Implementation
International Law", Report of the International Committee of the Red
Cross, Geneva, Switzerland,
May 30 - June 1, 1994. Issued July 1994.
307 "Expert Meeting on
Certain Weapon Systems and on Implementation Mechanisms in
International law", Report of the International Committee of the Red
Cross, Geneva, Switzerland,
May 30 - June 1, 1994. Issued July 1994.
PL/GPTechnicalMemorandumNo.195;"Presentations from the HAARP Workshop on
Ionospheric Heating Diagnostics, 30 April - 2 May1991, Phillips Laboratory (AFSC), Hanscom AFB,
MA. 01731-5000"; Editor, Major Drew Fisher; October 22,1991.
"Non-Lethal Technologies; Military Options and implications", Report
of an Independent Task
Force sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations, Malcom H.
Weiner, Chairman, released June
This report opens
discussion of the use of these weapons against terrorists and drug
The CFR report recommends that this be done secretly
so that the victims do not know where the attack is from, or if
there even is an attack. There is a problem with this approach. The
use of these weapons, even against these kinds of individuals, may
be in violation of United States law in that it presumes guilt
rather than innocence.
In other words the police, CIA, DEA or other
enforcement organization becomes the judge, jury and executioner.
The Universal Tool - HAARP
In a summary document produced at Maxwell Air Force Base, the real
potentials of these weapon applications for the universal military
tool, HAARP, are described. Although the HAARP literature produced
by the military is silent on the topics discussed below, the Air
Force showed, by this publication, that they are well aware of the
potential use of a transmitting system like HAARP. More importantly
politically is the "Newt Gingrich spin" placed on the development
efforts in the foreword, by today's Speaker of the House, to the
military's report on this subject.
The foreword to Low-intensity Conflict and Modern Technology was
written by Congressman Newt Gingrich in 1986 before he rose to the
position of Speaker. This position makes him currently the third
most powerful person in the United States government. Gingrich's
views on "low intensity conflicts" become relevant when considered
along with the development of non-lethal technology. He focuses on
creating approaches to conflict which can dispense with radicals
who, in his words,
"engage quietly in dirty little wars in faraway
places with almost no regard for legal nicety or the technical
problems of international law".311
The ability of the United States to meet these challenges is also
discussed in the foreword as Gingrich wrote:
"The organization of power in the State and Defense Departments and
the relationships between Congress, the news media, and the
executive branch are all unsuited to fighting low-intensity conflict
He goes on to describe the limits of the military in addressing
these types of conflicts, and commends the military for developing
the policy doctrine and the new technology directions of the Air
Force put forward in the book. Newt Gingrich apparently remains a
fan of non-lethal weapons, which he views as useful technology for
domestic law enforcement.
Specifically, he said, when commenting on
these technologies, that they "are our real peace dividend" and that
"preserve the defense industrial base, stimulate jobs in
high-technology industry, and provide needed new options to local
police and law enforcement authorities."312
310 Non-Lethal Technologies; Military Options and Implications",
Report of an Independent Task
Force sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations, Malcom H.
Weiner, Chairman, released June
311 Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology. Lt Col.
David J. Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Canter for
Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base,
Alabama, June 1986.
312 "Armageddon Killing Them Softly" by Russell Shorto, GQ, March 1995.
Another interesting issue
to contemplate is the Defense Department's new Policy on non-lethal
weapon systems, where "adversaries" and "enemies" have been more
broadly deftned, as here the use of such systems against American
citizens. The idea that these systems can be used almost without
detection to manipulate the behavior and thinking of people raises
This use also appears to be in conflict with
Constitutional rights regarding free expression and speech. The fact
that the military together with the United States Justice Department
can now use these technologies, under their broad definitions,
should sound an alarm for all people, not just Americans.313
In our opinion, the only redeeming discussion in Low-Intensity
Conflict, and Modern Technology, (a compilation of papers presented
in 1984) was that some at the meeting saw the "new" technologies for
what they were, and began heated debates about the morality of using
these weapon systems.
In the closing page of the technology overview
the following was written:
"Paul Tyler also discusses the application of electromagnetic
radiation (EMR) to low-intensity conflict. He surveys ongoing
scientific research into the biological effects of electromagnetic
radiation. Tyler tells us current evidence indicates that specific
biological effects can be achieved by controlling the perimeters of
electromagnetic radiation directed at human subjects. Thus there is
the potential to use EMR to control human behavior or even to maim
or kill adversaries. Tyler urges that the United States should
devote considerable resources to exploring the possibilities of
developing EMR weapons technology, which could be of particular
value in low-intensity scenarios. "314
It becomes increasingly obvious that the inner circle of the
Department of Defense placed a substantial amount of effort and
emphasis in these areas.
The writer continued:
"Both Tyler's and Ruotanen's (another contributor to Low-Intensity
Conflict and Modern Technology) papers created heated discussions.
Some panel members questioned the advisability of employing nuclear,
EMP (electromagnetic pulse), and EMR (electromagnetic radiation)
weapons. They felt the ever-present danger of escalation would negate
any advantage to be gained from surgical ground or atmospheric
nuclear burst. Some on the panel saw Tyler's article as bordering on
It is acceptable to have weapons and strategies to
blow bodies into little pieces or burn them to a crisp, but not to
use medical research and techniques to develop more subtle ways of
eliminating or controlling enemies. There was some feeling that any
benefit to be gained from research into EMR effects - dangerous in
itself - might well be overshadowed by indignant outcries against the
use of EMR weapons on human beings. "315
313 Department of Defense Directive, Policy for Non-Lethal Weapons,
Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Draft July 21,1994.
314 Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology,. Lt Col. David J.
Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace
Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama,
The development of these
new weapons helps demonstrate the general immorality of war,
particularly when the military establishment presents mind
manipulation as a preferable outcome to death. The authors of Angels
Don't Play This HAARP believe that we need open debate on these
types of weapons. These discussions should be similar to nuclear
Another revealing section of this military compiled book apparently
aimed at a rationale which would make sense in the minds of defense
planners and would help them deal with the moral issues:
"The articles and discussions in the technology panels generated
quite a bit of heat and quite a bit of light. Chief among the
concepts brought into the light was that the application of
technology to low-intensity conflict should not hinge on the debate
over simple or advanced systems, or high versus low
technologies...The key is to recognize specific requirements and
apply suitable systems and technologies to meet those requirements.
316 Low-lntensity Conflict and Modern Technology. Lt Col. David J.
Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace
Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air ForceBase, Alabama,
Stated differently, the military's means justifies the military's
end. (For Ruotanen's comments on electromagnetic pulses see our
chapter, "Thermonuclear Weapons Replaced By Electropulse.")
Obviously, these concepts were well understood by the military in
1984 when the original work was presented which led to this book's
publication in 1986. The system's development moved forward-most
likely within "black budgets" from 1984 onward. The HAARP system is
the largest concept-delivery system ever constructed by the military
which could create the effects described in 1984.
The next chapter in Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology is
the section written by Captain Paul Tyler. Tyler discusses, to some
degree, the application of non-ionizing radiation using external
fields including radiofrequency radiation and other electromagnetic
radiations. He discusses some of the beneficial effects of this
energy for healing wounds, bone regeneration in fractures,
electro-anesthesia, acupuncture and pain relief.
He then jumps into the military applications of this technology:
"The potential applications of artificial electromagnetic fields are
wide-ranging and can be used in many military or quasi-military
situations... Some of these potential uses include dealing with
terrorist groups, crowd control, controlling breaches of security at
military installations, and antipersonnel techniques in tactical
warfare. In all of these cases the EM systems would be used to
produce mild to severe physiological disruption or perceptual
distortion or disorientation. In addition, the ability of
individuals to function could be degraded to such a point that they
would be combat ineffective.
Another advantage of electromagnetic
systems is that they can provide coverage over large areas with a
single system. They are silent and
countermeasures to them may be difficult to develop... One last area
where electromagnetic radiation may prove of some value is in
enhancing abilities of individuals for anomalous phenomena. "317
Tyler's comments point to applications which may already be somewhat
developed. He refers to an earlier Air Force document about the uses
of radio frequency radiation in combat situations, (note that HAARP
is the most versatile and the largest radio frequency radiation
transmitter in the world.) He also points out that the uses may
include enhancement of "anomalous phenomena" in individuals.
Anomalous phenomena are those kinds of things which are not readily
explained. You might say these are the quirks in human potentials.
These could be called extrasensory or supernormal phenomena. This
significant area is carefully screened in the writing. He refers to
Eastern European research and the Soviet work also, without
disclosing what exactly they were doing with this technology.
Another document prepared for the Air Force in 1982 reveals the
direction that branch of the armed services took the technology.
While commenting on radio frequency radiation usages the report
"Biotechnology research must consider the significant advances that
can be made in electromagnetic radiation weapons and defenses that
could be in place by the year 2000.. .Research is first needed to
develop and apply methods for assessing pulsed RFR (radio frequency
radiation) effects. Techniques are needed for depositing RFR at
selected organ sites.
Mathematical models and physical measurement
capabilities must be developed to track, real time, RFR energy
distributions within these organ sites as a function of
physiological processes such as diffusion and blood flow. These
studies will require prudent extrapolation of physical and
physiological data obtained from laboratory animals to humans in
operational environments. "318
This 1982 report called for research to develop hardware that could
deliver the radiation through new weapons for the Air Force.
A research publication commissioned by the Air Force - Radio
Frequency Dosimetry Handbook - described these models, in time to
meet the schedules they had put forward in 1982.319 The book gives
mathematics for calculating the dosages (Dosimetry) of radio
frequency radiation necessary to cause changes in animals and
The book compiled research spanning five decades, and
contains a bibliography which is 29 pages long. It is the only book
of its kind available on the subject in the world. This book, and
more importantly the research behind it, forms the matrix of thought
and theory for the finest electromedical devices for healing yet
However, this military research is not being used to
heal; it is being used to develop better methods of killing.
317 Low-lntensitv Conflict and Modern Technology, Lt Col. David J.
Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace
Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama,
June 1986, pages 249-251.
318 Final Report On Biotechnology Research
Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000. Volume
I, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, 1982, pg. 44.
319 Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook , United States Air
Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas,
One of the principal reviewers of the Radiofrequency Radiation
Dosimetry Handbook for the Air Force was Dr. Herman P. Schwan. Dr.
Schwan was also the largest contributor to the book, having two full
pages of his work alone cited in the bibliography.
research is being used for the development of military hardware for
use by the West. His recruitment for this is another case of the
"military means justifying the military ends". An interesting aside
to this individual's history Includes his work in Nazi Germany
during World War II, where he worked in scientific laboratories. He
was later admitted to the United States under a special military
operation called "Project Paperclip"320, a program designed to
bring to the United States prominent scientists who had been
employed in Nazi laboratories during the war.321
In 1957, Dr. Schwan
was working for the Biological Warfare Laboratories at Fort Detrick,
Maryland, where the United States military gave him a "Top Secret"
Dr. Schwan is now working at University of
Going back for a moment to the 1982 Air Force report referred to
earlier, the use of radiofrequency radiation in the new weapon
systems contemplated by the Air Force was intended to change the
central nervous system, cardiovascular system and the respiratory
system. We were distressed to read about the idea of using this
technology to alter the way people think in order to make the
"enemy" of the government incapable of waging war.323
This type of
use of a technological advancement is inherently evil, in the
opinion of the authors of this book. Thinking is a fundamental right
of all people. No individual or government should interfere with the
free will of individuals in this way. Moreover, the fact that these
technologies are classified - and hidden from the medical community - denies humanity the opportunity to explore these areas for healing
people rather than for destructive purposes.
The report speaks about using this technology in a way which could
interact with biological or chemical agents, The report states,
may be possible to sensitize large military groups to extremely
dispersed amounts of biological and chemical agents. It should be
noted that this may require relatively low level RFR."324
expressed here is that depositing small amounts of chemicals in a
person's physiological system, in amounts below normal levels where
negative physical effects are known to occur, will ensure they have
no perceivable effect until radio frequency radiation (RFR) is
introduced. Once introduced, the RFR creates physiological reactions
which are detrimental to the host.
This would allow individuals who
are not exposed to the chemicals to then enter the area of the RFR
without harm to their own bodies.
320 Proiect Paperclip, by Dr. Clarence Rasby, Athenaeum Press, 1975,
321 Memorandum, Office of the Deputy Director of Intelligence,
Headquarters European Command, October 30, 1947. (provided by:
International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive
322 Memorandum, Headquarters Second United States
Army, Fort Meade, Maryland, September 5, 1957. (provided by:
International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive
323 Final Report On Biotechnology Research
Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000, Volumes
I and II, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, 1982.
324 Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For
Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000, Volumes 1 and II,
Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, 1982.
When an operator tunes the RFR in
just the right
way, changes are caused in the energy state of atoms, which cause
chemical reactions in the body, which in turn manifest as
physiological or psychological changes.
The introduction of small amounts of chemicals is a very important
concept when cyclotron resonance is considered. The HAARP
transmitter uses cyclotron resonance in radiating its energy
transmissions into the ionosphere. This causes a large increase in
reactions in the ionosphere and in living organisms. Cyclotron
resonance occurs when, as a result of complex electromagnetic
interactions, a charged particle or ion begins to go into a
circular, or orbital, motion.
The speed of the orbits is determined
by the ratio between the charge and weight of the particle and the
strength of the applied field. Once this happens, and a specific
charged particle frequency determined, if an electric field is added
that is in harmony with this frequency at right angles to the
magnetic field, energy is transferred from the electric field to the
Many activities in living cells involve charged particles. Cyclotron
resonance allows for the transfer of energy to cause ions to move
more rapidly. It is cyclotron resonance which allows very low
strength electromagnetic fields, together with Earth's magnetic
field, to produce major biological effects. It happens because the
total effect impacts very specific particles when tuned to the right
frequency. To some degree, this explains why non-ionizing levels of
radiation produce the effects which they do.325 The right weapon
system could literally be tuned like a radio by an operator for the
maximum negative effect. The principle could also be applied for
healing purposes, and this area is being researched in some
Cyclotron resonance can be visualized as a particle being spun like
a coiled spring and then screwed right through the cell wall into
the cell. Here, reactions can lead to good, neutral or negative
health effects. This effect is one of the major factors in
When combined with the Earth's normal magnetic fields, it is
important to note, only ELF (1-100 Hertz) frequencies can cause
controlled or accidental negative health effects. As far as is
generally known, this is true until the strength of radiation
escalates to the ionizing level.
The concept of cyclotron resonance was applied to the research
carried out by the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center. They were
able to apply external fields in a way which affected the brain
chemistry of animals. They were able to affect the lithium ion to
create the same effect as if they had treated the animal with the
chemical lithium (lithium is used as a strong anti-depressant).326
In other words, affecting a chemical which was already in the body,
or one that is introduced to the body, a person could literally
amplify the effect of the chemical to the point where a very
significant effect is caused, even death. Many naturally occurring
chemicals are not dangerous in the amounts present in the body. If
these chemicals are affected by
325 Cross Currents. The Perils of Electropoliution. The Promise of
Electromedicine. by Robert O. Becker, M.D., pg 236-237.
Currents. The Perils of Electropoliution. The Promise of
Electromedicine. by Robert O. Becker, M.D., pg 236-240.
RFR, however, their
potency increases to the point of being dangerous. The introduction
of RFR causes a change in energy states, which cause chemical
reactions. The results depend on wave form, frequency and energy
level introduced, among other things. HAARP could be used to deliver
the type of radiofrequency radiation described by Tyler and others.
The use of HAARP in this way could be intentional or accidental,
depending on the level of knowledge held by the equipment operators.
The 1982 report, Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements
For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000. went on to describe
graphically the research efforts, breaking them into three primary
"Pulsed RFR Effects" which covered a research period from 1980
through 1995, emphasized "considerably increased efforts" in this
"Mechanisms of RFR with Living Systems" was referred to as a
"continuation of ongoing research" beginning in 1980 and forecast to
conclude around 1997.
The last area of emphasis was "RFR Forced Disruptive Phenomena",
which they considered a "major new initiative".
It was to begin
around 1986 and continue until 2010. This last area could be
characterized as applied technology, scheduled to begin at the same
time as the Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook's
completion. The handbook gave the basic information needed to
develop new and powerful weapon systems which would have a negative
effect on humans and electronics, but would leave other property
unscathed.327 By the mid-1990's, the timeline for development was on
or ahead of schedule.
The above report grew into a second volume, which gave a more
detailed account of the Air Force's 1982 level of knowledge of radio
frequency radiation (RFR) impacts on people. This report says,
the technological race continues, knowledge of mechanisms of action
of RFR with living systems and the assessment of pulsed RFR effects
will demonstrate the vulnerability of humans to complex pulsed
electromagnetic radiation fields in combination with other
The Air Force document laid out the aims and approaches for
developing technological expertise to make adversaries helpless. The
use of the technologies crystallized in the Radiofrequency Radiation
Dosimetry Handbook, previously cited. The researchers' intent was to
monitor the effects of the radiofrequency radiations at a chemical,
molecular and atomic level.
The document stated,
"Currently available data allow the projection that specially
generated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) fields may pose powerful
and revolutionary antipersonnel military threats. Electroshock
therapy indicates the ability of induced electric current to
completely interrupt mental functioning for short periods of time,
to obtain cognition for longer periods and to restructure emotional
responses over prolonged intervals.
Experience with electroshock therapy, RFR experiments and the
increasing understanding of the brain as an electrically mediated
organ suggest the serious probability that impressed electromagnetic
fields can be disruptive of purposeful behavior and may be capable
of directing and/or interrogating such behavior. Further, the
passage of approximately 100 milliamperes through the myocardium can
lead to cardiac standstill and death, again pointing to a
speed-oflight weapons effect. "329
327 Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For
Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000. Volumes I and II,
Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
328 Final Report
On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems
Through the Year 2000. Volumes I and II, Southwest Research
Institute, San Antonio, Texas, pg. 181-188.
329 Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For
Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000, Volumes I and II,
Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, pg. 181-188.
The advances in wireless transmission of energy for these kinds of
weapons has reached the stage where we could see them used in the
coming decade. It is likely that the research will give technicians
increasingly more versatile and controlled effects.
The document then built into a wild scheme which, upon first
reading, escaped our research focus. We couldn't quite get the idea
of what the Air Force meant by "interrogating", and how this would
fit into the picture of radiofrequency radiation weapons hardware.
It became clear when we read the following:
"While initial attention should be toward degradation of human
performance through thermal loading and electromagnetic field
effects, subsequent work should address the possibilities of
directing and interrogating mental functioning, using externally
applied fields within the possibility of a revolutionary capability
to defend against hostile actions, and to collect intelligence data
prior to conflict onset. "330
What this seemed to say was that the objective of the research would
be toward mind manipulation at a distance, where the military could
alter what people thought and, at the same time, know what they
thought. It seemed too much like a science fiction novel.
How in the
world could this effect be possible?
How long had research been
underway, so that the military would be so bold as to publish this
kind of material in an unclassified document?
Could it be that they
had quietly advanced their research into these technologies under a
veil of secrecy?
Then again, the Neurophone technology had been
around since the 1960's. It had been thoroughly investigated and
most likely used in forming the basis for new weapons. After all,
the military had confiscated and controlled the technology under a
secrecy order decades before (see
The report went on to describe a system which again pointed to the
HAARP project. The report called for the development of:
"A rapidly scanning RFR system [which] could provide an effective
stun or kill capability over a large area. System effectiveness will
be a function of waveform,
field intensity, pulse widths, repetition frequency and carrier
frequency. The system can be developed using tissue and whole animal
experimental studies, coupled with mechanisms and waveform effects
This is what HAARP is, among other things. Page V of the HAARP HF
Active Auroral Research Program. Joint Program Plans and Activities
specifies that the RFR heater must have a rapid scanning capability.
Other HAARP documents define the waveform and frequency
characteristics as if the same writer had written all of the
documents.331 It is the new tool for the military in meeting their
self imposed challenge of a "technological race." HAARP is the
one-size-fits-all RFR universal tool.
331 Ionospheric Research Instrument (HAARP), March 6,1992,
Attachment to contract PR. No.N00014-92-C-0210 issued to ARCO Power
Technologies, inc. pages 15-19.
The grossly unfortunate part of this type of experimentation is how
it is used. In our opinion, using RFR and other energies to destroy
human life, as opposed to enhancing it, is immoral. The new
directions of the energy sciences in healing people and enhancing
health are not considered by the military - a travesty and a
disservice to us all.
At a time when health care costs are rising,
and the threats of major conflict declining, our government
continues to spend billions on killing rather than on enhancing the
human experience. These areas are important, and the research should
be available so that more prudent uses can be developed. If this
happened, we believe it would speed the positive developments being
pursued by those who have great energy and creativity; but limited
Unfortunately, the idea of using RFR for destructive purposes
negates the entire area of positive life science applications. The
research in life sciences using electromagnetic radiations (EMR) is
advancing outside of the mainstream medical establishment, but is
beginning to be used there as well. Some genetic engineering
researchers for example, are already using this knowledge in their
Going back to the text by Captain Paul Tyler, we can look at the
debate between classical theories and recent research. There is a
gulf of conflict between these two schools of thought. The debate
centers on the classical idea that only ionizing radiation (that
which generates heat in tissue) can cause reactions in the body,
while new research indicates that subtle, small, amounts of energy
can cause reactions as well. What Tyler wrote in 1984, as an officer
in the Air Force, puts the debate simply.
"Even though the body is basically an electrochemical system, modem
science has almost exclusively studied the chemical aspects of the
body and to date has largely neglected the electrical aspects.
However, over the past decade researchers have devised many
mathematical models to approximate the internal fields in animals
and humans. Some of the later models have shown general agreement
with experimental measurements made with the phantom models and
Presently most scientists in the field use the concept of
specific absorption rate for determining the Dosimetry (dosages) of
electromagnetic radiation. Specific absorption rate is the intensity
of the internal electric field or quantity of energy absorbed...
However, the use of these classical concepts of electrodynamics does
not explain some experimental results and clinical
For example, according to classical physics, the frequency
of visible light would indicate that it is reflected or totally
absorbed within the first few millimeters of tissue and thus no
light should pass through significant amounts of tissue. But it
does. Also, classical theory indicates that the body should be
completely invisible to extremely low frequencies of light where a
single wave length is thousands of miles long. However, visible
light has been used in clinical medicine to trans illuminate various
body tissues. "332
In other words, the classical theories are partially wrong in that
they do not fully explain all of the reactions which are observed in
the body. The Navy has abstracted over a thousand international
professional papers by private and government scientists which
explore these issues. The Navy is well aware of the current research
which shows the non-thermal effects of various electromagnetic
radiations when they interact with living tissue,
"A second area where classical theory fails to
provide an adequate explanation for observed effects is in the
clinical use of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic
fields. Researchers have found that pulsed external magnetic fields
at frequencies below 100 Hertz (pulses/cycles per second) will
stimulate the healing of nonunion fractures, congenital pseudarthroses, and failed arthroses. The effects of these pulsed
magnetic fields have been extremely impressive, and their use in
orthopedic conditions has been approved by the Food and Drug
Even the FDA, one of the most vigorous regulatory authorities in the
country, accepts these non-thermal effects.
"Recently, pulsed electromagnetic fields have been
reported to induce cellular transcription (this has to do with the
duplication or copying of information from DNA, a process important
to life). At the other end of the non ionizing spectrum, research
reports are also showing biological effects that are not predicted
in classical theories. For example, Kremer and others have published
several papers showing that low intensity millimeter waves produce
biological effects. They have also shown that not only are the
effects seen at very tow power, but they are also
Tyler goes on to discuss the results of this new thinking and the
possible effects of these low energy radiations in terms of
information transfer and storage, and their effects on the nervous
system. Research has shown that very specific frequencies cause very
specific reactions, and, once a critical threshold is passed,
negative reactions occur.334 The key to Pandora's box has been
turned, and the box has now been opened.
Will it result in life or
Tyler's paper created a good deal of controversy but was based upon
research and an in-depth knowledge of the subject matter covered. In
the decade since its publication, the
public debate on the material has continued to grow, even though
many of the sources cited in these pages have limited distribution.
Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology. Lt Col. David J. Dean USAF, Edit of, Air
University Press, Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and
Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, June 1986.
The topics in this section could elevate the debate on military
technologies. What will these areas of research yield? Should
citizens take a greater interest in public affairs and remove the
layers of secrecy which mask these research efforts?
These are the
issues we all face now, and will continue to face as we move further
down the road of new technology.
"If you adequately educate your community, you will find that the
politicians will be scrambling to become better educated
Helen Caldicott, M.D.,
Back to Non-Lethal Weapons - "Psychotronics"
and "Silent Sound"