RACE WITH THE RUSSIANS
"Similar, though less capable, research facilities exist today at
many locations throughout the world and are operated routinely for
the purpose of scientific investigation of the ionosphere...None of
these existing systems, however, have the combination of frequency
capability and beam steering agility required to perform the
experiments planned for HAARP. "215
The program handlers continued to talk to the public as if this
ionospheric heater were really no different than any others around
the world. Yet, while promoting the project and in internal
communications, they couldn't resist talking about HAARP as the
biggest "heater" in the world - more powerful than anything in
existence. This technology is more than just the level of
effective-radiated-power, or frequency/wave-form variability, or
steering capability. The biggest factor is that in combination with
these abilities, the device focuses power in a way which yields
many, many times more delivered power to the ionosphere than
anything on Earth resembling this device.
This device is a jump ahead in technology, beyond anything else. It
is a leap like comparing a squirt gun to an artillery piece, and the
effects are, to a great extent, unknown once the energy is released
beyond certain thresholds. Yet, in answer to Congressional
inquiries, citizen complaints and interagency requests for
information, project manager Heckscher, continuously denies that the
system is any different from what he and other previously said was
already operating. He delivers this information in the form of
sophisticated word games, The government craft of bureaucratese
reaches new highs with the HAARP promoters.
In a 1990-2-16 meeting that Heckscher attended, the record stated that,
"To date, (only) the Soviet Union has built such a powerful HF
(high-frequency) heater. The highest ERPs (Effective Radiated Power)
achieved by U.S. facilities is about one fourth of that. Presently,
a heater in Norway, operated by the Max Planck Institute in the
Federal Republic of Germany, is being reconfigured to provide 1
gigawatt of ERP at a single HF frequency. The HAARP is to ultimately
have an HF heater with an ERP well above 1 gigawatt (on the order of
95-100 dbW); in short, the most powerful facility in the
215 HAARP fact sheet, Office of Naval Research, Phillips Laboratory,
November 4, 1993.
HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program, Joint Program Plans and Activities, AirForce
Geophysics Laboratory, Navy Office of Naval Research, February 1990.
Was the race with the Soviets part of the picture and the
justification for spending the money?
The Russians had been at the
game a good deal longer and had a greater understanding of
ionospheric heaters. Again, the emphasis on output size alone is not
enough to describe the technology. It is the combination of size,
focused power beaming, beam maneuverability, waveform generation and
frequency - among a number of other unique capabilities - which make
this system so powerful.
The issue of power has always been a bit on the confusing side to
those trying to decipher exactly what this device would generate in
output power through the antenna array and what it would take in
input power to get there.
This issue was finally cleared up in a
letter by John Heckscher where he said,
"There is a difference
between 'total radiated power' and 'effective radiated power'. That
difference is antenna gain, which in HAARP's case is a factor of
nearly 1000 (at 10 MHz)."218
What was also new about this Eastlund
invention is that it could focus the huge power levels onto a single
point in the ionosphere. For the first time, the western military
establishment could begin to use the new weapon capabilities.
The Soviets had been playing with their ELF and VLF toys for two
decades by the time the HAARP transmitter was built. They had been
testing their ideas and theories for use of radiofrequency in new
weapon systems during those years. The Soviet radio frequency
transmitters had been the source of much controversy throughout the
Some in the United States and Canada had blamed such things as
weather manipulation, mind control, radio interference and other
unexplainable atmospheric events219 on the Soviet transmitters which
created what became known as the "woodpecker" signal 220.
218 Letter From John Heckscher, HAARP Program Manager, Department of
the Air Force, Phillips Laboratory, to Dr. Arther Grey, Secretary,
Spectrum planning Subcommittee, National Telecommunications
Information Administration, United States Department of Commerce,
Super-Memory : The Revolution, by Sheila Ostrander and Lynn
Schroeder, pages 292-304.
The sales pitch for HAARP funding fell to the academics at the
University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and they had a
friend in the powerful Senator from Alaska, Ted Stevens. It is
doubtful that Stevens had been fully informed by these professors;
the record indicates that he may have been duped into being their
voice in the halls of Congress. Senator Stevens was quoted in a news
article as he defended the funding of the HAARP program.
from the report that the Senator may have been left with incomplete
information by the project promoters.
Harness the Aurora?
In mid-1990 Senator Stevens defended his project in a committee
meeting when he said,
"I could tell you about the time when the
University of Alaska came to me and said it might be possible to
bring the aurora to Earth. We might be able to harness the energy in
He went on to say,
"No one in the Department of
Defense, no one in the Department of Energy, no one in the executive
branch was interested in pursuing it at alt. Why? Because it did not
come from the good old boy network. So I did just what you say I
should do. I got Congress to ear-mark the money, and the experiment
is going on now. It will cost $10 million to $20 million. If it is
successful, it will change the history of the world."
direct costs of the first phase of HAARP was about $25 million with
the second phase estimated at $150 million. This does not include
the numerous other projects related to, or complimenting, the HAARP
Senator Stevens went to the floor of the Senate late in the summer
of 1990 and declared,
"We have in Alaska what I consider to be one
of the most exciting research projects that I have ever
encountered," He went on to say, "It is the experiments that are
going on trying to determine if it is possible to harness the energy
of the electrojet for the use of mankind."
He said the project "has
the potential of using a laser beam to be a conductor of this energy
back to Earth... It is an experiment that, when I first heard about
it, I thought someone had rewritten a new chapter of Jules Veme."221
"The research facility would be used to understand, stimulate and
control ionospheric processes that might alter the performance of
communication and surveillance systems... Potential applications of
the HAARP research include developing DoD technology for detecting
cruise missiles and aircraft and for communicating with submarines.
Although HAARP is being managed by the Air Force and Navy, it is
purely a scientific research facility which represents no threat to
potential adversaries and would therefore have no value as a
military target. "222
Again it appears that what is really being said is that this is not
an operational weapon system, only a proof-of-concept system. It is
designed to provide a better understanding for future uses as a
weapon system. This is an outrageous statement, which plays on the
ignorance of readers of the HAARP records, and could be equated to
the suggestion that the development centers for the atom bomb during
World War II were not potential military targets.
"As the result of a competitive procurement, the Air Force and Navy
have awarded a contract to ARCO Power Technologies, Inc. (APTI) for
the design and construction of the IRI and associated support
APTI, according to Eastlund, was set up to do one
thing - develop his ideas into marketable technologies.
APTI was not
set up as a construction company or an ionospheric research
organization. It was set up to exploit energy in a way which
maximized a return to one of the world's oil giants, Atlantic
Richfield Company. What Eastlund did was put ARCO into the Star Wars
business until a company more suited to the project could be located
to buy out their interests. That company was E-Systems. E-Systems'
history and controversy has been documented by CBS's, 60 Minutes as
well as by the Washington Post, and is discussed in this book.
The original bidders on the HAARP project were Penn State
University, Raytheon and APTI.224 The chain of corporate events has
been discussed previously, In June, 1994, APTI was bought out by
E-Systems, which in April, 1995, was bought out by Raytheon
So, in the end, one of the project's losing bidders,
Raytheon - one of the largest defense contractors in the world - came
to own the technology and the contract.
221 "Porkpie in the Sky", Anchorage Daily News, We Alaskans ,
December 15,1991 pages 9-14.
222 HAARP Fact Sheet, Office of Naval
Research, Phillips Laboratory, November 4, 1993.
224 Interview with John Heckscher, HAARP Program Manager and Jeane
Manning, February 21, 1995.