In a fact sheet issued by the Office of Naval Research and Phillips Laboratory about HAARP dated November 4, 1993 the following is written:

"The proposed research will be undertaken using high power radio transmitters to probe the overhead ionosphere, combined with a complement of modem scientific diagnostic instruments to investigate the results of the interactions. "193


"HAARP will be constructed at auroral latitudes in Alaska. A unique feature of the research facility would be a high-power high-frequency radio transmitter with the capability of rapidly steering a narrow beam of energy toward a designated region in the sky. (This innovation of the Eastlund patent makes it the most unique ionospheric heater in the world.)


Similar, though less capable, research facilities exist today at many locations throughout the world and are operated routinely for the purpose of scientific investigation of the ionosphere. In the U.S. such systems are located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, and Fairbanks, Alaska. Other installations are at Tromso, Norway; Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and Apatity, Russia; Kharkov, Ukraine and Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan.


None of these existing systems, however, have the combination of frequency capability and beam steering agility required to perform the experiments planned for HAARP. "194

A significant difference between what these other facilities are capable of is that HAARP was designed to focus the radiofrequency transmission into a narrow beam. 195 At the time that Eastlund invented his particular phased array method of focusing radiofrequency radiation, the best which could otherwise be achieved, from the ground to altitudes of 100 kilometers, was about one millionth of one watt per cubic centimeter.


Using a full sized Eastlund ionospheric heater, power levels of one watt per cubic centimeter could be achieved, a million times increase in delivered power. Even with a smaller array, like the first phase of HAARP, a comparison to the other ionospheric heaters cannot be fairly made because even the smaller HAARP transmitter would have many times more power than anything in the world at the present time, in terms of power delivered into the ionosphere. The other ionospheric heaters spread the radiation out, rather than focusing it like the HAARP transmitter. 196

The way the energy is focused can be visualized using one of the diagrams Eastlund submitted to the patent examiner when getting his first patent filed. The diagram shows the old technology beaming the energy up to the ionosphere in a cone of power with the wide end of the cone reaching the ionosphere. The new technology utilizes the opposite approach: the beamed energy is focused to a point in the ionosphere.

193 HAARP Fact Sheet, November 4, 1993, issued by Phillips Laboratory.

194 Ibid.

195 HAARP Fact Sheet, March 2,1995, issued by Phillips Laboratory.

196 Interview Dr. Eastlund by Jeane Manning, February 20, 1995.

It is this concept which differentiates Eastlund's concept from that of other existing radio transmitters used for ionospheric heating. It is this concept that the military is moving toward at the HAARP site, although a full-size Eastlund system, at this time, is not being used.


The second phase planned for HAARP will have between 4,700,000,000 and 10,000,000,000 watts of effective radiated power (ERP) coming off the antennas at ground level. This was what was planned according to the contract for construction, 197 which specified ERP levels of "at least" 10 billion watts. However, this was not what was "desired" in terms of upper power level thresholds.


What was "desired" by the planning team was 100 billion watts of ERP, according to the record, ten times the phase two level of the project. 198

"An exciting and challenging aspect of ionospheric enhancement is its potential to control ionospheric processes in such a way as to greatly improve the performance of C3 systems (C3 systems are Communications, Control and Command systems. The military refers to them as C3. These are usually linked to Intelligence as C31 systems.).


A key goal of the program is the identification and investigation of those ionospheric processes and phenomena that can be exploited for DoD purposes, such as those outlined below... Generation of ELF waves... Geophysical probing... Generation of ionospheric lenses...Electron acceleration...Generation of geomagnetic-field aligned ionization... Oblique heating... Generation of ionization layers below 90KM... the most exciting and challenging aspect of ionospheric enhancement is its potential to control ionospheric processes in such a way as to greatly enhance the performance of C3 systems (or, to deny accessibility to an adversary). "199

The military goes on to describe their excitement about the possibility of "seizing" control of the ionosphere and bending it into the shape which serves their purposes. These are the statements within the government reports which ring the loudest with the inflections of Eastlund, the inventor of the primary APTI patents.


A look at the government claimed capabilities follows, and is explained further in other sections of this book.

Geophysical Probing

In the 1990 planning meeting summary, HAARP planners devote few words to geophysical probing. They say that this is a "by-product" of other applications of the ionospheric heater, the HAARP transmitter. As the years moved forward, however, this use becomes increasingly important to the project. The idea that this tool, HAARP, could be used for earth probing purposes is never explored in the federal Environmental Impact Statement on the project.


That document says that the radio-frequency radiation coming from HAARP will be directed upward and would not have an affect on surface areas, while other HAARP records describe and diagram a ground effect.


Yet, it is precisely this use which may have the most far-reaching effects on animal migration patterns and human health.

197 Office of Naval Research, Contract Number N00014-92-C-0210, ARCO Power Technologies Incorporated as Contractors, September 16,1992 with Amendments through October 19,1993.

198 PL/GP Technical Memorandum No. 195; "Presentations from the HAARP Workshop on Ionospheric Heating Diagnostics, 30 April - 2 May 1991, Phillips Laboratory (AFSC), Hanscom AFB, MA. 01731-5000"; Editor, Major Drew Fisher; October 22, 1991, page 182.

199 HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program, Joint Program Plans and Activities, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Navy Office of Naval Research, February 1990.

To better understand this use of HAARP-earth-penetrating tomography we need to explore a few different documents. First, let's look again at that 1990 HAARP summary,200 which includes a section dealing with the generation of extremely low frequency and very low frequency (ELF and VLF) waves.


These energy waves are sent up from the antenna array (HAARP) in such a way so it "produces a virtual antenna in the ionosphere for radiation of radio waves" back to earth. The antenna created in the ionosphere then radiates, or sends back, the pulsed frequency, It then moves through the earth, giving the military the ability to locate underground anomalies such as shelters, nuclear facilities, oil fields, tunnels and other natural and man made formations.

The second document which explains this application is not revealed until much later in the program. In the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, the United States Senate stops additional spending on the project until the military outlines a plan which includes a full earth-penetrating tomography program.


The report specifies:

"This transmitter in Alaska, besides providing a world class research facility for ionospheric physics, could allow earth-penetrating tomography over most of the northern hemisphere. Such a capability would permit the detection and precise location of tunnels, shelters, and other underground shelters."201

200 HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program, Joint Program Plans and Activities, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Navy Office of Naval Research, February 1990.

201 The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995,103rd Congress, 2nd Session, Report #103-282, Calendar No. 459, Report to Accompany S.2182, Committee on Armed Services United States Senate, June 14 (legislative day June 7)1994.


The Senate went on to criticize the military for not bringing forward a complete plan for implementation of this specific capability as part of the HAARP program. They told the military to come back with a more comprehensive plan before they could get any more money.

The third piece of information in this part of the puzzle came out in a radio interview conducted on December 23, 1994, by Linda Moulton Howe with the HAARP program director, John Heckscher.


Heckscher expressed his frustration in not being able to move forward on the project because of the Senate action. He made clear that HAARP could not continue unless the "nonproliferation people" put in the proper documents which would clarify earth-penetrating tomography as a HAARP project mission. The non-proliferation people, referred to by Heckscher, are those in the Pentagon and elsewhere who develop the plans for locating underground military installations, especially nuclear research and development facilities.

Our research, and critiques by independent scientists, raised questions about whether or not the earth-penetrating tomography application would work in a "hot war" environment. For it to work there need to be instruments on the ground, or traversing the ground at very, very low altitudes. Our technical review indicated that it would be difficult to do this in combat. But it could be used in other situations.


It could be used to verify nonproliferation agreements and other peace agreements where the country to be probed allowed the U. S. military to install ground sensors.

Earth-penetrating tomography could also be used for minerals, and oil exploration, as referred to in the Anchorage Daily News:

"UAF researchers have plans for HAARP's radio waves when they bounce back to the Earth. They hope to harness the energy waves after they hit the ground with a small antenna affixed to a helicopter. They might be able to use the radio waves to explore for mineral deposits and even oil... "202

Searching for oil is one of the many HAARP experiments which is not part of the estimated $175 million budget for the first two phases of the project. To find out more about earth-penetration mapping the authors contacted HAARP program manager Heckscher in late February, 1995.


He said it would use,

"in terms of frequency, like 10 or 20 Hertz (pulses per second) or maybe one Hertz, one cycle per second type waves."203

This range of frequencies is a very important point. These frequencies are the same dominate frequencies within which the human brain normally operates!


This potential impact on people will be explored further in another chapter.

The idea of using HAARP for earth-penetrating tomography was anticipated from the very beginning of HAARP. That this tool could be used to produce this "byproduct" was always known but downplayed in the records. However, the usage must have been promoted in selling the project to the United States Senate, The unexpected result was that the Senate gave priority to this aspect.

The fact that the system will send a huge amount of energy into the ionosphere, and return a large portion of that energy to the earth, with possible ionospheric amplifications or induced charged particle rain, is alarming. Potential environmental implications have not been fully disclosed and most likely are not well understood.

These uses were never discovered by those opposed to the HAARP project until late 1994, and only confirmed by a review of the Congressional Record at that time. Formal objections to the nondisclosure of the biological effects of ELF on living things in the earth-penetrating tomography application of the technology were filed with various governmental agencies, but to no avail.


We could not clearly find out the facts until late January 1995, much after the regulating authorities had already granted the go-ahead for HAARP testing. The only remaining barrier to HAARP raised by the United States Senate was the question of funding.


This question was partially resolved in the 1996 defense budget funding that included $10 million for HAARP, 20% of the total allocated for counter proliferation projects.

Generation of ELF/VLF Waves

These kinds of waves are used for DoD communication systems. Currently, waves are produced,

"from the Navy's existing antenna systems in Wisconsin and Michigan. Because this area of research appears especially promising, and because of existing DoD requirements for ELF and VLF, it is already a primary driver of the proposed HAARP research program."

202 "Transmitter Plan Leaves Public Uneasy", Anchorage Daily News, pages B-1 and B-3.

203 Interview of John Heckscher, HAARP Program Manager, with Jeane Manning, 2-21-1995.

As a "primary driver" this again shows that the project is important to the military in terms of Department of Defense (DoD) applications. Beyond the communication possibilities, these types of radio frequencies could be used to manipulate the radiation belts of the ionosphere in a manner which would allow satellites to operate safely in these regions without damage to the satellites' electronics. This use was discussed in the Eastlund patents as well as the HAARP records.

The possibility of using HAARP for these multiple purposes is particularly attractive to the military at a time when funding is increasingly a greater issue for all United States governmental agencies. The HAARP system could consolidate costs of several other defense systems by combining them into one tool.

Another consideration that is not discussed in the Environmental Impact Statement, to any significant degree, is the raging global scientific debate on the effects of extremely low frequencies (ELF) on living organisms, including human beings.


The military's representative, Dr. Klaunenberg, during one of the hearings on the project, made a point of referring to a large file containing materials on the various radiations emitted by HAARP and then stated,

"All that didn't go into the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); as a matter of fact, that reduced to just a couple of lines. And I know what your, where you're coming from and I share your concerns."204

The military, particularly the Air Force and Navy, have extensive research on the negative effects of ELF. These effects have been well documented with basic research which is expanding geometrically in volume every year. The government handily deflected the concerns raised in the public hearings in Alaska by playing down the results of this research and minimizing the risks.


This was the same way the government promoted other military systems while deflecting public concern in such areas as nuclear testing experiments205,206, LSD experiments on unknowing individuals207, 208, radiation experiments on people who were not informed of the risks and in many other areas - under the guise of National Security 209, 210.

204 Final Environmental Impact Statement Volume II, Proposed High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, July 1993, pg. 10-42.

205 staff Memorandum, Advisory Committee Staff to the Member of the President's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, June 27,1994, (provided by: International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive Microwave Weapons)
206 National Journal, Volume 27, No. 18, "Rays of Terror" by Margaret Kritz, May 6, 1995, Pages 1099-1109. (provided by: International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive Microwave Weapons)

207 Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Within The United States. June 1975, pages 225-231.

208 Staff Memorandum, Advisory Committee Staff to the Member of the President's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, June 27, 1994. (provided by: international Committee for The Convention Against Offensive Microwave Weapons)
209 Ibid.

210 National Journal, Volume 27, No. 18, "Rays of Terror" by Margaret Kritz, May 6, 1995, Pages 1099-1109. (provided by: International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive Microwave Weapons)

Electron Acceleration

This trick of HAARP would allow the military to alter the ionosphere in a way which would effectively block satellite observation of areas under a selected portion of the ionosphere. Thus the military could more easily,

"condition the ionosphere so that it would support HF (high-frequency) propagation during periods when the natural ionosphere was especially weak. This could potentially be exploited for long range (Over-the-Horizon) HF communication/surveillance purposes."

This use was previously envisioned by Eastlund and others.

The HAARP facility was located at the site originally intended for the "Over the Horizon Radar" facility, which was dropped after the end of the Cold War according to the government record. The HAARP facility will allow the government to replace the "Backscatter Radar" with a new, more versatile facility, in a more bang for the buck application!

There were other patents controlled by APTI which grew out of the Eastlund patents which could be used in this application. They are U.S. patent numbers 4,999,637 and 5,041,834, which are exactly what the government seemed to be seeking and now has achieved in HAARP. The military claimed that they were not using the Eastlund patents for this particular use, but what they couldn't deny was that the patents they were using were the outgrowth of the Eastlund concepts. These two patents specifically refer to Eastlund's work in their conceptual development. The HAARP program offers the military the over-the-horizon radar capability, again demonstrating the sort of all in one tool that HAARP is designed to provide.

The projects that HAARP technology replaces make it potentially one of the most powerful and cost-effective weapon systems yet developed by the military, while at the same time being potentially one of the most dangerous since the development of thermonuclear weapons.

Generation of Field-Aligned Ionization

In this section of the military documents describing HAARP, control of the ionospheric processes would allow the military to maintain communication above a nuclear disturbed ionospheric region, and would allow very long range detection of missiles. The document also mentioned a 1992 satellite experiment that tested this theory, using a "heater in Alaska".

The only other known heater in Alaska is HIPAS, at the University of Alaska facilities near Fairbanks (although this was not specifically named). HAARP was not yet constructed in 1992.

This use has to do with the control and manipulation of the ionosphere for military purposes. The technology which makes these effects is referred to in several of the patents held by APTI.

Oblique HF Heating

This area involves projection of the beam, to alter the ionosphere up to 1000 km or more from the heater. This is an interesting ability, considering the military - throughout their public relations efforts - has stated that the heater affected region would be mainly above the HAARP facility itself. The idea that the beam might be steered in a way which reached these lateral (side) distances was not fully disclosed in the Environmental Impact Statements. The point here is that the device can manipulate the ionosphere over a wide area and not just above the heater.

Oblique HF heating is useful for over-the-horizon radar, as well as for many of the other uses desired by the military. We talk about the steering elsewhere, when discussing the use of the HAARP transmitter as the military's long sought after radio frequency radiation weapon. This type of use was first publicly disclosed by an Air Force captain who was reporting on new technologies in a military conference in 1984.211


Such a weapon could disable humans and impair their mental functions, among other things.

Generation of Ionization Layers Below 90 km

This use has already been proven, according to the HAARP summary by the Air Force and Navy,

"The Air Force in particular has carried the concept, termed Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM), to the point of demonstrating its technical viability and proposing a new initiative to conduct proof-of-concepts experiments."

This concept will lead to a number of other uses, including,

"long range, over-the-horizon, HF/VHF/UHF surveillance purposes, including the detection of cruise missiles and other low observables."

This again is the more bang for the buck military application which, on the surface, feels good to most taxpaying Americans. The idea that one tool can be used to achieve all of these capabilities is astounding. The idea that so many weapon systems of perceived adversaries could be rendered obsolete is far reaching in its implications. However, the risks are still not well defined in the documents issued by the government on HAARP.


The project has not been reviewed because of the limited releases of information which has denied more-objective observers and other scientists the opportunity to consider the HAARP system. The fundamental question, as yet unanswered or even addressed, surrounds the risks associated with energizing this critical portion of our upper atmosphere.

211 Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology, Lt Col. David J. Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell AirForce Base, Alabama, June 1986.

The patents developed by APTI which describe these systems were discovered in researching this book in April, 1995. It then appeared obvious why military planners had included some of the "key personnel" in the APTI contract. Having the technology's inventors and innovators made the project that much more viable. The military contact had clear language which required the use of these key people. The contract said that substitution was not permitted without government consent. More-over, the military added that failure to assign these people to the project could result in forfeiture of the contract entirely 212.

Having the patents remain undiscovered until after the first phase of HAARP was constructed and tested reduced the possibility of the project being halted. What the discovery did prove was that HAARP was not just some university research project, but was the military tool always suspected by the "NO HAARP" compilers.

The press releases and information coming from the military on this project have continually downplayed its potentials. In the HAARP summary, the government discusses the need for a high-power heater. Meanwhile, in the public documents and the letters sent to Congress-men, state legislators and others insist that the HAARP project is no different than other heaters operating safely throughout the world.


In the 1990 documents the governments says,

"...that at the highest HF powers available in the West, the instabilities commonly studied are approaching their maximum RF energy dissipative capability, beyond which the plasma processes will 'runaway' until the next limiting factor is reached."

What the HAARP planners go on to say, when referring to heating the ionosphere, is that they are certain that they can,

"drastically alter its thermal, refractive, scattering, and emission character over a wide electromagnetic (radio frequency) and optical spectrum."213

The difference with HAARP has to do with the power beam focusing ability of the transmitter, unlike anything operating elsewhere. Focusing the energy to a specific point is the unique aspect which planners were so enthused about.

In summary, according to the military records about HAARP, we have a project designed to prove the concepts originally discussed in February 1990 and hatched years before. The direction the military was heading in their research was finally possible with the invention of the Eastlund ionospheric heater - the most powerful directed multiple use energy weapon yet conceived.

According to the military, the device had the greatest set of possible uses. These are uses already proven by Eastlund to the satisfaction of the United States Patent Office and tested by the military. It was clear that if the military, in cooperation with the University of Alaska Fairbanks, could show that this new ground-based "Star Wars" technology was sound, they would both win.

212 office of Naval Research, Contract Number N00014-92-C-0210, ARCO Power Technologies Incorporated as Contractors, September 16,1992 with Amendments through October 19,1993.

213 HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program, Joint Program Plans and Activities, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Navy Office of Naval Research, February 1990.

The military would have a relatively inexpensive secure defense shield within the economic reach of their planners, and the University would be recognized for the most remarkable manmade geophysical manipulation since atmospheric detonations of nuclear bombs. What would follow with the success of the testing would be the military megaprojects of the future, and huge markets for North Slope natural gas.

Looking at the other patents which built on the work of Eastlund, it becomes clearer how the military intends to use the HAARP transmitter, It also makes governmental denials less believable. The military knows how it intends to use this technology, and has made it clear in their documents.


The military has deliberately misled the public, through sophisticated word games, deceit and outright disinformation.

  • The HAARP system could give the military a tool to replace the electromagnetic pulse effect of atmospheric thermonuclear devices, still considered a viable option by the military through at least 1986.214

  • It could replace the huge Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) submarine communication system operating in Michigan and Wisconsin with a new and more compact technology.

  • It could be used to replace the over-the-horizon radar system once planned for the current location of HAARP, with a more flexible and accurate system.

  • It could provide a way to wipe out communications over an extremely large area, while keeping operator controlled communications systems working.

  • It could provide a wide area earth-penetrating tomography which, if combined with the computing abilities of EMASS and Cray computers, would make it possible to verify many parts of nuclear nonproliferation and peace agreements.

  • It could provide a tool for geophysical probing which would define oil, gas and mineral deposits over a large geographical area.

  • It could even also be used to detect incoming low level planes and cruise missiles, making other technological advantages obsolete.

The above abilities seem like a good idea for all of us who believe in sound national defense and a secure world. These advances seem reasonable to those of us concerned with the large amounts of national productivity being spent on higher and higher cost weapon systems at a time when government spending is out of control.

However, the possible uses which the HAARP records do not explain, and which can only be found in Air Force, Army, Navy and other federal agency records, are alarming. Moreover, the disaster which could befall all of us on the planet by the reckless use of these power levels in our natural shield, the ionosphere, could be cataclysmic.

214 Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology. Lt Col, David J. Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, June 1986.

What the military fails to say is that they do not know what exactly will happen. It should be remembered that this project represents the largest energy levels yet played with by the big boys with their new toys. This project is an experiment, and experiments are done when we want to find out something that we do not already know.


So, what will really happen?


When we find the answer, we all may be out of luck and out of time.


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