BLURRED VISIONS OF THE MILITARY
In a fact sheet issued by the Office of Naval Research and Phillips
Laboratory about HAARP dated November 4, 1993 the following is
"The proposed research will be undertaken using high power radio
transmitters to probe the overhead ionosphere, combined with a
complement of modem scientific diagnostic instruments to investigate
the results of the interactions. "193
"HAARP will be constructed at auroral latitudes in Alaska. A unique
feature of the research facility would be a high-power
high-frequency radio transmitter with the capability of rapidly
steering a narrow beam of energy toward a designated region in the
sky. (This innovation of the Eastlund patent makes it the most
unique ionospheric heater in the world.)
Similar, though less
capable, research facilities exist today at many locations
throughout the world and are operated routinely for the purpose of
scientific investigation of the ionosphere. In the U.S. such systems
are located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, and Fairbanks, Alaska. Other
installations are at Tromso, Norway; Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and
Apatity, Russia; Kharkov, Ukraine and Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan.
of these existing systems, however, have the combination of
frequency capability and beam steering agility required to perform
the experiments planned for HAARP. "194
A significant difference between what these other facilities are
capable of is that HAARP was designed to focus the radiofrequency
transmission into a narrow beam. 195 At the time that Eastlund
invented his particular phased array method of focusing
radiofrequency radiation, the best which could otherwise be
achieved, from the ground to altitudes of 100 kilometers, was about
one millionth of one watt per cubic centimeter.
Using a full sized Eastlund ionospheric heater, power levels of one watt per cubic
centimeter could be achieved, a million times increase in delivered
power. Even with a smaller array, like the first phase of HAARP, a
comparison to the other ionospheric heaters cannot be fairly made
because even the smaller HAARP transmitter would have many times
more power than anything in the world at the present time, in terms
of power delivered into the ionosphere. The other ionospheric
heaters spread the radiation out, rather than focusing it like the
HAARP transmitter. 196
The way the energy is focused can be visualized using one of the
diagrams Eastlund submitted to the patent examiner when getting his
first patent filed. The diagram shows the old technology beaming the
energy up to the ionosphere in a cone of power with the wide end of
the cone reaching the ionosphere. The new technology utilizes the
opposite approach: the beamed energy is focused to a point in the
193 HAARP Fact Sheet, November 4, 1993, issued by Phillips
195 HAARP Fact Sheet, March 2,1995, issued by
196 Interview Dr. Eastlund by Jeane Manning,
February 20, 1995.
It is this
concept which differentiates Eastlund's concept from that of other
existing radio transmitters used for ionospheric heating. It is this
concept that the military is moving toward at the HAARP site,
although a full-size Eastlund system, at this time, is not being
The second phase planned for HAARP will have between
4,700,000,000 and 10,000,000,000 watts of effective radiated power (ERP)
coming off the antennas at ground level. This was what was planned
according to the contract for construction, 197 which specified ERP
levels of "at least" 10 billion watts. However, this was not what
was "desired" in terms of upper power level thresholds.
"desired" by the planning team was 100 billion watts of ERP,
according to the record, ten times the phase two level of the
"An exciting and challenging aspect of ionospheric enhancement is
its potential to control ionospheric processes in such a way as to
greatly improve the performance of C3 systems (C3 systems are
Communications, Control and Command systems. The military refers to
them as C3. These are usually linked to Intelligence as C31
A key goal of the program is the identification and
investigation of those ionospheric processes and phenomena that can
be exploited for DoD purposes, such as those outlined below...
Generation of ELF waves... Geophysical probing... Generation of
ionospheric lenses...Electron acceleration...Generation of
geomagnetic-field aligned ionization... Oblique heating...
Generation of ionization layers below 90KM... the most exciting and
challenging aspect of ionospheric enhancement is its potential to
control ionospheric processes in such a way as to greatly enhance
the performance of C3 systems (or, to deny accessibility to an
The military goes on to describe their excitement about the
possibility of "seizing" control of the ionosphere and bending it
into the shape which serves their purposes. These are the statements
within the government reports which ring the loudest with the
inflections of Eastlund, the inventor of the primary APTI patents.
look at the government claimed capabilities follows, and is
explained further in other sections of this book.
In the 1990 planning meeting summary, HAARP planners devote few
words to geophysical probing. They say that this is a "by-product"
of other applications of the ionospheric heater, the HAARP
transmitter. As the years moved forward, however, this use becomes
increasingly important to the project. The idea that this tool,
HAARP, could be used for earth probing purposes is never explored in
the federal Environmental Impact Statement on the project.
document says that the radio-frequency radiation coming from HAARP
will be directed upward and would not have an affect on surface
areas, while other HAARP records describe and diagram a ground
Yet, it is precisely this use which may have the most
far-reaching effects on animal migration patterns and human health.
197 Office of Naval Research, Contract Number N00014-92-C-0210, ARCO
Incorporated as Contractors, September 16,1992 with Amendments
through October 19,1993.
198 PL/GP Technical Memorandum No. 195;
"Presentations from the HAARP Workshop on Ionospheric Heating
Diagnostics, 30 April - 2 May 1991, Phillips Laboratory (AFSC),
Hanscom AFB, MA. 01731-5000"; Editor, Major Drew Fisher; October 22,
1991, page 182.
199 HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program, Joint
Program Plans and Activities, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Navy
Office of Naval Research, February 1990.
To better understand this
use of HAARP-earth-penetrating tomography we need to explore a few
different documents. First, let's look again at that 1990 HAARP
summary,200 which includes a section dealing with the generation of
extremely low frequency and very low frequency (ELF and VLF) waves.
These energy waves are sent up from the antenna array (HAARP) in
such a way so it "produces a virtual antenna in the ionosphere for
radiation of radio waves" back to earth. The antenna created in the
ionosphere then radiates, or sends back, the pulsed frequency, It
then moves through the earth, giving the military the ability to
locate underground anomalies such as shelters, nuclear facilities,
oil fields, tunnels and other natural and man made formations.
The second document which explains this application is not revealed
until much later in the program. In the National Defense
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, the United States Senate
stops additional spending on the project until the military outlines
a plan which includes a full earth-penetrating tomography program.
The report specifies:
"This transmitter in Alaska, besides providing a world class
research facility for ionospheric physics, could allow
earth-penetrating tomography over most of the northern hemisphere.
Such a capability would permit the detection and precise location of
tunnels, shelters, and other underground shelters."201
200 HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program, Joint Program Plans
and Activities, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Navy Office of
Naval Research, February 1990.
201 The National Defense
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995,103rd Congress, 2nd Session,
Report #103-282, Calendar No. 459, Report to Accompany S.2182,
Committee on Armed Services United States Senate, June 14
(legislative day June 7)1994.
The Senate went on to criticize the military for not bringing
forward a complete plan for implementation of this specific
capability as part of the HAARP program. They told the military to
come back with a more comprehensive plan before they could get any
The third piece of information in this part of the puzzle came out
in a radio interview conducted on December 23, 1994, by Linda
Moulton Howe with the HAARP program director, John Heckscher.
Heckscher expressed his frustration in not being able to move
forward on the project because of the Senate action. He made clear
that HAARP could not continue unless the "nonproliferation people"
put in the proper documents which would clarify earth-penetrating
tomography as a HAARP project mission. The non-proliferation people,
referred to by Heckscher, are those in the Pentagon and elsewhere
who develop the plans for locating underground military
installations, especially nuclear research and development
Our research, and critiques by independent scientists, raised
questions about whether or not the earth-penetrating tomography
application would work in a "hot war" environment. For it to work
there need to be instruments on the ground, or traversing the ground
at very, very low altitudes. Our technical review indicated that it
would be difficult to do this in combat. But it could be used in
It could be used to verify nonproliferation
agreements and other peace agreements where the country to be probed
allowed the U. S. military to install ground sensors.
tomography could also be used for minerals, and oil exploration, as
referred to in the Anchorage Daily News:
"UAF researchers have plans for HAARP's radio waves when they bounce
back to the Earth. They hope to harness the energy waves after they
hit the ground with a small antenna affixed to a helicopter. They
might be able to use the radio waves to explore for mineral deposits
and even oil... "202
Searching for oil is one of the many HAARP experiments which is not
part of the estimated $175 million budget for the first two phases
of the project.
To find out more about earth-penetration mapping the authors
contacted HAARP program manager Heckscher in late February, 1995.
said it would use,
"in terms of frequency, like 10 or 20 Hertz
(pulses per second) or maybe one Hertz, one cycle per second type
This range of frequencies is a very important point.
These frequencies are the same dominate frequencies within which the
human brain normally operates!
This potential impact on people will
be explored further in another chapter.
The idea of using HAARP for earth-penetrating tomography was
anticipated from the very beginning of HAARP. That this tool could
be used to produce this "byproduct" was always known but downplayed
in the records. However, the usage must have been promoted in
selling the project to the United States Senate, The unexpected
result was that the Senate gave priority to this aspect.
The fact that the system will send a huge amount of energy into the
ionosphere, and return a large portion of that energy to the earth,
with possible ionospheric amplifications or induced charged particle
rain, is alarming. Potential environmental implications have not
been fully disclosed and most likely are not well understood.
These uses were never discovered by those opposed to the HAARP
project until late 1994, and only confirmed by a review of the
Congressional Record at that time. Formal objections to the
nondisclosure of the biological effects of ELF on living things in
the earth-penetrating tomography application of the technology were
filed with various governmental agencies, but to no avail.
not clearly find out the facts until late January 1995, much after
the regulating authorities had already granted the go-ahead for HAARP testing. The only remaining barrier to HAARP raised by the
United States Senate was the question of funding.
This question was
partially resolved in the 1996 defense budget funding that included
$10 million for HAARP, 20% of the total allocated for
counter proliferation projects.
Generation of ELF/VLF Waves
These kinds of waves are used for DoD communication systems.
waves are produced,
"from the Navy's existing antenna systems in
Wisconsin and Michigan. Because this area of research appears especially
promising, and because of existing DoD requirements for ELF and VLF,
it is already a primary driver of the proposed HAARP research
"Transmitter Plan Leaves Public Uneasy", Anchorage Daily News, pages B-1 and B-3.
Interview of John Heckscher, HAARP Program Manager, with Jeane Manning, 2-21-1995.
As a "primary driver" this again shows that the project is important
to the military in terms of Department of Defense (DoD)
applications. Beyond the communication possibilities, these types of
radio frequencies could be used to manipulate the radiation belts of
the ionosphere in a manner which would allow satellites to operate
safely in these regions without damage to the satellites'
electronics. This use was discussed in the Eastlund patents as well
as the HAARP records.
The possibility of using HAARP for these multiple purposes is
particularly attractive to the military at a time when funding is
increasingly a greater issue for all United States governmental
agencies. The HAARP system could consolidate costs of several other
defense systems by combining them into one tool.
Another consideration that is not discussed in the Environmental
Impact Statement, to any significant degree, is the raging global
scientific debate on the effects of extremely low frequencies (ELF)
on living organisms, including human beings.
representative, Dr. Klaunenberg, during one of the hearings on the
project, made a point of referring to a large file containing
materials on the various radiations emitted by HAARP and then
"All that didn't go into the Environmental Impact Statement
(EIS); as a matter of fact, that reduced to just a couple of lines.
And I know what your, where you're coming from and I share your
The military, particularly the Air Force and Navy, have extensive
research on the negative effects of ELF. These effects have been
well documented with basic research which is expanding geometrically
in volume every year. The government handily deflected the concerns
raised in the public hearings in Alaska by playing down the results
of this research and minimizing the risks.
This was the same way the
government promoted other military systems while deflecting public
concern in such areas as nuclear testing experiments205,206, LSD
experiments on unknowing individuals207, 208, radiation experiments
on people who were not informed of the risks and in many other areas - under the guise of
National Security 209, 210.
204 Final Environmental Impact Statement Volume II, Proposed High
Frequency Active Auroral
Research Program, July 1993, pg. 10-42.
205 staff Memorandum,
Advisory Committee Staff to the Member of the President's Advisory
Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, June 27,1994, (provided
by: International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive
206 National Journal, Volume 27, No. 18, "Rays of Terror" by
Margaret Kritz, May 6, 1995, Pages 1099-1109. (provided by:
International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive
207 Report to the President by the Commission on
CIA Activities Within The United States. June
1975, pages 225-231.
208 Staff Memorandum, Advisory Committee Staff
to the Member of the President's Advisory Committee on Human
Radiation Experiments, June 27, 1994. (provided by: international
Committee for The Convention Against Offensive Microwave Weapons)
210 National Journal, Volume 27, No. 18, "Rays of Terror"
by Margaret Kritz, May 6, 1995, Pages 1099-1109. (provided by:
International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive
This trick of HAARP would allow the military to alter the ionosphere
in a way which would effectively block satellite observation of
areas under a selected portion of the ionosphere. Thus the military
could more easily,
"condition the ionosphere so that it would support HF (high-frequency) propagation during periods when the natural
ionosphere was especially weak. This could potentially be exploited
for long range (Over-the-Horizon) HF communication/surveillance
This use was previously envisioned by Eastlund and others.
The HAARP facility was located at the site originally intended for
the "Over the Horizon Radar" facility, which was dropped after the
end of the Cold War according to the government record. The HAARP
facility will allow the government to replace the "Backscatter
Radar" with a new, more versatile facility, in a more bang for the
There were other patents controlled by APTI which grew out of the
Eastlund patents which could be used in this application. They are
U.S. patent numbers
5,041,834, which are exactly what
the government seemed to be seeking and now has achieved in HAARP.
The military claimed that they were not using the Eastlund patents
for this particular use, but what they couldn't deny was that the
patents they were using were the outgrowth of the Eastlund concepts.
These two patents specifically refer to Eastlund's work in their
conceptual development. The HAARP program offers the military the
over-the-horizon radar capability, again demonstrating the sort of
all in one tool that HAARP is designed to provide.
The projects that HAARP technology replaces make it potentially one
of the most powerful and cost-effective weapon systems yet developed
by the military, while at the same time being potentially one of the
most dangerous since the development of thermonuclear weapons.
Generation of Field-Aligned Ionization
In this section of the military documents describing HAARP, control
of the ionospheric processes would allow the military to maintain
communication above a nuclear disturbed ionospheric region, and
would allow very long range detection of missiles. The document also
mentioned a 1992 satellite experiment that tested this theory, using
a "heater in Alaska".
The only other known heater in Alaska is HIPAS, at the University of
Alaska facilities near Fairbanks (although this was not specifically
named). HAARP was not yet constructed in 1992.
This use has to do with the control and manipulation of the
ionosphere for military purposes. The technology which makes these
effects is referred to in several of the patents held by APTI.
Oblique HF Heating
This area involves projection of the beam, to alter the ionosphere
up to 1000 km or more from the heater. This is an interesting
ability, considering the military - throughout their public relations
efforts - has stated that the heater affected region would be mainly
above the HAARP facility itself. The idea that the beam might be
steered in a way which reached these lateral (side) distances was
not fully disclosed in the Environmental Impact Statements. The
point here is that the device can manipulate the ionosphere over a
wide area and not just above the heater.
Oblique HF heating is useful for over-the-horizon radar, as well as
for many of the other uses desired by the military. We talk about
the steering elsewhere, when discussing the use of the HAARP
transmitter as the military's long sought after radio frequency
radiation weapon. This type of use was first publicly disclosed by
an Air Force captain who was reporting on new technologies in a
military conference in 1984.211
Such a weapon could disable humans
and impair their mental functions, among other things.
Generation of Ionization Layers Below 90 km
This use has already been proven, according to the HAARP summary by
the Air Force and Navy,
"The Air Force in particular has carried the concept, termed
Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM), to the point of demonstrating
its technical viability and proposing a new initiative to conduct
This concept will lead to a number of other uses, including,
range, over-the-horizon, HF/VHF/UHF surveillance purposes, including
the detection of cruise missiles and other low observables."
This again is the more bang for the buck military application which,
on the surface, feels good to most taxpaying Americans. The idea
that one tool can be used to achieve all of these capabilities is
astounding. The idea that so many weapon systems of perceived
adversaries could be rendered obsolete is far reaching in its
implications. However, the risks are still not well defined in the
documents issued by the government on HAARP.
The project has not
been reviewed because of the limited releases of information which
has denied more-objective observers and other scientists the
opportunity to consider the HAARP system. The fundamental question,
as yet unanswered or even addressed, surrounds the risks associated
with energizing this critical portion of our upper atmosphere.
211 Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology, Lt Col. David J.
Dean USAF, Editor,
University Press, Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell AirForce
Base, Alabama, June 1986.
The patents developed by APTI which describe these systems were
discovered in researching this book in April, 1995. It then appeared
obvious why military planners had
included some of the "key personnel" in the APTI contract. Having
the technology's inventors and innovators made the project that much
more viable. The military contact had clear language which required
the use of these key people. The contract said that substitution was
not permitted without government consent. More-over, the military
added that failure to assign these people to the project could
result in forfeiture of the contract entirely 212.
Having the patents remain undiscovered until after the first phase
of HAARP was constructed and tested reduced the possibility of the
project being halted. What the discovery did prove was that HAARP
was not just some university research project, but was the military
tool always suspected by the "NO HAARP" compilers.
The press releases and information coming from the military on this
project have continually downplayed its potentials. In the HAARP
summary, the government discusses the need for a high-power heater.
Meanwhile, in the public documents and the letters sent to
Congress-men, state legislators and others insist that the HAARP
project is no different than other heaters operating safely
throughout the world.
In the 1990 documents the governments says,
"...that at the highest HF powers available in the West, the
instabilities commonly studied are approaching their maximum RF
energy dissipative capability, beyond which the plasma processes
will 'runaway' until the next limiting factor is reached."
What the HAARP planners go on to say, when referring to heating the
ionosphere, is that they are certain that they can,
alter its thermal, refractive, scattering, and emission character
over a wide electromagnetic (radio frequency) and optical
The difference with HAARP has to do with the power
beam focusing ability of the transmitter, unlike anything operating
elsewhere. Focusing the energy to a specific point is the unique
aspect which planners were so enthused about.
In summary, according to the military records about HAARP, we have a
project designed to prove the concepts originally discussed in
February 1990 and hatched years before. The direction the military
was heading in their research was finally possible with the
invention of the Eastlund ionospheric heater - the most powerful
directed multiple use energy weapon yet conceived.
According to the military, the device had the greatest set of
possible uses. These are uses already proven by Eastlund to the
satisfaction of the United States Patent Office and tested by the
military. It was clear that if the military, in cooperation with the
University of Alaska Fairbanks, could show that this new
ground-based "Star Wars" technology was sound, they would both win.
office of Naval Research, Contract Number N00014-92-C-0210, ARCO Power Technologies Incorporated
as Contractors, September 16,1992 with Amendments through October
213 HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program, Joint
Program Plans and Activities, Air Force
Geophysics Laboratory, Navy Office of Naval Research, February 1990.
The military would have a relatively inexpensive secure defense
shield within the economic reach of their planners, and the
University would be recognized for the most remarkable
manmade geophysical manipulation since atmospheric detonations of
nuclear bombs. What would follow with the success of the testing
would be the military megaprojects of the future, and huge markets
for North Slope natural gas.
Looking at the other patents which built on the work of Eastlund, it
becomes clearer how the military intends to use the HAARP
transmitter, It also makes governmental denials less believable. The
military knows how it intends to use this technology, and has made
it clear in their documents.
The military has deliberately misled
the public, through sophisticated word games, deceit and outright
The HAARP system could give the military a tool to replace the
electromagnetic pulse effect of atmospheric thermonuclear devices,
still considered a viable option by the military through at least
It could replace the huge Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) submarine
communication system operating in Michigan and Wisconsin with a new
and more compact technology.
It could be used to replace the over-the-horizon radar system once
planned for the current location of HAARP, with a more flexible and
It could provide a way to wipe out communications over an extremely
large area, while keeping operator controlled communications systems
It could provide a wide area earth-penetrating tomography which, if
combined with the computing abilities of EMASS and Cray computers,
would make it possible to verify many parts of nuclear
nonproliferation and peace agreements.
It could provide a tool for geophysical probing which would define
oil, gas and mineral deposits over a large geographical area.
It could even also be used to detect incoming low level planes and
cruise missiles, making other technological advantages obsolete.
The above abilities seem like a good idea for all of us who believe
in sound national defense and a secure world. These advances seem
reasonable to those of us concerned with the large amounts of
national productivity being spent on higher and higher cost weapon
systems at a time when government spending is out of control.
However, the possible uses which the HAARP records do not explain,
and which can only be found in Air Force, Army, Navy and other
federal agency records, are alarming. Moreover, the disaster which
could befall all of us on the planet by the reckless use of these
power levels in our natural shield, the ionosphere, could be
214 Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology. Lt Col, David J.
Dean USAF, Editor, Air University Press, Center for Aerospace
Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama,
What the military fails to
say is that they do not know what exactly will happen. It should be
remembered that this project represents the largest energy levels
yet played with by the big boys with their new toys. This project is
an experiment, and experiments are done when we want to find out
something that we do not already know.
So, what will really happen?
When we find the answer, we all may be out of luck and out of time.