Chapter Fifteen

APTI held twelve patents, all of which were linked to Star Wars defense systems. APTI was the main contractor on the first phase of the HAARP project.


These patents represented technologies which were inconsistent with the normal activities of ARCO, the parent organization of APTI. In ARCO's 1994 annual report, no mention of APTI OT the HAARP contract was found.


Apparently ARCO was not in the kind of technology and military construction contracting business suggested by this technology. APTI was an anomalous subsidiary of ARCO, with ARCO having no real expertise, outside of APTI, for developing these kinds of patents.

This writer believes that ARCO did not want to be involved in the defense industry development of these patents. After all, they were just looking for a market for natural gas. Gas on the North Slope of Alaska was the issue for ARCO. The cost of a pipeline and related facilities needed to move the gas to southern Alaska was estimated at more than $20 billion, pricing the gas out of the market. So APTI acquired the twelve patents and a potentially lucrative market.

The patents originally held by APTI are described below.

United States Patent Number 4,686,605 Issued: August 11, 1987 Invented by: Bernard J. Eastlund Titled; "Method and Apparatus for Altering a Region in the Earth's Atmosphere, Ionosphere, and/or Magnetosphere".

This patent was filed on January 10, 1985. On April 11, 1986, the Office of Naval Research Code 308 in Arlington, Virginia sealed the patent application under a "Secrecy Order" which forbade further work or any disclosure of information on the patent. This, no doubt, concerned Dr. Eastlund and APTI. 155 The order was a standard form letter stating provisions of the National Security Act that allowed the Defense Department to seal the information. The penalties for disobeying it were spelled out in the document, and included fines and long prison terms.


155 United States Patent Office Master File 06/690,333 (SC/Serial Number) on Patent No. 4,686,605.

Patent examiner Salvatore Cangialosi of the U.S. Patent Office rejected the application on November 28, 1986. According to the Summary of Action,

"Claims 1-38 are rejected under 35 U.S.C. 101 because the invention as disclosed is inoperative and therefore lacks utility."

On December 9, 1986 Dr. Eastlund and his attorney met with the patent examiner to discuss the rationale behind the decision to reject it. On January 14, 1987, an amendment was filed which reduced the number of claims and provided documentation to prove that the invention would work.

The file notes say it was reviewed again in early February 1987. In late March, the Secrecy Order was lifted.

The Eastlund patent was different than technologies of ionospheric heaters already operating around the world. The first significant difference was the way the RF radiation was concentrated. The energy was focused to a point in the ionosphere, with a wide base of the energy at the transmitter site.


The other antenna designs operating around the world radiated RF in the opposite way, so that it was like a cone with the point at the transmitter and the wide end in the ionosphere. In other words, the Eastlund invention concentrated the power in the ionosphere, while the others spread it out over an increasingly larger area as the energy moved further away from the transmitter.


This difference allowed a significant concentration of energy into the ionosphere. The Eastlund device would allow a concentration of one watt per cubic centimeter, compared to others only able to deliver about one millionth of one watt.

This was a huge difference, which was,

"sufficient to cause movement of a plasma region along said diverging magnetic field lines to an altitude higher than the altitude at which said excitation was initiated." 156

156 Amendment January 1987 to the original Patent Application of Bernard Eastlund for the subsequently issued Patent Number 4,686,605.


What this means is that it would lift the ionosphere and alter its character in the ways necessary to create the effects described in the patent.

Eastlund further explained the effect of cyclotron resonance in building the power density over a large area of the ionosphere. The military would use this knowledge later in describing the "painting" of the ionosphere, which is why they wanted a system that would scan a fairly large area. They could, with this new technology, focus the energy and cover a large area for their effects.

Three publications cited in the patent formed the basis for the research into the technology. It was these references which sparked the original investigation which led to this book. The articles related to the work of Nikola Tesla in the early 1900's. The articles from the New York Times, December 8, 1915 and September 22, 1940, were quoted earlier in this book.

What would this technology be worth to ARCO?


The profits they could generate by transmitting power from the point of production to the point of consumption without wires were enormous. Through normal powerline transmission this was not possible because of power losses over long distances. What wireless transfers of electrical energy could provide, with the right complement of equipment, could be astounding.


Natural gas could be converted to transferable energy and literally beamed to wherever it needed to go. Between May, 1994, and April, 1995, no clear indications of this application for HAARP were found until the other patents listed in this section and the "key personnel" list for APTI was found and connected. In the articles referenced by Eastlund in his patent, was another patent of Tesla's (United States Patent 1,119,732).


This patent led to several others which were related (787,412 and 685,956, among others).


Some of these new APTI patents were exactly what was suspected - a wireless power transmission system.

Patent number 4,686,605, issued August 11, 1987 to Bernard J, Eastlund and assigned to APTI, is one of three related patents by the same inventor cited in this chapter. These patents revisit and go beyond the technical applications envisioned by Tesla.


We quote from Eastlund's patent:

"In the past several years, substantial effort has been made to understand and explain the phenomena involved in belts of trapped electrons and ions, and to explore the possible ways to control and use these phenomena for beneficial purposes. For example, in the late 1950's and early 1960's both the United States and the U.S.S.R. detonated a series of nuclear devices of various yields to generate large numbers of charged particles at various altitudes, e.g. 200 kilometers or greater."

"This can cause confusion of or interference with or even complete disruption of guidance systems employed by even the most sophisticated of airplanes and missiles. The ability to employ and transmit over very wide areas of the Earth a plurality of electromagnetic waves of varying frequencies and to change same at will in a random manner, provides a unique ability to interfere with all modes of communication, land, sea, and/or air, at the same time. Because of the unique juxtaposition of a usable fuel source at the point where desirable field lines intersect the Earth's surface, such wide ranging and complete communication interference can be achieved in a reasonably short period of time...Thus, this invention provides the ability to put unprecedented amounts of power in the Earth's atmosphere at strategic locations and to maintain the power injection level, particularly if random pulsing is employed, in a manner far more precise and better controlled than heretofore accomplished by the prior art, particularly by detonation of nuclear devices of various yields at various altitudes... Further, by knowing the frequencies of various electromagnetic beams employed in the practice of this invention it is possible not only to interfere with third party communications but to take advantage of one or more such beams to carry out a communications network even though the rest of the world's communications are disrupted. Put another way, what is used to disrupt another's communications can be employed by one knowledgeable of this invention as a communication network at the same time. In addition, once one's own communication network is established, the far reaching extent of the effects of this invention could be employed to pick up communication signals of others for intelligence purposes."

"This invention has a phenomenal variety of possible ramifications and potential future developments. As alluded to earlier, missile or aircraft destruction, deflection, or confusion could result, particularly when relativistic particles are employed. Also, large regions of the atmosphere could be lifted to an unexpectedly high altitude so that missiles encounter unexpected and unplanned drag forces with resultant destruction or deflection of same. Weather modification is possible by, for example, altering upper atmosphere wind patterns by constructing one or more plumes of atmospheric particles which will act as a lens or focusing device. Also as alluded to earlier, molecular modifications of the atmosphere can take place so that positive environmental effects can be achieved. Besides actually changing the molecular composition of an atmospheric region, a particular molecule or molecules can be chosen for increased presence. For example, ozone, nitrogen, etc., concentrations in the atmosphere could be artificially increased. Similarly, environmental enhancement could be achieved by causing the breakup of various chemical entities such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides, and the like."

While the HAARP device being constructed in Alaska at present may not be large enough to create all of these effects, it could test the ideas Dr. Eastlund expressed. The military denies that they are using any of the Eastlund ideas; however, careful review of the materials leads to the conclusion that the military is misleading the public. Moreover, Dr. Eastlund in a National Public Radio broadcast in 1988 reported that the military had tested some of the ideas presented in the patents.

United States Patent Number 5,038,664 Issued: August 13, 1991 Invented by: Bernard I. Eastlund Titled: "Method for Producing a Shell of Relativistic Particles at an Altitude above the Earth's Surface".

In outlining the background of this invention in the patent, Dr. Eastlund describes the development of particle beam weapons for destroying incoming hostile missiles. The problem with particle beams is that they require perfect targeting so that the object could be hit and destroyed. The new invention eliminated the need for such precision, in that it created a literal "shell" of particles which would drift around the planet, destroying electrical components of objects passing through the "shell".


According to the patent,

"The shell so formed may be used as an antimissile shield. The high-energy, relativistic particles in the shell will collide with any missile passing there-through to give up energy which, in turn, will damage or destroy the missile."

The power level described in the patent is extremely high, and the effects on the environment, and most particularly on the weather are unknown. What is known is that this type of power manipulation would significantly destabilize natural ionospheric systems.

Another important aspect of this invention is that it also requires large supplies of energy, and would have to be close to where the magnetic lines of force around the planet intersect the earth, The North Slope of Alaska is described as providing the ideal location.

United States Patent Number 4,712,155 Issued: December 8, 1987 Invented by: Bernard J. Eastlund and Simon Ramo. Titled: "Method and Apparatus for Creating an Artificial Electron Cyclotron Heating Region of Plasma".

The same previously cited New York Times articles about Tesla's work were referred to in this patent, with the same emphasis on the North Slope of Alaska being the ideal place. Alaska has the right amount of natural gas and is situated in the right place relative to the natural magnetic lines of force. This invention could be used in communication systems, and perhaps for energy transfers through the ionosphere, to be tapped off at distant points.

The three Eastlund patents represent the advances on which HAARP planners have hung their hats in putting forward the project.

United States Patent Number 5,068,669 Issued: November 26, 1991 Invented by: Peter Koert and James T. Cha. Titled; "Power Beaming System".

Peter Koert was listed as one of the key people on the HAARP project, in the government contract with APTI.157 Power beaming was a technology that Nikola Tesla had developed through his patent series referenced in Eastlund's work. The idea that Peter Koert would become a key person to the HAARP program made a good deal of sense, considering his expertise in power beaming technologies.

This "Star Wars" technology developed by ARCO Power Technologies, Incorporated was used in a microwave-powered aircraft. The aircraft was reported to be able to stay aloft for up to 10,000 hours at 80,000 foot altitudes in a single mission. This craft was envisioned as a surveillance platform. The craft had no need for refueling because the energy was beamed to it and then converted to electrical energy for use by the aircraft. Flight tests were undertaken at Tyendinga Airport near Kingston, Ontario, Canada in the early 1990's.158 This test by APT1 most likely involved this patent and patent number 5,218,374 which is described in this chapter.


157 Office of Naval Research, Contract Number N00014-92-C-0210, ARCO Power Technologies Incorporated as Contractors, September 16,1992 with Amendments through October 19,1993.

158 Aviation Week, Volume 135, No, 22.

According to the patent,

"The present invention relates in general to the transfer of energy by means of electromagnetic waves to power a remote device. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system for 'power beaming' energy from a source at high frequencies and rectifying such energy to provide a source of DC energy to a remote device."

The patent went on to describe the attempts over the years to create a device which could be used and was practical. The background section states,

"...the concept of powering a satellite or free flying aircraft by power beaming has received a great deaf of attention. The advantages of such a system are readily apparent, for example, an aircraft could be maintained on station indefinitely to act as a low cost communications or reconnaissance platform."

The idea is to convert microwaves to DC power, which can be done very efficiently and cost effectively with the right kind of transmission system capable of focusing the power into a narrow beam.

The HAARP system provides a very effective means of transferring such power at maximum efficiency. Within the patent, the use of the term "gyrotron" appears. It refers to cyclotron resonance, a concept and primary part of the Eastlund patents and an attribute of the HAARP transmitter, according to the government records.

This technology has already been tested by APTI.

United States Patent Number 5,218,374 Issued: June 8, 1993 Invented by. Peter Koert and James T. Cha. Titled: "Power Beaming System with Printed Circuit Radiating Elements having Resonating Cavities".

Again, Peter Koert was listed as one of the key people assigned to the HAARP project by APTI, according to the government contract. 159 Also important to note in this patent and the previous one, is the mention of NASA report No. CR179558, March 11, 1987 by William C. Brown of Raytheon Company. Raytheon did the basic work leading to this patent.


William C. Brown is now at the University of Alaska Fairbanks where he is continuing the development of these technologies. His current project at UAF is called SABER which is an acronym for "Semi-Autonomous Beam Rider". The concept is to beam radio-frequency energy to a helicopter in order to suspend it in the air without an on-board fuel supply.


The project,

"is intended to promote public interest and understanding concerning microwave power transmission." 160

159 Office of Naval Research, Contract Number N00014-92-C-0210, ARCO Power Technologies Incorporated as Contractors, September 16,1992 with Amendments through October 19,1993.

160 Internet copy in below insert:


SABER Homepage
Cutting Edge Technology
University of Alaska Fairbanks
Duckering 221
Fairbanks, AK 99775

from PokerFlatResearchRange Website

SABER, an acronym for Semi-Autonomous BEam Rider, is a microwave supported platform (helicopter). The platform will consist of a Kyosho Concept 30 DX model helicopter retrofitted with an Aveox AVX-1412/7 electric motor. Power for the platform is obtained from a rectenna (rectifying, ie. AC to DC, antenna) array attached below the airframe of the 30 DX. The rectenna will convert an incident 2.45 GHz beam to DC which will be conditioned by appropriate circuitry to make the voltage levels suitable for the various SABER subsystems. A rectenna is the combination of a dipole antenna, a diode, and an impedance matching network. The rectenna converts radio frequency energy from free space waves into direct current energy available at the rectennas output terminals. SABER will sense the incident microwave beam for attitude (rotational) and position (with respect to transmitter) determination. The only external control to the platform will be a preprogrammed flight regime (a communication system may make the flight duration controlable). The flight programming will consist of two binary dip switches to input maximum height attained during flight, and maximum flight duration. SABER is otherwise fully autonomous. SABER is specified to be stable, robust against reasonable disturbances, and to remain on station to within 10 cm on any axis with zero steady state error for step disturbances. SABER will be flown outdoors as a public demonstration of microwave power transmission.

The concept of microwave power transmission has been examined for a very long time both in theory and in the laboratory. To date there have been no commercial implementations of microwave power transmission beyond feasibility study. The most promising application for microwave power transmission is a solar power satellite. A very large solar array at geosynchronous orbit converts solar energy to electrical energy which is transmitted as microwaves to an Earth station. At the Earth station rectennas convert the microwave energy to direct current which can be either converted to alternating current for direct distribution through a power grid, or can be used to split hydrogen from water. The hydrogen is then liquefied and transported to wherever needed. Another application that is being studied a great deal worldwide concerns aerosats. An aerosat provides the same services as a satellite, remote sensing, communications, etc., however the aerosat remains within the Earth's atmosphere. The aerosat can be either a fixed wing craft in a stationary flight pattern, or a rotary wing craft at hover. Microwave power transmission has been proposed as a means to provide a continuous power source to the aerosat. Canada has successfully flown a prototype fixed wing microwave powered aerosat as part of their SHARP study.

SABER is intended to promote public interest and understanding concerning microwave power transmission. SABER will also fulfill a more tangible role as it is the culmination of a three part study of which the first two portions were completed over twenty years ago under the direction of Mr. William C. Brown, formerly of Raytheon. The first study, completed in 1965, concerned a rotary wing supported platform guided by tethers [1]. The platform obtained all of its power from an incident 2.45 GHz beam, converted to DC via a rectenna array. The second study, completed in 1968, also concerned a rotary wing supported platform. In the second study the platform was guided by an on board controller which was fully autonomous. Power was supplied to the platform through an umbilical cord. The unique point to the study was that the controller obtained information about five out of six degrees of freedom from sensors placed in an incident 10 GHz beam. The sixth variable was the height of the platform, and that was externally controlled by a human operator. A third study was envisioned in which elements from the first two studies would be combined to build a rotary wing supported platform which derived all of its power, its attitude, and its position from an incident 2.45 GHz beam utilizing an autonomous controller. The height of the platform would be directed by an external human operator. The third study was never conducted. Mr. Brown has spent the last twenty years determined to complete the third study, and SABER will realize that goal.

Figure 1 is a block diagram for SABER indicating the flow of energy through the system from AC input to the output thrust from the rotor blades. AC energy is converted to DC energy and supplied to a magnetron by a controlled current source. The magnetron converts the DC energy into microwave energy at 2.45 GHz. The microwave energy is then radiated from the slotted waveguide array (SWGA) in a tight beam. A portion of the microwave beam is intercepted by a rectenna array. The rectenna array converts the microwave energy back into DC energy that is used by the rotary winged platform (helicopter) to provide control and support, enabling the platform to stay aloft indefinitely.

In Figure 1 the blocks labeled Magnetron and Slotted Waveguide Array form part of a modular transmission system, an electrically steerable phased array antenna (ESPAM), developed by Mr. Brown. The magnetron is replaced by a magnetron directional amplifier (MDA) in the ESPAM. The MDA is capable of significant tuning in both its frequency of operation and in its output power level, while still maintaining the high efficiency that is characteristic of magnetron devices. The slotted waveguide array is a light weight, highly directional array capable of mass fabrication. When a large number of the MDA/SWGA elements are combined together with suitable processing power, they form an efficient phased array perfectly suited for microwave power transmission at 2.45 GHz. SABER will be a demonstration vehicle for one ESPAM element, minus the MDA. The transmission system will radiate more than one kilowatt of power.

The rectenna array will consist of 99 rectenna elements from the original JPL Goldstone experiment in which over 30 kW of power was received over a one mile distance [3]. Each element is a complete rectenna consisting of dipole, diode, and matching section. The elements will be reconditioned and joined to form a rigid, light weight, two-dimensional array capable of supplying power to the SABER subsystems. Figure 2 is a six element detail of a section of the rectenna array illustrating how the elements will be arranged. The final array will consist of nine strings of eleven elements each in offset geometry. The output of the rectenna array is routed through power conditioning circuitry in order to provide voltage levels that are suitable for the other subsystems. The need to dump unneeded energy absorbed by the array is handled by the power conditioning circuitry. A key point of this design is that the rectenna elements themselves form part of the array structure.

The sensor design utilizes four slot antennas and appropriate circuitry to provide roll, pitch, forward translation, and side translation information to the helicopter controller. Figure 3 is a photograph of the pitch and forward translation sensor circuit. The outputs from each pair of slot antennas are routed into power splitters. One output from each power splitter is fed into a rectifying circuit. The outputs from the rectifying circuits, two per sensor, are then connected to a differential amplifier that produces an output proportional to translational motion. The other outputs from the power splitters are fed into ring couplers. Outputs are taken from the ring couplers and manipulated by circuitry to provide outputs proportional to rotational motion. These signals are possible because the microwave beam varies in both magnitude and phase symmetrically in a plane parallel to the transmitting antenna face. A pair of crossed dipoles at the center of the helicopter body and mounted below will provide yaw information with suitable circuitry.

The control system for SABER will be implemented in a single microcontroller. Forward_translation-inclination-yaw, side_translation-vertical_translation-roll, and motor_speed-power_dumping are the control divisions. Figures 4 through 6 are block diagrams for each subcontroller. The subcontrollers use state space methods to provide the necessary control laws. The control algorithms will be implemented on a Motorola 68HC711E9 microcontroller. Due to the intense microwave environment in the vicinity of the rectenna the control system circuitry will be shielded and all exposed wiring will be protected as necessary.

The communication subsystem is primarily for downlinking state information from the helicopter to the ground crew. An uplink is desired to provide start/stop and abort signals to the helicopter control system, but may not be feasable. The system will be implimented in infra-red technology. Radio frequency systems are not suitable due to the intense energy enviroment surrounding the helicopter during flight.

SABER will be a semi-autonomous rotary wing supported platform. All power for SABER will be extracted from an incident 2.45 GHz microwave beam and converted to DC by a rectenna array. SABER will sense all six degrees of freedom from sensors in the incident beam. The control systems will provide stable control and will be robust enough for outdoor demonstration. SABER will promote the concept of microwave power transmission with the general public as a safe and realiable technology. This project is the work of a few dedicated students at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the tireless efforts of Prof. Joe Hawkins and Mr. William Brown.

[Contents] [previous] [Feedback]
[1] W. C. Brown, Experimental Airborne Microwave Supported Platform, Techniques Branch Rome Air Development Center Research and Technology Division Air Force Systems Command, Griffis Air Force Base, NY, Tech. Rep. RADC-TR-65-188, Dec. 1965.

[2] W. C. Brown, Experimental System For Automatically Positioning A Microwave-supported Platform, Raytheon, Burlington, MA, Tech. Rep. PT 1751, June 1968.

[3] W. C. Brown, Electronic and Mechanical Improvement of the Receiving Terminal of a Free-Space Microwave Power Transmission System, NASA, Tech. Rep. CR-135194, August 1977.


The system to be used by Brown in the wireless transmission of energy to power the craft will be from a 2,45 GHz beam. This will complete a series of tests which he started in 1965. The transmission, and conversion, of this energy is now possible via the APTI patents and HAARP.

Raytheon, Brown's old employer and the new owner of the APTI patents, was one of three bidders on the HAARP project. Eventually, through a series of corporate buyouts, Raytheon would come to own all of the patents described in this chapter as well as the contract for the second phase of HAARP construction.

In the patent it was made clear that this was "a continuation-in-part" of the previous patent by Koert and Cha. This patent describes a system for converting radiofrequency (RF) radiation into DC power using a "cross dipole antenna" which is to be used to receive the RF energy before conversion to DC. This patent carries the power-beaming ideas further, to the point where they can be used.


Previously such systems were impractical because of technical limitations.

United States Patent Number 5,293,176 Issued: March 8, 1994 Invented by: Paul G. Elliot. Titled: "Folded Cross Grid Dipole Antenna Element".

Although it is unknown whether this particular patent was used in the HAARP program, what is known is that the inventor, Paul Elliot, was part of the team identified in the government documents. He obviously brought to the project a high level of knowledge of antenna arrays and related technology. It is not known whether this antenna was intended to be used for sending energy, receiving power or both. This technology is useful in power-beaming systems as well as the other applications described in other patents in this chapter.

We speculate that this antenna provided a more efficient system of energy transfer for use in the Eastlund applications. It is possible that, with the antenna gain realized by this design, a larger amount of power could be sent up to the ionosphere.


This might be possible from a much smaller antenna field than originally contemplated by Eastlund.

United States Patent Number 5,202,689 Issued: April 13, 1993 Invented by: Robert W. Bussard and Thomas H. Wallace. Titled: "Lightweight Focusing Reflector For Space".

The reflector is intended to complement power-beaming systems previously described in this chapter. According to the patent, "Large reflectors have many important applications in space. Reflectors can be used, for example, to reflect sunlight onto a solar collector or redirect a microwave power beam." The system for the power-beaming described in this patent was designed for sending 10 gigawatts of power.

The transmitting, reflecting and receiving system is massive, and the cost of building and using such a system is immense.


However, according to the patent,

"The instant invention can be used to transmit power less expensively than the use of microwaves within the Earth's atmosphere. It is expected that as the cost of deploying equipment in space decreases, the cost of using the instant invention to transmit power will become lower than the cost of transmitting power using conventional transmission lines. A cost analysis has been performed using cost projections for the 2000 to 2010 time frame. This cost analysis suggests that a principle limiting factor is efficiency and the cost of the radio frequency sources, not the cost of fabricating and launching the reflector."

The HAARP radiofrequency transmitter, using a focused beam, largely addresses the transmitter-limiting factors described in the patent.

The patent goes on to describe the idea of generating energy in locations where it is cheap, and beaming it to areas where energy costs are high. The economic viability is shown, although the size of the project is quite large. The construction of the TransAlaska natural gas pipeline has been estimated at over $20 billion dollars, without considering the costs of special ships, off loading facilities and then power generating plants in addition to operating costs.


To produce energy at the source and redirect the capital costs of alternate systems to power beaming systems would likely be economically feasible. However, there would be a significant risk to anything flying in the path of the ten-gigawatt beam or if the reflector was somehow turned, reflecting the energy into the wrong receiving location and into perhaps a populated area.


This risk is not adequately dealt with in the patent.


United States Patent Number 5,041,834 Issued: August 20, 1991 Invented by: Peter Koert. Titled: "Artificial Ionospheric Mirror Composed of a Plasma Layer Which can be Tilted".

The expertise that Peter Koert brought to the HAARP project is most evident in this application. This application was scheduled to be tested in September, 1995. This test will be done using both HAARP and HIPAS transmitters. The Artificial Ionospheric Mirror, or AIM as it is referred to in the government records, will be very useful to the military. This patent also refers to two of the Eastlund patents 161.


161 Eastlund Patent Numbers 4,686,605 and 4,712,155.

This invention creates an Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM) by creating a plasma layer in the ionosphere which will allow a transmitting station to bounce radiofrequency energy off of the AIM for a variety of uses. This invention provides "over-the-horizon" radar and communication capabilities to the military, over great distances. It will allow the military to send communications, and locate incoming objects, with significantly improved control and efficiency.


In early HAARP planning, this was one of the areas considered very important to the program and was referred to with great enthusiasm by the military.


United States Patent Number 4,999,637 Issued: March 12, 1991 Invented by: Ronald M. Bass. Titled: "Creation of Artificial Ionization Clouds Above the Earth".

This invention also drew from the Eastlund patents162 which were cited in the issued patent document. This is similar to the previous invention, but it uses two antenna systems which send energy to the same point, thus creating, by a complex set of ionospheric interactions, a "plasma cloud". The cloud can also be made with one antenna. The cloud is created with minimum energy, and allows a much improved "over-the-horizon" (OTH) radar system in terms of detection of both far out and close in objects.


162 Eastlund Patent Numbers 4,686,605 and 4,712,155.

An interesting part of the OTH radar system that HAARP, in part, represents is that the HAARP transmitter is sitting on the incomplete construction site of the original OTH radar system funded by the United States Congress. The site was being demobilized because the military suggested that with the Cold War ending it was no longer needed.

It appears that the reason that the old OTH system was abandoned was because it was obsolete - based on this new technology. The OTH radar project never ended at this location; it just changed to a much more versatile multi-use tool, the HAARP transmitter.


Another consideration was that to build a HAARP radiofrequency transmitting system was much quicker and cost effective.


United States Patent Number 4,954,709 Issued: September 4, 1990 Invented by: Arie Zigler, Yossef Elsen from Rishon Le Zion, Israel. Titled: "High Resolution Directional Gamma Ray Detector".

This device was designed to work with some of the other patents. It is intended to distinguish the "signature" (the unique characteristics of the object which allow it to be identified at a distance) of incoming airborne objects to determine if they are carrying nuclear devices, among other things. The device allows an operator to see the direction of the incoming objects by screening out the directions which are of no concern.


In the words of the patent,

"The present invention relates to gamma ray detection. More specifically, the present invention is related to light weight directional gamma ray detectors having a high degree of angular resolution, high efficiency, and an ability to discriminate low energy gamma rays."

The invention is-able to operate effectively in areas which have a "large number of low energy background gamma rays." Gamma ray detection of this type is required in order to operate the system in the patent described below. It is also of use in other technologies described in this chapter.


Gamma ray detection tells an operator a great deal about an incoming object, and is particularly useful in identifying objects carrying nuclear warheads.


United States Patent Number 4,817,495 Issued: April 4, 1989 Invented by: Adam T. Drobot. Titled: "Defense System for Discriminating Between Objects in Space".

This patent refers to Eastlund's earlier patent number 4,686,605 as well as other documents about "Particle Beam Weapons" and "Space-Based Ballistic-Missile Defense" systems more commonly refer-red to as Star Wars systems.


This invention is intended to work with gamma ray detectors and was described as;

"A defense system and a method for discriminating between armed reentry vehicles and unarmed objects which are in close proximity of each other. The reentry vehicles and the unarmed objects are bathed in a cloud of relativistic electrons with the resulting signatures from heavy objects, i.e., reentry vehicles, being imaged directly. Detectors sense the location and identity of the reentry vehicles and pass this information onto a weapons platform for tracking and interception."

In reading this, we are tinked back to other patents described in this chapter, and can see how these varied uses of Eastlund's original ideas will have far-reaching effects on the way in which wars are fought.

The importance of this invention to the military is described in the patent;

"Presently, the expected scenario for any large-scale intercontinental ballistic missile attack includes the deployment of a large number of decoys and penetration aids in a 'threat cloud' around one or more armed, reentry vehicles in an attempt to confuse any defense systems set up to counteract the armed missiles...Since the total number of objects expected in a typical threat cloud may well exceed one hundred thousand, any truly effective defense system must include a system which is capable of 'interrogating' all of the objects in the threat cloud and quickly discriminating between the deadly reentry vehicles and harmless decoys and penetration aids."

Also in the patent emphasis is placed on the value of a ground-based system as opposed to other Star Wars systems which rely heavily on earth-orbiting space hardware. Space borne systems are not as easy to maintain, and more easily disabled by adversaries.


This invention reduces the computing needs of defense systems significantly. Reducing the number of tracked objects to just those which are a real threat allows for targeting resources and counter measures to be focused on them specifically.

The ideal location for this system is also identified as the North Slope of Alaska, the most likely path for over the pole nuclear missiles. It is also where the large gas reserves could be used to create the necessary radiofrequency radiation transmitting system. The same magnetohydrodynamic generators mentioned by Eastlund are mentioned, along with the same type of antenna arrays. The patent describes the concept in the same general way that Eastlund did, but defines how the defense components would interact with the system most efficiently.

Another application of this technology is described;

"While the present invention has been described for discriminating between armed and unarmed vehicles in a threat cloud during an impending attack, it can also be employed to 'interrogate' orbiting satellites to determine if any said satellites may be carrying nuclear weapons for future launch. Again, a cloud of relativistic electrons would be created around the satellite of interest for interaction therewith to produce a signature from that satellite which, when analyzed, would reveal the nature of the materials contained in the satellite."

This invention is demonstrated, in prototype form, by the HAARP project. HAARP can be used in this way, and is intended to be used for this purpose.


United States Patent Number 4,873,928 Issued: October 17, 1989 Invented by: Frank E. Lowther. Titled: "Nuclear-Sized Explosions without Radiation".

This device was designed for "producing explosions from an explosive gas mixture which has a shock yield comparable to a nuclear explosion, but one which produces no radioactive fallout."

The patent described the background of the invention.

"Between 1945 and 1960, the United States exploded nuclear devices which had a total yield equivalent to approximately 200 megatons (MT) of trinitrotoluene (TNT). Tests conducted by other countries during this time brought the total yield of nuclear explosions to approximately 400 MT. It was quickly recognized that such testing could not continue since each nuclear explosion produced radioactivity that seriously threatened the environment. To protect the environment from such radioactive fallout, most of the world's nuclear powers signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963 which prohibited nuclear explosions in the atmosphere, underwater, and in space..."

"The necessary prohibition against above-ground testing of nuclear explosives, however, has created situations where alternates to such explosions are needed. For example, all of the sophisticated communication systems, defense systems, weapons systems, etc. that have been designed and built for the military since 1963 have never been tested in their ultimate operating environments, i.e. under nuclear blast conditions...Radiation dosages and electromagnetic pulses which simulate those from nuclear explosions have been produced in shielded laboratories but the extreme shock energies which can be expected from nuclear explosions, e.g. 1 kiloton (KT) or larger, have not been satisfactorily duplicated..."

So, APTI filled another technological void for military planners by developing a way to test the effects of a nuclear sized shock wave's impact on the electronics of defense systems. The invention side steps the treaties on nuclear testing in the atmosphere which allow the military the opportunity to test their hardware without violating these international agreements. As far as is known, this particular invention is not part of the HAARP program but is the last of the APTI patents.

The ideal location of this invention, like the others, was identified in the patent as the North Slope of Alaska.

"Preferably, the combustible gas is one that is naturally available in large quantities and is one that can easily and safely be transported to the test site. For example, large quantities of natural gas, i.e. ,methane, are readily available in several geographical areas. Especially attractive are the huge quantities of methane in the North Slope area of Alaska, since there are remote areas nearby which are suitable as a test site.


The methane can be produced and safely transported to the test site by a common pipeline. However, the test site does not have to be in close proximity to the methane production area since the methane can be gathered and safely pipelined for long distances as is now commonly done in supplying energy to areas remote from the production area."

The idea of using the North Slope for nuclear sized weapons testing is not new. It is a myth that the North Slope is some big wasteland suitable only for creating craters with nuclear-size devices. This is home for about 8,000 Alaska natives, and has been for thousands of years. This area also supports significant animal life which the United States has decided to preserve by carefully regulating development, but the balance is delicate.


In the authors' opinion, the North Slope is not the place for explosions of the size contemplated in this patent.

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