Chapter Nine

Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) started a Long tradition of ambitious engineers who want to make their mark on the world. "Give me a long enough lever and a place to stand on and I will move the Earth," Archimedes said. Fortunately, he never found that big a tool. More than twenty centuries later, his spirit lives on in the military's engineers. They would like to at least be able to move the upper-atmosphere jet stream, changing global weather to one country's advantage.

Is electromagnetism that tool?


Two scientists from the Stanford University Radioscience Laboratory, H.C. Chang and U.S. Iman, are among the experts who offer evidence of what our technology can do to affect the sky by making waves on earth.


They have published papers about electron precipitation from the magnetosphere (the outer belts of charged particles which stream toward Earth's magnetic poles) caused by man-made very low frequency electromagnetic waves.88

"These precipitated particles can produce secondary ionization, emit X-rays, and cause significant perturbation in the lower ionosphere."

In 1974 Dr. Robert Helliwell and John Katsufrakis of Stanford University's radio science laboratory showed that very low frequency radio waves can vibrate the magnetosphere. In the Antarctic, with a 20km antenna and five kiloHertz transmitter, they learned that the magnetosphere can be modulated to cause high energy particles to cascade into Earth's atmosphere.


By turning the signal on or off, they could stop the flow of energetic particles.


Avalanches of energy dislodged by such radio waves could hit us hard.

"The theoretical implication suggested by their work is that global weather control can be attained by the injection of relatively small 'signals' into the Van Allen belts (radiation belts around Earth) - something like a super-transistor effect," said Frederic Jueneman.

The columnist for Industrial Research magazine speculated further,

"If Tesla's resonance effects, as shown by the Stanford team, can control energies by minuscule triggering signals, then by an extension of this principle we should be able to affect the field environment of the very stars in the sky... With godlike arrogance, we someday may yet direct the stars in their courses."89

86 Gary Lockhart. "Ancient Ham Making".TheWeatherCompanion,p.199,Wiley&Sons Inc. NY.
87 Charles A. Yost, "Electrical Forces Applied to Basic Weather Phenomena", paper presented at 1992 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity.
88 H.C. Chang and U.S.Iman, "Quasi-Relativistic Electron Precipitation due to Interactions with enormous Coherent VLF Waves in the Magnetosphere" Journal of Geophysical Research, Jan. 1, 1983.

The question is will that knowledge be used by war-oriented or biosphere-oriented scientists?

A 1977 editorial in Saturday Review warned about weather warfare and called it a moral issue, saying,

"If the world is in for a long spell of crippling weather, then we are fools and monsters if we don't get together for the purpose of mounting a response as though our life depended on it - as indeed it does."90

A series of weather disasters began in 1960, according to a CIA report mentioned in the editorial, but at the time climatologists couldn't look ahead and see that droughts, floods and abnormal temperatures would continue beyond that decade. As if natural disasters weren't bad enough, the CIA reported that national governments were already able to manipulate weather for military purposes.


The editorialist had an impertinent thought:

"It is difficult to read the CIA report without wondering whether some of the climatic aberrations in recent years may not have been part of military experimental programs."

Saturday Review's 1977 editorial used strong words to describe the desensitization of the public and decision makers - a deadening of moral indignation that came from seeing an endless procession of super-weapons.


That process was described as mass insanity.

"If the collective conscience does not now respond, then all our philosophy and religion and education,... have been abstract, irrelevant, futile."

The collective conscience was silent, however, and by 1995 the military has had another 18 years to work on weather warfare methods, which it euphemistically calls weather modification. For example, rainmaking technology was taken for a few test rides in Vietnam. The DoD sampled lightning and hurricane-manipulation studies in Project Skyfire and Project Stormfury. And they looked at some complicated technologies that would give big effects.


Lowell Ponte, author of The Cooling, says the military studied both lasers and chemicals which they figured could damage the ozone layer over an enemy. Looking at ways to cause earthquakes, as well as to detect them, was part of the project code named Prime Argus, decades ago. The money for that came from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, now under the acronym ARPA.)

In 1993 Air Force Chief of staff General Merrill McPeak told a meeting of the U.S. Space Foundation that those opposing a larger military role in space must reconsider their viewpoint. He emphasized that the country must develop new systems so that it can control the space environment in the future. He and other Air Force officials wouldn't say what they had in mind, but said that new systems are more of a political question than a technological challenge.91


89 Frederic Jueneman, industrial Research magazine Feb.1974, quoted by Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time, p.287.
90 "Weather Modification", unsigned editorial, Saturday Review 2577,p,4.
91 Neff Hudsonan Andrew Lawler, "USAF Chief Calls for Space Defense Upgrades", Space News Apr.19-25 1993.

The next year the Air Force revealed a bit more - its Spacecast 2020 master plan includes weather control as a possible new weapons initiative. Defense News excerpted the report. Under "weather control", the article said that scientists have experimented with weather control since the 1940's, but Spacecast 2020 noted that "using environmental modification techniques to destroy, damage or injure another state are prohibited". Having said that, the Air Force claimed that advances in technology "compels a reexamination of this sensitive and potentially risky topic."92

What could the new technology do?


For one, military forces may have the tool for zapping a hole through a cloud in order to target their enemy. That would be costly and risky, but "the potential benefits for national security could be even higher".

Air Force officials said the weather control section of their report is classified and won't be released. 40




As far back as 1958, the chief White House advisor on weather modification, Captain Howard T. Orville, said the U.S. DoD was studying "ways to manipulate the charges of the earth and sky and so affect the weather" by using an electronic beam to ionize or deionize the atmosphere over a given area.93

In 1966, Professor Gordon J. F. MacDonald, associate director of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, Los Angeles, was a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee, and later a member of the President's Council on Environmental Quality. He published papers on the use of environmental control technologies for military purposes.


MacDonald made a revealing comment:

"The key to geophysical warfare is the identification of environmental instabilities to which the addition of a small amount of energy would release vastly greater amounts of energy. "94

MacDonald had a number of ideas for using the environment as a weapon system and he contributed to what was, at the time, the dream of a futurist. When he wrote his chapter, "How To Wreck The Environment", for the book Unless Peace Comes 95 he was not kidding around.


In the text he describes the use of weather manipulation, climate modification, polar ice cap melting or destabilization, ozone depletion techniques, earthquake engineering, ocean wave control and brain wave manipulation utilizing the planet's energy fields.

92 "Air Force Space Master Plan Envisions Weather Control", Defense News, Sept 26-Oct. 2, 1994.

93 Between Two Ages: America's Role in the Technetronic Era, by Zbigniew Brzezinski, Penguin Books, Mass. 1976.
94 Unless Peace Comes. A Scientific Forecast of New Weapons. Edited By Nigel Calder, Geophysical Warfare, How to Wreak the Environment by Gordon J. F. MacDonald, pges 181-205, 1968. (provided by: International Committee for The Convention Against Offensive Microwave Weapons)

95 Ibid.

He also said that these types of weapons would be developed and, when used, would be virtually undetectable by their victims. He was not some wire haired fanatic when he made these observations in 1966 - he had the credentials of a world recognized scientist. What his futuristic concepts became, are the things which projects like HAARP are made of...

U.S. Congress' subcommittee hearings on Oceans and International Environment looked into military weather and climate modification conducted in the early 1970's. "What emerged was an awesome picture of far ranging research and experimentation by the DoD into ways environmental tampering could be used as a weapon," said Lowell Ponte.96

The revealed secrets surprised legislators. Would an inquiry into the state of the art of electromagnetic manipulation surprise lawmakers today? They may find out that technologies developed out of the HAARP experiments in Alaska could deliver on Gordon MacDonald's vision, because leading edge scientists are describing global weather as not only air pressure and thermal systems, but also as an electrical system.


A point to remember is that the ionosphere is an active electrical shield protecting the planet from the constant bombardment of high-energy particles from space. This conducting plasma, along with Earth's magnetic field, traps the electrical plasma of space and holds it back from going directly to the earth's surface, says Charles Yost of Dynamic Systems, Leicester, North Carolina.


HAARP zaps the ionosphere where it is relatively unstable.

"If the ionosphere is greatly disturbed, the atmosphere below is subsequently disturbed. "97

It is reasonable to expect Earth's relatively thin atmosphere of insulating gas (water vapor) to be mechanically pushed and pulled by the surrounding electrical forces, Yost says. Electrical currents in the ionosphere are said to be 100 times larger than those produced lower down at any moment by all the world's thunderstorms. Yost concludes that electrical forces should be included along with thermodynamics, gravity waves and effects of Earth's rotation, as causes of weather variations. According to his experiments and analyses, ionospheric currents and changing magnetic fields in the ionosphere must produce "global oscillating gradients" that go down as far as the ground.

A connection between manmade electromagnetic forces and the weather showed up in a paper Yost wrote about lightning and earth harmonics. The apparent global interaction of electrical storms prompted Yost to take another look at how clouds form. He found that electrostatic forces can influence the dynamics of cumulus clouds.


On a copy of his paper that Yost sent to Jeane Manning, he wrote "man can make these levels of force artificially".

96 The Cooling, by Lowell Ponte. Prentice-Hall inc. NJ 1976.

97 Charles A. Yost, "Electrical Forces Applied to Basic Weather Phenomena", Proceedings of the 1992 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, Atlantic City, 1992. Document available through Nat'l Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 22161.

In its early stages, a currtulo nimbus cloud's transition layer is in a delicately balanced condition of pressure, temperature and water vapor content, according to Yost,

"such that minor change triggers condensation. A radiation particle, a localized electric field transient or a slight local thermal disturbance might trigger the change of state," Yost said.

The first two factors may help explain strange extremes of weather over industrialized/electrified/atomic-powered North America. For one thing, the unnatural 60 hz electromagnetic fluctuations from a dense web of powerlines have entrained the vibrations of the ionosphere in some places. Again, Tesla's favorite phenomenon - resonance - explains how a relatively small force can have large effects.

Dr. Robert O. Becker explains how one man-made electrical effect - power line harmonic resonance - causes fallout of charged particles from the Van Allen (radiation) belts, and how the falling ions cause ice crystals (which precipitate rain clouds).98

What about HAARP?


Energy blasted upward from an ionospheric heater is not much compared to the total in the ionosphere, but HAARP documents admit that thousand-fold greater amounts of energy can be released in the ionosphere than injected. As with MacDonald's "key to geophysical warfare", "nonlinear" effects (described in the literature about the ionospheric heater) mean small input and large output.

At a 1983 science conference in Atlanta, one of the presentations held clues about where engineers and physicists were heading with that small input/ large output goal.99 E.E. Richards talked about the above mentioned Stanford University experiment in beaming VLF radio waves to the magnetosphere. The signals followed the curves of the magnetic field and swung back to Earth. They were detected halfway around the world away from their origin in California. In some cases the signals were amplified a thousand times.

What strengthens these radio signals a thousandfold?


According to Richards' research, the signals gather energy from electrons within the Van Allen radiation belts which surround Earth's atmosphere. Each time one of the world's fifty or so VLF (3 to 30 KHz) transmitters sends out its signal; streams of excited particles from the outermost regions of the magnetosphere cascade into our atmosphere.

"Even low frequency (LF: 30-300 KHz) radio waves leak into the upper layers, causing this same phenomenon. The injection of small signals into the energy belts creates something like a super-transistor effect, altering the motion of free electrons thousands of miles out from the earth's surface. This Tesla Magnifying Resonance effect can control enormous energies by minuscule triggering signals."

As did Nikola Tesla, Richards works with the principle of resonance.

98 Hobert O. BecKer, The Body Electric, William Morrow NY 1985.

99 E.E. Richards, "Earth Power Spectrum", Proceedings, The Second International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology, p. 136, Cadake Publishing, PO Box 1490, Clayton, Georgia 30525.

In a recent interview100 , Richards explained the super-transistor effect which others also describe as an avalanche of electrons. At certain frequencies and at a certain energetic threshold, there is a large energy transfer between levels in the upper atmosphere.


How far down from the magnetosphere or ionosphere through the atmosphere can such an "avalanche" come? Surprisingly, in various locations Richards found effects reaching the earth. The first time he saw this recorded on scientific instruments, he was living at 8,000 feet above sea level in central-west New Mexico where the air was clear and electromagnetically quiet.


That day there was a large buildup of electrical energy in the atmosphere very close to the surface of the earth, but not a thunderstorm condition. As the non-lightning electrical condition passed through the area, Richards and his associates monitored surprisingly large oscillations (vibrations) on their antennae array and learned at what frequencies the local atmosphere readily vibrates. The vibrations charged capacitors (energy storage units) to a rather high voltage.

One quiet March day while monitoring the Russian and American ELF transmissions, they tried running an antenna array (twisted wires) a mile along the ground, and received unexpectedly strong and continuous signals. Briefly, the findings and further monitoring were a springboard for discovering correlations with harmonic interactions between the planets. They also learned how nature handles the influx of cosmic energy towards earth's surface through the auroral vibrations.


The researchers saw how energies could be stored within the magnetosphere, and "we have a mechanism, confirming Tesla, for drawing this energy into the lower atmospheric cavity."


While Richards' interest in their work was to find a usable clean-energy source for the inhabitants of Earth, physicists at Stanford University worked on a government funded project. They wanted to amplify waves in the magnetosphere for the goal of global communication at lower frequencies.101

The authors of this book have a different aim - to understand the ramifications of the high-level experiments. Could it affect our weather? The atmospheric physicists we have spoken to are vague in their answers.

The paper by Richards gives strong clues. Recent scientific evidence suggests that strong electrical coupling exists between the ionosphere and lower atmosphere, he said. Large scale horizontal electric fields move down from the magnetosphere and ionosphere, with little loss of amplitude, to around ten kilometers above the earth, he said,

"The total potential voltage drop across regions like the polar caps and the auroral ionosphere can be a significant fraction of the average ionospheric potential with respect to the earth..."

100 E.E.Richards,conversationwithJeaneManning,May1995,
101 "VLF: Getting Panicles Excited," Science News, Dec, 18 and 25, 1982, pg. 392.

What this means to us is that there is a powerful electrical connection between the ionosphere and the part of the atmosphere where our weather comes onstage, the lower atmosphere. Furthermore, scientific theories describe how the electrical energetic levels of the atmosphere are connected to cloud processes. 102

E.E. Richards reported the following conclusions from his search of the literature.

"The conducting ionosphere can affect the instability by short circuiting the electrostatic part of the earth electric field, thus requiring less energy to release charge from the upper layers. These auroral arcs result in an acceleration process called ring currents, processing along the magnetic field lines that connect the magnetotail with the ionosphere. This is the primary supply of energy for the auroras..."

He explains how electrostatic waves stimulate the ionosphere, allowing the powerful radiations described above to flow in from space. He adds that observations from satellites and from the ground tend to confirm Nikola Tesla's claims about his Colorado Springs experiments.

"With his oscillator he was able to stimulate the ionosphere through high voltage, and then allow the cascading of the upper layer currents, thereby simulating the natural action of the aurora and also of lightning."

Tesla was one of several inventors cited by E.E. Richards who were on the path to using the "abundant energy source that surrounds us each minute". Humanity lives within the cosmically stimulated bubble of the magnetosphere, Richards said, and upon the twirling spherical generator that is the earth. In the spirit of previous generations of scientists called natural philosophers, he is awed by the beauty of the system. In our experience, this appreciation of the processes of the universe often comes to independent researchers who aim to work in harmony with nature. In other words, resonance seems a gentler way to transfer power than direct zapping.

The weather can be changed using electrostatics. A discovery allowing the manipulation of weather was made by Elate Intelligent Technologies, Incorporated, a small Russian company. They found a way to fine tune weather patterns over a 200 mile range.

The "system consists of dozens of aerials, each 25 feet tall, that discharge electrical energy upward to react with ions in the air". 103

These aerials are connected to a computer system and power supply which is controlled by an operator to create the desired effects.

Lev Pokhmelnykh is the company founder and a respected physicist, specializing in "electrostatics". Pokhmelnykh demonstrated the system for the Wall Street Journal reporter with startling results. He used the system to clear clouds in an otherwise dreary day. The technology points out how little we know about such effects and the way weather can be manipulated by people.

102 Ralph Markson and Michael Muir, "Solar Wind Control of the Earth's Electrical Field", Science, May 30, 1980, Vol. 208 No. 4447.

103 Adi Ignatius, "Rain, Rain, Go Away, Go Soak Someone Less Willing to Pay; Moscow Firm Offers 'Weather Made to Order'; Our Man Requests Three Days", The Wall Street Journal, October 2, 1992, pg. A1 & A11.



There was another unexpected discovery of an atmospheric phenomenon in 1993. It was found that the Earth's lower atmosphere contains "rivers of water vapor rivaling the Amazon in the massiveness of their flow". 104 Reginald E. Newell of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported that these vapor rivers were the main mechanism for moving water from the equatorial regions of the earth to the poles. However, he did not expect to find that the water vapor was contained in narrow bands which are 420 to 480 miles wide and up to 4,800 miles long.


These bands are about 1.9 miles above the earth, and have flow volumes of 165 million kilograms of water per second. The observers found that there are five atmospheric rivers in the Northern Hemisphere and five in the Southern Hemisphere, each with these typical flow rates.

We speculate that if HAARP were located at the right place, it could be used to deflect these flows in a way that alter weather patterns. This is another concern which should be considered in the operation of HAARP - a fact not known before HAARP was planned.


Weapons-oriented researchers, on the other hand, are quite interested in other, more invasive, aspects of Tesla's knowledge besides resonance, such as the "explosive channelization of air" which he is said to have learned about this phenomena as he injected successive pulses of energy along the same channel,


According to Dr. J.F.X.Daum, Ken Corum and Dr. James Corum, Tesla experimented with atmospheric tunneling. By the 3930's Tesla had invented a "channelized beam composed of a coherent burst of electrically charged material particles" moving as fast as the speed of light.


The three scientists calculated that such a particle beam would easily pierce armored vehicles.105


Earth as a spherical electrical system is a fairly well accepted model. However, those experimenters who want to make unnatural power connections between parts of this system might not be thinking of possible consequences. Electrical motors and generators can be caused to wobble when their circuits are affected. Could human activities cause a significant change in a planet's electrical circuit or electrical field?


A quote plucked from a lengthy paper in the respected journal Science deals with manmade ionization from radioactive material, but perhaps it could also be studied with HAARP-type skybusters in mind:

"For example, while changes in the earth's electric field resulting from a solar flare modulating conductivity may have only a barely detectable effect on meteorology, the situation may be different in regard to electric field changes caused by manmade ionization..."106

104 Kathy Sawyer, "Climatology: Space Data Indicate Rivers in the Sky,", The Washington Post, Science Notebook, Jan. 25, 1993.
105 "Thoughts on Tesla's Particle Beam Technology", presentation by Or. J.F.X. Daum, Ken Corum and Dr. James Corum to International Tesla Society.
106 Ralph Markson and Michael Muir, "Solar Wind Control of the Earth's Electrical Field", Science, May 30,1980, Vol. 208 No. 4447, p. 989.

Meteorology, of course, is the study of the atmosphere and weather. Ionization is what happens when a higher level of power is zapped into atoms and knocks electrons off the atoms. The resulting charged particles are the stuff of HAARP.

"One took at the weather should tell us that we are on the wrong path," says Paul Schaefer, electrical engineer, commenting on HAARP-type technologies.

An administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration once said,

"It is not possible to draw clear distinctions between research and technological development on weather modification for hostile and non-hostile purposes."

"Our planetary environment is becoming progressively more energetic, with unusual activity, like mysterious bursts of energy that mimic radio waves from atomic explosions, being detected in the atmosphere..."

Paul Schaefer

engineer and researcher, Kansas City MO.

"The Earth is becoming a disturbed planet, and man is doing the disturbing."


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