70 Accounts of these last fights with the giants appear in 2 Samuel 21:15-22 and 1 Chronicles 20:4-8.
71 Thompson, Mystery and Lore of Monsters, p. 132. The cubit equals eighteen inches.
72 See 2 Samuel 21:22.
73 See Genesis 6:14.
74 From a March, 1970, news release by Search Foundation, Inc., Washington, D.C. "The Madrid laboratory," the report added, "estimates the age of the sample at approximately 5,000 years. The Centre Technique de Bois gave 4,484 years."
75 Henry H. Halley, Halley's Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1965), p. 74.
76 Genesis 9:26-27 NIV.
77 Genesis 11:1-9. That place afterward was called Babel, says Moses, "because there the Lord confused the language of the whole world."
78 Halley's Bible Handbook, p. 84. The traditional Tower of Babel is located at Borsippa, ten miles southwest of the center of Babylon, but archaeologists commonly believe the actual site was the center of Babylon, in the tower ruins in which Smith found the ancient tablet.
79 No reference given.
80 Pezron, Antiquities of Nations, preface vi.
81 See Josephus, Antiquities, 6.1, where he makes this statement: "For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, but were then called Gomerites."
82 See Ptolemy, Geography, 6.11 and 13.
83 Pezron, Antiquities of Nations, pp. 13-14.
84 Ibid., pp. 13-16.
85 Pezron gives the following as his sources: Ptolemy, Geography, 6.11, &c. 13; Pliny, 6.16; Mela, 1.2.; Dionysius, Per., 5. 700.
86 Ibid., pp. 17-18.
87 Ibid., pp. 24-25.
88 Ibid., pp. 25, 27.
89 Ibid., p. 26.
90 That is, loosely translated, people of the breeches. See Herodotus, 1.
91 Pezron, Antiquities of Nations, p. 29.
92 Ptolemy, 6.13.
93 Pezron, Antiquities of Nations, pp. 28-30.
94 Ibid., p. 35.
95 Ibid., p. 54.
96 Formerly known as the Euxine Sea.
97 So the name appears in the Parthian Stathmas of Isidore of Charax, who interprets it to mean the conquering Sacae nation. Strabo gives a slightly different spelling, referring to the country as Sacacena.
98 No reference given.
99 Joshua 11:21.
100 Joshua 11:22. Centuries later several giants from this area fought against Israel. The most famous of these was, of course, the champion Philistine warrior Goliath, of Gatli, whom a young David slew with his sling.
101 The Glory of the Old Testament (New York: Villard Books, 1984), p. 108.
102 Because of its exceedingly rich soil, the valley's broad plain became proverbial for its choice "ears of grain." See Isaiah 17:5.
103 The Imperial Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. VI, Patrick Fairbairn, editor (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1957), p. 5.
104 Harry Emerson Fosdick, A Pilgrimage to Palestine (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1949), p. 33.
105 A. T. Olmstead, History of Palestine and Syria (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1931), p. 23.
106 "The Amorites," writes Roland DeVaux, "were regarded as the successors or the descendants of the legendary giants of prehistory--the Rephaim of Bashan and of Gilead." The Early History of Israel (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1978), p. 133. The Amorites descended from the fourth son of Canaan. See Genesis 10:16 and 1 Chronicles 1:14.
107 Amos 2:9. The Midrash uses the identical phrase--"tall as cedars"--to describe the giant Anakim and Rephaim. Incidentally, Amorite blood may have run through the veins of the Rephaim giants Sihon and Og, for the scriptures refer to them as descendants of both these peoples.
108 The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 1 (New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1969), p. 293.
109 Alfred Edersheim, Bible History (Wilmington, DE: Associated Publishers and Authors, n.d.), p. 193.
110 Isaiah 17:9. The Septuagint gives the best, most explicit rendering.
111 Archaeological excavations at Gezer and other sites in that area "bear out the unusually tall stature of individuals in ancient Palestine." The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 1 (Chicago: Moody Press, 1972), p. 709.
112 See Joshua 14:15, 21:11.
113 Numbers 13:22.
114 John Garstang, The Foundations of Bible History (London: Constable &Co., 1931), p. 212.
115 Ibid., pp. 212-213.
116 Ibid., p. 213.
117 Joshua left no definite record of such a battle, but see Joshua 11:21-23, which indicates that one took place.
118 Josephus, Antiquities, 5.2.2.
119 For the Jebusites' identification with the Horim, see the Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, p. 61.
120 Excepting, of course, the land of the Philistines on the coast.
121 Joshua 11:21.
122 Joshua 17:14-18 NIV.
123 Harper's Bible Dictionary (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985), p. 772.
124Josephus, Antiquities, 5.2.3.
125 Judges 1: UNIV.
126 In campaigns west of the Jordan River, Israel killed thirty-one Canaanite kings. The names of their cities are given in Joshua 12:7-24.
127 See Joshua 13:16; 17:16.
128 Joshua 11:21-23 NASB.
129 The Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 5 (New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1901), p. 659.
130 According to Joshua 6:21, the Hebrews destroyed every living thing in Jericho--men and women, young and old, cattle, sheep, and donkeys. But this statement does not say that none escaped, though some read it so.
131 During his excavation work, Dr. John Garstang discovered the ruins of several houses that had been built across the top of the two walls. When the outer wall fell outward, it dragged the inner wall and the houses with it down the hillside. Also see Joshua 2:15.
132 Joshua 6:24.
133 Leon Wood, A Survey of Israel's History (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1970), p. 174.
134 Because of this large grove, Jericho also became known as the "City of Palms." The dates it harvested from the grove were eagerly sought by peoples in the surrounding nations.
135 Midrash, Tan., Beha'aloteka, ed. Vienna, p. 206b.
136 See Joshua 6:2-5.
137 Henry Hart Milman, The History of the Jews, Vol. I (New York: A. C. Armstrong, 1886), p. 265.
138 Josephus, Antiquities, 5.1.6,7.
139 Joseph P. Free, Archaeology and Bible History (Wheaton, IL: Van Kampen Press, 1950), p. 130.
140 L. Sale-Harrison, Palestine: God's Monument of Prophecy (Chicago: Van Kampen Press, 1933), pp. 76-77.
141 Ibid., 77.
142 The Biblical World, Charles F. Pfeiffer, editor (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1966), p. 308.
143 Vol. 5, p. 659.
144 William Garden Blaikie, The Expositor's Bible (London: A. C. Armstrong & Son, 1905), p. 246.
145 Cunningham Geikie, Hours with the Bible, Vol. 2 (New York: James Pott & Co., 1903), p. 463.
146 Josephus, Antiquities, 5.2.3.
147 Ibid., 5.2.3.
148 Thompson, Mystery and Lore of Monsters, p. 132.
149 Most Bible chronologies differ only a few hundred years on the creation, but scholars accept Ussher's as the most accurate.
150 Cain's brief biography, by the way, contains two references to the Nephilim. The first occurs in Genesis 4:13, just after he murdered his brother Abel. Judged by God and sentenced to wander all his days in the lands to the east, a crestfallen Cain moaned: "My punishment is more than I can bear. Today you are driving me from the land, and I will be hidden from your presence; I will be a restless wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me" [emphasis mine]. "Not so;" the Lord reassured him, "if anyone kills Cain, he will suffer vengeance seven times over." Then the Almighty put a mark on Cain so that no one he encountered in his wanderings would dare kill him. The second reference occurs in the next statement: "After this he went out from the Lord's presence and lived in the land of Nod east of Eden. There he built a city." A city? For whom?
151 Ms. Hawkes, of course, viewed these people as manifestations of early humanity.
152 Jacquetta Hawkes, The Atlas of Early Man (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1976), p. 40.
153 Ibid., p. 41.
154 Carl Whiting Bishop, Man from the Farthest Past, Vol. 7 (Washington, DC: The Smithsonian Series, 1949), p. 298.
155 Hawkes, Atlas of Early Man, pp. 43-44.
156 In his Cratylus, Plato (c. 400 B.C.) mentioned a similar tradition. "Do you not know that the heroes are demigods?" he wrote. "... All of them
157 See Alexandrine Text.
158 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 1.3.1; Philo, The Giants, 2.6.
159 1 Enoch 6:1-8; 7:1-6. Also see the Zohar (l:58a)
160 Zeus, the god of the heavens and supreme deity of the ancient Greeks, was called Jupiter by the Romans. In his earthly life, Jupiter was a mighty giant. (See Giants Who Became Gods)
161 Unger's Commentary on the Old Testament, Vol. I (Chicago: Moody Press, 1981), p. 37.
162 C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, Vol. I (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., n.d.), pp. 131-138.
163 Humans were later created in this same image. In Genesis 1:27, as He was about to create Adam, the Almighty Angel of the Lord said to the angelic host: "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness," i.e., in the likeness of angels.
164 The Geography of Strabo, 7.25.
165 See Niddah 6la.
166 Bochart, Geog. Sac., p. 362.
167 Deuteronomy 2: 8-12, 19-23 NASB.
168 Amos 2:9 NASB.
169 Philip Hitti, History of Syria (New York: Macmillan, 1951), p. 195.
170 Numbers 21:21-22 NASB. Until Sihon came and took it from them, this land east of the Jordan was possessed by the Moabites.
171 See Psalm 136:17-22, where they are spoken of in the same breath with Pharaoh.
172 To get some idea of how fast giants could run, see Maximinus.
173 See The Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 11 (New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1901), p. 335.
174 Deuteronomy 2:33.
175 Josephus, Antiquities, 4.5.2.
176 See Numbers 21:16-18, for an account of the first well the Hebrews dug and the song they sang.
177 Geikie, Hours with the Bible, Vol. 2, pp. 400-401.
178 Ibid., adapted from Numbers 21:27-30.
179 See Numbers 32:41-42; Deuteronomy 3:14.
180 Josephus, Antiquities, 4.5.3.
181 Geikie, Hours with the Bible, Vol. 2, p. 402.
182 Cyril Graham, "The Ancient Bashan and the Cities of Og," Cambridge Essays (1858). Quoted by Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Old and New Testaments, Vol. I, p. 628.
184 After their conquest of Canaan, Joshua reminded the tribes of the help they had received from the hornets. To the people gathered before him, he said: "This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: '... The citizens of Jericho fought against you, as did also the Amorites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hittites, Girgashites, Hivites and Jebusites, but I gave them into your hands. I sent the hornet ahead of you, which drove them out before you--also the two Amorite kings. You did not do it with your own sword and bow. So I gave you a land on which you did not toil and cities you did not build; and you live in them and eat from vineyards and olive groves that you did not plant.'"
185 Deuteronomy 3:4-5, 14.
186 Deuteronomy 3:11.
187 Adam Clarke, Clarke's Commentary, Vol. I (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1977), a reprint of the 1851 edition, pp. 744-745.
188 The Israelites ranked these conquests with their deliverance from Egypt and their passage through the Red Sea. Thus, in Psalms 135 and 136, the overthrow of Sihon and Og are given equal space with the downfall of Pharaoh.
189 Some scholars identify "the land of Retenu" with Canaan.
land of Retenu" with Canaan.
190 Ira M. Price, The Monuments and the Old Testament (Philadelphia: Judson Press, 1925), p. 250.
191 Also called the Uzim or Zuzim.