by Richard Ingham
March 12, 2014
from UKNewsYahoo Website

Recovered through WayBackMacine Website





Earlier this year it was reported that vast oceans of water could be hiding under the earth’s mantle.

Water, necessity of life. We look all over the earth, and even reach into space in our search for water on other planets and satellites.

Now scientists are suggesting that vast amounts of water resources may be hidden right here, within the earth’s mantle.

Nature World News reported about it.

In 2013 scientists discovered a pocket of water 1.5 miles below the earth’s surface in Canada. It was reportedly 1.5 billion years old.

Now this theory has more support as scientists have discovered a rare diamond which hints at a great "wet zone" far down within the Earth that might hold as much water as all the world’s oceans put together.



This NASA image released on January 26, 2012

shows A 'Blue Marble' image of the Earth

taken from the VIIRS instrument aboard

NASA's Earth-observing satellite

Suomi NPP






Middle Earth Revelation?

Scientists say Gaia Contains

Giant, Secret Reservoir of Water


One hundred and fifty years ago, in Journey to the Centre of the Earth, French science-fiction forerunner Jules Verne pictured a vast sea that lay deep under our planet's surface.

Today, that strange and haunting image has found an unexpected echo in a scientific paper. That particular zone in the Earth, the transition zone, might have as much water as all the world's oceans put together.

Writing in the journal Nature, scientists said they had found an elusive mineral pointing to the existence of a vast reservoir deep in Earth's mantle, 400 to 600 kilometers beneath our feet.

It may hold as much water as all the planet's oceans combined, they believe.

The evidence comes from a water-loving mineral called ringwoodite that came from the so-called transition zone sandwiched between the upper and lower layers of Earth's mantle, they said.



"It was a bit of a piece of luck":

Graham Pearson with the first terrestrial sample of ringwoodite ever found.

Photo: Richard Siemens/University of Alberta

Analysis shows a whopping 1.5 per cent of the rock comprises molecules of water.

The find backs once-contested theories that the transition zone, or at least significant parts of it, is water-rich, the investigators said.

"This sample really provides extremely strong confirmation that there are local wet spots deep in the Earth in this area," said Graham Pearson of Canada's University of Alberta, who led the research.

"That particular zone in the Earth, the transition zone, might have as much water as all the world's oceans put together."

Ringwoodite is named after Australian geologist Ted Ringwood, who theorized that a special mineral was bound to be created in the transition zone because of the ultra-high pressures and temperatures there.

A piece of this mineral has been a long-sought goal. It would resolve a long-running debate about whether the poorly-understood transition zone is bone-dry or water-rich.

But until now, ringwoodite has only ever been found in meteorites. Geologists had simply been unable to delve deep enough to find any sample on Earth.

Good fortune, though, changed all this.

In 2008, amateur gem-hunters digging in shallow river gravel in the Juina area of Mato Grosso, Brazil, came across a tiny, grubby stone called a brown diamond.

Measuring just three millimeters across and commercially worthless, the stone was acquired by the scientists when they were on a quest for other minerals.

But the accidental acquisition turned out to be a bonanza.




diamond from Earth’s ’wet zone’

Photo: Richard Siemens/University of Alberta

In its interior, they found a microscopic trace of ringwoodite - the very first terrestrial evidence of the ultra-rare rock.

"It's so small, this inclusion, it's extremely difficult to find, never mind work on," Pearson said, paying tribute to the diligent work of grad student John McNeill.

"It was a bit of a piece of luck, this discovery, as are many scientific discoveries."

The team theorize the brown diamond rocketed to the surface during a volcanic eruption, hitchhiking in a stream of kimberlite, the deepest of all volcanic rocks.

Years of analysis, using spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, were needed in specialized labs to confirm the find officially as ringwoodite. Scientists have debated for decades about whether the transition zone has water, and if so, how much there might be.

None, though, has embraced Verne's fancy of a subterranean sea with a rocky coastline dotted with forests of giant mushrooms and petrified trees.

Hans Keppler, a geologist at the University of Bayreuth in Germany, cautioned against extrapolating the size of the subterranean water find from a single sample of ringwoodite.

He also said the water was likely to be locked up in specific rocks, in a molecular form called hydroxyl.

"In some ways it is an ocean in Earth's interior, as visualized by Jules Verne… although not in the form of liquid water," Keppler said in a commentary also published by Nature.

The implications of the discovery are profound, Graham Pearson suggested.

If water exists in huge volumes beneath Earth's crust, it is bound to have a big impact on the mechanics of volcanoes and the movement of tectonic plates.

"One of the reasons the Earth is such a dynamic planet is the presence of some water in its interior. Water changes everything about the way a planet works," said Pearson.



Oceans Worth of Water

...Could be Trapped Beneath the Earth's Mantle
by James A. Foley
January 27, 2014

from NatureWorldNews Website


Large amounts of ocean water could be transported through deep-sea fault zones in volumes much greater than previously believed, according to new research from the University of Liverpool, which focused on the subduction zone that led to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan.

The research supports the theory that there could be vast amounts of water buried deep beneath the Earth's mantle.

Understanding how much ocean water is delivered to the mantle is important because it helps explain how the mantle bows and arches and how it melts, which helps solidify theories on the origins of plate tectonics and how the continental crust was formed.

Water is carried to the mantle via deep sea fault zones which breech the oceanic plate as it bends into the subduction zone, which is where one tectonic plate meets another and is forced beneath it. The largest earthquakes occur along subduction zones, such as the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which registered at 9.0 on the Richter scale and triggered a devastating tsunami.

Based on their research, University of Liverpool seismologists suggest that over the age of the Earth, the Japan subduction zone alone could transport as much as three and a half times the water contained in all of Earth's oceans to the mantle.


Some of this water gets cycled back out of the mantle, but some gets trapped deep within it.

"It has been known for a long time that subducting plates carry oceanic water to the mantle," said Tom Garth, a PhD student in the Earthquake Seismology research group at Liverpool.

"We found that fault zones that form in the deep oceanic trench offshore Northern Japan persist to depths of up to 150 kilometers," Garth said.

"These hydrated fault zones can carry large amounts of water, suggesting that subduction zones carry much more water from the ocean down to the mantle than has previously been suggested," Garth said.


"This supports the theory that there are large amounts of water stored deep in the Earth."




Tom Garth and his colleagues' research (Order of Magnitude Increase in Subducted H²O due to Hydrated Normal Faults within the Wadati-Benioff Zone) is published in the journal Geology.



Scientists Find...

1.5-Billion-Year-Old Pockets of Water Canadian Mine
May 16, 2013
from Sci-News Website


Researchers from Canada and the United Kingdom led by Prof Chris Ballentine from the University of Manchester have discovered ancient water pockets that have been isolated deep underground for more than a billion years.


Billion year old sparkling water

(J. Moran)

The scientists analyzed water pouring out of boreholes from a mine 1.5 miles (2.4 km) beneath Ontario, Canada.

According to their study published in the journal Nature, this water could be some of the oldest on Earth and may even contain life. The similarity between the rocks that trapped it and those on Mars raises the hope that comparable life-sustaining water could lie buried beneath the Red planet's surface.

The team found that the water is rich in dissolved gases like hydrogen, methane and isotopes of noble gases such as helium, neon, argon and xenon. Indeed, there is as much hydrogen in the water as around hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean, many of which teem with microscopic life.


The hydrogen and methane come from the interaction between the rock and water, as well as natural radioactive elements in the rock reacting with the water. These gases could provide energy for microbes that may not have been exposed to the sun for billions of years.

The crystalline rocks surrounding the water are thought to be around 2.7 billion years old. But no-one thought the water could be the same age, until now.


Using ground-breaking techniques, the researchers show that the fluid is at least 1.5 billion years old, but could be significantly older.

"We've found an interconnected fluid system in the deep Canadian crystalline basement that is billions of years old, and capable of supporting life.


Our finding is of huge interest to researchers who want to understand how microbes evolve in isolation, and is central to the whole question of the origin of life, the sustainability of life, and life in extreme environments and on other planets," Prof Ballentine said.







Before this discovery, the only water of this age was found trapped in tiny bubbles in rock and is incapable of supporting life.


But the water found in the Canadian mine pours from the rock at a rate of nearly two liters per minute. It has similar characteristics to far younger water flowing from a mine 1.7 miles (2.8 km) below ground in South Africa that was previously found to support microbes.

The researchers don't yet know if the underground system in Canada sustains life.

"Our Canadian colleagues are trying to find out if the water contains life right now. What we can be sure of is that we have identified a way in which planets can create and preserve an environment friendly to microbial life for billions of years.


This is regardless of how inhospitable the surface might be, opening up the possibility of similar environments in the subsurface of Mars," explained first author Dr Greg Holland of Lancaster University.



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