June 15, 2013
from NewDawnMagazine Website
Anyone with even a slight interest in
history and civilization is aware of this fact. For on this plateau
the Great Pyramids and their
the Great Sphinx.
Any statement as to who built them, or
when they were built, is pure theory. In light of all the various
theories concerning these mysterious structures, I don’t think the
theoretical nature of the pyramid builders can be emphasized enough.
On the other hand, all other passageways
were not built tall enough to accommodate the average man or woman.
The Queen’s Chamber contains a corbelled
niche built into its east wall, and the King’s Chamber’s ceiling is
composed of five granite slabs stacked one atop the other. Why these
chambers were constructed in this manner is unknown.
However, in comparison to typical Egyptian burial methods (the mastaba and the tombs in the Valley of the Kings), the Giza pyramids, and particularly the Great Pyramid, do not fair well within the Egyptian concept of a tomb.
As the tomb of King Tutankhamun
testifies, the deceased’s chamber of internment was to be decorated
with art and filled with that person’s possessions. Why they
practiced this ritual was not for superstitious reasons, as one
might suspect. It was practical, according to their beliefs, and
aimed at preventing that person’s energy (spirit) from being
re-absorbed into Nature’s spiritual force.
Although not an exact analogy, the Ka
and the Ba are what traditional Western thought might refer as
spirit and soul. Another important aspect of Egyptian
belief represented immortality, the ankh, depicted as the
The Ka can be likened to one’s
personality, which upon death is separated from the body, and
naturally seeks a way to once again take form. The Ba, represented
by a winged human head, or sometimes a human-faced bird, represented
the part of consciousness that is immortal.
Mummification prevented the body from decomposing and returning to the soil of the Earth, whereas the tomb, with the deceased’s possessions, served as a ‘home’ for the Ka.
As a result, the Ka maintained its identity in the spiritual world and could seek out its Ba in order to achieve ankh, which resulted in the resurrected and glorified form of the deceased beyond the limits of an earthly realm.
Case in point: from the sixth dynasty,
Mereruka’s mastaba was crafted in mansion-like proportion with
thirty-two rooms and adorned with statues and art depicting, for
example, scenes of wildlife along the Nile River.
So why is it the case that the Giza pyramids are generally considered to be tombs of fourth dynasty Pharaohs?
The reason is because of an association
of the Giza complex with another development ten miles south at
Sakkara where the Egyptians really did build tombs as pyramids.
Over the course of subsequent explorations, it was discovered that a total of five pyramids at Sakkara also contained inscriptions, from the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth dynasties of the Old Kingdom.
In 1952, Dr. Samuel A.B. Mercer (1879-1969), Professor of Semitic Languages and Egyptology at the University of Toronto, published a complete English translation of "The Pyramid Texts" in a volume of the same name.
According to Mercer, The Pyramid
Texts contained ‘words to be spoken’ concerning funerary ritual,
magical formulae, and religious hymns, as well as prayers and
petitions on behalf of the deceased king.1
Furthermore, since there are two cemeteries (mastaba fields) to the east and west of the northernmost Giza pyramid, assuming that all pyramids are tombs was a likely conclusion. However, the condition of the Sakkara pyramids - most of which are believed constructed after the Giza pyramids - poses serious problems in this logical association.
Of the pyramids at Sakkara only Djoser’s ‘Step Pyramid’ is in good condition, although not really a true pyramid. (The Step Pyramid was originally a mastaba that was modified into a pyramid.)
All other pyramids at Sakkara, most of
which belong to the fifth and sixth dynasties are in ruins today and
resemble mounds of rubble.
After pyramid development at Giza, for
whatever reason, the focus of pyramid building shifted back to
The Great Pyramid - A
Clearly, the construction techniques, as well as materials, for the Giza pyramids were different than those at Sakkara, or else we would expect pyramids at both sites to have stood the test of time in a similar manner. They did not. The important point is why.
Did the engineers and construction workers of the Old Kingdom not pass along their methods from the fourth to the fifth dynasty? It seems they did not, which is a very curious occurrence given the stability of Egyptian civilization.
It may also be the case that the fourth dynasty Egyptians did not build the Giza pyramids. No other pyramid in Egypt (the world for that matter) is like the Giza pyramids, and in particular the Great Pyramid.
Additionally, there is no direct evidence to support the claim that the Great Pyramid, or the other Giza pyramids were tombs. Nor is there any record left by its builders as to what it was for or when it was built.
This creates a problem of explanation.
Theories are abundant, but the only theory I am aware of that covers all aspects of the Great Pyramid’s interior design, is Christopher Dunn’s theory that it was a device.
According to Dunn, the Great Pyramid was
a machine for producing power by converting tectonic vibration into
The fact is, modern construction companies could not build the Great Pyramid today without first inventing specialized tools and techniques in order to deal with blocks of stone that vary in weight from ten to fifty tons.
Such an endeavor would be on a magnitude equivalent to building a hydroelectric dam or a nuclear power station requiring tens of billions of dollars in resources.
Although our modern economy is different than that of the ancient world, the resource required now as compared to then is the same! The stone must be quarried and moved and the workers must be paid.
The fact that an extremely large amount of resources were dedicated to Giza pyramid development over a long period of time demands, in my opinion, that pyramid building was utilitarian, and not for any fourth dynasty pharaonic vanity of having the largest headstone in the world.
Sometime around 3000 BCE, the establishment and growth of permanent settlements in the Lower Nile Valley led to the development of civilization.
Why Giza and the surrounding area were chosen as the focal point for early Dynastic Egypt was because ‘civilisation’ had been there before, as the three pyramids and the Great Sphinx testify. Without knowing what the pyramids were designed for, the early Egyptians also assumed they must have been tombs.
As a result, they rejuvenated the Giza Plateau and turned it into a Necropolis, then expanded to Sakkara where they built tombs in pyramid form, albeit of lesser quality and not brandishing the skills the original builders of the Giza pyramids demonstrated.
Pyramid building, even the smaller ones
at Sakkara, was resource intense, so the Egyptians reverted to
burying their nobility in the traditional mastaba.
There is also the Sphinx, which in 1991 was geologically dated to between 7,000 and 9,000 years old by the team of John Anthony West and geologist Dr. Robert Schoch.
Add to that the megaliths of Nabta Playa in southwestern Egypt, which is believed to have been a star viewing diagram, according to astrophysicist Dr. Thomas Brophy, that relates not only the distance from Earth to the belt stars of Orion, but their radial velocities as well.
Another ‘head scratching’ discovery is
the 1260-ton foundation stones of
the Baalbek temple, west of Beirut in Lebanon, one of
which was left in its quarry.
According to the Papyrus of Turin, which is a complete list of kings up to the New Kingdom, before Menes (before 3000 BCE) the:
These two lines in the king’s list are explicit.
According to their documents, the total years of Egyptian history goes back 36,620 years. The argument that the years in the king’s list do not represent actual years, but some other, shorter, measurement of time seems more of an attempt to explain away than to explain.
The ancient Egyptians employed a sophisticated calendar system that involved a 365-day year, which was periodically corrected through the predictable and cyclical nature of the star Sirius.
Every 1,461 years, the heliacal rising of Sirius marked the beginning of the new year. A single Sirius cycle corresponds to 1,461 years, where each year is equivalent to 365.25 days. In essence, the marking of the New Year at the heliacal rising of Sirius was the ancient Egyptian’s ‘leap year.’
Of course, determining the length of
Sirius’ cyclical nature requires stellar observation over thousands
of years which means the origins of pharaonic Egypt, or its source
of knowledge, must originate in the remote past.
Emery believed that ancient Egypt’s written language was beyond the use of pictorial symbols, even during the earliest dynasties, and that signs were also used to represent sounds, along with a numerical system. When hieroglyphics had been stylized and used in architecture, a cursive script was already in common use.
His conclusion was that:
Ancient Egyptian religion also testifies to a considerable period of development.
Their religion, which is more of a philosophy of nature and life than it is a ‘religion,’ is based on a level of sophistication that, in all respects, appears more scientific than it does mythical.
Nothing could be further from the truth. The source of this misunderstanding stems from the Egyptian word 'neter' (neteru) being translated into Greek as ‘god,’ which later took on the Westernized meaning of deity.
The true meaning of neter was to
describe an aspect of deity, not a deity to be worshipped. In
essence, neters referred to principles of nature in a
practical scientific way.
Alternatively, a human head depicted on
an animal represented that principle as it relates to the divine
essence within mankind, not any person in particular, but the
archetypal; as the immortal Ba is represented by a human-faced bird.
He did so as a representation of the decomposition or fermentation process. In nature, the jackal keeps its prey and allows it to decompose before consumption. Therefore, he who presided over the mummification ritual was depicted in art as a man with the head of the jackal, thereby representing man’s death as the digestive principle found in nature.
From a universal perspective, the decomposition of a body is, to Nature, digestion.
Hence, those organs associated with digestion, after being removed from the deceased, were placed in a Canopic jar with a lid shaped in the image of the jackal’s head.
How did this supposedly primitive North African culture organize itself into a civilization of such magnificence? One aspect that I believe has been overlooked is that mankind - anatomically modern humans - has been around for a very long time.
According to recent genetic studies, all
people today are the descendents of a single African woman who
walked the Earth 150,000 years ago. According to geneticists, her
mitochondrial DNA exists in all of us.
Given the evidence of ancient Egypt’s
technical abilities (their monument, temples, and other crafted
artifacts still exist), as well as their sophisticated symbolism in
describing Nature, it appears that in establishing a dynastic
society, the Egyptians of the third millennium BCE benefited from a
legacy of knowledge.
If such a civilization existed, surely
there would be overwhelming evidence to support its existence. If an
exclusively uniformitarian approach to geologic formation were
generally accepted as fact, I would agree with the skeptic.
Although all of these cataclysms
occurred well before the modern human form, there are two global
disasters that occurred relatively recently.
The resultant caldera formed a lake 100
kilometers long by 60 kilometers wide, with devastating and lasting
climatic consequences. A six-year long volcanic winter followed, and
in its wake an ice age that lasted for a thousand years. With its
sulfuric haze, the volcanic winter lowered global temperatures,
creating drought and famine decimating the human population.
It is a known geologic fact that at the end of the Ice Age many North American species became extinct, including the mammoth, camel, horse, ground sloth, peccaries (pig-like hoofed mammals), antelope, American elephant, rhinoceros, giant armadillo, tapirs, saber-toothed tigers and giant bison. It also affected the climates of lower latitudes in Central and South America, as well as Europe in a similar way.
Those lands have also revealed evidence
of mass extinction. Yet, the mechanism that brought on this Ice Age
ending cataclysm remains a mystery.
Where they came from has been a
long-standing mystery. The logical deduction is that they migrated
from Africa. However, such a migration requires a host
culture, of which there is no evidence.
For us, it would be as if they appeared