Index Previous Next
THE boat of the sun having passed through the Second Division of the Tuat arrives at the gateway which leads to the THIRD DIVISION. This gateway is unlike the first, which has already been described, for its opening is protected by an outwork, similar to that which protects the door of a fortified building. The outwork is guarded by nine gods, in the form of mummies, who are described as the "second company of the gods," and in this wall, which completely divides the Second Division from the Third, is an opening, which leads to a corridor that runs between two walls, the tops of which are protected by rows of pointed stakes. At the entrance to the corridor stands a god, in mummied form, called AM-AUA, and at the exit is a similar god called SEKHABESNEFUNEN, each is said to "extend his arms and hands to Ra." At each side of the angle, near
the entrance to the corridor, is a serpent, who ejects flames from his mouth; the flame from the one sweeps along the corridor, at the end of which it is met by the flame from the other serpent which sweeps along the inside of the inner wall. The flames of these serpents are said to be for Ra. The gateway leading to the Third Division is called SEPTET-UAUAU, and the door thereof, which opens inwards, is guarded by the serpent standing on his tail, who is called AQEBI, and faces outwards. The texts referring to the entrance of Ra through this gateway read:--
"[When] this god cometh to this gateway, to enter in through this gateway, the gods who are therein acclaim this great god, [saying], 'Let this gateway be unfolded to KHUTI, and let the doors be opened to him that is in heaven. Come then, O thou traveller, who dost journey in Amentet.' He who is over this door openeth [it] to Ra. SA saith unto AQEBI, 'Open thy gate to Ra, unfold thy door to KHUTI. He shall illumine the darkness, and he shall force a way for the light in the habitation which is hidden.' This door is closed after the great god hath entered through it, and there is lamentation to those who are in their gateway when they hear this door close [upon them]."
Along the middle of the THIRD DIVISION, we see the boat of the sun being drawn along by four gods, as before; the god Ra stands in a shrine, similar to that already described, and his companions are SA and HEKAU. The rope by which the boat is towed along is fastened to the two ends of a very remarkable object, in the form of a long beam, each end of which terminates in a bull's head. The accompanying text describes it as "his boat," and from the fact that the four gods who tow the boat are seen again at the other end of the beam-like object, with the towing-rope in their hands, it is clear that the boat of Ra, and the god himself, were believed to pass through it, from one end to the other. The object is supported on the
shoulders of eight gods, in mummied form, who are called "Bearers of the gods," at each end, immediately behind the bull's head, stands a bull, and at intervals seven gods, who are called "the
gods who are within," are seated upon it. At the end of this Division stand four mummied forms, with their elbows projecting, and their hands crossed on their breasts. The text
which refers to the passage of the boat of the sun reads:
"This great god is towed along by the gods of the Tuat, and this great god advanceth to the Boat of the Earth, which is the bark of the gods. Ra. saith unto them:--'Hail, ye gods who bear up his Boat of the Earth, and who lift up the Bark of the Tuat, may there be support to your forms and light unto your Bark. Holy is he who is in the Boat of the Earth. I make to go back the Bark of the Tuat which beareth my forms (or, attributes), and verily I travel into the hidden habitation to perform the plans which are carried out therein.' ENNURKHATA, ENNURKHATA [saith], 'Praised be the Soul which the Double Bull hath swallowed, and let the god be at peace with that which he hath created.'"
The effect of the above words is to allow the Sun-god and his boat to pass through the double bull-headed
[paragraph continues] Boat of the Earth without any let or hindrance, and when he has done this,--
"These gods (i.e., the four gods at the other end of the Boat of the Earth) say to Ra:--'Praised be Ra, whose Soul hath been absorbed by the Earth-god! Praised be the gods of Ra who hath rested [therein].' This Boat of its Tuat rejoiceth, and there are cries from them after Ra hath passed them as he journeyeth on his way. Their offerings are the plants of the year,
and their offerings are given to them when they hear the words of those who draw along, this great god. The gods of the Tuat (?) who [draw] the holy Boat in the earth say unto the UTAU, whose arms are hidden:--'O ye UTAU Of the earth, whose duty it is to stand (?) near his habitation, whose heads are uncovered, and whose arms are hidden, may there be air to your nostrils, O UTAU, and may your funeral swathings be burst open, and may you have the mastery over
your meats, and may you have peace (or, crest) in that which I have created. Their food is of bread cakes, and their bread is made of the red grain, the draughts which they drink are of [cool] water, and their meat is given unto them because of the whiteness (or, brilliance) of their apparel in the Tuat."
On the right hand side of this Division of the Tuat the boat of the Sun passes twelve shrines, each of which has its doors thrown wide open, and so permits us to see a god in mummied form standing inside it these gods are described as "the holy gods who are in the
[paragraph continues] Tuat." Along the front of the twelve shrines stretches an enormous serpent, the duty of which is to protect those who stand in them. Beyond the shrines is a long basin or lake of boiling water, with rounded ends, in which stand up to their waists twelve mummied gods, with black heads, who either have white bodies, or are arrayed in white apparel; in front of each god grows a large ear of wheat. These gods are described as "the gods in the boiling lake." The texts which relate to both groups of beings are as follows:--
"[Those who are in] their shrines are the members of the god whose shrines the serpent SETI guardeth. Ra saith unto them:--'Open ye [the doors of] your shrines, so that my radiance may penetrate the darkness in which ye are! I found you weeping and lamenting, with your shrines tightly closed, but air shall be given to your nostrils, and I have decreed that ye shall have abundance to overflowing [in all things].' And these gods say unto Ra:--'Hail, Ra, come thou into our lake, O thou great god who never failest.' The Shennu gods who are before and behind him pay homage to him, and they rejoice in Ra when he traverseth [their] region, and when the great god journeyeth through the secret place. Their food consisteth of loaves of bread, their drink is made from the red [barley], and their cool waters come from [their cisterns of] water, and the serpent of fire, SETI, giveth unto them the things whereon they live there. The door which shutteth them in closeth after this god hath passed through their midst, and they utter cries of grief when they hear their doors shut upon them."
The following refers to the lake of water in this Division:--
"[Here is] the lake of water which is in the Tuat, and it is surrounded by the gods who are arrayed in [their] apparel, and who have [their] heads uncovered. This lake is filled with green herbs. The water of this lake is boiling hot, and the birds betake themselves to flight when they see the waters thereof, and when they smell the ftid smell which is in it. Unto these gods saith Ra:--'O ye gods whose duty it is
[paragraph continues] [to guard] the green herbs of your lake, whose heads core uncovered, and whose limbs are covered with garments, may there be air to your nostrils, and may offerings be made to you of the green herbs, and may your meat be from your lake. The water thereof shall be yours, but to you it shall not be boiling, and the heat thereof shall not be upon your bodies.' These [gods] say unto Ra:--'Come thou unto us, O thou who sailest in thy boat, whose eye is of blazing fire which consumeth, and hath a pupil which sendeth forth light! The beings of the Tuat shout with joy when thou approachest; send forth thy light upon us, O thou great god who hast fire in thine eye.' Their food consisteth of loaves of bread and green herbs, and their drink (or, beer) is of the kemtet plants, and their cool water is from [their cisterns of] water. And food shall be given unto them in abundance from this lake."
On the left of the path along which the boat of Ra passes in this Division of the Tuat are two groups of beings. In the first of these we see the god TEM, in the form of an aged man, with bent shoulders, leaning upon a staff; coiled up before him in voluminous folds, with its head flat upon the ground, is the monster serpent APEP. Behind Apep stand nine men, with their arms hanging by their sides; these are called the "TCHATCHA who repulse APEPI," In the second group is TEM,
in a similar attitude, and before him stand nine gods, each holding the symbol of life in the right hand, and the sceptre in the left; the nine gods are called "Nebu khert," i.e., Lords of destinies.
The texts which refer to these groups read:--
The first group shows us what "TEM hath done for Ra, and how he hath protected the god by words of magical power, and hath overthrown the serpent SEBA. [TEMU saith:--] 'Thou art prostrate, and thou shalt never more rise up; thou art enchanted by [my enchantments], and thou shalt never more be found. The word of my father is maat against thee, and my word is maat against thee; I have destroyed thee for Ra, and I have made an end of thee for KHUTI.'
"The company of the gods of Ra who repulse APEP say:--'Thy head is slit, O Apep, thy folds are gashed, thou shalt never more envelop the boat of Ra, and thou shalt never again make a way into the divine bark. A flame of fire goeth out against thee from the hidden place, and we have condemned thee to thy
dire doom.' They (i.e., the nine gods of the company of Ra) live upon the food of Ra, and upon the cakes of KHENT-AMENTI, for offerings are made on their behalf upon earth, and libations of cool water are made unto them by the lord of food (or, as lords of food) before Ra."
To the second group of nine gods "TEM saith:--'Inasmuch as ye are the gods who possess life and sceptre (i.e., authority), and who have mastery over your sceptres, drive ye back the serpent SEBA from KHUTI, gash ye with knives the foul and evil serpent AF.' These are the gods who work enchantments on APEP, who open the earth to Ra, and who
shut it against APEP in the gates of KHENTI-AMENTI. They are those who are in the hidden place, and they praise Ra, and they destroy his enemies, and they protect the great one against the serpent AFU, and they utter cries of joy at the overthrow by Ra of the enemy of Ra. They live upon the meat of Ra, and on the cakes offered to KHENTI-AMENTI. Offerings are made on their behalf upon earth, and they receive libations through [their] word being maat in Ament, and holy are they of arm in their hidden place. They utter cries to Ra, and they make lamentation for the great god after he hath passed by them, for when he hath departed they are enveloped in darkness, and their circle is closed upon them."
Next: Chapter V. The Gate Of Tchetbi. The Fourth Division of the Tuat