article written by Dr. Tamara
Bhadari, a senior science writer from the Washington University
School of Medicine (WUSM) in St. Louis, recently
published a below article
even a mild COVID-19 infection induces lasting
antibody protection that can last a lifetime...
She cites a study recently published from researchers at
University School of Medicine in St. Louis showing that the
protection gained from mild
"leave those infected
with lasting antibody protection and that repeated bouts of
illness are likely to be uncommon."
"Last fall there were reports that antibodies wane quickly after
infection with the virus that causes COVID-19, and mainstream
media interpreted that to mean that immunity was not long-lived.
But that's a misrepresentation of the data.
It's normal for antibody
levels to go down after acute infection, but they don't go
down to zero; they plateau.
Here, we found
antibody-producing cells in people 11 months after first
symptoms. These cells will live and produce antibodies for
the rest of people's lives.
That's strong evidence for
SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in
cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls
The study found
that of 19 people who had a mild COVID infection, 15 of them
targeting the virus that causes COVID-19."
The cells are
present in the bone marrow and constantly secreting antibodies.
According to the researchers:
been doing that ever since the infection resolved, and they
will continue doing that indefinitely."
People who were
infected and never had symptoms also may be left with long-lasting
immunity, the researchers speculated.
What needs to
happen next are multiple studies looking into the response and
antibody level of those who were completely asymptomatic and those
with severe infection, which suggests a higher viral load.
The studies that
have emerged regarding the protection one receives from a COVID
infection all point to the idea that immunity may last a lifetime.
This would be on
par with what we've seen with other coronaviruses. Natural infection
provides robust protection in the form of T cells, B cells and
For example, did
you know people who have had SARS still have robust immunity 17
published in Nature explains,
"In all of these individuals,
we found CD4 and CD8 T cells that recognized multiple
regions of the N protein.
Next, we showed that patients
(n = 23) who recovered from SARS (the disease associated
with SARCS-C0V infection) possess long-lasting memory T
cells that are reactive to the N protein of SARS-C0V 17
years after the outbreak of SARS in 2003; these T cells
displayed robust cross-reactivity to the N protein of SARS
These findings demonstrate
that virus-specific T cells induced by infection with
betacoronaviruses are long-lasting, supporting the notion
that patients with COVID-19 will develop long-term T cell
Please keep in mind
that testing "positive" for COVID doesn't mean you are infectious,
and that's also true if you've already had COVID.
You can read more
An analysis of
millions of coronavirus test results in Denmark found that people
who had prior infection, were still protected 6 months after the
Another study also
found that individuals who recovered from the coronavirus developed
"robust" levels of B cells and T cells (necessary for fighting off
the virus) and,
may persist in the body for a very, very long time."
Weiskopf, Dr. Alessandro Sette, and Dr. Shane Crotty
from the La Jolla Institute for Immunology analyzed immune
cells and antibodies from almost 200 people who had been exposed to
SARS-CoV-2 and recovered.
The researchers found durable
immune responses in the majority of people studied.
the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which the virus uses to get inside
cells, were found in 98% of participants one month after symptom
As seen in previous
studies, the number of antibodies ranged widely between individuals.
But, promisingly, their levels remained fairly stable over time,
declining only modestly at 6 to 8 months after infection.
cells increased over time. People had more memory B cells six months
after symptom onset than at one month afterwards.
Although the number
of these cells appeared to reach a plateau after a few months,
levels didn't decline over the period studied.
Levels of T cells
for the virus also remained high after infection. Six months after
symptom onset, 92% of participants had CD4+ T cells that recognized
These cells help
coordinate the immune response. About half the participants had CD8+
T cells, which kill cells that are infected by the virus.
study published in Clinical Microbiology and Infection
"Presence of cross-reactive
SARSCoV2 specific Tcells in never exposed patients suggests
cellular immunity induced by other coronaviruses.
Tcell responses against SARSC0V2
also detected in recovered Covid patients with no detectable
"Cellular immunity is of paramount
importance in containing SARSCoV2 infection… and could be
maintained independently of antibody responses.
Previously infected people develop
much stronger Tcell responses against spike protein peptides in
comparison to infection-naive people after mRNA vaccine."
Final Thoughts &
It was great to see
Dr. Ali Ellebedy
bring up the point about reports earlier on and mainstream media
claim that natural infection does not provide protection, and how
this was a misinterpretation of the data.
This was done to
stress the importance of vaccination. Anybody who was suggesting
that natural infection was sufficient enough for long lasting
protection at the time was, and still is subjected to extreme
amounts of criticism and even censorship.
published an article regarding Harvard epidemiologist and vaccine
expert Dr. Martin Kulldorff.
He is one of many
who has been subjected to censorship for claiming that previously
infected people do not need to take the vaccine, and that everybody
does not need to take the vaccine.
I also recently
article about viral immunologist, Professor at the University of
Guelph, and vaccine expert Dr. Bryan Bridle, who explained several
concerns regarding the rollout of COVID vaccines and expressed how
people are not being tested for antibodies before getting
This way the
vaccines could perhaps go to those who actually need it.
The push for mass
vaccination doesn't really add up and conform to the science.
Telling people that nothing is going to go back to normal until
everybody is vaccinated again, from a scientific standpoint, just
doesn't make any sense.
Gupta, considered by many to be the world's preeminent
infectious disease expert explained
that the way COVID vaccines are being promoted and the idea that
everybody needs to be vaccinated is unscientific and suspicious.
scientific consensus is that more than a billion people have been
infected, which is why, for most people, the survival rate of COVID
is extremely high,
nearly 100 percent for healthy people under the age of 60.
If this is true,
there are a number of people in the population who are already
immune and do not require a vaccine.
happens to people who are vaccinated who've already had a COVID
change the immunity they've gained from natural infection?
I don't know but
these are all very important questions.
questions of vaccine efficacy must be taken into consideration. You
can read more about that
With all of this
information and the sources available, does the idea of vaccine
passports, or mandating vaccines to attend sporting events actually
make sense at all?
If it doesn't, and
if it's not black and white, then why is there such a strong push
for these measures? Has science become politicized?
"I'm not aware of any vaccine out
there which will ever give you more immunity than if you're
naturally recovered from the illness itself…
If you've naturally recovered from
it, my understanding as a doctor level scientist is that those
antibodies will always be better than a vaccine, and if you know
any differently, please let me know."
Good news - Mild COVID-19 induces...
Lasting Antibody Protection
People who have had a mild case of COVID-19
left with long-term antibody protection against future disease,
according to a study from researchers at
University School of Medicine.
(Photo: Getty Images)
have had mild illness
Months after recovering from mild cases of COVID-19, people
still have immune cells in their body pumping out antibodies
against the virus that causes COVID-19, according to a study
from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine
Such cells could
persist for a lifetime, churning out antibodies all the while.
The findings, published May 24 in the journal Nature, suggest
that mild cases of
COVID-19 leave those infected with lasting
antibody protection and that repeated bouts of illness are
likely to be uncommon.
there were reports that antibodies wane quickly after
infection with the virus that causes COVID-19, and
mainstream media interpreted that to mean that immunity was
not long-lived," said senior author Ali
Ellebedy, PhD, associate professor of pathology and
immunology, of medicine and of molecular microbiology.
a misinterpretation of the data. It's normal for antibody
levels to go down after acute infection, but they don't go
down to zero; they plateau.
found antibody-producing cells in people 11 months after
first symptoms. These cells will live and produce antibodies
for the rest of people's lives.
strong evidence for long-lasting immunity."
During a viral
infection, antibody-producing immune cells rapidly multiply and
circulate in the blood, driving antibody levels sky-high. Once
the infection is resolved, most such cells die off, and blood
antibody levels drop.
population of antibody-producing cells, called long-lived plasma
cells, migrate to the bone marrow and settle in, where they
continually secrete low levels of antibodies into the
bloodstream to help guard against another encounter with the
The key to
figuring out whether COVID-19 leads to long-lasting antibody
protection, Ellebedy realized, lies in the bone marrow.
To find out
whether those who have recovered from mild cases of COVID-19
harbor long-lived plasma cells that produce antibodies
specifically targeted to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes
COVID-19, Ellebedy teamed up with co-author Iskra
Pusic, MD, associate professor of medicine.
already was working with co-authors Rachel
Presti, MD, PhD associate professor of medicine, and Jane
O'Halloran, MD, PhD assistant professor of medicine, on
a project to track antibody levels in blood samples from
already had enrolled 77 participants who were giving blood
samples at three-month intervals starting about a month after
initial infection. Most participants had had mild cases of
COVID-19; only six had been hospitalized.
help, Ellebedy and colleagues obtained bone marrow from 18 of
the participants seven or eight months after their initial
infections. Five of them came back four months later and
provided a second bone marrow sample.
the scientists also obtained bone marrow from 11 people who had
never had COVID-19.
antibody levels in the blood of the COVID-19 participants
dropped quickly in the first few months after infection and then
mostly leveled off, with some antibodies detectable even 11
months after infection.
Further, 15 of
the 19 bone marrow samples from people who had had COVID-19
contained antibody-producing cells specifically targeting the
virus that causes COVID-19. Such cells could still be found four
months later in the five people who came back to provide a
second bone-marrow sample.
None of the 11
people who had never had COVID-19 had such antibody-producing
cells in their bone marrow.
with mild cases of COVID-19 clear the virus from their
bodies two to three weeks after infection, so there would be
no virus driving an active immune response seven or 11
months after infection," Ellebedy said.
cells are not dividing.
quiescent, just sitting in the bone marrow and secreting
antibodies. They have been doing that ever since the
infection resolved, and they will continue doing that
People who were
infected and never had symptoms also may be left with
long-lasting immunity, the researchers speculated.
But it's yet to
be investigated whether those who endured more severe infection
would be protected against a future bout of disease, they said.
go either way," said first author Jackson Turner, PhD, an
instructor in pathology and immunology.
"Inflammation plays a major role in severe COVID-19, and too
much inflammation can lead to defective immune responses.
But on the other hand, the reason why people get really sick
is often because they have a lot of virus in their bodies,
and having a lot of virus around can lead to a good immune
So it's not
We need to
replicate the study in people with moderate to severe
infections to understand whether they are likely to be
protected from reinfection."
colleagues now are studying whether vaccination also induces
long-lived antibody-producing cells.
Kim W, Kalaidina E, Goss CW, Rauseo AM, Schmitz AJ, Hansen
L, Haile A, Klebert MK, Pusic I, O'Halloran JA, Presti RM,
Ellebedy AH. - SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone
marrow plasma cells in humans - Nature. May 24, 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03647-4
was supported by,
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of
the National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant numbers
U01AI1419901, U01AI150747 and 5T32CA009547 and contract
numbers HHSN272201400006C, HHSN272201400008C and
Norwegian Research Council, grant number 271160
University of Oslo's National Graduate School in
Infection Biology and Antimicrobials, grant number
utilized samples obtained from the Washington University
School of Medicine's COVID-19 biorepository supported by the
NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences,
grant number UL1 TR002345.
Washington University School
of Medicine's 1,500
faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St.
Louis Children's hospitals.
of Medicine is a leader in medical research, teaching and
patient care, consistently ranking among the top medical
schools in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.
affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's
hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC