by Max Barker
March 10, 2022
from EcoHumanismResearch Website







This paper presents a publication format that is based upon a semi-academic approach, making it distinguishable from other publication formats.


The author identifies the need for such a publication format due to the rise in quantity of grey literature, as well as the acceleration of knowledge mobilization, both of which coincide with growing recognition for the need to address the gap between the academic and non-academic spheres of influence.


Toward the latter segment of this paper the author illustrates the design of papers/articles, books, blog posts, and reports.


The paper concludes explaining how nearly anyone can adapt the publication format to suit their needs and preferences so that they are able to publish objective research that has a positive impact on the state of humanity.




There is a growing body of research that fits neither in the academic nor in the non-academic categories. 1


This research is generally available on the Internet and some of the most common mediums used for conveying it are found in the form of articles, books, blog posts, papers, and reports.


Many of the information sources that are used for corroborating hypotheses and/or for supporting arguments would not be considered as academic as they do not originate from a peer-reviewed, scientific source.


Likewise, they would not be considered as non-academic as they are not obtained from established publishers. This is where the term "grey literature" acquires its importance.


With that said there is growing recognition that there is a need for bridging the gap between the academic and non-academic spheres, as well as for considering fairly the social impact of grey literature. 2-7

Given how there are efforts to bridge the gap between the academic and non-academic spheres of influence, which coincides with the growth in both the quantity and usage of grey literature, there is a need for a publication format that may be categorized as semi-academic and formally designated as,

an Objective Non-academic Publication (ONAP)...

Even though semi- academic publications already exist they do not receive as much attention as their academic and non-academic counterparts as they are not recognized as a formal publication format. 8

In this paper, I shall explain as to how the structural outline of the academic and non-academic publications differ, which will help to reduce the ambiguities that are associated with semi- academic publications.


Further, I shall describe as to how an objective non-academic publication may be designed so that it becomes a practical format for conveying research in a manner that is as objective and unambiguous as possible to nearly any audience.


This is especially appropriate for the 21st century where the Internet has drastically facilitated the mobilization of knowledge.


The improved access to data, information, and knowledge is enabling the public-at-large with an unprecedented ability to learn about nature and everything it entails, which is something that relatively few have had the privilege to do in the past.


The Academic Sphere of Influence

Analysis of Literature

In the realm of research, there are two categories into which knowledge is divided, which are the academic and non-academic.


The word "academic" originally comes from the Greek word for Academia, which was the name of the place where the philosopher Plato once taught. It also refers to the acquisition of knowledge that is "theoretical, not practical, not leading to a decision" and therefore, open to debate. 9


This is where science originates because it is based upon the art of observation and analysis. Those who practice this art and present their discoveries and hypotheses in the most unambiguous manner as is possible are called scientists.


It is worth noting that the word "conscience" contains the word "science", which suggests that,

science is a method for arriving as closely as possible to the truth...

Scientists apply the scientific method when they are conducting research and want to communicate their discoveries with other scientists or academics.

Generally, they are specialists within a discipline of knowledge.

Similarly, academics also conduct research, although they are not necessarily scientists.


What distinguishes them from scientists is that they perform work within academic institutions and normally share their knowledge with other academics, scientists or students.

When scientists and academics want to share their discoveries they formally present them in the form of an article. By standard, it is structured in an academic format.


Traditionally, this means that the journal responsible for publishing their work has a direct influence on the appearance and structural outline of their article. More precisely, the published article features an abstract, which provides the reader with a general impression of the subject matter.


Depending on the type of research, a methodology section follows which provides an overview of the study's limitations and the procedures taken for minimizing the risk of bias.


Following this, there is a section dedicated to the review of literature for discussing concepts and perspectives that are relevant to the study.


At the end of the article, there is a final section dedicated to listing all of the sources that the author(s) consulted for corroborating their argument(s) and for making their study as objective as possible.

The language of an academic article is descriptive and technical. It involves the use of words that are not commonly used in vernacular. This helps with the identification of certain concepts or phenomena that may be challenging to describe in vernacular.


Once an academic manuscript is ready for publication, it ideally goes through the process of peer review.


The purpose of this is to ensure that only research of the highest quality is published. One of the reasons for this is for the verification of plagiarization, both accidental and otherwise.


Peer review also serves the purpose of ensuring that the work under review is contributing to the knowledge base of humanity.


Additionally, it serves as a feedback mechanism for improving the quality of researchers' work by helping them identify any errors in their logic and/or facticity. 10


Although the system of peer review is beneficial for minimizing the risk of bias and plagiarization, it is not flawless. Additionally, it is susceptible to abuse, which is something I elaborate upon in latter subsections.


Nevertheless, peer reviewed, academic articles are generally of the highest quality in terms of finding objective data, information, and knowledge. With that being said, examples of such articles are available for review on the online scientific journal called Science, which is one of the world's oldest and largest science organizations.


It is widely considered to publish some of the highest quality research in the world. 11

The Non-academic Sphere of Influence

In contrast to its counterpart, the non-academic publication traditionally has almost none of the features that are necessary for it be categorized as academic.


This is because its purpose is mainly for entertaining its readers, rather than informing them, although these two characteristics aren't always mutually exclusive. The authors of such publications aren't always specialists within their topic of concern.

Often, they are a features editor or a journalist.


Some may have a background in science, though not all do.

The non-academic publication has minimal structure.


Traditionally, it begins with an introduction. A section follows for describing and discussing the subject matter. Then there is the concluding section.


The authors omit presenting their audience with research details because they are not the focus of the publication, and accordingly they are not of interest to the audience.


Similarly, the authors avoid using sentences from a third person perspective because the passive nature of this style is less captivating. Likewise, they sparingly use technical terminology.

When the author submits their manuscript for publication it is only reviewed by an editor, which is primarily for grammatical purposes. Reviewing for facticity and logic is generally not mandatory.


With that said, examples of non-academic publications are available for review on the website of The Economist, which is a magazine-format newspaper publisher.


It publishes opinion editorials that are, according to the organization based upon,

"facts, and analysis, incorporating The Economist's perspective." 12

Note the emphasis (not mine) on the organization's name, indicating that its publications are figuratively unscientific, as they rely on a perspective that is reflective of the organization's values.


This is also an indication that the organization employs an economic perspective, which as I must point out, is one that is recognized for not being scientific. This does not necessarily mean that what the organization reports on is untruthful, though.


What this does suggest is that its publications have a greater likelihood of being biased and inaccurate, as opposed to articles that a scientific journal publishes.

Why a Semi-academic Approach is a Necessity

We are witnessing a rising number of people independently publishing and/or sharing grey literature.


This is significant because in the past people shared information either in an academic or non-academic format.


One of the main reasons for this is that there is a growing awareness that the historic lack of engagement between academics and scientists with the public has prevented humanity from solving its most serious problems as effectively and efficiently as it could be. 13


Due to the sheer quantity of data and information produced from research and development in the scientific and technological sectors over the years the challenge is to now synthesize it in a manner that is comprehendible for nearly any audience.


At present, we are in the early stages of where this is happening; for example, the field of knowledge mobilization has come into existence, which describes the transmittance of

knowledge by academia for helping people improve the quality of their lives. 14


This involves the production of knowledge from within academia, which is then conveyed to the public with the aid of businesses, governments, and the media. The reason I am discussing this issue is because an ONAP can contribute by addressing the discrepancies between the academic and non- academic circles.


Additionally, this means that independent journalists and researchers would have a better means of communicating issues they identify as worthy of sharing. I must point out that nearly everything I have mentioned and will mention in this subsection relates to solving problems that are technical and social.


As this involves a certain degree of complexity, it implies an approach that is at the least multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary, which correlates closely with knowledge mobilization and grey literature. 15-16

The ONAP is not new, at least not conceptually.


Variants already exist and these are loosely referred to as semi-academic publications. As I have mentioned in the introduction these publications do not have a formal structural outline. As a result, academia classifies them as grey literature, which describes an informal publication format that does not undergo publication through traditional means.


As such, some academics do not consider grey literature to be representative of official or formal publications because it does not go through the process of publication and distribution by commercial entities. 17


Over the years, grey literature has grown in importance due to the realization that it allows for conducting better research within a lesser time frame. Due to the sheer range and volume of grey literature that archives and libraries process, it is often challenging to locate the appropriate kind.


However, as the Internet becomes faster and more sophisticated, we can expect that it will become less challenging for people to find what they need. Already, we are witnessing this where a wealth of information can be found on the Internet Archive, which is one of the largest public, digital libraries in the world. 18


The website is one of the best examples where masses of grey literature can be found; a cursory search may lead to a diversity of results ranging from conference proceedings, fact sheets, newsletters, pre-prints and post-prints of articles, to research reports, and more.

A semi-academic approach to research and problem-solving will acquire more prominence in the future as awareness grows of this need. Academic journals are typically authoritarian and bureaucratic, and often fail to give fair consideration to the different opinions of authors and readers, including their ideas, theories, or discoveries.


In response, some researchers have expressed the need for political decentralization so that there is social participation and ownership over academic journals and their activities. 19


Nevertheless, if academia wishes to maintain itself in its current state then for the sake of encouraging the democratization of research and problem solving, we must recognize the advantages of grey literature given that it is synonymous with semi-academic publications.


Notably, it is small organizations that are often responsible for the production of grey literature, which they then transmit through their own websites.


Because authorities and the public generally neither recognize nor archive grey literature, it is always at risk of becoming lost. 20


To expand on this there are a number of independent journalists and researchers who have taken the initiative to develop websites for the purpose of sharing information that they have found is not adequately examined and/or inappropriately communicated to the public by authorities, given that the latter are represented by government, the news industry and certain academic entities. 21-26


Another reason for this is because some have identified that some academics are discriminating against certain scientific discoveries and are contributing toward biased research through a corrupted peer review system. 27


Thus, a semi-academic approach allows us to improve our understanding of subject matters that would otherwise be underexplored by conventional methods, where in this context, "conventional" refers to academic or non-academic methods.


Below, figure 1 illustrates how grey literature is distinguishable from other literature categories:


Figure 1.

Literature Categories and their Differences


A Semi-academic Solution

What is an ONAP...?

As I have suggested in the introduction, it is neither academic, nor non- academic...

To expand on this,

it is objective in that the purpose of such a publication is to present a subject matter in a way that is both reflective of what happens in nature and that simultaneously conveys data, information, or knowledge to nearly any audience in a manner that is accessible and comprehendible.

Likewise, this is so that authors have the framework needed for sharing publications in a manner that contributes to the knowledge base of humanity and to problem solving without them having to commit to the rigid guidelines that academia requires.


The ONAP is non-academic in the sense that it need not comprise all of the features of an academic publication. Further, it is a publication as it is a means for communicating objective research and for presenting solutions to problems.

What distinguishes the ONAP from others relates to its semi-academic approach to research and problem solving. In particular, it is its structural outline and linguistic characteristics that make it distinguishable.


In the previous subsection, I discussed its semi-academic approach to research and problem solving.


From here on, I analyze the design of the ONAP so that it allows for the democratization of research and problem solving.

The structural outline of the ONAP is open for alteration. Nonetheless, it is comprised of a cover page, an abstract, an introduction, a section for the analysis of literature, a conclusion, and finally, a list of references.


Although it does not include any other features and sections, depending on an author's preferences and/or objectives, it is possible to add others. I have chosen by standard to not include a methodology section as part of the structural outline because this publication format is intended for publishing analyses and research, as well as for presenting solutions to social and technical problems.


To clarify, a methodology section is most appropriate where the author(s) detail an experiment that tests a hypothesis.


Thus, they use technical terminology to describe all facets of their research, which is something that scientists most often perform in the natural sciences, and less often in the social sciences. 28


Hence, the reason why the ONAP does not include a methodology section is because it is intended for synthesizing research findings, rather than presenting the results of experiments that test hypotheses.


Yet, this needn't be as such because anyone can use this publication format as long as they carefully consider how they want to contribute to human survival, happiness, and evolution.


Additionally, I have designed the structural format in this way because it is primarily intended for the following: articles, books, blog posts, papers, and reports.


To clarify, I am not suggesting that all of these communication mediums must have this structural outline, although they can incorporate some of the criteria so that they embody a semi-academic approach.

In addition to the structural outline, the other feature that makes the ONAP distinguishable relates to linguistics. Throughout this article I use the first person and the present tense, as I do in this sentence, for example.


Traditionally, academic publications have been reliant upon the use of the third person and the past tense, as the author has done in this sentence, although this is admittedly a facetious example!


The reason why I suggest the ONAP incorporates the first person and the present tense is because it makes the text more accessible to an audience of non-specialists in the topic of concern and who may not have a background in science. 29


In addition, it is easier for the brain to process and visualize the text with the use of the present tense.


Another consideration is the use of technical terminology; the ONAP includes this terminology for describing concepts, theories, or phenomena, which is in accordance to academic standards for the purpose of objectivity.


However, when authors use this terminology in a publication they should ensure they define it and/or describe it.


For example, in this paper, I have provided a definition of the word "academic" and a description of the term "grey literature" so as to minimize the ambiguity of their significance.

Another aspect that distinguishes the ONAP is that the author(s) may publish their work independently.


What does this mean?


Once the author has completed their work, the onus is on them to review it for errors, whether they be logical, factual and/or grammatical.


For the purpose of efficiency and efficacy, it is both possible and desirable that they make their work available for review by peers, regardless of whether they are relatives, friends, fellow academics or scientists, or even a combination of all of the above.


Although it may be beneficial that the author has their work reviewed by others, insofar as it helps to reduce their workload, I must emphasize that they are the ones who understand their work best.


Before they even begin thinking about sending their work for review, they should analyze it as meticulously as they can, although in general this may be challenging due to time constraints.


Therefore, what I suggest is that they task themselves with ensuring that their facticity and logic are coherent, which is what they are most capable of doing relative to anyone else.


They could then send their work for review, but mainly for grammatical purposes, which can help for both improving the readability of their research and for reducing their workload.


Ideally though, the author(s) should be able to perform their own review without needing external help because this will ultimately help them to improve their ability to communicate clearly, as well as to analyze and conduct research.

Designing the ONAP: Articles and Papers

Before discussing the details of the design of these publication types, I must point out that articles and papers are fundamentally the same except that the former are normally featured as part of a journal or a magazine, whereas the latter are standalone documents.


For this reason, I address this document as a paper.


Another reason is that this paper is independently published, hence, it does not belong to any journal or magazine.

1. Cover Page

Though it is technically a feature rather than a section, a cover page is mainly decorative and it serves the purpose of informing the reader as to what the publication is about.


If using this paper as an example, its design features a grey cover page, which signifies that it fits within the category of grey literature. In terms of its structure, it consists of the publication's title, the author's details, the paper's publisher, including the date the paper was published and if applicable, edited.


This is followed by a field for the publication's abstract, allowing the readers to gain a general impression of the publication before they read it.


This paper's cover page need not be replicated; any design and structure may be used so that it reflects the needs of the author and of their audience.

2. Title

This is the beginning of the publication because it is the first thing that the reader encounters.


Thus, it should have an appropriate title so that it sets the context for the subject matter. Ideally, it should be concise and descriptive of the publication's contents.


The language should be in the present tense and preferably unbiased. To expand on this, I shall use the title of this paper as an example.


The title is concise and unambiguous because it describes the object, which is the publication. We are aware that the object, which is the publication, is both objective and non-academic.


However, it is possible that some may nevertheless find the title ambiguous; it is for this reasons I have included a subtitle, which appears after the colon.

3. Abstract

An abstract, alternatively known as a "summary" is not a necessary section for the ONAP.


However, I suggest its inclusion for two reasons. The first reason is because it helps the reader decide whether the subject matter is of their interest and hence, whether it is worth their time to read the publication.


The second reason is that it provides the reader with a general impression of the topic, which helps them to understand it concisely.


In this paper, I have used the word "Summary" instead of "Abstract" for providing a general view of the topic. The reason for this is because the latter is by tradition an academic term, and thus, it is suggestive of an academic publication.


For distinguishing the ONAP, it may be preferable to use the word "Summary" as it does not connote an academic publication.

4. Introduction

The introductory section is important for letting the readers know what the subject matter is about, and why it is worth researching and analyzing. Structurally, the author begins by providing a background summary of the subject.


This serves the purpose of reviewing some of the research already conducted by others, if applicable.


Following this, the author briefly examines some of the basic characteristics and trends of the subject, which helps in terms of providing the context and the rationale for their paper.


The latter segment of the section is dedicated to describing the structure of their publication, in terms of what they have researched and how they analyze it.

With the above-mentioned established this eliminates the need for an abstract, although as I have stated previously, I still suggest its inclusion for reasons I have already outlined.

Nevertheless, this decision is dependent upon the author's preferences. It is also dependent on how the author decides to structure the introduction; it is possible to have a logical and factual article that is readable for nearly any audience.


When expanding on this point, the author can begin the introduction by summarizing their personal experiences, if they have any, with some research to help the readers understand what their point-of-view is, in terms of what led them to publish their article and why they believed it was worth the effort.


The author can do this by presenting a problem they believe needs solving.


They may use rhetorical questioning for engaging the reader. They can then bring the introduction to an end with the author specifying on what they intend to discuss in the proceeding sections.

For clarifying the above-mentioned, I use this paper as an example.


In the beginning of the introductory section I present a brief description of grey literature and how it relates to the academic and non-academic spheres of influence, which is a reflection of the research I have analyzed.


In the second paragraph, I describe the need for the ONAP, where I explain how it can be categorized as a semi-academic publication.


In the third paragraph, I elaborate on how I have structured the paper so that the reader is aware of what they should expect.


Here, I use knowledge mobilization as an example of an issue that I have identified as worthy of analysis due to its correlation with a semi-academic approach, which in turn is what the ONAP is a reflection of.

5. Analysis of Literature

This section is a combination of the literature review and the discussion sections that academic articles traditionally incorporate. Instead of having two separate sections, I have decided to combine them, which is why I have labeled this section as "Analysis of Literature".


The "Analysis" segment refers to the application of both critical thinking and logic for analyzing and discussing primary and/or secondary research findings and their implications.


The "Literature" segment refers to the information sources that the author is analyzing. We must consider how literature in this context includes not only information in the form of text, but that is also audiovisual.

Because the publication framework is flexible this means that the author can insert additional sections depending on the kind of research they are conducting.


As I have suggested previously, although a methodology section and its affiliates are not necessary for the structural outline of this publication format these can be added either before or after this section.


This will depend on whether the author intends to include primary data in their study. Should they intend to do so, then it is recommendable that they follow academic guidelines for the sake of maintaining objectivity and experimental replicability.

An aspect of this section that is worth noting is that academic articles often include subsections for helping readers to distinguish the perspectives that are relevant to the subject matter.


As I have done for the previous sections, I shall use this article as a case illustration to specify what I am communicating here.


In the first subsection entitled "The Academic Sphere of Influence", which is under the section "Analysis of Literature", I begin by discussing the definition of the word "academic", with the aim of laying the foundation of what I was going to discuss in subsequent paragraphs.


In doing so, I followed through by specifying what an academic publication is, what its structural outline is comprised of, followed by the inclusion of an example of where such publications can be found.


Thus, I apply the same procedure for all other subsections in this paper, which aids in maintaining conciseness.

6. Conclusion

The concluding section involves a summarization of the main points that the article that the readers should consider once they have read all of the previous sections.


As with most publications this section is always placed toward the end. If a paper incorporates primary research, then the author should provide suggestions as to how their study could be improved.


If possible, the author should also provide a brief description as to how the reader can apply their findings for the benefit of humanity.


With regards to the latter, I illustrate this in the concluding section of this paper, although because I am relying primarily on secondary research the approach is slightly different; instead of referring to primary research, I discuss what the

evidence suggests in terms of the need for recognizing and evaluating semi-academic publications, and hence, the need for the ONAP.

7. Acknowledgements

As with the methodology section and those that it relates to, it is optional.


Whether the author chooses to add it or not will depend on if they directly receive any help.


We may consider the following as being an example of such help:

informative suggestions, ideas for designing and/or performing a study, reviewing the manuscript for errors, and ideas for obtaining research funding.

The purpose of this section is mainly for giving credit to those that deserve it and for letting the readers know who they could contact in the event they may have further questions.


This section should be situated in between the conclusion and the reference list.

8. References

Another feature that distinguishes the ONAP is the section for references...


We must note that this section is entitled "References" and not "Bibliography". The reason for this is because I combine the notes and sources within the same section.


I do this with the aim of reducing clutter in the text, which occurs when footnotes are placed at the bottom of a page.


Although it is standard procedure for footnotes to take this position, I have opted instead to insert them in the section for references in accordance to the number they are assigned.

An aspect that characterizes this section is that it employs a numerical citation system. Here's what I mean by this.


The logic of this numerical system is such that we can assign a unique number in incremental order for every note and/or source, which helps to further reduce clutter, making it easier for the reader to process the text and visualize it.


All the reader has to do is view the number allocated at the end of a sentence and match it with the number that is in the reference list.


For example, the sentence "There is a growing body of research that fits neither in the academic nor in the non-academic categories.1" has the number one allocated to it, indicating that the reader should refer to the same number in the section for references.


I would argue that this is a better citation system because other systems employed by organizations such as the American Psychological Association make the text more cluttered (which is ironic in this context).


To be precise, the latter's citation format involves inserting between parentheses the name of the source, followed by the date that their work was published and, if applicable, the location where a quotation can be found.


This is how it appears (Author's Surname, Date of Publication, Page Number). 30


As we can observe, this citation format comprises additional text that requires more of the reader's attention, as opposed to the numerical system.

Because the ONAP is designed as a semi-academic publication and is intended to be digitally accessible and distributable, authors should make use of notes and hyperlinks whenever appropriate.


Also, if the author makes a statement that does not necessitate a citation then they may add a note, which would be appropriate if their aim is to clarify an idea or concept that relates to their topic.


Similarly, a note would be appropriate if the author is making a suggestion for additional literature that they believe would be valuable for the readers. For instance, this is something I have done for references 21-27.


These consist of a note, which is followed by a hyperlink for directing the readers to the respective sources if they wish to gain more information.


Designing the ONAP: Books

The structural outline of a book is similar to those of articles and papers when applying a semi- academic approach.


Since I have already discussed the details of the latter's structural outline, I shall not replicate everything here. With that said, it is worth noting that a non-fiction book is comprised of chapters and that those chapters are essentially a collection of articles and/or essays.


Therefore, the publication format is applicable to a non-fiction book.


However, there are some minor differences; a book should include additional features such as a table of contents and an index, both of which help to navigate the readers and enable them to learn more efficiently and effectively.


As a side note, joining a writer's guild is an option that holds potential for helping authors to learn the basics of writing and publishing a book. 31

Designing the ONAP: Blog Posts

A blog is a method of communication that emerged relatively recently.


Although technically not a publication as it is not a standalone document, it is the blog post we are concerned with here. Beginning as an online writing tool for helping users to maintain records of their online activities, blogs have since rapidly become an important tool for communicating on the Internet. 32


There are a number of reasons for this.

Blogs are relatively cheap to produce, and they are often free.


They also do not require technical skills for their production. In addition, because their content is easily updatable and distributable this makes them a relatively accessible method of communication with the added benefit of encouraging dialogue between the authors and their audience. 33

What is notable about blogs is that they are enabling significantly the sharing of ideas, concepts and/or theories. Thus, it is the participatory characteristic of blogs that makes them so popular. 34


Blog posts read somewhat like articles, although they tend to be shorter and less structured than the latter.


Perhaps it is not surprising then to find research indicating that blogs are a valuable resource for helping students become more proficient learners in an academic context. 35-37


Essentially, a blog post may be more informal than either an article, paper or a book, for instance, as it is more personal, and it is therefore more appropriate for encouraging dialogue between the author(s) and their audience.

Although I did not intend to provide a brief introduction to blogs and their posts in this subsection, I did so because they are a relatively recent development. With that said, a blog post need not be comprised of the structural outline of articles and papers.


However, it is recommendable that authors adapt the section for references and its numerical citation system for referring to literature that they have consulted.


However, depending on personal preferences, the author may choose to simply append a hyperlink to a sentence for referring to literature and attributing credit.


This is especially important if they are communicating ideas, concepts and/or theories.



Designing the ONAP: Reports

As I have written regarding the structural outline of books, reports may be structured in a similar manner to articles and papers.


As such, I suggest adapting the structural outline of the ONAP for formatting reports as appropriate, depending upon the objective(s) of the author(s).


The objective, non-academic publication represents a semi-academic approach to publishing.


It is distinguishable due to the nature of its design, which is something I have illustrated in the latter segment of this article. As such, it is a publication format that is designed to be openly accessible and usable.


The most appropriate publication formats for this endeavor are articles, books and blogs, although it is possible to adapt the design for other communication mediums.

With growing recognition of the need to address the gap between the academic and non- academic spheres of influence, we are witnessing a trend in which the Internet is enabling an unprecedented number of people to have unprecedented access to data, information, or knowledge.


As such, there is a social need for this publication format due to the rise in the quantity of grey literature, as well as the acceleration of knowledge mobilization.

The ONAP is intended for democratizing research and problem solving.

It should be regarded not just as a means for helping to address the gap between the academic and non-academic circles.


It should also be regarded as a means for enabling nearly anyone to conduct research and who believes that they have ideas, concepts and/or theories that are worth sharing due to the positive impact(s) they could have on the state of humanity...


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9 In: Etymonline. 2021. Academic.

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16 Youngblood, D., 2007. 'Interdisciplinary Studies and the Bridging Disciplines: A Matter of Process'. Journal of Research Practice, 3(2), pp.1-8.

17 Please review reference 1.

18 Internet Archive. 2021. Internet Archive Projects. Available at:

19 Al Lily, A., 2016. 'Academic Journals through the Lens of Socialism: A Narrative from the Disciplines of Education and Technology'. Publishing Research Quarterly, 32(2), pp.113-124.

20 Marsolek, W., Farrell, S., Kelly, J. and Cooper, K., 2021. 'Grey Literature: Advocating for Diverse Voices, Increased Use, Improved Access, and Preservation'. College & Research Libraries News, 82(2), pp.58-61.

21 Among a number of independent, investigative journalists is James Corbett. He is the founder and host of The Corbett Report, one of the most popular alternative media organizations. Link:

22 Activist Post is a website dedicated to "alternative news & independent views" and it is maintained by a number of independent journalists and researchers. Link:

23 OffGuardian is a website dedicated toward open dialogue and free expression. Its founders stand by the following motto "Because Facts Really Should be Sacred". Link:

24 Andrew Johnson is an independent journalist and researcher who founded a website dedicated to investigating issues that have extensive and profound implications for humanity. He has published a number of books, most of which examine evidence of scientific and political corruption that have global ramifications.


25 Richard Hall is an independent journalist and researcher who has founded a website where in video format he analyzes and discusses matters of contention that authorities either intentionally or otherwise do not.

As with Andrew Johnson (see reference 24) he investigates issues that have extensive and profound implications for humanity.


26 Biblioteca Pleyades is an online archive. In its own words, the website offers "a collection of many texts in Spanish and English that have always been, in one way or another, "under our noses", but which never received the necessary attention and outreach, and which are now available on the Internet for all who wish to seek… his/her Truth".

Link: https //

27 Archive Freedom is a website that was founded for the purpose of exposing dogmatism in science, and corruption within the peer review system. Although it no longer appears to be maintained, it contains information of value for understanding these issues. Link:

28 Azevedo, L., Canário-Almeida, F., Almeida Fonseca, J., Costa-Pereira, A., Winck, J. and Hespanhol, V., 2011. 'How to Write a Scientific Paper - Writing the Methods Section'. Portuguese Journal of Pulmonology, 17(5), pp.232-238.

29 Hartley, J., 2012. 'New Ways of Making Academic Articles Easier to Read'. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 12(1), pp.143-160.

30 American Psychological Association. 2021. APA Style. Available at:

31 The Jerry Jenkins Writer's Guild is a website founded by New York Times best-selling author Jerry Jenkins. His website is a valuable resource that covers the major aspects concerning the writing and publication of books. It also provides useful information for designing the structural outline of a book through a semi-academic approach.


32 Hsu, C. and Lin, J., 2008. 'Acceptance of Blog Usage: The Roles of Technology Acceptance, Social Influence and Knowledge Sharing Motivation'. Information & Management, 45(1), pp.65- 74.

33 Goodfellow, T. and Graham, S., 2007. 'The Blog as a High‐Impact Institutional Communication Tool'. The Electronic Library, 25(4), pp.395-400.

34 Lankshear, C. and Knobel, M., 2006. 'Blogging as Participation: The Active Sociality of a New Literacy', pp.1-14.

35 Yang, C. and Chang, Y., 2011. 'Assessing the Effects of Interactive Blogging on Student Attitudes towards Peer Interaction, Learning Motivation, and Academic Achievements'. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(2), pp.126-135.

36 Muncy, J., 2014. 'Blogging for Reflection: The Use of Online Journals to Engage Students in Reflective Learning'. Marketing Education Review, 24(2), pp.101-114.

37 Kuo, Y., Belland, B. and Kuo. Y., 2017. 'Learning Through Blogging: Students. Perspectives in Collaborative Blog-Enhanced Learning Communities'. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(2), pp.37-50.