by Ian Plimer
has never been
by an increase
in carbon dioxide...
For more than 80 per cent of time, Earth has been a warm wet
greenhouse planet with no ice.
We live in unusual
times, when ice occurs on continents.
This did not happen
The great southern
Gondwanaland, formed about 550
million years ago.
It occupied 20 per
cent of the area of our planet and included Antarctica, South
America, Australia, South Africa and the Indian subcontinent.
covered by ice when it drifted across the South Pole 360-255
million years ago.
Evidence for this ice
age is in the black coal districts of Australia, South Africa
The breakup of
Gondwanaland started about 180 million years ago.
About 140-120 million
years ago, Australia was joined to Antarctica and enjoyed a
temperate climate, had alpine glaciers that shed icebergs into warm
seas and plant and animal adaptations evolved to cope with the long
periods of winter darkness.
If Antarctica is to lose its ice sheets to end the current
ice age, plate tectonics must move
the continent northwards or fragment Antarctica into smaller land
Parts of Antarctica are
currently being fragmented which is why there are more than 150 hot
spots and volcanoes in rift valleys beneath Antarctic ice.
Plate tectonics must also
widen the Bering Strait to allow more warm Pacific Ocean water to
enter and warm the Arctic.
Australia separated from Antarctica 100 million years ago and
continues to move northwards at 7 centimeters per year. The current
ice age started when South America separated from Antarctica some 34
million years ago.
isolated Antarctica after South America had moved northwards and the
Drake Passage formed. Circum-polar currents formed and prevented
warm, southward-moving water from reaching Antarctica.
As a result, the
Antarctic ice sheets formed.
Arctic ice formed 2.5 million years ago when plate tectonic-driven
volcanoes in central America joined North America to South America
and stopped Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters from mixing.
This was exacerbated by a
supernova explosion that bombarded Earth with cosmic particles to
produce cloudiness and cooling.
The Earth has been slowly cooling for the last 50 million years from
times when life thrived and rapidly diversified.
In these warmer times,
there were no mass extinctions due to natural warming and, if the
planet is warming today, the past shows us that life will thrive and
diversify even more.
Once the Antarctic ice formed, ice sheets waxed and waned depending
on whether Earth was closer or more distant from the Sun.
Within these cycles there
were smaller cycles driven by variations in energy emitted from the
Sun producing many short warm spikes during long glaciations and
very short cold spikes during short interglacials with average
temperature rises and falls of more than 10°C a decade.
On a scale of tens of
millions of years or more, the Earth's climate is driven by
On a scale of
hundreds of thousands of years, the Earth's climate is driven by
orbital cycles which bring Earth closer to or more distant from
On a scale of
thousands of years to decades, the Earth's climate is driven by
variations in energy emitted from the Sun.
If governments, the UN or
climate activists want to stop the normal planetary
process of climate change,
then they need to
stop plate tectonics, stop variations in the Earth's orbit and
stop variations in solar output.
Even the omnipotent,
Kevin Rudd couldn't manage
No past warming
events have been driven by an increase in carbon dioxide in the
No past cooling
events were driven by a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Six of the six most
recent ice ages were initiated when the Earth's atmospheric
carbon dioxide was far higher than at present.
temperature rise occurs before the carbon dioxide content of the
It has never
been proven that human emissions of carbon dioxide drive global
warming despite numerous requests to climate activist scientists
for the published evidence.
bankrupting decisions on energy policy are being made using invalid
The peak of the last orbitally-driven interglacial was 7,000 to
4,000 years ago and,
for the last
4,000 years the Earth has been cooling as the
climate changes from an interglacial into glaciation...
There were solar-driven
warm spikes such as the,
...and cold spikes (e.g.
Dark Ages, Little Ice Age) during this 4,000-year cooling trend.
In 2020, we entered the
Grand Solar Minimum which is
calculated to end in 2053.
Whether there will be a
solar-driven cooling, similar to the Little Ice Age (1300-1850 AD),
or a full-blown orbitally-driven glaciation, such as the last
glaciation from 116,000-14,400 years ago, is unknown.
The former cooling could
last for hundreds of years whereas the latter would last for at
least 90,000 years. If there was another period of sustained
subaerial volcanism, cooling would be accelerated.
During the last glaciation,
covered with ice north of the Alps
northern and alpine USA were covered by ice
America and the Andes were covered by ice
expanded to lower altitudes
Tasmania and the South Island of NZ were covered by ice,
...as were the southern
and elevated portions of Africa.
In the last glaciation,
contracted and tropical areas such as the Amazon Basin only
had copses of trees occupying some ten per cent of the area
of the current Amazonian rainforests
large areas of
inland Australia, China, India, USA and Africa were covered
by sand deposited from cold dry cyclonic winds
sea level was 130
meters lower than at present
there was no
Great Barrier Reef
sea ice isolated
Greenland, Iceland, northern Russia and northern Canada
Antarctic sea ice
extended hundreds of kilometers north
there was a
reduction in rainfall and plant and animal species...
Areas that now support
pastoral and grain-growing activities were sandy wastelands during
the last glaciation.
Humans struggled as
hunter-gatherers around the edge of ice sheets and at lower
We are putting all our efforts and wasting trillions of taxpayers'
dollars into trying to prevent mythical human-induced
global warming, yet we
still don't prepare for the inevitable annual floods, droughts and
bushfires, let alone longer-term solar - and orbitally - driven
We have a crisis of single-minded stupidity
exacerbated by a dumbed-down education system
supported by incessant
propaganda, driven by financial
interests and political activist authoritarianism...