by Peter Ferrara
May 26, 2013
Around 1250 A.D., historical records show, ice packs began showing
up farther south in the North Atlantic.
Glaciers also began expanding on
Greenland, soon to threaten Norse settlements on the island. From
1275 to 1300 A.D., glaciers began expanding more broadly, according
to radiocarbon dating of plants killed by the glacier growth.
The period known today as the
Little Ice Age was just starting to
Summers began cooling in Northern Europe after 1300 A.D., negatively
impacting growing seasons, as reflected in the
Great Famine of 1315 to 1317.
Expanding glaciers and ice cover
spreading across Greenland began driving the Norse settlers out. The
last, surviving, written records of the Norse Greenland settlements,
which had persisted for centuries, concern a marriage in 1408 A.D.
in the church of Hvalsey, today the best preserved Norse ruin.
Colder winters began regularly freezing rivers and canals in Great
Britain, the Netherlands and Northern France, with both the Thames
in London and the Seine in Paris frozen solid annually.
The first River Thames Frost
Fair was held in 1607.
In 1607-1608, early European
settlers in North America reported ice persisting on Lake
Superior until June.
In January, 1658, a Swedish army
marched across the ice to invade Copenhagen.
By the end of the 17th
century, famines had spread from northern France, across
Norway and Sweden, to Finland and Estonia.
Reflecting its global scope, evidence of
the Little Ice Age appears in the Southern Hemisphere as well.
Sediment cores from Lake Malawi in
southern Africa show colder weather from 1570 to 1820.
A 3,000 year temperature
reconstruction based on varying rates of stalagmite growth in a
cave in South Africa also indicates a colder period from 1500 to
A 1997 study comparing West
Antarctic ice cores with the results of the Greenland Ice
Sheet Project Two (GISP2)
indicate a global Little Ice Age affecting the two ice sheets in
Siple Dome, an ice dome roughly
100 km long and 100 km wide, about 100 km east of the Siple
Antarctica, also reflects
effects of the Little Ice Age synchronously with the GISP2
record, as do sediment cores from the Bransfield Basin of the
Oxygen/isotope analysis from the
Pacific Islands indicates a 1.5 degree Celsius temperature
decline between 1270 and 1475 A.D.
Franz Josef glacier on the west
side of the Southern Alps of New Zealand advanced sharply during
the period of the Little Ice Age, actually invading a rain
forest at its maximum extent in the early 1700s.
Mueller glacier on the east
side of New Zealand's Southern Alps expanded to its maximum
extent at roughly the same time.
Ice cores from the Andes mountains in South America show a
colder period from 1600 to 1800. Tree ring data from Patagonia
in South America show cold periods from 1270 to 1380 and from
1520 to 1670.
Spanish explorers noted the
expansion of the
San Rafael Glacier in Chile
from 1675 to 1766, which continued into the 19th century.
The height of the Little Ice Age is
generally dated as 1650 to 1850 A.D.
The American Revolutionary Army
under General George Washington shivered at Valley Forge in
the winter of 1777-78, and New York harbor was frozen in the
winter of 1780.
Historic snowstorms struck
Lisbon, Portugal in 1665, 1744 and 1886.
Glaciers in Glacier National
Park in Montana advanced until the late 18th or early 19th
The last River Thames Frost Fair
was held in 1814. The Little Ice Age phased out during the
middle to late 19th century.
The Little Ice Age, following the
historically warm temperatures of the
Medieval Warm Period, which lasted
from about AD 950 to 1250, has been attributed to natural
cycles in solar activity, particularly sunspots.
A period of sharply lower
sunspot activity known as the
Wolf Minimum began in 1280 and
persisted for 70 years until 1350. That was followed by a period of
even lower sunspot activity that lasted 90 years from 1460 to 1550
known as the
During the period 1645 to 1715, the low
point of the Little Ice Age, the number of sunspots declined to zero
for the entire time. This is known as the
Maunder Minimum, named after
English astronomer Walter Maunder.
That was followed by the
Dalton Minimum from 1790 to 1830,
another period of well below normal sunspot activity.
The increase in global temperatures since the late 19th
century just reflects the end of the Little Ice Age. The global
temperature trends since then have followed not rising CO2
trends but the ocean temperature cycles of the Pacific Decadal
and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO).
Every 20 to 30 years, the much colder
water near the bottom of the oceans cycles up to the top, where it
has a slight cooling effect on global temperatures until the sun
warms that water. That warmed water then contributes to slightly
warmer global temperatures, until the next churning cycle.
Those ocean temperature cycles, and the continued recovery from the
Little Ice Age, are primarily why global temperatures rose from 1915
until 1945, when CO2 emissions were much lower
than in recent years.
The change to a cold ocean temperature
cycle, primarily the PDO, is the main reason that global
temperatures declined from 1945 until the late 1970s, despite the
soaring CO2 emissions during that time from the
postwar industrialization spreading across the globe.
The 20 to 30 year ocean temperature cycles turned back to warm from
the late 1970s until the late 1990s, which is the primary reason
that global temperatures warmed during this period.
But that warming ended 15
years ago, and global temperatures have stopped increasing since
then, if not actually cooled, even though global CO2
emissions have soared over this period.
As The Economist magazine
reported in March,
"The world added roughly 100 billion
tonnes of carbon to the atmosphere between 2000 and 2010. That
is about a quarter of all the CO2 put there by
humanity since 1750."
Yet, still no warming during that time.
That is because the CO2 greenhouse effect is weak
and marginal compared to natural causes of global temperature
At first the current stall out of global warming was due to the
ocean cycles turning back to cold. But something much more ominous
has developed over this period. Sunspots run in 11 year short term
cycles, with longer cyclical trends of 90 and even 200 years.
The number of sunspots declined
substantially in the last 11 year cycle, after flattening out over
the previous 20 years. But in the current cycle, sunspot activity
NASA's Science News report for
January 8, 2013
"Indeed, the sun could be on the
threshold of a mini-Maunder event right now.
Solar Cycle 24 [the current
short term 11 year cycle] is the weakest in more than 50 years.
Moreover, there is (controversial) evidence of a long-term
weakening trend in the magnetic field strength of sunspots.
Matt Penn and William Livingston of
the National Solar Observatory predict that by the time Solar
Cycle 25 arrives, magnetic fields on the sun will be so weak
that few if any sunspots will be formed.
Independent lines of research
involving helioseismology and surface polar fields tend to
support their conclusion."
That is even more significant because
NASA's climate science has been controlled for years by global
warming hysteric James Hansen, who recently announced his
But this same concern is increasingly being echoed worldwide.
The Voice of Russia
reported on April 22, 2013,
"Global warming which has been the
subject of so many discussions in recent years, may give way to
According to scientists from the
Pulkovo Observatory in St.Petersburg, solar activity is waning,
so the average yearly temperature will begin to decline as well.
Scientists from Britain and the US
chime in saying that forecasts for global cooling are far from
That report quoted Yuri Nagovitsyn
Pulkovo Observatory saying,
"Evidently, solar activity is on the
decrease. The 11-year cycle doesn't bring about considerable
climate change - only 1-2%. The impact of the 200-year cycle is
greater - up to 50%.
In this respect, we could be in for
a cooling period that lasts 200-250 years."
In other words, another
Little Ice Age...
The German Herald reported on March 31, 2013,
"German meteorologists say that the
start of 2013 is now the coldest in 208 years - and now German
media has quoted Russian scientist Dr Habibullo Abdussamatov
from the St. Petersburg Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory [saying
this] is proof as he said earlier that we are heading for a
'Mini Ice Age.'
Talking to German media the
scientist who first made his prediction in 2005 said that after
studying sunspots and their relationship with climate change on
Earth, we are now on an,
'unavoidable advance towards a
deep temperature drop'."
Global Warming is collapsing in
formerly staunch Europe following increasingly severe winters which
have now started continuing into spring.
explained in The Telegraph
on April 27, 2013,
"Here in Britain, where we had our
fifth freezing winter in a row, the Central England Temperature
record - according to an expert analysis on the US science blog
Watts Up With That - shows that in this century, average winter
temperatures have dropped by 1.45°C, more than twice as much as
their rise between 1850 and 1999, and twice as much as the
entire net rise in global temperatures recorded in the 20th
A news report from India (The Hindu
- April 22, 2013)
"March in Russia saw the harshest
frosts in 50 years, with temperatures dropping to -25° Celsius
in central parts of the country and -45° in the north. It was
the coldest spring month in Moscow in half a century…
Weathermen say spring is a full
month behind schedule in Russia."
The news report summarized,
"Russia is famous for its biting
frosts but this year, abnormally icy weather also hit much of
Europe, the United States, China and India.
Record snowfalls brought Kiev,
capital of Ukraine, to a standstill for several days in late
March, closed roads across many parts of Britain, buried
thousands of sheep beneath six-meter deep snowdrifts in Northern
Ireland, and left more than 1,000,000 homes without electricity
British authorities said March was
the second coldest in its records dating back to 1910. China
experienced the severest winter weather in 30 years and New
Delhi in January recorded the lowest temperature in 44 years."
"Last week it was reported that
3,318 places in the USA had recorded their lowest temperatures
for this time of year since records began. Similar record cold
was experienced by places in every province of Canada.
So cold has the Russian winter been
that Moscow had its deepest snowfall in 134 years of
Britain's Met Office, an international
cheerleading headquarters for global warming hysteria, did concede
last December that there would be no further warming at least
through 2017, which would make 20 years with no global warming.
That reflects grudging recognition of
the newly developing trends.
But that reflects as well growing
divergence between the reality of real world temperatures and the
projections of the climate models at the foundation of the global
warming alarmism of the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Since those models have never been
validated, they are not science at this point, but just made up
That is why,
"In the 12 years to 2011, 11 out of
12 [global temperature] forecasts [of the Met Office] were too
high - and… none were colder than [resulted]," as BBC climate
correspondent Paul Hudson wrote in January.
Global warming was never going to
be the problem that the
Lysenkoists who have brought
down western science made it out to be.
Human emissions of CO² are only 4
to 5% of total global emissions, counting natural causes. Much was
made of the total atmospheric concentration of CO2
exceeding 400 parts per million.
But if you asked the daffy NBC
correspondent who hysterically reported on that what portion of the
atmosphere 400 parts per million is, she transparently wouldn't be
able to tell you. One percent of the atmosphere would be 10,000
parts per million.
The atmospheric concentrations of CO2
deep in the geologic past were much, much greater than today, yet
life survived, and we have no record of any of the catastrophes the
hysterics have claimed.
Maybe that is because the temperature
impact of increased concentrations of CO2 declines
That means there is a natural limit to
how much increased CO2 can effectively warm the planet,
which would be well before any of the supposed climate catastrophes
the warming hysterics have tried to use to shut down capitalist
Yet, just last week, there was Washington Post columnist Eugene
Robinson telling us, by way of attempting to tutor Rep. Lamar
Smith (R-TX), Chairman of the House Committee on Science,
Space and Technology,
"For the record, and for the
umpteenth time, there is no 'great amount of uncertainty' about
whether the planet is warming and why."
If you can read, and you have gotten
this far in my column, you know why Robinson's ignorance
is just another
Washington Post abuse of the First
Mr. Robinson, let me introduce you to
the British Met Office, stalwart of Global Warming "science," such
as it is, which has already publicly confessed that we are already
three quarters through 20 years of No Global Warming...!
Booker could have been writing about Robinson when he concluded his
Sunday Telegraph commentary by writing,
"Has there ever in history been such
an almighty disconnect between observable reality and the
delusions of a political class that is quite impervious to any
But there is a fundamental problem with
the temperature records from this contentious period, when climate
science crashed into political science.
The land based records, which have been
under the control of global warming alarmists at the British Met
Office and the Hadley Centre Climate Research Unit, and at NASA's
Goddard Institute for Space Studies and the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the U.S., show much more
warming during this period than the incorruptible satellite
atmosphere temperature records.
Those satellite records have been
further confirmed by atmospheric weather balloons.
But the land based records can be
subject to tampering and falsification.