It is assumed that man is the product of slow and orderly evolution
and his present hope for three-score and ten years is a great
advancement, since recorded history indicates to us that during
other periods of history, when more hostile conditions prevailed,
man had a much reduced life-span. I would like to conjecture,
however, that a fundamental reordering of things during several
episodes in the earth’s past might have appreciably altered
conditions so that an original “Edenic condition” was lost. Must we
assume that the ancients did not understand time as we know it when
they claimed to live hundreds of years? Or must we assume that Time
is always and forever the same thing? Obviously many creatures have
lived upon the earth that no longer live here.
When they disappear
or are all killed off, we say that they are “extinct”. It occurred
to me at some point that, perhaps, “extinction” is a symptom of the
fact that the cosmos in which that species was able to flourish has
lost its vigor. It doesn’t matter how the species becomes extinct,
because, in the end, it is only a symbol. What is more, the fact
that a certain species does not reassert itself after such losses
suggests that certain conditions have changed, and those changes are
When we begin to look at the South American cultures, the first
thing we are told is how “recent” they are. Polish archaeologist
Arthur Posnansky dated the Kalasasaya palace court at
near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, to 15,000 to 10,000 BC. Mainstream
experts assure us that this evidence simply cannot be considered
because radiometric dating says otherwise.
Well, we already know
that radiometric dating is a lost cause, so we can set that aside
for the moment and consider other factors.
This brings us back to the subject of
Atlantis. According to Plato,
“In those days the Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island
situated in front of the straits which are by you called the Pillars
We might want to ask what Plato could have meant by
this remark since, based on all knowledge of the sea floor of the
Atlantic, it has always been navigable. However, there is something
about this that was pointed out to me by an individual in the
shipping industry who wrote:
I am intrigued by Plato’s remarks that the Atlantic was “navigable”
before. As ship equipment suppliers, when we say the water is
navigable, it means not only that the water is deep enough (the
Atlantic was deep when the Critias story was reconstructed, so how
could it have been any more convenient before?), but “navigable” also means, today, that on land
there are sufficient radio direction or lit indicators and, that
once a ship is out of sight of land, he has gyros, or echo sounders
which, together with accurate charts means he can safely increment
his way forward avoiding shipwreck. So “Navigable“ on a deep ocean
really means instruments are on land and on the ships and that
accurate charts exist (with soundings) - all three.111
Ignatius Donnelly, scholars have produced a veritable shipload of
books speculating on the location of Atlantis. I have a couple of
shelves full of these books, and the theories range from the
destruction of the island of Santorini by the eruption of Thera
around 1600 BC112 to Indonesia, to the Black Sea. More recently,
Rand and Rose Flem-Ath have proposed that Antarctica was the “island
of Atlantis” and that it “shifted” or “moved” South as a function of
Walker, private correspondence with the author.
112 This approximate date is pretty well confirmed by Sturt
Manning’s A Test of Time which is devoted to the dating of the
eruption of Thera which has been tree-ring calibrated.
Plato described Atlantis as an “island empire” that, “in a single
day… disappeared in the depths of the sea”. But he also tells us
that this “island” was bigger than Libya and Asia Minor combined.
Right away we perceive that his terms are a bit different from what
we would use. We might think that his term “island”, meant simply
that this body of land was not connected to Eurasia or Africa - that
it was a distinct body of land surrounded by water - except for
something else he added: Plato also told us that Atlantis was “the
way to other islands, and from these you might pass to the whole of
the opposite continent”. This suggests to us an unusual land
formation - an isthmus.
His expression that it “disappeared into the depths of the sea” may
have been meant to suggest that it was swept by vast tsunamis as the
result of some cataclysmic event. So, considering these clues - its
vast size, the definition of the term “navigable”, and the idea that
“disappearing into the depths of the sea” very likely meant swept by
terrifying walls of water, let take a peek through the Pillars of
What do we see? Well, we see the Americas. We see North
and South America connected by an isthmus. We also see a lot of
little islands in the Caribbean.
Another clue that Plato gives us is that Atlantis had a lot of
elephants. Something catastrophic happened to the large mammals
roaming the world during the Pleistocene Epoch. Woolly mammoths,
mastodons, toxodons, saber-toothed tigers, woolly rhinos, giant
ground sloths, and many other large Pleistocene animals are simply
no longer with us. The fact is, more than 200 species of animals
completely disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene approximately 12,000 years ago in what is known
to Paleontologists as the “Pleistocene Extinction”.
At the same time that the paleontologists are dealing with the
unsettling notion of such a recent mass death, geologists are
confronted with the evidence of terrifying geological changes which
took place: extensive volcanism and earthquakes, tidal waves,
glacial melting, rising sea levels, and so on. The Pleistocene Epoch
didn’t end with a whimper, for sure. It went out roaring and
We already know that Geologists and Paleontologists don’t like
catastrophism - it keeps them up at night. They fought long and hard
against the Catastrophists. But in the present day, scientists in
both fields have to face the fact that the Catastrophists were
mostly right from the beginning - even if they might have gone
overboard and explained everything in terms of catastrophe. It is
evident that there are “gradual” changes, but that most of what
happens on the Big Blue Marble in terms of significant changes is
One of the major facts that paleontologists and geologists and
archaeologists have had to face is the stupendous number of frozen
carcasses in Canada and Alaska in the western areas, and in Northern
Russian and Siberia in the eastern areas - all dated to about 12000
years ago. This suggests, of course, that something dreadful
happened on the planet, and its effect on the Northern hemisphere
was more severe than on the Southern hemisphere.
Back in the 1940s Dr. Frank C. Hibben, Prof. of Archeology at the
University of New Mexico led an expedition to Alaska to look for
human remains. He didn’t find human remains; he found miles and
miles of icy muck just packed with mammoths, mastodons, and several
kinds of bison, horses, wolves, bears and lions. Just north of
Fairbanks, Alaska, the members of the expedition watched in horror
as bulldozers pushed the half-melted muck into sluice boxes for the
extraction of gold. Animal tusks and bones rolled up in front of the
blades “like shavings before a giant plane”.
The carcasses were
found in all attitudes of death, most of them “pulled apart by some
unexplainable prehistoric catastrophic disturbance”.113 The evident
violence of the deaths of these masses of animals, combined with the
stench of rotting flesh, was almost unendurable both in seeing it,
and in considering what might have caused it. The killing fields
stretched for literally hundreds of miles in every direction.114
Frank, The Lost Americans (New York: Thomas & Crowell Co. 1946).
There were trees and animals, layers of peat and moss, twisted and
tangled and mangled together as though some Cosmic mixmaster sucked them all in
12000 years ago, and then froze them instantly into a solid mass.115
Just north of Siberia entire islands are formed of the bones of
Pleistocene animals swept northward from the continent into the
freezing Arctic Ocean. One estimate suggests that some ten million
animals may be buried along the rivers of northern Siberia.
Thousands upon thousands of tusks created a massive ivory trade for
the master carvers of China, all from the frozen mammoths and
mastodons of Siberia.
The famous Beresovka mammoth first drew
attention to the preserving properties of being quick-frozen when
buttercups were found in its mouth. What kind of terrible event
overtook these millions of creatures in a single day? Well, the
evidence suggests an enormous tsunami raging across the land,
tumbling animals and vegetation together, to be finally quick-frozen
for the next 12000 years. But the extinction was not limited to the
Arctic, even if the freezing at colder locations preserved the
evidence of Nature’s rage.
Paleontologist George G. Simpson considers the extinction of the
Pleistocene horse in North America to be one of the most mysterious
episodes in zoological history, confessing, “no one knows the
answer”. He is also honest enough to admit that there is the larger
problem of the extinction of many other species in America at the
The horse, giant tortoises living in the Caribbean,
the giant sloth, the saber-toothed tiger, the glyptodont and toxodon.
These were all tropical animals. These creatures didn’t die because
of the “gradual onset” of an ice age, “unless one is willing to
postulate freezing temperatures across the equator, such an
explanation clearly begs the question”.117 Massive piles of mastodon
and saber-toothed tiger bones were discovered in Florida.118
115 Sanderson, Ivan T., “Riddle of the Frozen Giants”,
Saturday Evening Post, No. 39, January 16, 1960.
116 Simpson, George G., Horses, New York: Oxford University Press)
117 Martin, P. S. & Guilday, J. E., “Bestiary for Pleistocene
Biologists”, Pleistocene Extinction, Yale University, 1967.
118 Valentine, quoted by Berlitz, Charles, The Mystery of Atlantis
(New York, 1969).
Mastodons, toxodons, giant sloths and other animals were found in
Venezuela quick-frozen in mountain glaciers. Woolly rhinoceros,
giant armadillos, giant beavers, giant jaguars, ground sloths,
antelopes and scores of other entire species were all totally wiped
out at the same time, at the end of the Pleistocene, approximately
12000 years ago.
This event was global. The mammoths of Siberia became extinct at the
same time as the giant rhinoceros of Europe; the mastodons of
Alaska, the bison of Siberia, the Asian elephants and the American
camels. It is obvious that the cause of these extinctions must be
common to both hemispheres, and that it was not gradual.
“uniformitarian glaciation” would not have caused extinctions
because the various animals
would have simply migrated to better pasture. What is seen is a
surprising event of uncontrolled violence.119 In other words, 12000
years ago, a time we have met before and will come across again and
again, something terrible happened - so terrible that life on earth
was nearly wiped out in a single day.
Harold P. Lippman admits that
the magnitude of fossils and tusks encased in the Siberian
permafrost present an “insuperable difficulty” to the theory of
uniformitarianism, since no gradual process can result in the
preservation of tens of thousands of tusks and whole individuals,
“even if they died in winter”.120
Especially when many of these
individuals have undigested grasses and leaves in their belly.
Pleistocene geologist William R. Farrand of the Lamont-Doherty
Geological Observatory, who is opposed to catastrophism in any form,
“Sudden death is indicated by the robust condition of the
animals and their full stomachs … the animals were robust and
healthy when they died”.121
Unfortunately, in spite of this
admission, this poor guy seems to have been incapable of facing the
reality of worldwide catastrophe represented by the millions of
bones deposited all over this planet right at the end of the
Hibben sums up the situation in a single statement:
“The Pleistocene period ended in death. This was no ordinary
extinction of a vague geological period, which fizzled to an
uncertain end. This death was catastrophic and all inclusive.”122
119 Leonard, R. Cedric, Appendix A
in “A Geological Study of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge”, Special Paper No.
1 ( Bethany: Cowen Publishing 1979).
120 Lippman, Harold E., “Frozen Mammoths”, Physical Geology, (New
121 Farrand, William R., “Frozen Mammoths and Modern
Geology”, Science, Vol.133, No. 3455, March 17, 1961.
122 Hibben, op. cit.
The conclusion is, again, that the end of the Ice Age, the
Pleistocene extinction, the end of the Upper Paleolithic,
Magdalenian, Perigordian, and so on, and the end of the “reign of
the Gods”, all came to a global, catastrophic conclusion about
12,000 years ago. And, as it happens, even before this evidence was
brought to light, this is the same approximate date that Plato gave
for the sinking of Atlantis.
In recent years, a cartographer named
J. M. Allen published a book entitled Atlantis: The Andes Solution.
Allen focused on South America as Atlantis. He points to the fact
that the Indian name for South America - before Columbus arrived -
was “Atlanta”. He informs us that this is related to the Quechua
word for copper, “antis.” Allen believes he has found the plain of
canals on the Altiplano of southern Peru and northern Bolivia.
suggests that the plain was very smooth and level, was surrounded by
mountains on all sides, and was high above ocean level. This is,
indeed, a close description of the Altiplano, supposedly the largest
level plain in the world, containing the inland seas of Lake
Titicaca and Lake Poopo. Allen found the remains of a channel of
enormous dimensions in Bolivia, and was certain he had found the
ancient city of Atlantis. Unfortunately, like William Farrand above,
Allen is unable to let go of certain assumptions - such as reliance
upon the chronologies established by uniformitarian believers. He
suggests that the Andean/Atlantean civilization ended at the time of
the eruption of Thera.
We already noted that Arthur Posnansky dated the Kalasasaya palace
court at Tiahuanaco, near Lake Titicaca, in Bolivia to 15,000 to
10,000 BC. And Allen mentions that Lake Poopo is known to have
flooded around 12000 years ago. There are ancient terraced
cornfields on the sides of the mountains rising above Lake Titicaca
where corn no longer grows. Corn only grows at lower altitudes. The
lower altitude terraces where corn still grows are still above Lake
What this suggests is that peoples who constructed the
terraces, and who were growing corn there, must have been doing so
at a time when the land was lower. There is a stone causeway leading
“out” of Lake Titicaca to nowhere. This causeway is built like an
ancient wharf, which has suggested that it was built when the lake
and the city were at sea level.
remains of Tiahuanaco, the site of a technologically advanced
culture considered by many archaeologists (romantic, not orthodox)
to be the oldest ruins in the world.
Although some misguided
scholars have attributed the buildings of Tiahuanaco to the Incas,
it has now been established that the city was already in ruins when
the first Incas came upon the scene.
In 1540 the Spanish chronicler, Pedro Cieza de Leon, visited the
area and his description of the statues and monoliths compares very
closely to what we see today. The site is at an altitude of 13,300
feet, which places it some 800 feet above the present level of Lake
Titicaca. Most archaeologists agree that in the distant past Tiahuanaco was a flourishing port at the edge of the lake, which
means that the water has receded almost 12 miles and has dropped
about 800 feet since then.
All concur that the lake is shrinking,
due mainly to evaporation, since no rivers flow from it In November
1980, the well known Bolivian author and scholar of pre-Columbian
cultures, Hugo Boero Rojo, announced the finding of archaeological
ruins beneath Lake Titicaca about 15 to 20 meters below the surface
off the coast of Puerto Acosta, a Bolivian port village near the
Peruvian frontier on the northeast edge of the lake.
If, over the past 3 or 4000 years, Lake Titicaca has slowly receded,
as appears to be the case - as all scientists agree, then how can we
explain the existence of stone temples, stairways, and roads still
under water’? The only answer is that they were built before the
lake materialized. We must go back, then, to the remnants of
Tiahuanaco and reexamine the more than 400 acres of ruins, only 10
percent of which have been excavated. We have pointed out that dirt
covers the ancient civilization to a depth of at least 6 feet. The
only explanation for this accumulation is water.
A large amount of water had to have inundated the city; when it
receded it left the silt covering all evidence of an advanced
civilization, leaving only the largest statues and monoliths still
exposed. It is logical to conclude, therefore, that Tiahuanaco was
built before the lake was created, and not as a port on its shore.
As the waters today continue to recede, we should be able to find
more evidence of the city’s remote peoples. Scientists theorize that
the area at Lake Titicaca was at one time at sea level, because of the profusion of fossilized marine
life that can be found in the region.
The area then lifted with the
Andean upheaval and a basin was created which filled in to form the
lake. No one has suggested the marine life might have been brought
to the altiplano by seawaters that were at flood stage. The
Tiahuanacans could have been victims of worldwide flood, their
civilization all but wiped out when their homes and structures were
covered with seawater.
Because of the basin-like geography of the
area the floodwaters that became Lake Titicaca could not run off and
have only gradually evaporated over the centuries.
Professor Schindler-Bellamy as a disciple of Posnansky and Horbiger
(who created the world famous Glacial-Cosmogony theory in the
1930’s) has worked dozens of years in the Tiahuanaco area and has
written books on the subject. According to him the large monolithic
Sun Gate of Tiahuanaco was evidently originally the centerpiece of
the most important part of the so-called Kalasasaya, the huge chief
temple of Tiahuanaco. Its upper part is covered with a stupendously
intricate sculpture in flat bas-relief. This has been described as a
“calendar” almost as long as the monolithic gateway has been known
to exist; thus the Sun Gate has also been called the Calendar Gate.
This calendar sculpture, though it undoubtedly depicts a “solar
year”, cannot however be made to fit into the solar year as we
divide it at present.
The “solar year” of the calendar’s time had very practically the
same length as our own, but, as shown symbolically by the sculpture,
the earth revolved more quickly then, making the Tiahuanacan year
only 290 days, divided into 12 “twelfths” of 24 days each, plus 2
intercalary days. These groupings (290, 24, 12, 2) are clearly and
unmistakably shown in the sculpture.[…]
[According to Schindler-Bellamy], at the time Tiahuanaco flourished
the present moon was not yet the companion of our earth but was
still an independent exterior planet. There was another satellite
moving around our earth then, rather close... Because of its
closeness it moved around the earth more quickly than our planet
rotated. Therefore it rose in the west and set in the east (like
Mars’ satellite Phobos), and so caused a great number of solar
eclipses, 37 in one “twelfth,” or 447 in one “solar year.”
groupings (37, 447) are shown in the sculpture, with many
Corroborating cross-references. Different symbols show when these
solar eclipses, which were of some duration, occurred: at sunrise,
at noon, at sunset. These are only a small sample of the exact
astronomical information the calendar gives. It also gives the
beginning of the year, the days of the equinoxes and solstices, the
incidence of the two intercalary days, information on the obliquity
of the elliptic (then about 16.5 degrees; now 23.5) and on Tiahuanaco’s latitude (then about 10 degrees; now 16.27), and many
other astronomical and geographical references from which
interesting and important data may be calculated or inferred by us.
A few more facts revealed in the calendar are both interesting and
surprising. As indicated by an arrangement of “geometrical” elements
we can ascertain that the Tiahuanacans divided the circle factually
astronomically, (but certainly mathematically) into 264 degrees
(rather than 360). Also, they determined (ages before Archimedes and
the Egyptians) the ratio of pi, the most important ratio between the
circumference of the circle and its diameter, as 22/7, or, in our
notation, 3.14+. They could calculate squares (and hence, square
roots). They knew trigonometry and the measuring of angles (30, 60,
90 degrees) and their functions.
They could calculate and indicate fractions, but do not seem to have
known the decimal system nor did they apparently ever employ the
duodecimal system though they were aware of it. (For a still unknown
reason, however, the number 11 and its multiples occur often.)
The most tantalizing fact of all is that the Tiahuanaco culture has
no roots in that area. It did not grow there from humbler
beginnings, nor is any other place of origin known. It seems to have
appeared practically full-blown suddenly. Only a few “older”
monuments, as can be inferred from the “calendrical inscriptions”
they bear, have been found, but the difference in time cannot have
been very great. The different, much lower cultures discovered at
considerable distances from Tiahuanaco proper, addressed as
“Decadent Tiahuacan” or as “Coastal Tiahuanaco”, are only very
indirectly related to the culture revealed by the Calendar Gate. […]
When the satellite (the former moon) approached within a few
thousand miles gravitational forces broke it up; according to the
Roche formula each planetoid or asteroid disintegrates when
approaching the critical distance of 50 to 60,000 kms. The fragments
shattered down on earth; the oceans, released from the satellite’s
gravity, flowed back toward the continents, exposing tropical lands
and submerging polar territories. […]
Thus the approach of the “moon” caused a world-wide deluge,
effecting changes of climate and provoking earthquakes accompanied
by volcanic eruptions. The “ring” left by the satellite after
breaking into fragments caused a sudden drop in temperature of at
least 20 degrees… It is evident, for example, in the discovery of
frozen mammoths in the Siberian tundra.
Possibly gravity - and
therefore physical weight - was also changed on earth, and with it
biological growth: this would explain the widespread construction of
huge megalithic monuments as well as the presence of giants - man
and animal - in fossil strata, tombs, and myths. According to Horbiger four moons fell on earth, producing four Ice Ages; our
present moon, the fifth one, will similarly be drawn into the
critical configuration of one-fifth of its present distance (380,000
kms.) and will cause the fifth cataclysm.
remained for only a very short period at its acme of perfection
(evidenced by the Calendar Gate) and perished suddenly, perhaps
through the cataclysmic happenings connected with the breakdown of
the former “moon.”
We have at present no means of determining when Tiahuanaco rose to
supreme height, or when its culture was obliterated, as naturally,
the calendar itself can tell us nothing about that. It will
certainly not have been in the historical past but well back in the
prehistoric. It must indeed have occurred before the planet Luna was
captured as the earth’s present moon, about 12,000 years ago.
123 Zettl, Helmut, Catastrophism and Ancient History, Volume VI,
Part 2, A Journal Of Interdisciplinary Study, July 1984, Marvin
Arnold Luckerman Executive Editor.
There are several fascinating items in the above material.
interests me particularly is the speculation that the year was
different prior to the deluge, and that the number 11 was
significant in some mysterious way. The ideas about the capture of
the moon, and a previous satellite which broke apart and rained
destruction on the earth are interesting, but my guess is that this
might just be interpretation of a swarm of comets or asteroids.
The theory of a falling moon has been discussed by Dr. John O’Keefe,
a scientist at the Goddard Laboratory for Astronomy in Maryland.
O’Keefe claims that the fragments of a moon’s collision formed a
ring around our planet that blocked the sun’s rays, thus causing
world-wide decline of temperatures. After a while the fragments
disintegrated even further and showered down on earth, as tectites.
These tectites O’Keefe suggests, were fragments of a fallen moon.
What is evident is that this world-wide cataclysm of 12,000 years
ago appears in myths from every corner of the globe. The Egyptian
Papyrus Ipuwer tells us that “The sun set where it rose” and an
Egyptian tomb, (Senmut) shows Orion and Sirius painted in reverse
position. The Finnish Kalevala says “the earth turned round like a
potter’s wheel” and the
Popol Vuh describes a showering of fiery
hail from heaven.
On the outskirts of Brno, Moravia, there is a quarry where workers
uncovered the bones of a wooly mammoth. There, in the quarry, was
discovered a 160 foot deep sequence of multiple soil cycles. Each
climate cycle from warm to cold was expressed as a sequence of
gradational soil types reflecting the change from a moist, deciduous
forest to an arid, frozen tundra, cracked by deeply penetrating
permafrost. Midway through each cycle, there are numerous bands of
fine windblown dust delivered in what must have been monstrous
storms of continental scale.
Expert speculations suggest that this
dust must have shrouded the earth for weeks or months at a time and
must have produced a refrigerating effect on Europe’s climate. In
the colder part of each cycle, the environment had become so dry
that even large rivers dried up.
It seems that the ice sheets that repeatedly advanced southward were
accompanied by the development of vast, but temporary deserts
throughout Russia and Ukraine, even extending into southeast Europe
and to the shores of the Black Sea. Every passage back from freezing
cold to warm was abrupt in every cycle. Oceanographers from Turkey,
Russia, Bulgaria and the United States teamed up to explore the
Black Sea. Using sound waves and coring devices, they discovered
that the Black Sea was once a vast freshwater lake.
Glenn Jones of
the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution dated the samples from the
bottom of the Black Sea and confirmed that around 7,500 years ago,
the seas had burst through the Bosporus valley and the salt water of
the Mediterranean poured into the lake with unimaginable force. What
was evident was that it had happened suddenly and almost instantaneously. What was also noted was
that the massive amounts of salt water pouring into the Black Sea
had been deficient in Oxygen.124
While searching for the answers to
this mysterious event, cores of coral were drilled from the ocean in
order to determine the rates of growth on a year by year basis going
back 20 thousand years. Apparently, ice melt affects the rate of
coral growth. The results of these cores showed that there was a
huge spurt of ice-melt around 12,000 years ago. The meltwater from
this event was enormous. It filled up dozens of lakes that no longer
exist - lakes formed by the sag in the Earth’s crust caused by the
weight of the huge ice dome.
Immediately following this melt, the
ice age returned for a brief period called the Younger Dryas.
At 8 p.m. on June 5th, 8498 BC, the core parts of Asteroid A punched
the first decisive hole in the fracture zone of the Atlantic Ridge.
The forces of hell were let loose. Through these two newly formed
vents the glowing red-hot magma shot up at terrific speed and mixed
with the liquid above it - the waters of the Atlantic. This created
all the conditions for a submarine volcanic eruption of the greatest
possible violence. The fracture seam was torn apart. The bottom of
the sea burst open.
All existing volcanoes were activated and new
vents formed. Terrestrial fire and ocean water became embroiled in
ever-increasing volume. Magma mixed with steam. The chain of fire
ran all the way between the two continents from the Beerenberg
volcano on Jan Mayen in the north to Tristan de Cunha in the
124 Ryan, William, Pitman, Walter, Noah’s Flood (New York: Simon and
125 Muck, Otto, The Secret of Atlantis (New York: New York Times
Books 1976) back cover blurb.
This rather dramatic description from the back of
Muck’s book - The Secret of Atlantis - is based on his ideas about
the causal relationship between isotherms and favorable climate in
northwestern Europe, and the unobstructed flow of the Gulf Stream
across the Atlantic.
Muck attempts to use this flow to make a case
for the prior existence of a large body of land in the Atlantic
whose subsidence changed the ocean currents and warmed the British
Isles about 10,500 years ago, give or take a day or two. Based on a
varied and interesting collection of hard data, Muck suggests that
the submarine massif of the Azores was once above water and could
have blocked and deflected the Gulf Stream, preventing the
circulation of the warmer waters, and thus contributing to the
freezing temperatures of the British Isles.
If we then date the transition from the Quaternary to the
Quinternary Age at 12,000 years ago, or around 10,000 BC, we are
doing so on the authority of contemporary geologists and
paleontologists. We are at the same time fixing the date when
Barrier Island X, which had hitherto prevented the Gulf Stream from
reaching the coasts of Europe, sank beneath the Atlantic … a point
in time … when the warm water and rain-bearing winds brought by the
Gulf Stream were no longer deflected back to the west by the
Atlantic island barrier, but flowed freely eastward because the
barrier had sunk beneath the waves.
We have uncovered the
traces of the greatest
cataclysm on Earth that
has been experienced by
man. For there can be no
doubt that this
catastrophe of 12,000
years ago is the most
terrible event that has
ever taken place in all the
dramatic history of
126 Ibid., p. 84-85.
Essentially, what Muck
did was to note that the
significantly at this point
in time. I still think his
book is one of the better
ones on the subject
because he assembles a lot
of interesting hard data,
even if I don’t necessarily
agree that there was a big
island that “sank beneath
other solutions to the problem of the isotherms, including current
day research showing that this can result from global warming. While
we don’t deny that it’s possible for such severe lithosphere
disruption as Muck suggests to occur, and we aren’t playing soft
with the idea of mass destruction of species, it just seems that an
event that would produce the sinking of so vast a body of land so
completely would be an event from which absolutely nothing on the
earth would survive.
Nevertheless, Otto Muck draws our attention to
the meteor craters in the Carolinas. The Carolina bays are
mysterious land features often filled with bay trees and other
wetland vegetation. Because of their oval shape and consistent
orientation, they are considered by some authorities to be the
result of a vast meteor shower that occurred approximately 12,000
thousand years ago. What is most astonishing is the number of them.
There are over 500,000 of these shallow basins dotting the coastal
plain from Georgia to Delaware.
That is a frightening figure.
Unlike virtually any other bodies of water or changes in elevation,
these topographical features follow a reliable and unmistakable
pattern. Carolina Bays are circular, typically stretched, elliptical
depressions in the ground, oriented along their long axis from the
Northwest to the Southeast. [T]hey are further characterized by an
elevated rim of fine sand surrounding the perimeter. […]
The last twenty years have seen an explosion of evidence that earth
has often encountered objects that profoundly alter our environment.
For instance, it is now commonly accepted that an impact with a
large object in the Gulf of Mexico caused the extinction of large
dinosaurs - a theory considered bizarre and irresponsible at the
time Kacrowski studied the Bays.
Robert Kobres, an independent researcher in Athens, Georgia, has
studied Carolina Bays for nearly 20 years in conjunction with his
larger interest in impact threats from space. His recent,
self-published, investigations have profound consequences for
Carolina Bay study and demand research by academia as serious,
relevant and previously unexamined new information. The essence of
Kobres’ theory is that the search for “debris”, and the comparison
of Bays with “traditional” impact craters, falsely and naively
assumes that circular craters with extraterrestrial material in them
are the only terrestrial evidence of past encounters with objects
entering earth’s atmosphere.
Kobres goes a logical step further by assuming that forces
associated with incoming bodies, principally intense heat, should
also leave visible signatures on the earth. And, finally, that
physics does not demand that a “collision” of the bodies need
necessarily occur to produce enormous change on earth. To verify
that such encounters are possible outside of the physics lab, we
need look no further than the so-called “Tunguska event”.
On June 30, 1908, in the vicinity of the Tunguska River deep in
Siberia, a tremendous explosion instantly leveled 2000 sq. km. of
tundra, felling trees by the millions, all left pointing outward
from a central area. News accounts of the day told of Londoners
being able to read newspapers from the glow of the night sky for
Seismographs worldwide recorded an apparent
cataclysm in Siberia. Unfortunately (or fortunately as the case may
be) the explosion had occurred in an area so remote, and during a
time of such political turmoil, that no researcher pinpointed or
even managed to travel to the suspected impact site for more than
two decades. Not until pioneer Russian meteoritic researcher Leonard Kulik managed to gain entry to the inhospitable area in 1927, did
anyone but local tribesmen view the devastation and its peculiar
At the epicenter of the explosion lay not a large crater with a
“rock” in it, as might be expected, but nothing more than a number
of “neat oval bogs”. The Tunguska literature generally mentions the
bogs only in passing, since Kulik failed in digs there to locate any evidence of a meteorite and went on
to examine other aspects of the explosion.127
What do we have so
far? We have an event that seems to have affected Eastern Siberia
and Northern North America more severely than other places, though
whatever it was certainly amounted to a global event.
already talked about the evidence of “nuclear bombardment” in the
Great Lakes region provided by Firestone and Topping that tells us:
Radiocarbon dates for Pleistocene remains in northeastern North
America are as much as 10,000 years younger than for those in the
western part of the country.[…] Materials from the Gainey
Paleoindian site in Michigan, radiocarbon dated at 2880 yr BC, are
given an age by TL dating of 12,400 BC. It seems that there are so
many anomalies reported in the upper US and in Canada of this type,
that they cannot be explained by ancient aberrations in the
atmosphere or other radiocarbon reservoirs, nor by contamination of
data samples. […]
Our research indicates that the entire Great Lakes region (and
beyond) was subjected to particle bombardment and a catastrophic
nuclear irradiation that produced secondary thermal neutrons from
cosmic ray interactions. The neutrons produced unusually large
quantities of Pu239 and substantially altered the natural uranium
abundance ratios […]
Sharp increases in C14 are apparent in the marine data at 4,000,
32,000-34,000, and 12,500 BC. These increases are coincident with
geomagnetic excursions. […] The enormous energy released by the
catastrophe at 12,500 BC could have heated the atmosphere to over
1000 C over Michigan, and the neutron flux at more northern
locations would have melted considerable glacial ice. Radiation
effects on plants and animals exposed to the cosmic rays would have
been lethal, comparable to being irradiated in a 5 megawatt reactor
more than 100 seconds. The overall pattern of the catastrophe
matches the pattern of mass extinction before Holocene times.
Western Hemisphere was more affected than the Eastern, North America
more than South America, and eastern North America more than western
North America. Extinction in the Great lakes area was more rapid and
pronounced than elsewhere. Larger animals were more affected than
smaller ones, a pattern that conforms to the expectation that
radiation exposure affects large bodies more than smaller ones.128
Howard, George A., The Carolina Bays:
128 Firestone, Richard B.,
Topping, William, Terrestrial Evidence of a Nuclear Catastrophe in Paleoindian Times, dissertation research, 1990 - 2001.
Firestone and Topping propose that this evidence of nuclear
radiation is a result of “cosmic ray bombardment” from, perhaps, a
supernova. D.S. Allan, a biologist at Cambridge, and J. B. Delair,
coauthor of Cataclysm!, published in 1995 in the U.K, also like the
supernova hypothesis. Evidence of a supernova explosion, in the form of aluminium 22 (along with
other scientific and mythological evidence), found in concentration
at the edge of our solar system, helped Allan and Delair conclude
that a stellar blast probably caused the massive destruction. Iron
ore in the earth from about 11,000 years ago shows that its magnetic
polarity violently reversed.
This certainly suggests an
extraterrestrial encounter with a magnetically powerful agent at
that period. The supernova explanation, however, does not account
for all the evidence, most particularly the mythic and geological
evidence of massive bombardments of comets.
Paul LaViolette, author of Earth Under Fire, claims that he has
discovered evidence of a different sort of cataclysm, a volley of
cosmic waves resulting from an explosion in the galactic core.
Entering our solar system, this galactic super wave (the most
powerful energetic phenomenon in the galaxy) would have interrupted
the solar wind’s ability to repel most intruding cosmic dust
LaViolette builds a mythological foundation for his
scientific theory, the shakiest part of which is that he suggests
that galactic core explosions are a cyclical event, recurring every
26,000-year cycles, a period that relates to the precession of the
equinoxes. He claims that this is a great clock, and that the
precessional cycle is the duration of one Great Year recognized by
the ancient Greeks, Zoroastrians, and Chinese.
La Violette’s theory
is weak because galactic core explosions, like other nuclear
phenomena, are only statistically probable.
Further, the record
shows a frequency greater than every 26,000 years, and his attempts
to introduce “mini-explosions” to account for this come across as so
much prestidigitation of the data. Also his theory does not account
for all of the evidence, most particularly the geological evidence
of massive bombardments of cometary bodies. What is more, La
Violette’s claim that the precessional cycle is the “great clock”,
assumes that the current polar orientation has remained stable for
eons, and the very mythic evidence he tries to use as his foundation
contradicts this, most especially the decoded information from the
Gate of the Sun at Tiahuanaco reported above.
In all of this searching high and low for
Atlantis, and comparing
the paleontogical records and geological records and archaeological
records with the story of Plato, the one major thing that everybody
seems to be forgetting is this:
Plato’s tale was about a WAR followed by cataclysm.
According to Plato’s story, Atlantis was the center of a country of
extreme economic wealth and military power that sought to enslave
all of Europe. The Atlanteans were quite successful in defeating
many European countries; however, the great civilization of Athens
repelled their attacks and eventually succeeded in driving them back
out of Europe.
Unfortunately, almost all records of this great
achievement were lost due to a very powerful flood that wiped out
most of Athens and the whole continent of Atlantis in one day and
Over and over again, what we see is the fact that something terrible
happened on the earth around 12,000 years ago. This time period
comes up over and over again in many disciplines having to do with
the study of the past. And it just happens to be the period
designated by Plato’s characters as the time of the destruction of
Atlantis, following a terrible war in which Atlantis was defeated
after attempting to conquer the entire world, at the time of what is
remembered as the greatest deluge in human history: The Flood of
In terms of human beings, the Bible tells us that after the Flood of
Noah, man was no longer able to live the same lifespan that had
originally been allotted to him. Symbolically, this suggests that
something significant about the cosmos or the state of matter
itself, had changed. Modern science, of course, completely dismisses
such ideas with seeming good reason.
But, we should like to ask:
What if the shortening of man’s lifespan actually happened?
it happened more than once?
What if such an event represents a loss
of vigor or exhaustion of cosmic resources?
Or, what if it
represents the fact that mankind originally evolved in a different
environment and the present one is no longer conducive to such long
In this regard, some observations about dinosaurs are
There have been found dinosaur remains in “bone-yards”
which had shoulder blades eleven feet long! The towering
Brachiosaurus, an herbivore, stood up to fifty feet tall and weighed
perhaps a hundred tons! How could it have sustained itself? One
hundred tons is about fifteen times the weight of an adult African
bull elephant - an animal that consumes 300 to 600 pounds of fodder
every 24 hours and spends up to eighteen hours a day foraging for
food! It seems totally out of the question to imagine this
“Supersaurus” feeding itself.
If Brachiosaurus was warm-blooded like an elephant, it might have
been unable to eat enough to keep itself alive! But, even as a
cold-blooded animal, there is doubt that this gargantuan creature
could have eaten enough with its small mouth and teeth. There is
just no real solution to this problem if we assume that the earth
has always been the same since life evolved on its surface.
We are taught by orthodox science that the dinosaurs were failures -
colossal failures. There is a litany of “couldn’ts” recited about
them. They couldn’t walk on land because they were too heavy. They
couldn’t eat anything but mush because their heads were too small.
They couldn’t run fast because their joints were imperfect. They
couldn’t be warm-blooded because their brains were too small. They
couldn’t compete with smaller, warm-blooded animals.
Yet, when dinosaurs began to emerge as the dominant group, there
were many other species which had equal opportunity to dominate, to
win the race for king of the mountain. For five million years, the
dinosaurs were on equal footing with the other inhabitants of the
ecosystem. But then, the dinosaurs showed that they were the fittest
and survived into absolute domination of the globe. During their
rule, it is claimed that there was no non-dinosaur larger than a
turkey! They don’t call it the “age of reptiles” for no reason!
dinosaurs monopolized the planet for 130 million years. As they
spread into every area of dominance, they drove out or destroyed
other advanced clans which had also been evolving and adapting for
tens of millions of years. During their long reign, there were other
clans that could have threatened their survival, and each time the
dinosaurs showed they were “firstest with the mostest” in terms of
It is posited that the class Mammalia emerged fully defined just as
the dinosaurs began their expansion. But, obviously, for some
reason, being a mammal wasn’t such an advantage during that time.
Dinosaurs evolved quickly, changed repeatedly, and maintained their
dominance until some terrible event brought their rule to an abrupt
Robert T. Bakker, author of The Dinosaur Heresies, writes:
The sudden extinction of dinosaurs is one of the most popularized
topics in paleontology. Why, after all, did the last dynasties
finally end in total extinction? In reality, however, the dinosaurs’ history contains the drama of
much more than a single death. They suffered three or four major
catastrophes during their long predominance, each one thinning the
ranks of the entire clan. And after each such fall, they recouped
their evolutionary fortunes, rising again to fill the terrestrial
system with yet another wave of new species and families of species.
The final complete extermination did not come until sixty-five
million years ago, at what geologists label the ‘Time of Great
Dying,’ the greatest evolutionary disaster of all time... Our view
of evolution must take into account the profoundly disorienting
blows struck by the environment during these world-wide
There are many theories put forth to explain these
problems but, as is the usual case with Darwinian thought, they are
highly unsatisfactory and leave too many questions that require
fantastic cerebral gymnastics to answer.
Using Occam’s razor, might it not be more reasonable to assume that
the earth was a different place at the time the dinosaurs walked?
Just to speculate here, it might be that they obtained a portion of
their nourishment from the act of breathing itself. Additionally, a
different level of gravity would have greatly reduced the energy
needs, and a more salubrious climate would have further eliminated
the energy expenditure for heat regulation.
At the same time, a
soupier atmosphere would have shielded the inhabitants of the earth
from the harmful radiation of the sun and would have been more
conducive to extensive life spans, which may have been the means by
which the dinosaurs grew to such fantastic sizes.
Bakker also makes
an excellent case for the warm-bloodedness of dinosaurs:
No one, either in the nineteenth century or the twentieth, has ever
built a persuasive case proving that dinosaurs as a whole were more
like reptilian crocodiles than warm-blooded birds. No one has done
this because it can’t be done... So hundred year-old dinosaur
theories live on without being questioned, and too often they are
assumed to be totally correct. Even when such a theory is caught in
an error, it’s likely to be excused. […]
Any attempt to analyze the events of the extinction of the dinosaurs
runs into the
fundamental difficulties that hinder the investigation of any of
these mass murders
of species. Most fossil bones owe their preservation to quick burial
right after the death of their owner. But generally most spots in
biosphere suffer erosion, not deposition.130
129 Bakker, Robert T., The Dinosaur
Heresies (New York: William Morrow and Company 1986).
The Mystery of Malta
I have on my desk a slim archaeological guidebook to Malta which
proclaims on its first page that the first humans on the island
arrived around seven thousand
years ago131 from Sicily. The last
page of the book mentions, in one paragraph, the enigmatic “cart
ruts” that are “too obvious in the Maltese rocky landscape to be
Well, a brief paragraph at the end of the book is about as
close to being ignored as something can get that is declared to be
so obvious in the landscape of the area under discussion. The author
of the little guidebook informs us he believes they were intended
for the transportation of construction blocks from the quarry in
ancient times. He then makes a point of saying that he does not mean
temples of Malta are its main attraction.
the author of the above mentioned booklet, declares in a news
article133 that the temples of Malta are,
“very reliably carbon-dated
to the period 3,600 to 2,500 BC. In that space of time we have
traced a regular evolution in style, from the small and rudimentary
to the large and complex”.
131 Curiously, this is
the same time that the Black Sea was filled with water from the
Mediterranean by overflowing the Bosporus valley. Connection?
132 Museums Department, Department of Classics and Archaeology at
the University of Malta.
133 Old Temples Society, Second issue, November 1999.
The first of these “Temples” was discovered in 1902 by a workman
digging a trench for the foundations of a house. His digging
activities broke through to a huge subterranean temple and cemetery,
cut from solid rock. Twelve years later, a farmer kept hitting
stones in his field as he ploughed, and this turned out to be a
complex of temples. As time went by, more and more structures were
revealed, and they have become known as the world’s most impressive
The first thing that I notice about this is that all of these things
were buried for a very long time - so long that they were completely
unknown to the inhabitants of the region. But uniformitarian science
tells us that the surface of the earth is constantly being subjected
to the processes of erosion unless, of course, we are talking about
a river delta or a landslide or something.
Apparently on Malta,
things work backward.
They get covered up by some conditions unknown
to uniformitarian science, and then require millennia to be
uncovered again. As fascinating as they are, I don’t want to discuss
the “temples”. There are numerous layers of them, and many of them
are actually built on top of the thing that has my attention, the
“cart ruts” which are so evident everywhere that they cannot be
ignored. Yet, these “cart ruts” only receive a brief paragraph and
most certainly are not being protected by the Maltese government,
since they are of so little importance!
It’s difficult to find a good set of photographs of the ruts, but
with persistence, a photo here and another there, enough can be
assembled to make some observations.
The facts are that, for cart
ruts, they follow strange rules. Very often, indeed, there are two parallel
furrows; but they differ not only from rut to rut, but a single
parallel expanse can vary in width and depth from one end to the
other. That’s a strange cart that has an axle that expands and
contracts. The ruts run through the valleys, up the hills, down the
dales, and sometimes more than one set run side by side for awhile
until they suddenly merge into a single set of ruts.
What is more
amazing is that they often just keep going - right into the
Mediterranean - or right off the edge of a cliff.
Erich von Daniken paid a visit to the island to examine them and
thoughtfully took his tape measure. It seems that the distance
between a parallel series of ruts can range from 65 to 123 cm. What
is more amazing is that some of them are up to 70 cm deep, going
around sharp curves. Anyone who has ever played with toy cars and
trucks in the sandbox, or driven a sulky, has some idea of the
A wheel large enough to make a rut that deep could not
possibly make such a curve. At one point near San Pawl-Tat-Targa,
four pairs of ruts, with four different gauges, join up to make a
single pair of ruts. Nearby, one set crosses another, each with
different rut depths. Another rut that extends up to 60 cm deep is
only 11 cm wide at its deepest point and 20 cm wide at its
134 Von Daniken, Signs of the Gods. pp.
The ruts that run into the Mediterranean are
most interesting. Divers have discovered that the ruts continue a
long way below the sea level. What is more fascinating is that in
July of 1999, amateur German archaeologist Hubert Zeitlmair
discovered a megalithic temple on the sea-bed in Malta’s territorial
waters about 3 kilometers off the eastern coast. The problem with
this is, in order for a temple to lie on the bed of the
Mediterranean, it would have to date to the last ice age. The
implication is that the Maltese temples are at least six thousand
years older than Bonnano and his colleagues propose.
Naturally, Bonnano was called upon to pronounce sage words regarding this
If the underwater temple does prove authentic, it would have to be a
contemporary of those built on the mainland. The only possibility
that springs to mind is that of a separate island, or even part of
the mainland, which sank because of a fault in the rock. It is
highly unlikely, but it does remain a possibility. There are after
all no written records of any kind dating back to that period.135
135 Old Temples Society, Second Issue, November 1999.
It, “sank because of a fault in the rock”. It absolutely could NOT
have been covered by rising water levels!
Malta’s temples and tombs are unique in their construction: the
massive piling of stone upon stone, and the deep excavations.
According to the experts, they are a tremendous engineering feat,
and they must have been the sole focus of the society that built
them. All the people of Malta worked to build “temples” to the
exclusion of all else, except for subsistence.
According to the
experts, the people of Malta neither built houses of stone nor
learned how to write. They evolved all of their techniques for one
reason and one reason only: to build “temples” to house their cult
activities. How these people created a society that was ready,
willing, and able to spend all their efforts and energy to labor
incessantly in the work of tunneling and building, remains a great
The distribution of the “temples”, plotted on a map, fall into
clusters which command a major area of territory. The island seems
to be divided into six major areas of this type. The problem arises
when we consider the fact that the island, at its best, could never
support more than 11,000 people divided up into these six areas, at
no more than 2000 people per section.
So, how could a group of about
2000 people at most, mobilize the labor to excavate all those
caverns and build all those “temples” in each of the sections,
particularly when you consider the fact that the evidence shows that
the area could not have supported so many people in terms of food
production. That leads to the problem of where they were getting
their food and how were they getting their food, if all they were
doing was building “temples” and performing cult activities?
Renfrew136 has proposed the “Big Chief Theory” whereby the building
of “temples” was instigated to awe the howling savages and keep them
136 Read his book Before Civilization for the
details. The ideas are too puerile for me to waste any time on
Why do I keep putting the word “temples” in quotes? Well, when I
looked at the photographs of these structures, the ground plans
drawn to scale, and the plaster models made of them, the only thing
they reminded me of was simply houses - places where people lived.
After all, why would there be so many “temples”? Of course!
the natives devoted their energies to building temples while they,
themselves, lived in grass or bearskin huts! That’s it.
stone structures MUST be temples because what other reason could
there be for such Herculean efforts to create them?
That is, of
course, assuming that the ability to manage large blocks of stone
were unusual when they were built. It certainly would be for us
today. So we cannot imagine that the ancient peoples might have done
it as easily as we nail gypsum board on cheap two-by-fours to build
our houses. As noted, archaeologists explain the cart ruts by saying
that they are evidence of the transporting of the blocks used to
build the “temples”. But, we see from our descriptions of the cart
ruts above, that the idea that these grooves in the ground are
really cart ruts runs into serious problems.
Any effort to explain
them in this way falls apart if an engineer instead of an
archaeologist looks at them. In fact, in my humble opinion,
archaeologists ought to be required to have a degree in engineering
before they are allowed to say a word about anything. In the end, no
one seems to have a single rational explanation for these “cart
ruts”. One of the great mysteries on the planet, and nobody seems to
What a waste.
Do I have an idea to propose? I would like to suggest that these
“ruts” look an awful lot like places where lightning has struck, and
the electricity has blasted away the dirt and rock as it shoots
along some sort of natural earth power grid conductor.
difference is that the cart ruts are not random.
Were the cart ruts
some sort of networked energy conduction system?
Could some sort of
element have been placed in the ground by an ancient civilization;
something that conducted power to their homes the way our vulgar
power poles and lines crisscross the landscape?
And then, at some
point in time, was the earth hit by such a surge of energy from some
unknown source that these power “lines” melted the rock in which
they were “strung”?
Perhaps a surge of some kind of cosmic energy
Maybe even the electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear explosion?
Maybe it was neither of these, but merely a massive overheating of
the surface of the earth so that the conduction element and its
insulating covering melted and was swept away?
Among the artifacts discovered at Malta are a number of truly
extraordinary “Goddess” images. They are, without exception,
extremely corpulent by today’s standards. There are many
representations of spirals and other “Goddess” motifs, including
waves of water. According to the experts, the very oldest form of
religion that can be archaeologically identified anywhere was the
worship of the Mother Goddess by wandering “hunter gatherers”.
was thought, for a very long time, that such cultures were very
primitive and narrow, but it has now been discovered that this is
not the case. New archaeological sites are being excavated at the
present time that show very advanced levels of art and culture among
these “husbandmen” of the Earth.
An example is the Japanese Jomon
The Jomon Puzzle
The incipient Jomon culture is said to date between 11,000 and 7,500
BC. It is described as “one of the most affluent forager cultures to
ever exist”. Although the Japanese did not settle Japan until the
third century BC, it seems that human beings have occupied the area
from about 30,000 BC. During the Ice Ages, Japan was connected to
the Korean peninsula by means of a land bridge. Additionally, all
four main Japanese islands were connected, and the southern island
of Kyushu was connected to the Korean peninsula while the northern
island of Hokkaido was connected to Siberia.
As with all preliterate people, the only things we know about the
Jomon is based on fragments of artifacts and the imaginative
guessing of anthropologists and archaeologists. “Jomon” means “cord
pattern”, for these people put cord patterns on their pottery.
Pottery is a characteristic of Neolithic peoples; the Jomon,
however, were Mesolithic peoples (Middle Stone Age).
anthropological line on the development of human arts asserts that
pottery-making developed after agriculture and is characteristic of
a more sedentary culture. The Incipient Jomon, however, were
hunter-gatherers who made pottery long before agriculture was
introduced into Japan. In fact, the Incipient Jomon pottery-making
dated to long before any human was introduced to agriculture. So,
who were they? As in Malta, we have to go underwater again to find
In 1987, Kihachiro Arataka, a scuba instructor and diving guide, was
exploring the southeast coast of
Yonaguni Island, the last island of
the Ryukyu chain. This string of islands in the East China Sea
curves from Japan south and west toward China.
Aratake was looking
for interesting dive sites for tourist expeditions when he came
across a submarine cliff that appeared to be cut in a series of
immense geometric terraces.
Masaaki Kimura, a marine seismologist at the University of the Ryukyus in Okinawa, heard about the ruins in 1990 and went to check
it out. For the next seven years, Kimura dived on the site
repeatedly, taking his students with him on many occasions, and
assembling a portfolio of drawings, maps and models. He became
convinced that the Yonaguni formation was fashioned by human hands.
Based on well-established studies of rises in the East China Sea
during and after the last ice age, the Yonaguni Monument was last
above sea level at around 6,000 to 8,000 BC. This means that it
could represent an early, unknown civilization.
Geologist Dr. Robert Schoch went to investigate, made six dives, and noted several
interesting things about the site. Superficially the monument has the
appearance of a platform or part of a step pyramid, something like
the ancient Temple of the Sun near Trujillo in northern Peru. The
top of the monument lies sixteen feet under the surface, the bottom
at an approximate depth of eighty feet. Extending over 160 feet
north to south, the asymmetrical monument has uneven stone steps
ranging in height from a foot and a half to several feet, on its
southern face. It looks like a great staircase up which only a giant
could stride. The surfaces have a regular smooth surface, like
Much of the regularity of the surface was due not to a tooled
smoothness of the rock but to a thick even coating of algae, corals,
sponges, and similar organisms. […] In a number of spots I scraped
the coating away, both to determine what kind of stone lay beneath
and to look for tool scars or quarry marks. I found none. Even more
telling, I couldn’t find any evidence that Yonaguni consisted of
separate pieces of stone. Stone blocks carved, set in place, and
arranged in an order would clearly indicate a human-made structure.
Rather, the monument is essentially a single piece of solid,
“living” bedrock that is less precise than it appears at first. […]
Still, Yonaguni posed a problem. If the monument was the result of a
natural process, this natural process was unlike any I had seen
before. What could it be?137
Robert, Ph.D., The Voices of the Rocks, (New York: Harmony Books
Dr. Schoch was faced with an interesting
problem in his examination of the Japanese underwater “city”. Since
the sea level sequences were so well established, to state
unequivocally that the structure was man-made would have been a
terrible blow to the currently accepted chronology of human history.
It would have been far worse than his claims that the Sphinx is
older than Egyptologist claim because that issue can be debated from
now until the cows come home with no absolute resolution. Here, a
declaration of human origin for these structures would be undeniable
proof of an ancient civilization which built the monuments before
the sea level rose.
I have a great deal of sympathy for Dr. Schoch’s position. What did
Dr. Schoch determine about the Underwater city?
Well, after having
noted that he had never before, as a trained geologist, seen
anything like this in “natural structures”, he went looking and
found a “tentative answer”.
He noted that:
The monument is composed predominantly of very fine sandstones and
mudstones of the type we geologists call the Lower Miocene Yaeyama
Group. Rocks of this type contain numerous, well-defined, parallel
bedding planes that allow easy separation of the layers, and they
are crisscrossed by many joints and fractures running parallel to
one another and vertical to the bedding planes. Yaeyama Group
sandstones lie exposed along the southeast and northeast coasts of
Yonaguni Island, and I went there to see how the weather under
current conditions above water. […] I became convinced that the
steplike and terrace like features of the underwater monument
resulted from natural processes working on the stone, not from the
activity of humans long ago.
Possibly the choice between natural and human-made isn’t simply
either/or. Yonaguni Island contains a number of old tombs whose
exact age is uncertain, but that are clearly very old. Curiously,
the architecture of the tombs is much like that of the monument. It
is possible that humans were imitating the monument in designing the
tombs, and it is equally possible that the monument was itself
somehow modified by human hands. […] It is also possible that the
monument served as a quarry from which blocks were cut, following
the natural bedding, joint, and fracture planes of the rock, then
removed to construct buildings that are now long gone. […]138
Dr. Schoch determined that, even if the underwater structure can be
explained by natural forces, he leaves the door open to an ancient
civilization that existed on Yonaguni Island 12,000 years ago.
Coming at the problem from another direction, we discover that about
ten thousand years ago, a group of people lived in the northern part
of Japan who were ethnically distinct from the rest of the Japanese
population. They were named “Ainu”, meaning human being or male in
their own language. This word is remarkably similar to the words
“Manu” and “Anu”, which we will encounter more than once.
were generally assumed to be descendants of an ancient people
referred to as Emishi in the famous Japanese chronicles called
“Kojiki” and “Nihon-syoki”. Today, the term Ainu is used to denote
the indigenous people of Hokkaido, Japan’s northernmost island, as a
single, integrated population who are the descendants of the Ainu of
ten thousand years ago.
The traditional Ainu lifestyle was hunting, fishing and gathering.
Ainu religious beliefs center around the existence of another world
of spirit essences subject to the same forces that control the
visible world. The people worship animal Gods, especially the bear,
with ritual, song and dance. Even the Ainu language is unusual in
its Asian environment. Although they possessed no system of writing,
they created a rich oral tradition of stories and poems expressed in
formal prose and verse. We, of course, immediately think of the Bear
cults of Europe, and the bear skulls found in the caves of France
dating back in the tens of thousands of years.
The Ainu are a morphological problem.
The characteristics that
differentiate them from Asians are their hairiness and their hair
“form”. The explanation is that there is a strong admixture of
Caucasoid genetics in the Ainu. Some experts consider them to be
related to the Australian aborigines, and others think that they
represent an independent grouping altogether. More recent studies
have connected them genetically to Turkic populations of Central
Asia, a combination of caucasoid and mongoloid genes.
So how are we to relate this “archaeology” of a “preliterate”
culture to the fact that there is evidence of nearby remains of a
former civilization far more advanced than the Jomon? I think that
noting the dates might be important.
It is as though the Jomon were
survivors of a cataclysm.
The infrastructure of their society may
have been destroyed, along with many of the artifacts that might
have been discovered by archaeologists of our day, and they began
anew on a planet that had been swept clean - except for stone
structures that survived the maelstrom.
Global Evidence of Ancient, Pre-Historic High Civilizations
Over and over again we find these odd clues that point to an ancient
civilization that existed something over 12,000 years ago. There has
been a raging controversy for generations between pro-Atlanteans and
anti-Atlanteans about this. There seem to be sufficient
archaeological remains to justify a serious scientific study based
on such a hypothesis but so far, there are no “takers” in the
mainstream scientific community.
Archaeology and ethnology, being
observational sciences, and not experimental sciences, have built
their entire framework upon the study of those remains. And when we
look closely at the array of discoveries in those fields, we note
bits and pieces of cultures of almost unspeakable age. The fact that uniformitarian science barely allows the idea of cataclysmic
destruction to be part of the hypothesis cripples archaeologists
and, in the end, may make fools of them all.
Without the algorithm of cyclic cataclysm, archaeologists cannot
fully understand what they observe, nor can they explain the
anomalies here and there, and the lack of other evidence that ought
to be here and there (if one assumes great antiquity of civilization
with no cataclysms). The fact seems to be that, what does continue
to exist in terms of archaeological remains from times before 7,000
or more years ago, have been subjected to geological and cosmic
cataclysms of almost incomprehensible violence and few major relics
remain for perusal. Those few, however, are cast aside as the
anomalies of archaeology and ethnology, and their very existence is buried or denied in efforts to
avoid toppling the house of cards so laboriously established by
Nevertheless, we find that all over the globe, with few exceptions,
these studies break down almost completely right around 7,000 to
10,000 BC, at which point they meet with what mathematicians call a
Immediately after this discontinuity, all of the
hot-spots of ancient civilization that archaeologists accept as
valid suddenly appear with no indication of gradual, uniformitarian
development. What is more, there seems to be considerable indication
that these developments were degenerate remnants of something
already lost in the mists of antiquity.
Entire libraries of books have been written demonstrating this
antiquity of man and his civilizations, but it has not yet been
accepted, even in principle, by any branch of modern science. The
scientific thought police oppose any type of cataclysmic change in
the structure of the earth and will go to any extremes to avoid
coming to grips with its evidence.
And yet, as we will see, science
breaks down again when it is forced to contemplate the origin of
man’s intellectual development.
Is there any “hard” evidence for this ancient, worldwide, high
I don’t want to spend too much time going over all of
it and attempting to reproduce the fine efforts of other writers.
But, just to cover the subject briefly, one of the most telling
pieces of hard evidence is included in Charles Hapgood’s book,
of the Ancient Sea Kings.
Hapgood, a Professor of Anthropology,
included in his book a most interesting letter from a group of
cartographers in the United States Air Force. The statements in this
letter, to my knowledge, have never been challenged. In fact, the
letter itself doesn’t receive much attention, though Hapgood is
certainly referred to as a crank often enough. The letter refers to
a series of highly technical analyses of several maps that Dr.
Hapgood presented to the cartographers.
After their study, they
It is not very often that we have the opportunity to evaluate maps
of ancient origin.
The Piri Reis (AD 1513) and the Oronteus Fineaus
[sic] (AD 1531) maps sent to us by you, presented a delightful
challenge for it was not readily conceivable that they could be so
accurate without being forged. With added enthusiasm we accepted
this challenge and have expended many off duty hours evaluating your
manuscript and the above maps. I am sure you will be pleased to know
that we have concluded that both of these maps were compiled from
accurate original source maps, irrespective of dates.
is a brief summary of our findings:
The solution of the portolano projection used by Admiral Piri Reis,
developed by your class in Anthropology must be very nearly correct;
for when known geographical locations are checked in relationship to
the grid computed by Mr. Richard W. Strachan (MIT), there, is
remarkably close agreement. Piri Reis’ use of the Portolano
projection (centered on Syene, Egypt) is an excellent choice, for it
is a developable surface that would permit the relative size and
shape of the earth at that (latitude) to be retained. It is our
opinion that those who compiled the original map had an excellent
knowledge of the continents covered by this map.
As stated by Colonel Harold Z. Ohlmeyer in his letter (July 6, 1960)
to you, the Princess Martha Coast of Queen Maud Land, Antarctica,
appears to be truly represented on the southern sector of the Piri
Reis Map. The agreement of the Piri Reis map with the seismic
profile of this area made by the Norwegian-British - Swedish
Expedition of 1949, supported by your solution of the grid, places
beyond a reasonable doubt the conclusion that the original source
maps must have been made before the present Antarctic ice cap
covered Queen Maud Land coasts. It is our opinion that the accuracy
of the cartographic features shown in the Oronteus Fineaus [sic] Map
(AD 1530) suggests, beyond a doubt, that it also was compiled from
accurate source maps of Antarctica, but in this case of the entire
Close examination has proved the original source maps
must have been compiled at a time when the land mass and inland
waterways of the continent were relatively free of ice. This
conclusion is further supported by a comparison of the Oronteus
Finneaus [sic] Map with the results obtained by International
Geophysical Year teams in their measurements of the subglacial
topography. The comparison also suggests that the original source
maps (compiled in remote antiquity) were prepared when Antarctica
was presumably free of ice. The Cordiform projection used by
Oronteus Fineaus [sic] suggests the use of advanced mathematics.
Further, the shape given to the Antarctic continent suggests the
possibility, if not the probability, that the original source maps
were compiled on a stereographic or gnomonic type of projection
(involving the use of spherical trigonometry). We are convinced that
the findings made by you and your associates are valid, and that
they raise extremely important questions affecting geology and
ancient history, questions which certainly require further
We thank you for extending us the opportunity to have participated
in the study of these maps. The following officers and airmen
volunteered their time to assist Captain Lorenzo W. Burroughs in
Captain Richard E. Covault,
CWO Howard D. Minor,
MSgt Clifton M. Dover,
MSgt David C. Carter,
TSgt James H. Hood,
SSgt James L. Carroll,
AIC Don R. Vance.
Lorenzo W. Burroughs, Captain,
USAF Chief, Cartographic Section
8th Reconnaissance Technical Sqdn
(SAC) Westover, Mass.139
139 Hapgood, Charles, Maps of the Ancient Sea
Kings (London: Turnstone Press 1979).
The Antarctic ice cover is supposed to be millions of years old. Who
could have made a map of Antarctica when it was not covered by ice,
and when? Why is it that we believe this ice cover to be so old? And
if it is not, how old is it really and why does it present the
appearance of being millions of years old, assuming it does so to
the trained scientist?
Charles Hapgood heard about these maps at a particular point in his
life when he was studying the ice ages. A copy of an ancient map had
been found in the
Topkapi Palace in Istanbul in 1929, and a Turkish naval officer had
presented a copy of it to the US Navy Hydrographic Office. It was
examined by scholars who noted that the map represented Antarctica
before it was covered with ice. Yet, the map was painted on
parchment and was dated to 1513, over 300 years before Antarctica
was officially “discovered”.
Core samples taken by
Antarctic Expedition showed that the last warm period in the
Antarctic ended around 4,000 BC. It began about 9,000 years before
that. The only conclusion that could be drawn was that someone had
mapped Antarctica at least 6,000 years ago. Hapgood discovered that
there were more of
these ancient maps - portolans, as they are
called - and that some of them strongly indicate that the mapmaker
had an aerial view of what he was mapping!
Hapgood himself writes:
The evidence presented by the ancient maps appears to suggest the
existence in remote times, before the rise of any known cultures, of
a true civilization, of an advanced kind, which either was localized
in one area but had worldwide commerce, or was, in a real sense, a
worldwide culture. This culture, at least in some respects, was more
advanced than the civilizations of Greece and Rome. In geodesy,
nautical science, and mapmaking it was more advanced than any known
culture before the 18th century of the Christian Era.
It was only in
the 18th century that we developed a practical means of finding
longitude. It was in the 18th century that we first accurately
measured the circumference of the earth. Not until the 19th century
did we begin to send out ships for exploration into the Arctic or
Antarctic Seas and only then did we begin the exploration of the
bottom of the Atlantic. The maps indicate that some ancient people
did all these things.[…]
When I was a youth I had a plain simple faith in progress. It seemed
to me impossible that once man had passed a milestone of progress in
one way that he could ever pass the same milestone again the other
way. Once the telephone was invented, it would stay invented. If
past civilizations had faded away it was just because they had not
learned the secret of progress.
But Science meant permanent
progress, with no going back.[…]
S.R.K. Glanville writes in The
Legacy of Egypt:
“It may be, as some indeed suspect, that the science we see as the
dawn of recorded history was not science at its dawn, but represents
the remnants of the science of some great and as yet untraced
By a series of analyses, Hapgood and others came
to the conclusion that there was an ancient civilization whose
center or “home base” was
Antarctica itself.141 The fact that it was
a global society, just as our own is, was also evident to these
researchers from other clues. This was, to put it mildly, not an
acceptable idea to the uniformitarian view of evolution.
141 Flem-Ath, Rand and Rose, When the Sky Fell (Canada: St. Martins
Dr. Hapgood never used the word “Atlantis” in his book. He knew the
value of his academic reputation and that he just couldn’t go there.
But that was not a problem for Erich von Daniken.
Von Daniken’s book Chariots of the Gods? came out in 1967 and
proposed that the ancient portolans, side by side with other
anomalies, suggested the presence and influence of extraterrestrial
“Gods” in ancient times. I find this to be a curious sort of “damage
control” that attempts - in a left handed way - to support the
uniformitarian hypothesis since it suggests strongly that mankind
himself was incapable of creating an advanced civilization on his
The portolans studied by Charles Hapgood demonstrate that there have
been very ancient cultures, or civilizations, which may have and
could have developed methods of flight. The existence of the great
megalithic structures further suggest that the energy sources of
that time may have been much simpler and more effective than ours,
and more directly associated with forces which we do not yet
Yes, we are dealing with indirect evidence, not always
of the greatest clarity.
Yet in support of such antiquity, we note
that there is stonework carved out of the solid mountain of rock in
South America, which certainly antedate the Andean glaciers, and
almost as certainly predate the formation of the mountains
themselves. This work is superior in technique to anything that can
currently be produced by our mechanized civilization. It seems
almost patently evident that the construction, sculpting and
tunneling of our ancestors could only have been accomplished by
forces different from those in use by us today. The problem can be
solved by admitting to a levitating force developed and used by the
same common denominator - space flight - which simplifies so many
other puzzles for us.
And it seems that these very things are what
the myths of antiquity, including that most captivating story of
all, the legend of the Holy Grail, are telling us. On the basis of
the evidence of an antiquity, we postulate the ancient development
of some kind of science. In either case, it is of great importance
to consider these matters in terms of the how’s and why’s and who’s.
Most books on these subjects approach the matter from one of these
assumptions or the other, with little regard to what might be behind
it all when considered in light of present day observations.
the most telling thing about this is that either angle is abhorrent
to science and to most religions.
In the end, nothing but the existence of an extremely ancient high
civilization answers all of the problems presented by observed and
recorded facts. And that is what led us to ask the questions about
what is the wellspring of our beliefs, what is the source of our
denial and rejection of what is observable in favor of an imposed
We will come to that issue soon enough.
The Neanderthal Enigma
Let’s come back now to the idea that the earth may have been an
entirely different place in terms of cosmic environment, thus
enabling the dinosaurs to live and thrive, we can ask if other
“different” environments might have existed at other times,
specifically in relation to man himself? One example that might
relate to such an idea is the extraordinarily strange disappearance
of Neanderthal man.
Actually, the disappearance of a whole, distinct group of human type
beings at such a relatively recent point in history, is scary as all
get-out. Just think about it:
Neanderthals were everywhere in the icy lands of Europe and Western
Asia for over 150,000 years. They were enormously strong and
manifestly intelligent. What went wrong?
It is also proposed that, at the same moment in time that
Neanderthal man just went “poof!” homo sapiens sapiens (that’s us),
just dropped in for dinner, so to speak. Is there a connection
between what went wrong for Neanderthal and what was “right” for
modern man? That question is driving a lot of paleontologists batty.
Allan Wilson and Vincent Sarich of Berkeley undertook to determine
the date of human origins via DNA analysis. They were looking at
proteins because they knew that proteins evolve by accumulating
mutations. They also knew that the proteins in related species are
slightly different from one another because of the mutations that
occur after a species splits off from the “common ancestor”.
Differences in proteins can be quantified.
Well, this wasn’t so controversial a thing to be doing until Wilson
and Sarich suggested that mutations occur across the millennia at a
steady rate, like the ticks of a molecular clock. If this was true,
it meant that the difference in a given protein in any two species
would indicate not only how related they were, but also how much
time had elapsed since they shared a common ancestor. In other
words, Wilson and Sarich were going to analyze some proteins and
tell us when we last were apes. Everyone was holding their breath
for the answer to this one. Wilson and Sarich’s protein analysis
suggested that the common ancestor of apes and humans had lived only
five million years ago.
Stretching it to accommodate errors, they
could only give it eight million years.
“To put it as bluntly as possible,” Sarich wrote, “one no longer has the option of
considering a fossil specimen older than about eight million years
as a hominid no matter what it looks like”.
The idea that there was or was not any genetic connection between
Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal led to many hot debates. A team of U.S.
and German researchers extracted mitochondrial DNA from Neanderthal
bone showing that the Neanderthal DNA sequence falls outside the
normal variation of modern humans. The researchers compared the
Neanderthal sequence with 2,051 human sequences and 59 common
chimpanzee sequences. They found that the differences in Neanderthal
DNA occurred at sites where differences usually occur in both humans
In other words, Neanderthal was simply a different
When the researchers looked at the Neanderthal sequence
with respect to 994 human mitochondrial DNA lineages including
Africans, Europeans, Asians, Native Americans, Australians and
Pacific Islanders, they found the number of base pair differences
between the Neanderthal sequence and these groups was 27 or 28 for
There is a long and interesting case of some Neanderthal remains in
a cave in Israel that some scientists were attempting to utilize as
evidence that this was the region in which Neanderthal morphed into
anatomically modern man. The interested reader may want to have a
look at The Neanderthal Enigma by James Shreeve for a blow-by-blow
account of this idea and how it was shot down.
The end result is, just to save some time, the
conclusion that it was another example of Darwinist wishful
data may change this. If it can be shown that Neanderthal did evolve
into modern man, or was at least one of the sources for modern man,
this opens intriguing possibilities for their relationship to what
we have named the
Naturally, since the idea that Neanderthal was not the
precursor to modern man was now pretty well squashed, that meant
that modern man evolved along another line. This opened the door to
the acknowledgement of certain facts that had been rejected in
earlier debates, while the Neanderthal hypothesis was still viable,
but now looked like a reasonable way out of the dilemma. Suddenly,
fossils of very old, modern humans, were acceptable, even if they
existed long before the disappearance of Neanderthal.
The problem is, this little clue that a controversy exists is merely
the end of a thread hanging out there in public view. When you take
hold of this one, oh my! It does get deep and you do need
An interesting book was published a few years back entitled
Forbidden Archeology. The authors,
Michael Cremo and Richard L.
Thompson, were savaged by the mainstream science critics for their
“absurd ideas and ridiculous assertions”. Most of all, it was
suggested that, since they were not “experts”, they simply could not
understand the material they were assembling and, therefore, it had
Sad to say, I delayed reading this book for a rather
long time because of the negative reviews. However, as I pulled on
this particular thread, one disturbing element leading to another, I
finally gave in and ordered the volume and sat down to read it in a
skeptical frame of mind. Just because it was well written did not
resolve my skepticism. Just because there were hundreds of
references to scientific papers did not persuade me that the authors
had actually come to the correct conclusions about those papers.
I undertook to go to the papers they cited myself.
As it turned out, I ended up reversing my opinion of Cremo and
Thompson. A great many of these scientific papers that they have
cited were written in rather plain terms that anyone could
understand - even another non-expert like myself. What is more, the
fact that they have been “buried”, or marginalized, ignored, flamed
and forgotten, suggests more about the experts who have done this,
and who then adopt the jargon they use as a means of concealing that
they really don’t understand what they are doing, than it says about
the authors who can clearly see that we have serious problems
reconciling the observable and empirical facts with the “accepted
By the time the reader is finished with this book, they
will be completely disgusted with the utter and absolute lies and
fabrications of some of the most influential members of the
mainstream scientific community, what I have come to call the
Scientific Thought Police. When the masses of people come to the realization that the
power structure of any given period creates the educational
institutions that promulgate the lies and distortions that support
the political structure, and that the majority of the scientific
community only “follow the money” of the military-industrial
complex, I tremble for those who have chosen the cozy lies over the
Again, that raises the question as to who or what ideology
“controls” our world in such a way that science can - and is -
manipulated to support a political agenda? What is that agenda?
will come to that.
Evidence of the Ica Stones
Recently, some objects called
the Ica Stones have become a subject
of much discussion. These stones were brought to the attention of
the scientific community in 1966 when a Dr. Javier Cabrera, a
Peruvian physician, received a small, carved rock for his birthday
from a poor native. The carving on the rock looked ancient to Dr.
Cabrera, but intrigued him because it seemed to depict a primitive
It wasn’t long before the locals were bringing the doctor
scads more of these rocks gathered from a riverbank. He soon had a
collection of more than 15,000 stones, many etched with impossible
scenes that clearly depict such dinosaurs as triceratops,
stegosaurus, apatosaurus, and human figures riding on the backs of
flying pterodactyls! What’s more, some of the scenes are of men
hunting and killing dinosaurs!
Others show men watching the heavens
through what look like telescopes, performing open-heart surgery,
and cesarean section births, and even some serious pornography.
Oh dear! How can this be? We have already been told that modern man
is only about 2 million years old and dinosaurs are thought to have
become extinct 65 million years ago.
Sophia Melewska, a geomorphologist, was commissioned to investigate
the rocks, summarize their content, and comment on their
authenticity. After studying the collection of Ica stones, Melewska
said that she was in a state of “intellectual shock”. Melewska is
one of the scientists now trying to direct the attention of
professional research toward this mystery with little success.
Part of the problem for mainstream science is the nature of
artifacts themselves. Unlike clay figurines that have organic
material (i.e., straw) in their composition, there are no organic
materials that can be dated in plain old rock. The surface of these
rocks has a varnish that is produced by bacteria and minute
organisms over millennia. Such a varnish or patina will take
thousands of years to discolor and coat each stone. The etching of
the stones removed the existing varnish, revealing the lighter rock
underneath. Since these rocks have developed additional varnish in
the etched grooves, the evidence is that they were carved a very,
very long time ago.
The BBC sent a team to investigate these stones, sending Neil Steede
to examine them. Steede examined the varnish on the stones but was
not able to guess at the date. Without recourse to radiometric
dating, the strata in which an object is found can often give a clue
to their age. However, these stones were revealed by accidental
erosion, and their original resting place is not known.
Acting on a rumor, Steede traveled to a nearby village where he met
a local farmer who, reportedly, was in the process of carving
similar stones for tourists. The rumors of Dr. Cabrera’s collection
had brought tourists to the area, seeking what they are assured are
the “real stones”. Steede discovered that the artist was imitating
the style on the Ica stones, but his technique was not as good. What
was more telling, the varnish was absent from his grooves.
It is at this point that the Scientific Thought Police went into
action, or so it seems. They pointed to these reproductions as proof
of a hoax, and dismiss any serious study of the original collection
which is still maintained by Dr. Cabrera. Just to drive home the
point and put an end to the controversy, after the broadcast of the
BBC TV documentary, the farmer who had sold many of the stones to
Dr. Cabrera, and who had been caught carving others, was arrested
He was forced to admit that he had carved ALL of
the stones himself to sell to tourists! So, the “hoax” was over.
However, we soon discover that under Peruvian law, if the stones
were genuine, they belonged to the government, and if the farmer had
been selling government property to anyone, he would have gone to
prison. By claiming that he had created a hoax, the farmer was let
off the hook and stayed out of jail. And rather than determine
scientifically if the stones were authentic, the authorities were
satisfied that they had dealt effectively with this troubling
matter, and the farmer was released. German journalist Andreas
Fischer visited the farmer later, at which time the poor traumatized
guy revealed that he had admitted to perpetrating a hoax only to
avoid going to prison.
Regarding the Ica stones, we have three possibilities:
civilization existed during the age of the dinosaurs
survived to coexist with man
the stones are an elaborate hoax
Considering all the other evidence of the
Scientific Thought Police
on the prowl, I vote against number three, but I can’t claim any
certainty about either of the other two solutions.
I rather think
that Time Loops could be added to the list.
Now and again an anomalous artifact “pops up”. One particular little
item always fascinated me. It seems that, during mining operations
in 1851, at Dorchester, Massachusetts, blasting threw out a bell
shaped vessel from its bed in formerly solid rock. It was made of an
unknown metal and was decorated with floral inlays of silver.143
143 Scientific American, 7:298, June 5,
When we consider ancient archaeological evidence, most of which
consists of fragmentary bits and pieces of skeletons or stone tools,
we do not get the idea of
an ancient worldwide, advanced
civilization. However, there is something about this that we need to
consider before we discard such an idea.
The first thing to think about is the fact that our own “history” is
a mere 5 thousand years old. When we talk about the possible
existence of man on the earth for literally millions of years, many,
many civilizations could have come and gone, leaving little more
than fragmentary remains. If the reader will have a look at some
books that show pictures of the ancient structures whose history we
know, and think, for a moment, about what might remain of our own
civilization after a period of ten thousand years, it becomes
evident that even under the best of conditions, little would remain
that would be recognizable as the works of man.
I have tried to
imagine what the structures of our civilization would look like
after thousands of years of abandonment. I had to admit that we have
not created a very substantial environment. The prospects of
providing future archaeologists with such elegant ruins are indeed
remote! And, to assume that societies which did leave sophisticated
metropolitan centers were primitive in their technologies, and
backward, compared to our own, seems to be the ultimate in absurd
conceit. In fact, in these terms, metal is the least substantial
element of all.
Many gravesites have been dug up after only a few
hundred years, and metal objects, aside from precious metals, have
tended to simply disintegrate into powder. So, as a matter of fact,
the things that would be preserved the longest are objects of stone.
So, just because the only remains we find are stone does not prove
that technology of metals was not known. In fact, there is
considerable evidence of metals mining all over the earth far into
dim antiquity. Further, during those inter-civilizational periods
when we might conjecture that man was forced to use whatever
implements he could to survive, stone is always there, always handy,
and always works.
Thus it is that repeated periods wherein primitive
stone tools are evidence, in no way contradicts the idea of other
periods of high civilization. There is another thing we need to
consider about the possible survival of artifacts: cataclysm. The
evidence that repeated worldwide cataclysms have occurred tells us
that it is very likely that, during such events, the forces of the
earth itself would grind up, pulverize, and bury the works of man so
completely that the fact that we find any traces at all is
practically a miracle. You could say that such artifacts have a very
short “shelf life”!
It is generally agreed that agriculture first developed in the
“Fertile Crescent” of the Middle East. In fact, the archaeological
record supports this idea. It is also generally agreed that Pastoral Nomadism developed in the Central Asian Steppes. Archaeology also
supports this idea. However, the archaeology of these two
developments only go back to a certain relatively recent date which
poses a problem when one considers the Nostratic language
hypothesis. In other words, if an advanced civilization existed in
the distant past, it was from the survivors of this civilization
that the Shepherds and agriculturalists of our present world
About 35,000 years ago, at the same time that homo sapiens sapiens
(Cro-Magnon) was supposed to have appeared on the stage of history,
simultaneously with the mysterious disappearance of Neanderthal man,
there also appeared an explosion of representational art. It is as
if the birth of culture occurred from the primal continuum of the
Paleolithic mind. Prominent among these first and most artistic creations are diverse representations
of the creatrix Goddess of fertility, complemented by sculptures and
wall paintings of animals and the hunt of a more shamanic content.
The consistency and the careful beauty of these figurines is
consistent with the worship of the female as generator of the
continued line of living existence.
The mainstream explanation for this event is that while primitive
men were wandering hunters who had to remain silent in the shamanic
meditation of the hunt, the women were collecting and recognizing a
wide variety of plants, talking more and socializing and forming the
foundation skills that underpinned the birth of civilization. The
myths of diverse tribal cultures hint at a previous era when women
were the founding influence in this way.
The “Venuses” of Dolni
Vestonice, Willendorff, Lespugue, and Laussel date from
inter-Gravitean Solutrean 20,000-18,000 BC.
The Sudden Appearance of Cro-Magnon
As we have noted, it was formerly thought by paleontologists that
Neanderthal morphed into Cro-Magnon, and that Cro-Magnon was the
progenitor of human beings as we know them today. However, aside
from the problems of the Eve Hypothesis, there are serious problems
with the assumptions about when modern human types actually appeared
Even if we take the evolving scientific view of the
present day, we find that Cro-Magnon man was something altogether
different from other anatomically modern humans.
Over and over again we read in scientific studies that Cro-Magnon
man was just an “anatomically modern human”.
The experts will say:
“The Cro-Magnons lived in Europe between 35,000 and 10,000 years
ago. They are virtually identical to modern man, being tall and
muscular and slightly more robust than most modern humans.”
Notice how they slip in that “slightly more robust” bit.
is, the Cro-Magnon man was, compared to the other “anatomically
modern humans” around him, practically a superman. They were skilled
hunters, toolmakers and artists famous for the cave art at places
such as Lascaux, Chauvet, and Altamira. They had a high cranium, a
broad and upright face, and cranial capacity “about the same as
modern humans” (can we say larger?), but less than that of
Neanderthals. The males were as tall as 6 feet.
They appeared in
Europe in the upper Pleistocene, about 40,000 years ago and “their
geographic origin is still unknown”. Their skeletal remains show a
“few small differences from modern humans”. Of course, the “out of
Africa” theory advocates suggest that Cro-Magnon came from Sub
Saharan Africa and a temperate climate and that, “they would
eventually adapt to all extremes of heat and cold”. In this way, the
“slight differences” between Cro-Magnon and other forms of
anatomically modern humans can be explained away as an adaptation to
But, as we will see, this idea doesn’t hold water.
Cro-Magnon’s tools are described as the Aurignacian technology,
characterized by bone and antler tools, such as spear tips (the
first) and harpoons. They also used animal traps, and bow and arrow.
They invented shafts and handles for their knives, securing their
blades with bitumen, a kind of tar, as long as 40 thousand years ago. Other improvements included
the invention of the atlatl, a large bone or piece of wood with a
hooked groove used for adding distance and speed to spears.
also invented more sophisticated spear points, such as those that
detach after striking and cause greater damage to prey.144 The
Cro-Magnon type man was also the “originator” of such abstract
concepts as “time”. They marked time by lunar phases, recording them
with marks on a piece of bone, antler or stone. Some of these
“calendars” contained a record of as many as 24 lunations.145
relatively recent past, tool industries diversified. The Gravettian
industry (25 to 15 thousand years ago), characterized by ivory tools
such as backed blades, is associated with mammoth hunters. One type
of brief industry was Solutrean, occurring from 18 to 15 thousand
years ago and limited to Southwest France and Spain. It is
characterized by unique and finely crafted “laurel leaf” blades,
made with a pressure technique requiring a great skill. The industry
is associated with horse hunters. The tool industry of the Clovis
Culture in North America (11 to 8 thousand years ago) is notable for
its remarkable similarity to Solutrean. Some suggest that the
Solutrean culture migrated to North America around 12,000 thousand
Cro-Magnon people lived in tents and other man-made
shelters in groups of several families. They were nomadic
hunter-gatherers and had elaborate rituals for hunting, birth and
death. Multiple burials are common in the areas where they were
found. What is most interesting is that from 35 to 10 thousand years
ago, there was no differentiation by sex or age in burials. They
included special grave goods, as opposed to everyday, utilitarian
objects, suggesting a very increased ritualization of death and
Whitaker, Steve Stewart; Article Reviews; Late Ice Age Hunting
Technology (Heidi Knecht) Scientific American, July 1994.
145 Marshack, Alexander, The Roots Of Civilization - Moyer (Mt. Kisco,
New York: Bell Limited 1991).
146 Preston, Douglas, “The Lost Man”, New Yorker Magazine, June 16,
147 Schirtzinger, Erin, The Evidence for Pleistocene Burials,
Neanderthals versus Modern Humans, December 6, 1994.
They were the first confirmed to have domesticated
animals, starting by about 15 thousand years ago (though ancient
sapiens may have domesticated the dog as much as 200 thousand years
They were the first to leave extensive works of art, such as
cave paintings and carved figures of animals and pregnant women.
Huge caves lavishly decorated with murals depicting animals of the
time were at first rejected as fake for being too sophisticated.
Then they were dismissed as being primitive, categorized as hunting,
fertility or other types of sympathetic magic.
put these great works of art in a more prominent place in art history.
They show evidence of
motifs, of following their own stylistic tradition, of
“impressionist” like style, perspective, and innovative use of the
natural relief in the caves. Also possible, considering the new
concepts of time reckoning practiced by Cro-Magnon, are abstract
representations of the passage of time, such as spring plants in
bloom, or pregnant bison that might represent summer.148
pregnant women and other Goddess worship iconography,149
representations of people, “anthropomorphs,” are very few, and never
show the accuracy or detail of the other animals. Humans are
represented in simple outlines without features, sometimes with
“masks”, often without regard to proportion, being distorted and
isolated. At the Grottes des Enfants in France are found four
burials with red ocher, and associated with Aurignacian tools. At
Lascaux, France, are the famous caves of upper Paleolithic cave art,
dated to 17 thousand years ago, and even older, in some cases, by
many thousands of years!
148 Reeser, Ken, “Earliest Art:
Representative Art In The Upper Paleolithic Era”, 1994 (after:
Marshack, 1991; Grand, 1967; Ucko, Peter J., and Rosenfeld, Andre,
1967; Brown, G. Baldwin, 1932;
Breuil, Abbe H., date unknown) (unpublished).
149 Stone, Merlin, When God Was A Woman (San Diego, New York,
London: Harvest/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1976).
The modern human types that appeared in the Levant were, however,
somewhat different from Cro-Magnon. They were the sub-Saharan type,
less “robust” individuals than the Cro-Magnon “superman” of Europe.
What seems to be the truth of the matter is simply that the modern
humans of the Levant were “different” from the Cro-Magnon types that
“appeared” in Europe. Try as they would, there is simply was no way
to prove that Cro-Magnon evolved in Africa or the Levant and then
moved to Europe.
But then, how to explain what happened in any reasonable terms?
the archaeological record seems to show is that in Europe, after
millennia of almost no progress at all, even in the few areas where
modern man has been found, suddenly human culture seems to take off
like an explosion with the appearance of Cro-Magnon man.
does culture explode, but also new ways of doing things, new styles
and innovations that were utterly unknown in the period immediately
preceding them, suddenly appear, only to disappear again like an
outdated fad. From Spain to the Urals, sites list the developments
of sewing needles, barbed projectiles, fishhooks, ropes, meat drying
racks, temperature controlled hearths, and complex dwellings.
The most amazing part of all of it is the art. Art suddenly springs
onto the landscape, fully formed, with no period of gradual
development; no signs of childish attempts preceding it. A piece of
ivory carved 32,000 years ago is as
realistic as anything turned out
by the most accomplished carver of the present day.
The Upper Paleolithic signals the most fundamental change in human
behavior that the archaeological record may ever reveal.150 The only
explanation for this tremendous change is that a new kind of human
appeared on the earth stage.
150 Richard Klein, Stanford, quoted by Shreeve.
When we consider the difficulties of such an event, in terms of
“evolution”, we find that this presents a huge difficulty in our
understanding. First of all, we still have the problem of a
60,000-year time lag between the appearance of the sub-Saharan
modern type man who was on the scene with no “improvements” in his
technology for that length of time.
If Cro-Magnon evolved in Africa,
why isn’t there a continuous record of incremental developments? By
the same reasoning, if he evolved only after crossing the
Mediterranean to Europe, why isn’t there a continuous record of
The most effective and popular way that science deals with this
crisis is to ignore it, to deny it, or to seek to twist the facts to
fit the theory. Many archaeologists continue to account for the
cultural events of the Upper Paleolithic by tying them to the
emergence of a more modern, intellectually superior form of human
being from Africa. They propose a “second biological event” to
explain this, never mind that it left no tracks in any skeletal
Nowadays, the idea is to suggest that the other “modern men” of
sub-Saharan Africa were not really fully modern. They were
“near-modern”. Thus, Africa is preserved as the origin of all
mankind, and the only thing necessary was a breakthrough in the
African lineage, a “neurological event” that allowed this “new man”
to develop all these new cultural behaviors overnight, so to say.
What this amounts to is saying that the explosion of culture in the
Upper Paleolithic times did not happen earlier because other modern
men didn’t have the brains to make it happen.
support for this idea amounts only to circular logic. What’s more,
it seems that if it were a “neurological event”, it would start in a
small place and spread outward.
But what seems to have happened is
that it sort of exploded in a lot of places at once: from Spain to
the Ural mountains in Russia! And in fact, the Middle East is the
LAST place where art appears.
The earliest known Aurignacian sites are in the Balkans, and they
are dated to around 43,000 years ago. Three thousand years later,
the Aurignacian craze is all over Europe.
We ought to note that the Neanderthals did not have art. What’s
more, there was essentially no change in their stone tools for
Some people suggest that the impetus for culture was the sudden
development of speech. But that idea doesn’t hold much water either.
If we were to look at some of the aboriginal societies of Australia
and New Guinea, they are certainly Neanderthal like in their stone
tools. But they think and communicate in languages that are as rich
as ours, and they construct myths, stories and cosmologies with
these languages. They just don’t seem to be much interested in
There is another very strange thing about this explosion
of homo intellectualis technologicus: it seems to have sort of “lost
its steam” around 12,000 years ago.
We have already noted the
pottery making of the Jomon. Even more startling is the fact that
twenty-six thousand years ago the residents of Dolni Vestonice were
firing ceramics in kilns. But you don’t read that in archaeology
textbooks. In the standard teachings, the emergence of ceramics is
linked to the functional use of pottery which supposedly did not
appear until the agricultural revolution in the Neolithic period
some 12,000 years after the kilns at Dolni were last used. Oh dear!
Did we just stumble on something interesting? Didn’t we just note
that something happened to “cool” the steam of the cultural
explosion of the Upper Paleolithic and that it happened about 12,000
years ago? And we noted that the Jomon culture “began” at about the
same time. And here we note that the agricultural revolution
occurred at about the same time as that “loss of creative vigor”.
Could the two have some connection?
In Bulgaria, a thousand miles to the east of Dolni Vestonice, there
is a cave called Bacho Kiro. It is famous for containing the
earliest known Aurignacian tool assemblages. They are 43,000 years
This brings us to another curious thing about Neanderthal man: he
never seemed to go anywhere. He always made his tools out of what
was locally available, and he never seemed to travel at all. What
was made where it was made, stayed there. Nobody traded or shared
among the Neanderthal groups.
But it seems that right from the
beginning, Cro-Magnon man was traveling and sharing and exchanging
not only goods, but technology.
If there was a better form of stone
somewhere else, the word seemed to get around, and everybody had
some of it. Distinctive flints from southern Poland are found at Dolni Vestonice, a hundred miles to the south. Slovakian radiolarite
of red, yellow and olive is found a hundred miles to the east. Later
in the Upper Paleolithic period, the famous “chocolate flint” of
southern Poland is found over a radius of two hundred and fifty
151 Shreeve, op. cit.
Naturally, these rocks didn’t walk around on their own.
Human legs carried them. And that leads us to our next little
problem with Cro-Magnon man: You see, his legs were too long.
One of the sacred laws of evolutionary biology is called “Allen’s
This rule posits that legs, arms, ears, and other body
extremities should be shorter in mammals that live in cold
climates, and longer in mammals of the same period who live where it
is hot. This is because having short arms and legs conserves heat.
This is supposed to explain why Eskimos and Laplanders have short
legs. It also is supposed to explain why Bantu people are leaner,
and the Maasai are extremely long and lean in their tropical open
The only people who seem to be mocking Allen’s rule are Cro-Magnon.
They just refused to adapt. They all have much longer legs than they
ought to. Of course, this is pounced upon as proof that they came
from Africa. The only problem with this is that it is hard to
imagine people from a warm climate migrating to a cold one by
choice. Then, on top of that, to remain long-limbed for over a
thousand generations? Keep in mind that, during that time, the
thermometer kept going down and, at the glacial maximum, 18,000
years ago, it was like the North Pole in northern Europe!
come they didn’t adapt?
By whatever means they arrived in Europe, we ought to take note of
the fact that their presence there may be related to the fact that
Europe and other nearby locations are literally blanketed with
megaliths. Indeed, it may be so that the megaliths came long after
the appearance of Cro-Magnon man, but the connection ought not to be
discarded without some consideration.
We have still another problem here, and it has to do with dating.
Analyzing mitochondrial DNA data to reconstruct the demographic
prehistory of Homo Sapiens reveals statistical evidence of explosive
growth around 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. Is there a connection
between this DNA evidence and the appearance of Cro-Magnon man? If
so, it would mean that the DNA is dated to twice the age that
Instead of assuming that the archaeological
dates are correct, perhaps we ought to ask the question: could
something be wrong with the dating? From a morphological point of
view as well as judging by their industry and art, these highly
evolved humans who coexisted with Neanderthal man represent a
mutation so enormous and sudden as to be absurd in the context of
What in the world are we going to do with this problem?
exhaustively describe the endless books and papers that seek to
explain it away; to account for it, to marginalize it, and even
ignore it. But at the end of it all, the fundamental problem still
remains: a new kind of man appeared on the planet, seemingly from
nowhere, and he was smart, artistic, and however he got here, he
landed in a lot of places simultaneously.
Did I say “landed”?
Yes, I did.
Am I suggesting that Cro-Magnon man was an alien? Not
We still have to consider the mitochondrial DNA of Eve. I
also haven’t forgotten that annoying problem of the Asian vs.
African origins of the “first mother” that has been so deftly dealt
with by avoidance and non-answers.
What do all of these factors,
taken together, suggest?
Well, any farmer can figure that one out:
it suggests hybridization. But that would imply somebody doing the
hybridizing. Further, we might wish to make note of the range of
this culture that suddenly dropped in on Europe: from Spain (and a
small region of North Africa) to the Ural Mountains that are at the
border of Central Asia.
The steppes of Central Asia, just north of Turkmenia, are a
difficult environment for agriculture. Goats and sheep and cattle
bones are found there that date to about 4000 BC. Later, the camel and horse came into use. These
cultures spoke Indo-European languages and their members are
believed to have been Caucasoid. There have been many theories that
the Caucasoid nomads of the Central Asian steppes migrated to
But, as we have seen, the initial migration may have been
from West to East. The archaeological record is uncertain, and
therefore the migrations of the Indo-Europeans (for so we may most
assuredly call them) from the Asian steppes are no longer as clear
in the minds of scholars as they once were.152 The migrations into
India and Pakistan, however, do seem to have some firmer foundation.
152 Renfrew, 1973, 1987.
These incursions were most likely from the Andronovo and Srubnaya
cultures as the culture described in the oldest Aryan texts is very
similar to that of the steppe nomads.
The Role of the Shaman
With that idea, we come to some very interesting relationships that
will go very far in providing clues to us in terms of asking some of
the most interesting questions of all relating to our idea of the
rites and myths of ancient man being the disjecta membra of a
Mircea Eliade writes:
Recent researches have clearly brought out the “shamanic” elements
in the religion of the Paleolithic hunters. Horst Kierchner has
interpreted the celebrated relief at Lascaux as a representation of
a shamanic trance.[…]
Finally, Karl J. Narr has reconsidered the problem of the “origin”
and chronology of shamanism in his important study.153 He brings out
the influence of notions of fertility (Venus statuettes) on the
religious beliefs of the prehistoric North Asian hunters; but this
influence did not disrupt the Paleolithic tradition.[…] it is in
this “Vorstellungswelt” that the roots of the bear ceremonialism of
Asia and North America lie. Soon afterward, probably about 25,000
BC, Europe offers evidence for the earliest forms of shamanism
(Lascaux) with the plastic representations of the bird, the tutelary
spirit, and ecstasy. […]
153 Barenzeremoniell und Schauanismus in der Altern Steinzeit
What appears to be certain is the antiquity of “shamanic” rituals
and symbols. It remains to be determined whether these documents
brought to light by prehistoric discoveries represent the first
expressions of a shamanism in statu nascendi or are merely the
earliest documents today available for an earlier religious complex,
which, however, did not find “plastic” manifestations (drawings,
ritual objects, etc) before the period of Lascaux.
In accounting for the formation of the shamanic complex in Central
and North Asia, we must keep in mind the two essential elements of
the problem: on the one hand, the ecstatic experience as such, as a
primary phenomenon; on the other, the historic-religious
milieu into which this ecstatic experience was destined to be
incorporated and the ideology that, in the last analysis, was to
validate it. […]
Everywhere in those lands, and from the earliest
times, we find documents for the existence of a Supreme Being of
celestial structure, who also corresponds morphologically to all the
other Supreme Beings of the archaic religions. The symbolism of
ascent, with all the rites and myths dependent on it, must be
connected with celestial Supreme Beings; […]
This symbolism of
ascent and “height” retains its value even after the “withdrawal” of
the celestial Supreme Being - for, as is well known, Supreme Beings
gradually lose their active place in the cult, giving way to
religious forms that are more “dynamic” and “familiar” (the Gods of
storm154 and fertility, demiurges, the souls of the dead, the Great
Goddesses, etc.) […]
The reduction or even the total loss in religious currency of
Uranian Supreme Beings is sometimes indicated in myths concerning a
primordial and paradisal time when communications between heaven and
earth were easy and accessible to everyone; as the result of some
happening, these communications were broken off and the Supreme
Beings withdrew to the highest sky.[…]
The disappearance of the cult of the celestial Supreme Being did not
nullify the symbolism of ascent with all its implication. […]
The shamanic ecstasy could be considered a reactualization of the
mythical illud tempus when men could communicate in concreto with
It is indubitable that the celestial ascent of
the shaman is a
survival, profoundly modified and sometimes degenerate, of this
archaic religious ideology centered on faith in a celestial Supreme
Being and belief in concrete communications between heaven and
The myths refer to more intimate relations between the Supreme
Beings and shamans; in particular, they tell of a First Shaman, sent
to earth by the Supreme Being or his surrogate to defend human
beings against diseases and evil spirits.155
154 Such as Yahweh.
155 Eliade, Mircea, Shamanism, Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, pp.
It was in the context
of the “withdrawal” of the “Celestial Being” that the meaning of the
shaman’s ecstatic experience changed.
Formerly, the activity was
focused on communing with the God and obtaining benefits for the
tribe. The shift of the function of the shaman associated with the
withdrawal of the benevolent God/Goddess was to “battling with evil
spirits and disease”. This is a sharp reminder of the work of Jesus,
healing the sick and casting out demons - the shamanic exemplar
“after the Fall”.
There was, it seems, another consequence of this “shift”.
Increasingly, the descents into the “underworld” and the relations
with “spirits” led to their “embodiment” or in the shaman’s being “possessed” by “spirits”. What
is clear is that these were innovations, most of them recent. What
is particularly striking in the research of the historiographers of
myth, legend, shamanism, etc, is the discovery of the “influences
from the south, which appeared quite early and which altered both
cosmology and the mythology and techniques of ecstasy”.
southern influences were the contribution of Buddhism and Lamaism,
added to the Iranian and, in the last analysis, Mesopotamian
influences that preceded them.156
The initiatory schema of the shaman’s ritual death and resurrection
is likewise an innovation, but one that goes back to much earlier
times; in any case, it cannot be ascribed to influences from the
ancient Near East. But the innovations introduced by the ancestor
cult particularly affected the structure of this initiatory schema.
The very concept of mystical death was altered by the many and
various religious changes effected by lunar mythologies, the cult of
the dead, and the elaboration of magical ideologies.
Hence we must conceive of Asiatic shamanism as an archaic technique
of ecstasy whose original underlying ideology - belief in a
celestial Supreme Being with whom it was possible to have direct
relations by ascending into the sky - was constantly being
transformed by an ongoing series of exotic contributions culminating
in the invasion of Buddhism. […]
The phenomenology of the trance underwent many changes and
corruptions, due in large part to confusion as to the precise nature
of ecstasy. Yet all these innovations and corruptions did not
succeed in eliminating the possibility of the true shamanic ecstasy.
More than once we have discerned in the shamanic experience a
“nostalgia for paradise” that suggests one of the oldest types of
Christian mystical experience. As for the “inner light”, which plays
a part of the first importance in Indian mysticism and metaphysics
as well as in Christian mystical theology, it is already documented
156 For example, the
co-opting and corruption of the Tree of Life symbolism by Judaism
with complete loss of its true function.
157 Ibid., pp. 506-508.
What seems to be most important about Central
Asian shamanism in the history of mysticism is the role the shaman
plays in the defense of the psychic integrity of the community.
Shamans are pre-eminently the anti-demonic champions; they combat
not only demons and disease, but also the black magicians. The
shaman is the tireless slayer of demons and dragons. And here we
find explication of the “military” elements of the Grail Ensemble.
The Sword in the Stone that can only be withdrawn by the “Heir”, or
the “Desired Knight”, was represented in the
Steppe shamanic regalia as lance, cuirass, bow, sword, etc. These
are accounted for in our study by virtue of the requirements of war
against the demons, the true enemies of humanity.
As Eliade points
out, the shaman defends life, health, fertility, the world of
“light”, against death, diseases, sterility, disaster, and the world
of “darkness”. In short, the Shaman is a very early “type” of the
Knight on the Quest for the Holy Grail - the Shamanic ascent to the
Celestial Spheres. We see that what is fundamental and universal to
the shaman, to the heroes of myth, to the Quest for the Holy Grail,
is the shaman’s struggle against what we could call “the powers of
The knight/shaman’s essential role in the defense of the
psychic integrity of the community depends above all on this: men
are sure that one of them is able to help them in the critical
circumstances produced by the inhabitants of the invisible world.
Here we come to a crucial characteristic of the knight/shaman: he
must be able to SEE what is hidden and invisible to the rest and to
bring back direct and reliable information from the supernatural
worlds. In short, in the accounts of shamanic ecstasies, we find
correspondence to the themes of the great epics in oral literature.
The knight/shaman’s adventures in the other world, the ordeals and
tests that he undergoes in his ecstatic descents below and ascents
to the sky, describe in every detail the adventures of the figures
in popular tales and the heroes of epic myths.
This suggests that
many epic “subjects” or motifs, as well as many characters, images,
and clichés of these tales, are of ecstatic, or even other-worldly
origin in the sense of interactions with hyperdimensional realities.
Tying it All Together
Here we may have found the essential key to the mystery of the Holy
Grail, the Ark of the Covenant and Noah’s Ark. We may even have, in
a sense, found Arthur and Perceval of the Grail stories: the
“Desired Knight” raised in obscurity, to discover that he is the
“rightful heir” who can unlock DNA potential and achieve the
shamanic ascent, or the Alchemical Transformation, and can remove
the sword from the stone and defend the community against “sickness
and demons” of an “otherworldly” nature.
Thus it is that we may find that our religious myths and rites are
remnants of narratives – a message in a bottle - designed to explain
these phenomena, and that the monotheistic versions, declaring a
Final End, or a Judgment Day of a final end, are merely distortions
of the myth designed to establish a Control System on our planet.
These distortions are beneficial to those who seek power and wealth,
who are under the control of archetypal forces of another realm of
which our own reality is but a shadow or a reflection.
reiterate: I do not mean, here, to suggest that this other realm is
“astral” or ephemeral or non-material. I am suggesting that it is an
intermediate realm of para-physical, hyper-dimensional beings whose
existence and nature has been carefully concealed from us for
millennia – for a reason that is not to our benefit.
And this leads
us to another exemplar of the “primordial myth”, Orion.
Orion, the Ark and the Holy Grail
The first question the reader might ask: What does Orion have to do
with Noah’s Ark and the Grail Quest?
A great deal, I think. The
similarities between the stories are many, the most evident being
the theme of the prior “Golden Age” that was lost - as well as HOW
it was lost.
According to Edith Hamilton, the story of Orion goes
He was a young man of gigantic stature and great beauty, and a
mighty hunter. He fell in love with the daughter of the King of
Chios, and for love of her he cleared the island of wild beasts. The
spoils of the chase he brought always home to his beloved, whose
name is sometimes said to be Aero, sometimes Merope (one of the
Her father, Oenopion, agreed to give her to Orion, but he
kept putting the marriage off. One day when Orion was drunk he
insulted the maiden, and Oenopion appealed to Dionysus to punish
him. The God threw him into a deep sleep and Oenopion blinded him.
An oracle told him, however, that he would be able to see again if
he went to the east and let the rays of the rising sun fall on his
eyes. He went as far east as Lemnos and there he recovered his
158 Hamilton, Edith,
Mythology (New York: New American Library 1942).
Other ancient sources suggest that the real reason for the
attack upon Orion was due to the fact that his beloved’s father,
King Oenopion, a son of Ariadne and Dionysus, plotted against him.
He was tricked into getting drunk, the same way Osiris (another
variation on the story) was tricked into getting into a coffin, and
as he slept, men fell upon him, put out his eyes, and then carried
him to a beach and cast him there.
Hephaestus - the Fire God - gave
him his servant Cedalion to serve him as a guide. Orion set him on
his shoulders and asked him to give directions to the sunrise, and
when they arrived Orion was healed by the sun’s rays. The similarity
to the story of Samson is evident. He, too, was deprived of his
strength while sleeping, his eyes were put out, and he was put to
work turning a millstone. In an encounter with the Pharisees, Jesus
mentions the “strong man” who had been “bound” in an obvious
allusion to the legend of Orion.
What is interesting about it is the
context in which this story was told:
Then a blind and dumb man, under the power of a demon, was brought
to Jesus, and He cured him, so that the blind and dumb man both
spoke and saw. ... But the Pharisees hearing it said, This Man
drives out demons only by and with the help of Beelzebub, the prince
of demons. And knowing their thoughts, He said to them, Any kingdom
that is divided against itself is being brought to desolation and
laid waste, and no city or house divided against itself will last or
continue to stand.
And if Satan drives out Satan, he has become
divided against himself and disunited; how then will his kingdom
last or continue to stand? And if I drive out the demons by
Beelzebub by whose help do your sons drive them out? ... Or how can
a person go into a strong man’s house and carry off his goods
without first binding the strong man? Then indeed he may plunder his
house. ... Either make the tree sound, and its fruit sound, or make the tree rotten and its
fruit rotten; for the tree is known and recognized and judged by its
In the above story, being “blind and dumb” was compared to
being a strong man who was bound, and who then was subjected to
having all his goods stolen.
As in the story of Orion (where he was
tricked into becoming drunk), and in the story of Samson, (in which
the sleeping man was deprived of his vigor represented by his hair),
the condition of being “bound” or blind and dumb is attributed by
Jesus to “demons”.160
Bible, Matthew 12:22-33.
160 The main point that Jesus was trying to make, of course, was
that “If Satan drives out Satan, he has become divided against
himself and disunited: how then will his kingdom last or continue to
stand?” Jesus was pointing out to the Pharisees that it was
completely illogical to accuse him of working in concert with
darkness since the effect of his work was to free the man of his
demonic attack which enabled him to both see and speak.
Another interesting side reference in the New
Testament is a remark Jesus made about the “blind leading the blind”
and both of them falling into the ditch. This seems to be another
reference to the story of Orion with Cedalion on his shoulders
This event can also be related to the story of
the Prodigal son who, when a famine came upon the land, asked a
“resident of the far country” for help, who then sent him to live
and eat with the pigs.
The Relevance of Orion to Our Situation
The astute reader may note that it’s a little bit curious that
deafness was omitted from the condition of being bound. Being healed
of deafness as a condition of becoming free is conspicuous by its
absence in this story. The fact is, as we will discover in the
course of our investigations, most of the distortions of our reality
come to us by listening rather than observing.
Deception and errors
of perception would have far less influence on us, and we would have
fewer illusions, if we would look at the face value of objects and
see things for what they really are instead of allowing ourselves to
be hypnotized by “experts” who have a vested interest in concealing
the truth - the blind leading the blind. Most of mankind’s illusions
are the “children of the ear” and hearsay. My beloved grandmother
always told me to, “believe none of what you hear and only half of
what you see”.
This is very good advice.
If we open our eyes and
look at a problem as objectively as we can, forgetting all our
beliefs and assumptions, and all the things we have been “told”, we
might be able to see what is, and if we then apply our minds to what
we see, we might be able to draw some accurate conclusions. It’s
easy to look back on history and see where this or that group was
“misled” in their beliefs and this distorted their thinking, which
then led them to perpetrate unspeakable horrors.
We can point to the
genocide advocated by the God of the Hebrews, whether it was
actually committed or not, or the religious-zeal-run-amok of the Catholic church when it
instituted the Inquisition and the Crusades. We can see the twisted
version of the desire to create a “genetic superman” that led to the
holocaust. It’s easy to discern these errors of the past, because we
“know more now”.
We know more now.
How much more can we learn?
Can we be certain that
the current beliefs of our reality are not similar manipulations?
How much more will we know in the future about our own present
Do we have any clues around us pointing out that
something is dreadfully amiss as were present in the years preceding
How many people at that time ignored all the warning
signs until it was too late?
How many people didn’t “get it” until
they were bombed back to the Stone Age?
Can we compare any of our
present reality to such a scenario?
After all, a smart man learns
from his mistakes; a genius learns from the mistakes of others.
At the present time, there are, indeed, indicators that we are being
maneuvered into a certain mind-set, a certain belief system. The
“reality game” has just gotten more and more complex, but the same
essential errors keep getting repeated. What is at the root? Will
our descendants look back on our own time and shake their heads in
dismay at how ignorant we were, how manipulated our thinking was,
and how great an error we made because of our beliefs?
As the reader
will discover, it seems that we are presently facing just such a
grand illusion; one that may be the grandest of them all, and if we
do not find our way to the light whereby our eyes can be healed, we
shall be, indeed, the householder who lost all he possessed because
he was bound and blinded by “demons”. And if we are blind, and
follow the blind, we will most certainly all fall into a pit; one
that we may not be able to get out of for a very long time.
We know that this question, “why is life the way it is?” is one that
we don’t like to face.
But, when we awaken late at night, alone in
our thoughts, with no distractions of daily life to fill the void,
we are face to face with our existential dilemma. And it is a
terrible silence. In those moments of cold clarity, the bleakness
and futility of our existence in cosmic terms rises up to confront
us as it has confronted all of humanity throughout millennia.
Looking back at history, we see that, to escape this monstrous “dark
night of the soul”, human beings will accept any answer - any
religious belief or philosophy - that may be offered, because the
cold, abyssal silence that follows the question must be filled at
any cost. The sad fact is, there are plenty of people willing to try
to convince us that they have “the answer to all our questions”.
These blind leading the blind can be found in the pulpits of nearly
every church across the land, and in the seminars and lecture
circuit of the New Age. But, these answers generally consist of
confusing the discernment of reality with personal opinion which
results in a judgment upon reality by refusing to acknowledge it as
it really is.
Those parts of reality that are not acknowledged have
a way of biting us.
“Those who do not learn from history are doomed
to repeat it.”
At the present moment in history, it seems that everybody and his
brother are either looking for King Arthur and the Holy Grail, or
are waiting for aliens to land on the White House lawn so they can
kick the tires of the UFO Cadillac.
I have hundreds of books on
these subjects, and over two dozen recent books, all of which claim
to have discovered that the two subjects overlap and that the Holy
Grail is really a bloodline, and
that this bloodline of “special people” are offspring of alien
beings, alternatively good guys or bad guys, depending on the
orientation of the writer.
Most of the conclusions of the current raft of alternative
researchers point to aliens from Mars having come to earth in the
distant past, and that they are the real “Gods”. The current fad of
focus on the pyramids and the sphinx have led them all to conclude
that the root of all of this is the great mysteries of Egypt - that
the Egyptian Gods are the original and true “Gods”. They declared to
be advanced and superior beings from the “stars”, i.e. Mars, and
they originally had a great civilization there that was destroyed,
and they came to earth and gave impetus to the formation of our own
The stories then sort of bifurcate between these Gods being truly
physical as humans are, or being “Neters” or principles, as in
purely ethereal beings who occasionally deign to manifest on earth.
Meanwhile, the opposing parties often declare the “Serpent race” to
be representative of a benevolent scaly gang of civilizers who have
humanity’s best interests at heart, as in Arthur C. Clarke’s
Childhood’s End. This group promotes a reptilian bloodline of
Christ, and proposes that a descendant of this line is going to come
along, a New Christ, who will lead us all to true enlightenment if
we prepare ourselves according to any number of bizarre proposals.
This group tends to see the alleged hyperdimensional Reptilian race
as physical like us and not, as we suggest, hyperdimensional
creatures of variable physicality. Still other groups tell us that
these reptilians are purely demonic, ethereal beings, who can
“descend” into a person, or a human being can “host” a reptilian and
“shape-shift” into this form (only if they have the genetics, mind
you), and become temporarily reptilian themselves.
The Queen of
England and many of the leaders of the world have been listed as
being of this latter type, with tales spun around them that pass the
bounds of bizarre into lunacy.
There are any numbers of variations on these themes, with just about
every preferred belief system from A to Z represented.
In all cases,
they have the chief feature of designation of this or that group of
physical human beings as conspirators or guardians, (Masons, Rosicrucians, Templars, Illuminati, take your pick), or a strict
ethereal conception of the conspirators or guardians. In the first
case, humanity is divided into “good guys” and “bad guys”. In the
second case, people are encouraged to place their faith in the
“ethereal good guys”, in order to be saved from the “ethereal bad
At the end of it all, as noted above, there is the strangest thing I
have ever observed: they all seem to be focused, in one way or
another, on “finding the Holy Grail”. Just as Hitler was obsessed
with discovery of some material object that would give him total and
complete power over all the world, so do these different groups have
a similar objective in mind: discover the Grail!
I thought about this for a long time. Why in the world is there this
obsessive concentration on Reptilian beings and the Holy Grail? Is
it a distraction, or is it an agenda? If it is either, what is
driving it? I realized that the only way to come to any ideas about
it would be to investigate the matter carefully.
The first thing we notice in undertaking such a study is that, in
the minds of these individuals, identifying Arthur seems to be the
prerequisite for discovering the
grail itself. The theory seems to be that if you can figure out who
Arthur really was, then you might be able to track his movements in
history and discover the hiding place of this great object of power.
In the numerous books I have on King Arthur, each one claims to have
the one and only answer as to who he was and when he lived and
where. Most of them are quite convincing with careful research and
scholarship. And they all have a slightly different answer.
Does this mean that no actual object - such as the Holy Grail or the
Ark of the Covenant, which, by the way, seem to often be confused as
one and the same “item” - does not exist? My personal opinion is that,
yes, it is possible that there is an “object of power”. But based on
the frantic searching going on, either it was lost, or it was
hidden, and it seems that even the hyperdimensional beings are
helpless to find it.
Assuming, for the sake of the hypothesis we are
playing with, that this is true, my theory is that they cannot SEE
it because it is “occluded” by a frequency that is impenetrable to
them for some reason. In fact, this idea seems to be another key
element of the Grail Stories - the theme of the Sword in the Stone.
Only the Heir can withdraw it and wield it.
And so, the current
craze for “finding the grail” seems to be promoted by those who are
anxious to find this object in hopes that the “right person” will
discover it and lead them to it.
From Scythia to Camelot
The important point at the moment regarding “Who is Arthur” is that
it seems that the Arthur of the Grail Quest is not, in a certain
sense, a real flesh and blood man, but is rather an archetypal
complex of images. Arthur is other and more than the sum of his
appearances in literature, and he is present in myths, stories and
images that have NO direct mention of him. Arthur is present in the
myths of all the sacrificial kings, dying saviors, and heroic
slayers of dragons from time immemorial. His story grows with every
episode we study, and after a time, we realize that Arthur, himself,
is only a clue.
Orion, Arthur, Arca, Arcadia (Ark of God),
Ark are all clues to the
mythology of Fall and Redemption: The Once and Future King. He is
the symbol of the Lost Eden and the New Jerusalem, the antediluvian
world and the passage to the postflood reality. His story has
branches that reach out to embrace all the ideas of cyclical changes
and all attempts to exert power over the environment as opposed to
interacting with Nature.
There are two books out of this entire morass that I consider to be
outstanding in terms of combining scholarship with thinking “out of
the box”. The first one is From Scythia to Camelot: A Radical
Reassessment of the Legends of King Arthur, etc., by C. Scott
Littleton and Linda A. Malcor, and The Keys to Avalon: The True
Location of Arthur’s Kingdom Revealed, by Steve Blake and Scott
Scott Littleton and Linda Malcor made the serendipitous discovery of
the parallels between the stories of King Arthur and the Ossetian
saga of Batraz which has enabled a major leap in understanding the
origins of the themes, and we hope to develop it further here.
According to Littleton and Malcor, a fellow scholar, J. P. Mallory,
told them that at the end of the Marcomannian War in the year 175
AD, the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius sent a contingent of 5,500 Sarmatian cataphracti 161 from Pannonia to Britain. Their descendants
survived as an identifiable ethnic group into the fourth century and
possibly longer. It was, as Littleton and Malcor put it, just an
“interesting bit of trivia” gleaned from Tadeusz Sulimirski’s book
161 Cavalry, mounted soldiers.
Sarmatians are a sub-group of Scythians, and the term “Scythian” can
mean either the ancient Scythian tribes described by Herodotus, or,
in the larger sense, it can apply to all of the Northeast Iranian
steppe peoples. The Scythians of antiquity, and their cousins, the
Sarmatians and Alans, were nomads of the Central Asian steppes. At
the time of their greatest manifestation on the stage of history,
the tribes extended from Hungary to China. These Scythians were big,
blond and blue-eyed, and based on the accounts that have come down
to us, and archaeological findings, their nomadic culture has sharp
parallels with the most ancient occupants of Europe.
At the end of the classical period, these steppe dwellers had been
driven to the edges of their homeland by the Altaic speakers, the
Huns and Turks. Some migrated to Afghanistan, eastern Iran, western
India, and others invaded the Roman Empire as either conquerors or
supporting mercenaries. Many of them migrated into Britain, Italy,
France, Spain and North Africa. Others retreated into Poland,
European Russia and the Caucasus. The assumption has been that the
Scythians, the sub-tribes of Iazyge 162 Sarmatians, Alans, etc,
vanished without a trace.
162 The name “Jadczyk” is a “Polish-ized” variation of Iazyge.
But that is not, apparently, the case. It
seems clear, upon reviewing the evidence, that the steppe dwellers
became the aristocracy of Europe. According to Littleton and Malcor,
another group of the Alani retreated into the Caucasus and survived
as an ethnic group called the Ossetes, or Ossetians, in what is now
known as the Republic of Georgia.
The Holy Grail was the chief concern of the Alans who settled in
Gaul and Spain in the fifth century. They were tall, blonde and good
looking, and lived a nomadic life in wagons. Their main claim to
fame was their skill as horsemen. The Scythians (including the
Alans) were referred to as Goths, and the one thing they all had in
common was their extraordinary art. They assimilated into the
territories they finally settled in, intermarrying with the Romans
and other indigenous people.
The name “Alan” and “Goar”
are common among these groups, being passed down from generation to
In addition to becoming the rootstock of most of the nobility of
Europe, the Alans introduced the steppe pony and the Alan hunting
dog. They introduced chain mail and the customs that were later to
become Norman and Breton chivalry, and above all, let it be
repeated, their natural home was on the back of a horse. Alienor of
Aquitaine was undoubtedly a descendant of the Alani and the Nart
sagas were a natural part of her heritage, becoming the foundation
for the Grail stories written and promulgated through her “courts of
love” after Geoffrey of Monmouth created the “history of Arthur”.
In the Latin chronicle Draco Normannicus, by Etienne de Rouen
(1169), Arthur is still alive in the twelfth century. He exchanges
letters with Henry II in which the monarchs discuss the sovereignty
of Brittany, but he allows Henry to claim the feudal rights to the
land as his vassal.
This seems to reflect the Alanic attitude toward
other rulers on the Continent from Gallo-Roman times on: allowing
Roman, Merovingian, Carolingian, French and even British kings to
rule over them while seeing themselves as having ultimate control
over the land.163
163 Littleton & Malcor, From Scythia to Camelot (New
York: Garland 1994) p. 37. 250
In the Nart Sagas, the prototype of the grail cup
is a large, magical vessel that appears at the banquets of the Narts, never runs dry, and magically rises to the lips of the hero
who is without blemish. In other words, it chose its own guardian.
The Grail legends tell of a special family that is intimately
connected to the fertility of the land, from which is born a
preeminent hero who becomes the sovereign of the Grail Castle and
the guardian of the Grail. This grail cup of the Narts is also a
“lie detector”. It would magically float to the lips of the man who
was telling the truth. We see, of course, that there does not seem
to be any particular “Christian” connection here, such as the
Grail being the cup of the Last Supper or whatnot.
as it is called, is a purely pagan symbol. In the archaeological
sites associated with the Sarmatians in southern Russia, cauldrons
are found almost exclusively in the graves of women. In the
Arthurian legends, the cup is almost always borne by a woman. In the
Scythian origin myth, a cup falls from the sky and is recovered by
Kolaxais, the youngest son of the primeval being Targitaos. The cup
is the prime symbol of sovereignty, and he who possesses it is
established in his royal lineage.
Following the connection between the saga of Batraz and the Narts
and Arthur and the knights of the round table, Littleton remembered
a passage in Dio Cassius’s Roman History, written in 225 AD, where
it is revealed that at the end of the Marcomannian war, 8,000
cataphracti from a Sarmatian tribe known as the Iazyges, were
impressed into the Roman legions. Of these, 5,500 of them were sent
to Britain. The Iazygian auxiliaries were posted in groups of five
hundred to the
garrisons along Hadrian’s Wall.
When their period of service was up,
they were settled into a veteran’s colony at Bremetennacum
Veteranorum near the modern village of Ribchester. What is most
fascinating is that their first commander was a Roman officer named
Lucius Artorius Castus, prefect of the VI legion Victrix. It seems
that the Iazyges were conscripted into the Roman army, and riding
under their own banner of the flying dragon, the Sarmatians must
have been an impressive sight.
Imagine 5,500 men with their
thousands of horses and long baggage trains, making their way across
Europe from the Hungarian plain to the shores of the Channel. Caesar
himself had invaded with only 400 cavalry and word of the coming of
the tall, fair horse warriors must have spread like wildfire across
As Littleton and Malcor demonstrate in their well-reasoned work, it
seems that the 12 victories attributed to “Arthur” by Nennius and
others, including the famous one at Badon Hill, which are
conventionally dated to the early sixth century AD, may actually
have belonged to Lucius Artorius Castus, won between 183-185 AD in
There does not seem to be any evidence that the Iazyge women
accompanied their men to Britain. There have been no traces found of
Sarmatian jewelry, makeup, mirrors or anything of what could be
considered evidence of Sarmatian femininity in the remains of Roman
forts, settlements or graveyards in Britain. This means that it is
very likely that they married local women and remained in Britain
when their term of service was over.
By the beginning of the third century, with 5,500 Sarmatians having
been stationed in northern England, it is certain that the skills,
talents, ideas, beliefs and legends of the steppe peoples were being
told and re-told, including their belief in the divine sword as
war-God, worshiped by being thrust into and withdrawn from the
ground. The divine sword was another potent and central symbol to
the Sarmatians, so it is no surprise that it has come down to us as
a central theme of the Arthurian saga - the “sword in the stone”
As the Sarmatians settled down and learned to speak the local
Celtic dialect with their new womenfolk and children, it seems only
natural that the great magical deeds of their own heroes, ancestors
and deities would spread among this new hybrid population. In 460
AD, Cunedda of the Votadini tribe was invited into North Wales to
help expel the Irish. The Votadini came from the northeast of
England; their capital was probably near Bamburgh, curiously close
to the seat of the great Percy family, Alnwick, and in the region of
the Parisi Celts - both interesting homonymic clues to the name
Percival of Grail fame.
During the time Britain had been under Roman rule, the Votadini had
acted as a police force for the Romans protecting their northern
frontier. But they had suffered since the Roman withdrawal. From the
north they were under threat from the Picts, from the west, the
Irish, and from the east, the Angles. It is believed that they
colonized northwest Wales. This theory is strengthened by the
finding of distinctive Votadini pottery in Gwynedd dating from this
period. It was at this point that the “dragon banner” became part of
the Welsh culture, which suggests a blending of the Celtic Welsh and
a Votadini-Sarmatian culture.
Thus we see a possible chain of evidence for the bringing of the
stories to Wales at this point, along with heroic figures that were
then assimilated to the mythical archetype, no matter what their actual deeds were. This must have
been the moment in which the Welsh prototype, a blending of Celtic
and Sarmatian imagery took place, during a period of turmoil and
Blake and Lloyd establish, with great clarity, that the written
historical material drawn on by Geoffrey was, in fact, a body of
Welsh stories - which were probably Sarmatian stories before they
were Welsh - based upon real people whose histories and geography
match the particulars so completely that there is little doubt left
that Geoffrey was “reinventing Arthur” to suit contemporary agendas.
In point of fact, as Blake and Lloyd show, Geoffrey’s account was
merely the first step in hijacking the Welsh prototype that has been
followed ever since.
The primary question asked by Blake and Lloyd
is: where did Geoffrey get his materials? And they carefully and
thoroughly demonstrate that they came from Wales, known originally
In the 12th century “Britannia” did not denote the whole of Great
Britain, as we know it today but referred specifically to Wales.
This raised a crucial question: if Britannia was the Latin name for
Wales, what had been the original Latin name for England? …
the answer to this in the 12th century book of Llandaff, where the
name of the land that bordered Britannia was given on more than one
“The borders of Britannia and Anglia towards Hereford…
From both parts of Anglia and Britannia… Anglia.”164
164 Blake and Lloyd, The Keys to Avalon, (Shaftesbury,
Dorset: Element Books 2000) p. 14.
Geoffrey’s spin on the stories, many researchers have come to the
idea that a mysterious and shadowy “Riothamus” is the “Historical
Arthur”. Indeed, letters from Sidonius to Riothamus still survive
and, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, Arthur’s antagonist during a
continental invasion was “Leo, emperor of Rome”.
As it happens, the
eastern Roman emperor at the time of Riothamus was Leo I, supported
by the Alanic general Aspar. Leo appointed a Byzantine noble,
Anthemius, to negotiate a British alliance in 467, which brought
Riothamus, “king of the Britons”, to Gaul in 468. Riothamus and his
12,000 troops fought a series of battles on the Continent, moving
right into the region where the Lancelot legends are set. Sidonius’
letter was an appeal to Riothamus to stop enticing away the slaves
of a local landowner. Gaul’s Imperial prefect called on Euric, King
of the Visigoths, to crush Riothamus.
The Chronicles of Anjou say
that Arthur’s betrayer was Morvandus, which is very likely a
combination of the name of the traditional betrayer of Arthur,
Mordred, and the real name of the prefect, Arvandus. There is no
record of Riothamus’s death, but the last mention of him has him
moving toward a town called Avallon. Thus, Geoffrey Ashe proposes
Riothamus as the “real” Arthur.
However, as Littleton and Malcor, Blake and Lloyd demonstrate, this
Riothamus was a Johnny-come-lately to the archetypal assimilation
Descendants of the Iazyges in Britain may have been among the troops
of this Riothamus, and very likely, many of them never returned to
Britain, and their legends of Arthur, assimilating their lost leader
Riothamus, mixed with the variations on the Nart sagas brought to
Gaul by the Alans, combined to form the corpus of the Arthurian
tradition born in France.
What is of particular interest is the identity of the original
Celtic Welsh, or Britons, who had earlier retreated defensively into
Wales. As the Anglo-Saxons invaded and moved further west, many of
the Britons fled the country to settle in Normandy.
Gildas, writing in the sixth century AD, is the first native British
writer whose works have come down to us. Nennius, writing about 200
years later, refers to “the traditions of our elders”. And Geoffrey
of Monmouth praises the works of Gildas and Bede and wonders at the
lack of other works about the early kings of Britain saying:
“Yet the deeds of these men were such that they deserve to be
praised for all time. What is more, these deeds were handed joyfully
down in oral tradition, just as if they had been committed to
writing, by many peoples who had only their memory to rely on.”165
165 Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of
the Kings of Britain, translated by Lewis Thorpe, 1966, p. 1.
In describing the fifty or so years preceding his account of Arthur,
Geoffrey of Monmouth tells us about Vortigern and the arrival of the
Saxons under the leadership of Hengest and Horsa, an obvious
assimilation of the earlier arrival of the Votadini and Sarmatians
to Wales to drive out the Irish. Present throughout these events is
the presence of Merlin - the British equivalent of Hiram Abiff - and
Daedalus combined: the great architect of the temple.
What we are interested in is the fact that Merlin was credited with
building Stonehenge. For some reason, based on the “oral tradition”,
Geoffrey of Monmouth connected the mysterious and legendary figure
of Merlin to the prehistoric monument on the Salisbury plain. The
question then is not about the accuracy of Geoffrey’s history, but
why he made this connection? Was it based on stories in the
traditions that he had mentioned and considered to be reliable?
Traditions that predated the arrival of the Sarmatians?
The Stonehenge story told by Geoffrey of Monmouth begins with a
treacherous massacre of the Britons by Hengest and his Saxons, which
took place at a peace conference. The Saxons hid their daggers in
their shoes and, at a signal from their leader, drew them and killed
all the assembled British nobles except the king. Geoffrey tells us
that the meeting took place at the “Cloister of Ambrius, not far
from Kaercaradduc, which is now called Salisbury”. He later
describes this as a monastery of three hundred brethren founded by
Ambrius many years before.
As it happens, there is a place called Amesbury about two and a half
miles east of Stonehenge, which was originally called Ambresbyrig.
This site in no way matches the description of the Cloister of Ambrius. The cloister is described as situated on Mount Ambrius,
whereas Amesbury is in the valley of the river Avon. Geoffrey tells
us that the victims of the massacre were buried in the cemetery
beside the monastery, not two and a half miles away. What is more,
since it seems that Geoffrey was acting under the pressure of the
mythical norm of assimilating current events to the archetype, we
then are left free to consider the possibility that this was the
site of an ancient and famous massacre and that Stonehenge and the
Cloister of Ambrius are one and the same.
The fact that Geoffrey called it a “cloister” is a curious choice of
words since a cloister is “a covered arcade forming part of a
religious or collegiate establishment”. That certainly seems to
describe Stonehenge very well. Geoffrey was obviously trying to
“Christianize” Stonehenge in his references to monastery and monks.
The Saxons gave Stonehenge the name by which we know it today.
Britons called it the Giant’s Dance, and Geoffrey certainly had a
tradition to draw on there if he had wanted to since he begins his
history with the adventures of Brutus, a descendant of Aeneas, who,
after much traveling and fighting, landed on Britain, which was
uninhabited except for a few giants. Geoffrey had a reasonable
context here in which to place Stonehenge, but he ignored it and
instead attributed the building of Stonehenge to Merlin after the
dreadful massacre by the Saxons.
This enabled him to connect his
Arthur to the great architect of the monument and all its glories.
This suggests to us that there was a solid tradition behind this
idea: that Stonehenge was the focal point of a people who had
suffered a terrible, terminal disaster; after the disaster they had
built Stonehenge, and the stones themselves had magical properties
that could heal. In short, this tradition may reach back into the
mists of antiquity.
In Geoffrey’s story, Merlin suggests to Aurelius that he ought to
send an expedition to Ireland to fetch the Giant’s Ring from Mount
The King begins to laugh and asks:
“How can such large stones be moved from so far-distant a country?”
he asked. “It is hardly as if Britain itself is lacking in stones
big enough for the job!”
“Try not to laugh in a foolish way, your
Majesty,” answered Merlin.
“What I am suggesting has nothing
ludicrous about it. These stones are connected with certain secret
religious rites and they have various properties that are
medicinally important. Many years ago the Giants transported them
from the remotest confines of Africa and set them up in Ireland at a
time when they inhabited that country. Their plan was that, whenever
they felt ill, baths should be prepared at the foot of the stones;
for they used to pour water over them and to run this water into
baths in which their sick were cured. What is more, they mixed the
water with herbal concoctions
and so healed their wounds. There is not a single stone among them
which hasn’t some medicinal value.”166
As W. A. Cummins, geologist
and archaeologist remarks, all of this sounds like a pre-medieval
tradition about Stonehenge, possibly even prehistoric. However,
instead of coming from Africa, or even Ireland, the bluestones used
in the construction of Stonehenge come from the Prescelly Mountains,
or Mynydd Preselau. The so-called “altar stone”, however, most
likely came from somewhere in the Milford Haven area in
Why did the builders of Stonehenge go all the way to Mynydd
Preselau for the bluestones, when there were perfectly satisfactory
stones to be had much nearer home?
Why if their main source of bluestones was Mynydd Preselau, did
they also bring a single huge block for micaceous sandstone (the
Altar Stone), which quite certainly did not come from that area?167
166 Ibid., p. 139.
167 Cummins, W. A., King Arthur‘s Place in Pre-history, (Surrey: Bramley Books 1992) p. 64.
Cummins remarks astutely that Geoffrey was eight and a half
centuries closer to the event than we are, so maybe his account is
correspondingly closer? In these few remarks by Geoffrey of
Monmouth, referring to the Cloisters of Ambrius, and “baths” at the
“foot of the stones”, we find a possible hidden connection between
the Cauldron of rebirth, the Holy Grail, and Stonehenge.
explanation of the importance of the stones as reported in
Geoffrey’s history, is that they were connected to “secret religious
rites” that he further explains have to do with “magical healing
properties”, an interesting juxtaposition of “stones” and a sort of
“elixir of life”.
There is a very ancient Celtic tradition about cauldrons of rebirth,
into which wounded, dead or dying soldiers were plunged, and came
out healed, whole and reborn. The Holy Grail also bestowed health,
healing of battle wounds, and curing of disease upon its bearers.
The Celtic cauldrons were also sources of abundance, prophecy,
inspiration, and knowledge.
Cerridwen, the Welsh Moon Goddess, had a
magic cauldron of inspiration.
Welsh Bards called themselves Cerddorion (sons of Cerridwen). The Bard Taliesin, founder of their
craft, was said to be born of Cerridwen and to have tasted her
potion known as “greal”, made from six plants for inspiration and
knowledge. Branwen, the sister of Bran the Blessed, was the “Lady of
the Cauldron”, as well as the Lady of the Lake.
In short, the “Lake”
from which the famous Sword emerged, and to which it was returned,
was a Cauldron, or the Holy Grail.
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