graphene is the material of the future.
definition can be considered somewhat complex, but the truth is
that the properties of this material open a new horizon in the
world of technology.
Ultimate Guide to Graphene - Everything You Need to Know About Graphene
Graphene is a
material composed of pure carbon, similar to
graphite but with
characteristics that make it extraordinarily light and strong.
sheet of one square meter of graphene weighs 0.77 milligrams.
Its strength is 200 times greater than that of steel and its
density is similar to that of carbon fiber.
All these make it
resist high bending forces without breaking.
It is one of the
most conductive materials for electricity and
heat, which makes
it the perfect material for electronics and many other
applications are virtually unlimited and promise to
revolutionize many fields:
from electronics and computing to
construction or even 'health'...
You can find nearly all
applications of graphene in this below list - some already
commercialized, some need years to materialize.
Graphene is called the "wonder material" for a reason.
tens of research about it which are not published yet, but may
change the world tomorrow. On the other hand, some of the
potential applications we list here may be disproven in the
For this reason, we cannot claim that this list
includes all applications of graphene, but unquestionably, it is
one of the most inclusive lists of the applications of graphene
you can find online.
The content of this post or any other linked material is
intended for informational purposes only and should not be taken
as medical or technical advice.
Applications in Energy Industry
in Solar Cells
The idea of
developing lighter, flexible and transparent solar cells has
been around for a while but finding the material which has all
the properties and able to carry the current was the issue.
Indium Tin Oxide has been used because it was transparent,
however it was not flexible therefore the cell had to remain
researchers from MIT have managed to apply Graphene
successfully on a solar cell. When they compared the graphene
solar cell with others made of
Aluminum and Indium Tin Oxide, they saw that it was as good
as the ITO cell, and a little worse than Al one in terms of
current densities and power conversion efficiencies.
is expected for a transparent cell to perform lower than
Aluminum-based, which is nontransparent.
electrical properties were not a breakthrough, a solar cell that
can be installed on any kind of surface (cars, clothes, paper,
and cell phones, etc.) which is flexible and transparent was
Moreover, other scientists are trying to find out if graphene solar cells can
generate energy from raindrops, which theoretically looks
Use of Graphene in Solar Cells
enhanced Li-ion batteries show incredible characteristics such
as longer lifespan, higher capacity, and faster charging time as
well as flexibility and lightness, so that it could be used in
Lithium Ion Batteries vs. Graphene Batteries
in Nuclear Power Plants
used in nuclear power plants to cool the reactors is both costly
to produce and causes a million tons of CO2 emissions during
Researchers from University of Manchester have
discovered that there is a
greener and low-cost method to produce heavy water:
Team leader Dr. Lozada-Hidalgo believes that this
innovation is extremely important and its introduction to the
nuclear industry will be soon even though this industry is
usually skeptical about new technologies.
Graphene for Nuclear Power Plants
effect is defined as a thermoelectric effect occurring when heat
is applied to one of the two dissimilar electric conductors (or
semiconductors) to move the electrons from the hot part to the
cooler part and produce electricity.
However, the energy
generated by this method is really small, usually quantified by microvolts.
Still, it is believed that it can be used to benefit
from the heat generated by the engines, which is practically
wasted. Graphene can be used to increase the Seebeck effect
Strontium Titanate, almost up to 5 times.
in Alcohol Distillation
physical properties is so interesting and unique that, it would
let large water molecules to pass through but stop Helium
molecules which could leak through glass.
Andre Geim (one of the
inventors of Graphene) and Rahul Nair from Manchester University
have tried sealing a bottle of vodka with graphene membrane that
they have developed, and discovered that graphene could
distill ethanol effectively even at room temperature and
without the vacuum needed for distillation methods.
This area of
utilization can be employed in alcoholic beverages, fuel, water
purification and so on.
in Fuel Cells
atoms, known as the smallest atom, cannot pass through Graphene.
In another research, Sir Andre Geim and his team have tested if
protons would be blocked by graphene or not.
protons could pass through graphene. This property would improve
fuel cells performance by lowering the fuel crossover which is a
major problem with fuel cells that decreases durability and
Fuel Cells' development with Nanotechnology
Applications in Medicine
of Graphene in Medicine
in Drug Delivery
Functionalized graphene can be used to carry
to tumors for cancer patients.
Graphene based carriers targeted cancer cells better and
reduced and decreased toxicity of the effected healthy cells.
Drug delivery is not limited to cancer treatment,
anti-inflammatory drugs have also been carried by graphene &
chitosan combinations and yielded promising results.
in Cancer Treatment
also detect cancer cells in the early stages of the disease.
Moreover, it can stop them from growing any further in many
types of cancer by intervening the correct formation of the
tumor or causing autophagy which leads to the death of cancer
Graphene Shows Potential as Novel Anti-cancer Therapeutic
in Gene Delivery
is a method used to cure some genetic diseases by bringing
foreign DNA into cells...
Graphene Oxide modified by Polyethyleneimine can be used for these purposes is expected to
show low cytotoxicity, as it did in the drug delivery case.
in Photothermal Therapy
therapy (PTT) is a approach used to eliminate abnormal cells in
the targeted area of the body by irradiating a special agent
which creates heat capable of destructing those cells.
oxide increases effectiveness of PTT by a number of ways.
it can be used to carry chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumor
cells while they are being exposed to PTT simultaneously.
Combining chemo and PTT like this is more effective than using
one of these approaches alone.
A nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide (QD-CRGO) can be used during PTT for bioimaging
of the cancer cells.
Moreover, in their research, a
group of scientists from Texas Tech and Texas A&M University
have shown that using graphene oxide functionalized with
biocompatible porphyrin as a platform for PTT for brain cancer
have killed more cancer cells than PTT alone, while giving no
harm to the healthy cells.
in Diabetes Monitoring
from the University of Bath have developed a blood glucose
monitoring test which does not pierce the skin, unlike currently
used finger prick tests.
This patch, including a graphene
sensor, is able to work on a small area containing at least one
hair follicle. It detects the glucose by pulling it from the
fluid present between the cells.
This does not only end the
painful methods of blood sugar monitoring, but is also expected
to increase the accuracy of the results.
membranes are not only useful for the energy, nuclear and food
A group of
researchers from MIT showed that graphene can be used to
filter the blood from wastes, drugs and chemicals as well.
Graphene's superiority in this case is that it is 20 times
thinner than traditional membranes which leads to significant
decrease in the time spent in the dialysis for the patients.
Improving Dialysis Process with Graphene
in Bone and Teeth Implantation
Hydroxyapatite, a form of calcium apatite, is a material
used as a synthetic bone substitute for regenerated bone and
Graphene, combined with Hydroxyapatite and
Chitosan, have shown increase in the strength, corrosion
resistance, flexibility and mechanical & osteogenic properties
of the substitute when compared to HAp alone.
in Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy
Bones are not
the only tissue graphene can cure.
Certain forms of graphene
were shown to be compatible with human osteoblasts and human
mesenchymal cells, showing similar properties with the cells'
Cells grown with this method
demonstrated better growth, proliferation, and differentiation
while being ineffective on the cells' viability.
Stem cells are
especially important in
tissue reengineering to improve the lives of people with
neuronal disorders or neurodegenerative diseases.
are used for detecting dangerous levels of ultra-violet
radiation which can lead to skin problems or even cancer.
However, it is not the only use of UV sensors, they are used in
the military, optical communication, and environmental
monitoring as well.
On its own, graphene may not present a high
photoresponsivity but when it is combined with other materials,
they create flexible, transparent, environmentally-friendly and
low-cost UV sensors which will lead to technologies such as
wearable electronics in the close future.
Graphene UV Sensors
for the Brain
about the brain haven't been revealed completely yet.
A graphene-based technology may allow scientists to uncover many
of the unknowns
by recording brains electrical activity. This new device is
able to hear the frequencies below older technologies' limits,
and it doesn't interfere with the functioning of the brain.
Besides research on how the brain works, the technology can help
the scientists to understand the reasons behind epilepsy
seizures and develop treatments for the patients.
discovering more about the brain could lead to developing new
Brain-Computer interfaces which are used in many areas including
control of prosthetic limbs.
in HIV Diagnosis
the improvements, there are many drawbacks on current HIV
They can either detect the antibodies in the
body nearly a month later the patient was infected, or they can
detect the virus itself however these methods take some time to
process themselves and more expensive when compared to the
biosensor made of silicon or graphene, containing
Gold Nanoparticles was developed by Spanish National
Research Council, which targets p24, an antigen found on HIV.
The new method can detect the virus only a week after being
infected and at levels 100,000 times lower than what the current
tests can notice. Moreover, results of the test are ready within
5 hours of being tested.
Fastest HIV Diagnosis with Gold Nanoparticles and Graphene
One of the
advantages of graphene is its ability to detect minimal amounts
Even a single molecule in a large volume can be
detected with it. Biosensors made of graphene,
graphene oxide or
reduced graphene oxide show ultrasensitive properties when
detecting DNA, ATP, dopamine, oligonucleotides, thrombin, and
There are several medical companies that
already sell medical sensors made with graphene.
Health Sensors from Graphene Sheets
Graphene is a
magnificent bactericidal material as it avoids the generation of
microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, by
damaging their cell membranes between its outer layers.
compared to different derivatives of Graphene,
and reduced Graphene Oxide shows the best antibacterial effects.
GO can also be used as a compound with
silver nanoparticles to increase antibacterial properties
in Birth Control
all the properties that is desired in a condom:
it is flexible,
extra strong and extremely thin.
Researchers from Manchester University have worked on
developing a "supercondom"
made of graphene and latex combined.
The research has received
many funding, including one from
Bill and Melinda Gates
in Deaf-Mute Communication
A group of
Chinese scientists have developed a wearable, bio-integrated
device that can translate sign language into text and spoken
The device uses graphene's incredible conductivity and
New Way of Deaf-Mute Communication with 3D Graphene
in Body Scans
X-rays, T-waves which can be used for body scanning are harmless
to human body.
However, there is a catch. T-waves, or THZ
radiation, is hard to both detect and generate. The good news
is, with the help of some modifications and other materials,
CVD graphene can
detect THZ radiation successfully.
This will not only lead
to safer body scans, but also incredibly faster internet in the
Graphene's Applications in
of Graphene in Electronics
in Generating Light
MIT have discovered that when light hits the surface of
graphene, it's slowed down and the photons started moving in a
speed very close to the speed of electrons which increases when
moving on graphene.
This coincidence makes it possible to break
the light barrier for electrons and creates light.
of this method over the conventional ways of generating light
such as fluorescent or LEDs is that it's expected to be more
efficient, faster, compact and controllable, and it looks like
generating light from graphene will be a key milestone in
developing even smaller, faster and more efficient computer
supertransistors, which replace silicon with graphene, can
increase the speed of computers up to one thousand times when
compared to current technology.
Increasing speed of computers is
a crucial step for many technologies to be able to improve,
including but not limited to blockchain, simulations of the
outer space, robots, and stock markets.
Meet the World's Fastest Transistor with Graphene
in Waterproof Electronics
One of the
main problems of electronic devices which people are afraid of
is being dropped to water.
Instead of covering the device with
tight-fitted screws, graphene proposes a great solution for this
problem. Engineers from Iowa State University print the circuits
of the device with graphene flakes because graphene is
transparent, strong and conducts electricity.
are arranged in a specific order and non-conductive binders are
used to combine them which improved the conductivity.
As in the
most application areas, graphene again puts a great solution to
in Wearable Electronics
are looking for new ways to power wearable devices.
One of the
outstanding ways is flexible batteries printed on a fabric with graphene. This enables people to wear their batteries and power
their smartphones or other devices, literally. If this can be
achieved, it will be an environmentally friendly and smart
e-textile that can store energy.
Carrying heavy power-banks or
chargers will be history by the invention of this amazing idea.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the commercial product used as
transparent conductor of the smartphones, tablets, and
computers. Researchers from the Rice University have developed a
graphene-based thin film to be used in touchscreens.
It is found
that graphene-based thin film beats ITO and any other materials
in terms of performance because it has lower resistance and
Thus, Graphene is the new candidate
material for the replacement of ITO.
in Flexible Screens
The world of
technology would be one of the great beneficiaries of the
standardization of graphene as a material to incorporate in
products such as smartphones or tablets. It would be the
definitive step to advance in the world of smartphones.
Chinese company has produced a bendable smartphone with a
graphene touch screen. Since one layer of graphene is strong,
light, transparent and very conductive, it meets all the
requirements for the production of smartphones.
of the Chinese company has the ability to wrap a twist
completely, and it weighs only 200 grams which propose a perfect
convenience for usage.
However, production of graphene is
expensive at an industrial scale relative to other materials
used in smartphones.
Researchers are looking for ways to produce graphene at lower costs. When this problem and some others are
solved, old phones seem to be replaced by these flexible
smartphones in the future.
Nanografi's Greengraphene project, producing highest quality
Graphene with environmentally friendly methods and lowest costs:
Nanografi's EU Horizon2020 winner project: GREENGRAPHENE
in Hard Drives and Memories
graphene is not considered magnetic, at least not in a
controllable or useful way. In 2015, researchers from U.S. Naval
Research Laboratory have found a way to
turn graphene into a reliable and controllable electromagnetic
If this innovation is used in hard drives, it is
expected to have a capacity almost a million times greater than
what we use today.
in Elastic Robots
A team of
researchers has developed a gel that is sensitive to near
infrared light so that it could be used in numerous applications
when creating flexible or elastic robotic parts.
snake-like robots created with this method are able to
change its form without any forces from the outside.
future applications can vary from search-and-rescue to medical
as a Superconductor
discovered that graphene can also be used as a
Two layers of Graphene can conduct the
electron without any resistance. This can be accomplished by
twisting these two layers of graphene at a 'magic angle' which
Most of the superconductive materials show their
properties at temperatures close to absolute zero.
temperature superconductive materials relative to usual ones can
work at around -140°C. In other words, these superconductive
materials require a huge energy for cooling.
If graphene can be
used as a superconductive material at temperatures close to room
temperature, there will be a huge revolution for many
are working on a new material for the optical communications
since energy and power requirement increase as the time passes.
A research conducted by the collaboration of different
universities has shown that integrating graphene with silicon
can beat current silicon photonic technology.
How can it beat
the current state of art? Because devices made by graphene are
cheaper, simpler and work at high-scale wavelengths.
Apparently, graphene will present a low-energy optical telecommunication and
many other convenient optical systems.
in Optical Sensors
a lot of breakthroughs in industry and science owing to its
Researchers tried to shrink the light to make
optical sensors smaller.
Recently, the Institute of Photonic
Sciences (ICFO) in Barcelona, with the collaboration of Graphene
Flagship team, conducted a
study which explains the reduction of light down to just a
single atom thick which is thought to be impossible by many
This discovery will lead to a huge step in
ultra-small optical sensors and switches.
One of the
first practical and real applications of graphene was
Instead of the bulky sensors that many
stores use, the sensors made with graphene are smaller, more
aesthetic, able to bend without creating a damage on the
circuit, and cost only a couple cents per tag.
Applications in Food Industry
in Food Packaging
also be used as a coating material because it prevents the
transfer of water and oxygen.
membranes can be used in food or pharmaceutical packaging by
keeping food and medicines fresh for longer time. It may seem a
simple application, but it can dramatically reduce the amount of
food waste people throw away every day.
in Water Purification
water purification is not a simple process and feasibility of
the process depends on how heavily the water is contaminated.
Australian scientist has found a low-cost technique to purify
water at one step. Soybean-based graphene, which is also called
'GrapHair', is used as a filter.
This filter can make the
dirtiest water drinkable. it is more efficient, cheaper and
environmentally friendly compared to other methods.
Use of Graphene in Water Filtration
Approximately, 97.5% of the total water present on the planet is
It does not matter how many wells we excavate, only 2.5%
of the total is fresh water. The filters based on meshes that
use graphene have yielded amazing results.
The University of
Manchester employed graphene to make filtering sieve that has
higher density and permit the water particles to pass but
prevents the salts.
in Crop Protection
Graphene is a
great material for
Micro-sized sensors can be produced thanks to graphene's unique structure. It can detect whether a molecule is
dangerous or not for the environment.
These sensors can be used
in food industry, especially in crop protection.
track and detect dangerous and harmful gasses to crop and they
can determine the ideal areas for the growth of the crop
depending on the atmospheric conditions, and even the moisture
"thirst" of the plants with the help of graphene sensors.
for Food Security
US Rice University have shown that laser-induced graphene
can be applied to various substances such as wood, bread,
It may seem like a substance with a pattern on it
printed with ink, but it is not. The laser carburizes the
material and carburized material is converted into graphene.
pattern that is desired can be achieved by this technique.
Issues that are related to food security can be overcame by this
Applications in Sports
Yes, although in this case it is not used purely,
other composite materials take advantage of it. In fact, it is
claimed that a sole made of pure graphene could last hundreds of
University of Manchester and sports brand
Inov-8 developed a shoe using graphene which increases the
outsoles' strength and flexibility properties by 50%.
shoes are more durable and absorbs the impacts which could
damage the bones and joints.
helmet would be strong, resistant to impact, durable,
comfortable, and light.
Graphene is incredibly strong, light,
It's even used in bulletproof vests, so it can
definitely resist impacts. With these properties, graphene is
commercially used in
also used to make smarter tires and sports bike components.
Adding graphene to bike's tires apparently increases the
puncture resistance and velocity, decreases rolling resistance
and makes them way lighter, stronger, faster, and more
Graphene Tires and Graphene Brake Pads
The use of
graphene fibers in fabrics offers antibacterial, and anti-static
clothes which can preserve the heat and block UV.
can be used to create outdoor sportswear, pajamas for children
that repel soil bacteria, or even household furniture to prevent
the development of bacteria on its surface.
can improve the energy distribution and weight of the racket
while increasing the service speed and stability.
equipment manufacturer Head have already developed a series
of commercially available racket enhanced with graphene,
360" which is already used by tennis stars like Novak Djokovic and
Electronic Tattoos and Fitness Tracking
Graphene Electronic Tattoo (GET) is developed by scientists
at the University of Texas.
First, they are more resistant to
moisture, have a greater elasticity - with the ability to grow
or shrink up to 40%, have a total thickness of 463 ± 30 nm, and
have optical transparency of approximately 85%.
They are like a
second skin. These tattoos can be used to track heart rate,
temperature, hydration levels, oxygen saturation and even the
level of exposure to UV.
Their application areas can vary from
fitness tracking to medicine.
Applications of Graphene
in China have conducted a
research to enhance the properties of silk which has already
great characteristics. Silkworms eat white mulberry leaves.
Researchers sprayed a solution having 0.2 percent graphene on
the leaves and let the silkworms eat that leaves.
promising because commercial silkworms fed by graphene sprayed
leaves give ten times more than what a usual silkworm can.
it is uncertain how much of the graphene is digested by
silkworms, this study will have a positive effect on smart
clothing which is a hot topic of the recent years.
Feeding Silkworms with Carbon Nanotube or Graphene to Spin
application areas of graphene expand as the time passes.
the important potential usages of graphene is construction
industry because graphene is strong and light at the same the
which is perfect for construction. It can be used instead of
steel, but strength and weight are not the only parameters.
Graphene's main problem is that crack propagates very fast
in graphene which can cause catastrophic failures.
are trying to find ways for using graphene in construction. A
group of researchers from University of Exeter used graphene in
cement as a reinforcement material and tested.
As a result, 2.5
times stronger and 4 times less water permeable concrete was
obtained which proves that graphene can be a great reinforcement
material in construction.
of Graphene in Construction
be used as a superconductor or
insulator material when two sheets of graphene are arranged
at a magic angle.
Most of the metal parts of the cars, ships or
planes suffer from rusting. When graphene is combined with
paint, it can be a great insulation material for creating
Another application can be coating of bricks
and stones. In this way, water-proof houses can be constructed.
Graphene in Construction
in Speakers and Headphones
converts electricity into sound by vibrating a membrane in the
Graphene is used to make lightweight and great rigidity
membranes. Moreover, headphones use a small diaphragm reinforced
GrapheneQ, a headphone developed by the company
ORA Sound is lighter and smaller, and at the same time it
can reach louder and higher quality sounds with less energy.
Graphene in Photography
Due to its
exceptional properties and high sensitivity to ultraviolet,
visible and infrared lights, graphene seems to be one of the
ideal materials to push digital photography and any discipline
where optical modulators and photoreceptors are involved.
Cameras' sensors enhanced with graphene and quantum dot can be
smaller and lighter while achieving greater resolution levels
than any small sensor could up until now.
extraordinary strength and hardness of graphene, coupled with
its flexibility, is perfect to start creating cars that are
immune to shocks.
Moreover, accident-proof vehicles could also
This would result in a direct decline in road
mortality. Graphene cars, which we may see in the showrooms
within a decade, are also expected to be cheaper and lighter.
from UK have designed an airplane that includes graphene in the
carbon-fiber coating of the aircraft's wings.
Prospero, was lighter since it was enough to cover the wings
with only one layer of the improved composite. It consumes less
fuel, resists impact better, and has lower environmental costs
Use in the Aerospace Industry
knows it very well: humidity is the number one enemy of
Graphenstone is a company that makes graphene painting
The result? The light bounces better, protects
barrels and basements, absorbs 120 grams of CO2 per
square meter and is able to withstand the corrosion derived from
contact with metals.
Graphene in Construction
used in the manufacturing of bulletproof vests, helmets and
protective clothing and even weapons.
But graphene has much
greater malleability and is medically safer in case of accident
and contact with the bloodstream.
Moreover, Kevlar and graphene
composites are lighter to wear, and increases heat absorption
for the protection of the fibers, when compared to Kevlar on its
Applications of Graphene
in Military Protective Equipment
One of the
future uses that have been raised for graphene is destined for
the arms industry.
In particular, its usefulness would be aimed
at shielding and protection. It could be used in making helmets,
bulletproof vests, and many more accessories.
It could, in fact,
be a determining material for the future of police forces and
Applications of Graphene
in Thermal and Infrared Vision
advance that we could see is the development of graphene lenses
that allows thermal and infrared vision.
The graphene allows
manufacturing such ultrathin devices with a built-in camera that
gives the user an infrared and thermal vision.
until now we have only seen in science fiction movies.
in Machinery Lubricants
machines mostly suffer from friction because friction affects
the durability, strength, efficiency and working life of the
To minimize these effects, solid or liquid
lubricants are used. Recently, graphene, which has countless
potential application areas, has started to shine out on this
Why graphene? Because it offers perfect friction and
wear properties compared to conventional materials.
It can also
serve as solid or liquid lubricant. In addition, having a great
chemical inertness, smooth and densely packed surface makes
graphene a great lubricant material.
No Friction with the help of Graphene
in Corrosion Protection for Glass
One of the
application areas of graphene is that it can be used as a
coating material for glass.
Although glass is a high resistant
material to corrosion, it can corrode under some conditions such
as high humidity or extreme pH values.
Also, durability of the
glass can be vital in some areas such as pharmaceutical or
optical industries. It prevents any type of failure such as
corrosion, oxidation, electromagnetic radiation.
high transparency and high chemical inertness can be a promising
material for the protection of glass.
Protection of Glass from Corrosion with Graphene
in Radiation Shielding
have been trying to keep the radiation at minimum since it is
very dangerous for human health.
For this purpose, a variety of
materials can be used as a shielding material to radiation but
there are many parameters that affects the efficiency of
Graphene is known as a weak radiation absorber, but
scientists have found that it can be a great shielding material
when it is used in multi-layered form which are graphene slabs.
Graphene is an outstanding material for this purpose thanks to
its low manufacturing cost, light weight and high efficiency
compared to any other shielding materials.
Graphene Radiation Shielding
for Anti-corrosion Oil and Gas Pipes
pipes used to carry oil or gas is subject to corrosion over
time, as CO2 and water is able to get through the outer layers
Repairing them is costly, and if they break due to
the corrosion, they would release the content which may be toxic
to aquatic life.
Researchers from the
University of Manchester and the technology firm TWI have
developed a coating with graphene nanoplatelets and tested it
under the temperature and pressure conditions the pipes would
face under the sea.
The result was that, CO2 permeability was
decreased by 90%, and lowered the permeability of other
corroding agents as well.