Zero Point Energy

The Possibility of Obtaining Energy from Space


A Review Of Zero Point Energy And Free Energy Theory, Progress, And Devices
by Patrick G. Bailey, Ph. D.
P.O. Box 201
Los Altos, CA 94023-0201

Presented to the International Forum on New Science
1304 S. College Avenue
Ft. Colins, CO 80524
(303) 482-3731

September 19, 1992

Table of Contents:

Areas Of Related Interest
UFOs and Crop Circles
Background Material
Books and Reports
Societies and Publications
Free Energy Theory, Experiments, and Devices
Free Energy Theoretical Considerations
Reports on Experiments and Working Devices
Devices Worthy of Future Study
Business Plan


A review is presented of the theory and experimental evidence relating to Zero Point Energy and Free Energy Devices. This review is based on a two year study of the information and data available in these fields, and also upon the information presented by various key researchers in these fields at three recent conferences. It is found that there is increasing momentum and a growing network of researchers taking place in these fields, despite reported efforts to suppress this information. Examples of such past and present suppression activities are included. Nevertheless, sound theoretical foundations for understanding so-called "Zero Point Energy" and "Free Energy" devices have been documented and are available. There are several reports by various authors of experiments that indicate a much higher than normal operation efficiency, and even over-unity operation. Unfortunately, these results have to date not been replicated by other researchers.

Since energy is conserved, pure perpetual motion cannot exist. However, several examples are known to exist where energy efficiency can appear to be over-unity, and the motion can appear to us to be perpetual. For these types of systems, the idea of "Free Energy" can be applied, and lessons learned. Several experiments are discussed that have demonstrated the possibility of obtaining energy from space, and utilizing that energy in a way different from the normal laws of electricity. These experiments and results are being tracked down and closely examined. Valuable references with real mailing addresses and telephone numbers are included herein. Replications of these encouraging results are desperately needed.


"Let God kill him that does not know, yet presumes to show the other the way!" This quote from a Persian dervish in the movie and videotape of "Meetings with Remarkable Men" by Gurdjieff (1963) pretty much summarizes my feelings toward the whole area of science, and living as well. It's a jungle out there. The dividing line between truth, fiction, what is best, and what sells has never been less clearly defined. Since the advent of the digital information explosion, the sea of information has been growing at a pace that few can follow. However, if we are to be responsible and seek the truth, we must persevere. I am dedicated to finding the truth. My fields of interest are Nature, religion, and science, and their beneficial applications to the human race.

To learn about the foundations and current technical knowledge in the Zero Point and Free Energy fields is to open a very large Pandora's Box. One finds non-believers, strong supporters, dissenters, and active hard- nosed suppressers. My interest was aroused as a teenager by reading about the life and contributions of Nikola Tesla, now available in the books by Walters (1961) and Cheney (1981). He is the one individual responsible for creating the entire alternating current network that powers the world today. He defied the science of his day, and designed and built the AC generator that transforms "potential" energy into "electrical" energy. Yet, he is not in many school texts, and his basic theories and ideas for larger projects and applications were nearly lost to the world. Why was he not supported? Why is Thomas Edison such a well known name and Nikola Tesla is not? Why was his research not actively continued? Why does the academic community, within the US, continually ignore the possible applications of his theories?

Tesla was unceremoniously thrown out of the best technical school in Yugoslavia for believing that he could build a generator that would extract electrical power from a running stream of water. His professor called it: "Perpetual Motion!" This is not so unfamiliar. We have heard other such convenient explanations, such as: "Heavier than air machines will never fly" (Lord Kelvin, 1890s); "We threw out all of the textbooks, and then we built the airplane" (the Wright Brothers); "The human body will not survive speeds of over 40 miles per hour" (early 1900s); and "Airplanes can not go faster than the speed of sound" (1940s). Other example abound, all spoken by the out-spoken "leaders" of their day. My view is that science continues to grow and mature. Nature is fixed. Only our understanding of Nature continually unfolds. Sometimes this growth has been only painful, and sometimes it has provided great shocks to the system. Fear of change is not an adequate excuse for not actively pursuing the development of our full capabilities as human beings, as individuals or as groups.

Areas Of Related Interest

The study of the "Free Energy" field overlaps with quite a number of other areas of science and technology that are not well understood, and are usually called "fringe areas." I believe that responsible investigations in these areas do uncover important information and data that can relate to various questions that occur in the study of Free Energy. These questions include: Why is this research not conducted? Is it suppressed? Why is it suppressed? Are there other examples of such suppression? Where can I get more information? Are there any examples of such advanced related technologies? If such energy sources exist, has anyone found out how to use them? How do they work? Can I use them, and can I use them in a responsible manner?

There is a great outcry by those familiar with our current energy policy and the public electricity utility network for need of a new breakthrough in the technology of energy production. Dr. Gary Johnson (1992), a college professor and IEEE Senior Member, recently published a short review of the researchers in this area in a noted US technical journal and concluded his four page report with the statement:

"There is a great deal of noise in the literature. Some concepts are obviously nonsense. Others will prove to be in error. But is there any signal in all the noise? There is if Tesla, Moray, and Bearden are correct. The potential payoff is enormous, so the search should be continued if there is any chance at all of success."

Also, Llewellen King (1991), publisher of The Energy Daily, Defense Week, and Environmental Week Newsletters in Washington DC recently strongly and dramatically stated in a speech to an international technical conference:

"We have failed with energy to come up with the 'Great Big Breakthrough!' 'The Major Change.' 'The Radically Different Thing.' 'The Quantum Leap Forward.' Where is the jump from a copper wire to a fiber or to a cable? Where is the equivalent of fiber optics for electricity? ... The new technologies (discussed at this conference), such as magnetohydrodynamics, (are advancing and coming forth), and yet these things have not fostered - and we are still boiling water! It is theoretically possible that we could at some point take this 'Quantum Leap Forward.' ... And in order to do that, I believe that you will need new institutions to deploy new technology. They won't be deployed by the extant of the old institutions. ... The Challenge in Technology is to find It, and then sell It, and finally to deploy It."

Since the status and results in energy technologies and in these other fringe areas are seen differently by different persons, many misunderstandings take place, people become frustrated, emotions become heated, and eventually someone gets sorely offended. People can range from Apathy, to Denial, to Anger, and finally to Acceptance. So as to not offend anyone in this paper, I will limit the areas of my summary introduction investigations to Politics, Religion, and Sex.


"Never give a sucker an even break." I became very concerned when I became aware of first hand and second hand accounts of actual physical, emotional, and legal harassment being made to inventors, investigators, and writers in these scientific fringe areas. And I thought all of these suppression stories were nonsense. Upon investigation, harassment always follows those who promote a new paradigm. Galileo spent a lot of time in jail. So did Royal Rife, who demonstrated a cure for cancer in the 1930s, summarized in the books written by Barry Lyons (1989, 1989), published, of course, in Canada. Christopher Bird (1991) writes of the persecution of Gaston Naessens for his radical and effective treatments of diseases. America West Publishers has available many books that list actions that have been taken by various authorities to diffuse or bury "politically embarrassing" events and situations. Paul Findley wrote a best seller (1985) that summarizes the effectiveness of large political pressure groups. Fortunately today, there are many who do not conform to the "party line" in many political areas, such as the "Center for Action" in Nevada. In the area of AIDS research and information transfer, Dr. Robert Strecker has produced a videotape (1988) and Dr. Taki Anagnoston (1991) has published a book that promotes a view far different than is advertised nationally to the American people. "The Cutting Newsletter" by William Douglass also serves as a source for alternate information.

In my view, there is not a determined effort by the government to suppress information - because there is no government. I see instead a collection and network of vested interest groups that seem to tightly band together for mutual financial survival. The actions taken by any of these groups may be completely independent from the others. Therefore, I find the "government suppression" and "world domination" theories proposed by some to be interesting, and probably not applicable. However, some sort of control and suppression in the press seems very evident. Coleman (1992) has summarized that certain groups are actively controlling all other groups. The "Project Censored Newsletter" and their student staff at Sonoma State University, CA, are actively pointing out US news stories that seem to be actively suppressed in this country. So, how does this all relate to the topic of Free Energy? Ken MacNeill (1983) published a very disturbing article entitled "Insights into the Proprietary Syndrome" in which he points out that over 3,000 patents have been suppressed! It is reprinted in the Appendix of this paper. Read it!

Two historical events are worth including here regarding possible suppression and inability to commercialize Free Energy devices. These are the Over-Unity Device of T. Henry Moray (Resines, 1988), and the Hindershot Motor (Brown, 1988). Both of these devices were publicly demonstrated to the US press in the 1930s, and carefully conducted tests were made to assess these devices. From the newspaper reports and clippings, it appears that both devices passed all tests, only to fall into oblivion. What exactly happened to the devices, their inventors, and the technology is not known. It also appears that the secrets of the devices died with their inventors.

If information deemed sensitive by certain governmental agencies can be actively suppressed, then what are the other possible ways of obtaining such information? One method that has gained popularity in recent years is through the use of channeling.


"Ask and you shall receive". I was surprised to hear that a grandmother ("dharma") who said she could channel Nikola Tesla had been given a formal test in front of some very influential people in Los Angles, and she passed the test with very few errors. I was told that the questions were prepared by a small knowledgeable group, and about half of the questions were reported to be trick questions. Well, if this method can work to get advanced technical information let's try it. After all, where do our ideas come from in the first place? Both Tesla and Edison are report-ed to have made their respective amazing discoveries while daydreaming - not actually thinking!

Upon investigation, there is a morass of spiritual and channeled information being published out there. From my point of view, it is all applicable to a person, depending upon where that person is at in his life, and of course it is not all true, applicable, or valid information. The magazine "Connecting Link" summarizes a lot of this information. Just for purposes of reference, I will list the names of those channeled intelligences that I have researched, by either reading their communications or personally conversing with them through their physical host. (The references are organized by the name of the intelligence, or collective intelligence, with the name of the host or channeler in parentheses.) From what I currently know, I give this list is given in order of increasing importance to me for personal information transfer:

Ramtha, Lazaris, Seth, Bashar, Korton, Ashtar, Soltec, Cosmic Awareness, The Pleiadians, Hatonn, Ra, Hilarion, St. Germain, Thoth, Mary, Sananda, Aton.

To me, any information is valid only when it constructively supports or fits into the puzzle that I am trying to solve. What is valid for each person varies with each person, and their puzzle of the moment. I have noticed that I receive more valid information from hosts who are in unconscious trance during the communications. If the host can remember anything of the communication, I feel there is always the possibility of tampering with the information during reception and transmission, thus producing "tainted" information. This has historically occurred with many popularized channelers that have elected to use their talents and such communications primarily for their personal profit.

Also, I find one needs to separate the substance of the message from any given dates. To hear an intelligence say that "at this time a truck is gathering speed and is coming this way that will cross this intersection here in three hours," does not necessarily mean the truck will ever get there. If it does, great. Then that is a measure of predictability. If not, so what! Was that the point? Neither of these issues is demonstrable science. I find it is best to gather the substance of the information and relate it to my puzzles. Those that believe and act on all of the details of every channeled communication may be in for quite a shock, as described in the book When Prophecy Fails by Festinger, Riecken, and Schachter (1956).

I do know that some of the channeled information recently received is extremely accurate. A case in point is the book channeled by Sananda through "dharma" (1989) regarding the life of Jesus . While persons affiliated with America West Publishers, then in southern California, were trying to decipher the German text of the first few chapters of this material (originally translated into German from the Aramaic script found in 1963) with very little success, a complete translation in English was given in 1989 through "dharma" by Sananda (1989). Two years later, the original German manuscript was translated by J. H. Ziegler and B. L. Greene, authored by Rashid (1992), and published by Wild Flower Press in Oregon. Neither party knew of the existence of the other until after the material was typeset. The contents are nearly identical. I can personally attest to other cases of receiving extremely accurate information and being allowed to be involved in "unexplainable" physical events.

Whether one needs to be out-of-body to receive information, I am not sure. Robert Monroe (1971, 1985) has spent years in this field with the Monroe Institute in Virginia, and he and his co-workers have all received personal knowledge. I do not know if they have received any higher technical knowledge that is of interest here. J. J. Hurtak (1978) received a vast amount of technical knowledge out-of-body when he channeled the extensive work The Keys of Enoch.

Why haven't these intelligences just given us the secrets of advanced technology on a silver platter? I don't know. Perhaps we as a collective society are not ready for it. Some technical information is being given out from these intelligences and is slowly being published. Perhaps, as Hatonn, The Pleiadians, and other intelligences have suggested: that if we told you that, then "they" would kill our vehicle. Perhaps, waiting is.

Perhaps the goal of life is not to pursue the engineering of an easier life style solely for the comfort of living our lives through technology, but to finally realize what our personal mission here is, to become in touch with that mission, and then to perform that mission. That phrase from college: "God has a plan for my life" makes very good sense here. The problem actually may be that most of us are not taking the time to find out what our personal mission is, and how to responsibly perform it. If you wish to pursue this, the most Holy course, I highly recommend the books by Dion Fortune (1957), Gaetan Delaforge (1987), and Fred and Pam Cameron (1991). The latter book, Bridges of Light, includes step-by-step instructions, all specifically channeled, on how you can receive your own accurate information. So Be It.


"It takes two to Tango." Potentially, things are very interesting. It seems to take two at different potentials to make something happen: male/female, up/down, positive/negative, north/south. The view being taught today is primarily simply given in one or two dimensions. Electricity is caused by the electrons going one way on a wire, and the holes going the other way. Electrical energy is created by chemical reactions that have a lower chemical ground state than the reactants. Chemical reactions are caused by electron bonding where electron orbits are finally filled and then higher orbits can be filled. Atomic energy is caused by electrons and nucleons dropping into lower energy states (gamma rays and lasers), or by differences in the binding energy of the nuclei (fission and fusion). The Sun gives and the Earth receives.

For energy creation, we have developed the catch-all term: potential energy. The water behind a dam is said to have a great deal of potential energy, so the electricity is said to come out of the power plant. A battery has a stored electrical potential, so it powers your radio. Men and women all have stored potential, and we all know what trouble that can cause. However; no one ever talks about magnets, and the possible potential energies within magnets and electromagnetic fields. Light is such an electromagnetic (EM) field. The motions of the electrical component and the magnetic component of alternating current, similar to light, are three-dimensional as they travel along a wire, and at several points, each is zero. Where did they go? How is EM energy stored and transmitted? Can usable amounts of energy be extracted from already existing large and massive EM fields?

I have found only two sources that reference the modeling of EM fields in three spatial dimensions: the works of Walter Russell (1926, 1947, 1989), and material channeled by Hatonn et. al. (1991). The idea that energy exists in male and female vortices that form between this dimension and other dimensions is not new. The idea just hasn't been very useful, yet. Russell and Hatonn describe three dimensional elemental EM fields that can be classified as male and female by the spin of their 3-D EM fields, much the same way that we describe the poles of a bar magnet. Russell developed and tested counter-wound sets of coils, each in the shape of overlapping (male/female) cones. Such a coupling and cancellation of these fields would open up a whole new way of thinking about electricity and EM fields in general. Also, a new investigation of the physics of rotating permanent magnets and rotating EM fields would be very interesting. All reported research in these fields seems to stop in the early 1950s. I wonder why.

UFOs and Crop Circles

"We are living in Lies." This statement was made by both Colin Andrews and Linda Moulton-Howe during their presentations during the Whole Life Expo (WLE) in San Francisco, April 1991. It speaks for itself. If examples of advanced technology are being demonstrated all around us nearly every day, shouldn't we be interested? Well, if it does not impact our daily life, and our personal finances, maybe we don't care. We could say, let the government figure it out. Well, evidently, "they" don't, can't, or won't care. Besides, what you don't know won't hurt you. Right? However; it may stunt your growth.

If you really want to know, you are going to have to rely on yourself. This is all very interesting to me, because it allows for the possibility of several examples of advanced technology here and now. And from my experiences, these phenomena are real, reoccurring, and getting more numerous and in-your-face outrageous all the time.

Without diverting from our main topic for too long, I will list the best sources of UFO craft pictures and crop geometrical formation material I have found. (They are not just dots in the sky, and circles, any more. Sorry.) The UFO craft pictures began in the 1950s with those taken by George Adamski and published in his book in by Leslie in 1953. (These pictures could have been faked, and I recall someone telling me that Adamski was said to have declared his whole photograph library a fraud on his death bed; and I do not know.) The pictures taken and thousands of sightings reported in the New York Hudson Valley region in the 1980s cannot be denied (Hynek, 1987). Pictures from around the world have been compiled in two books by Wendelle Stevens and August Roberts (1985). Other UFO book sources are listed. And, the UFO Video Clearinghouse in California has just about all the movie footage and video taken of UFOs and TV programs produced that are available world- wide. "UFO's the Best Evidence" is a two-hour video produced by KLAS, Channel 6 in Las Vegas, that should be seen by everyone!

Close-up photographs, movie footage, and videotapes are much more disturbing to some people than the usual lights in the sky. The photographs by Billy Meier in Volume 1 of the books by Elders (1979) are apparently all actual photographs of large disk craft. (I was told that a few of the pictures in Volume 2 (1983) were of models that were made in order to compare to Meier's craft photographs, and then the photos were inadvertently mixed). For those that disagree with this, I recommend that you carefully read the technical photographic analyses in Volume 1 that were performed on some of the photos by disinterested scientists in the US using electron microscopes, laser scanning, and computer analyses and enhancements; and then read the book by Gary Kinder (1987), who set out to visit Meier, his family, and the people in the local community there in Switzerland in order to prove the Meier story a hoax. Also, we have the pictures from Gulf Breeze, Florida, in the book by Ed and Francis Walters (1990). (Some say they faked the pictures, but not to the hundreds of local eye witnesses that claimed to have seen the same thing, including most of the city officials.)

Robert (Bob) Lazar presents an interesting story in his videotape (1992) of how he became involved with some disk craft while working in the power propulsion area. His story is summarized as one of the six viewpoints in the book by Lindemann (1991), as is Linda Moulton-Howe's. Lazar states that the craft he worked on were powered by a matter- antimatter (potential energy) reaction with a near-stable element of an atomic number of 115, which has not yet been found or produced on Earth. Such a nuclide could give off power in a manner similar to Cobalt-60, which emits very high energy and deadly gamma radiation, thus the need for lead shielding in nuclear fission power plants. How the El-115 power would be utilized is unknown. More to the point, how would such craft be able to levitate above the Earth? Perhaps it could utilize an interaction of engineered variable frequency EM fields with the Earth's local gravity and EM fields. That could explain the very complex and time-dependent harmonics found by expert sound researchers when they analyzed the sound of a hovering craft as recorded on audio tape by Meier while making movies of a craft. These are all available.

For additional information regarding what these craft are, who are coming, and why, I would recommend the material from Stanton Friedman (1991) and Sananda (1989). Additional viewpoints are found in the book by Lindemann (1991) and in the transcription of the wonderful talk given by Linda Moulton-Howe at the April 1991 SF WLE. It appears we are being visited by more than 50 alien cultures on the physical plane, all different, yet related, each having their own version of their "sports car or RV," and each with their own purposes and motivations. It also appears that this is nothing new, has been going on for what appears to be a very, very long time, and so what! What is interesting is the apparent lack of advanced technology transfer, which could be likened to a possible violation of the "Prime Non-Interference Directive" popularized in Star Trek. Unless such advanced data is being given to the privileged few. Unless we, in the US and in other parts of the world, as individual societies are being allowed the information as fast as we can (financially) safely absorb it and properly utilize it for our benefit and not our mutual destruction. That is what I would hope. That is where I want to be.

The crop formations are another and perhaps a more advanced topic altogether. The books by Colin Andrews (1989), Alick Bartholomew (1991), and Ralph Noyes (1990) stimulate the imagination. As Colin would say: "I'm sorry. It just isn't Doug and Dave, as the British Press would have you believe!" These formations have become quite complex, such as the Barbury Castle formation that appeared overnight in July 1991. It contains three "circles" of about 35 feet in diameter located at the apex of a nearly equilateral triangle that measures about 180 feet on a side, with three internal circles and spokes within the triangle. I highly recommend Colin Andrew's (1991) videotape "Undeniable Evidence."

Background Material

It is important that I include as much quality reference material as I am able. These areas of interest have grown so large and confusing that it is difficult to know where to turn for the best or most meaningful information. So I will include a list of the most applicable patents, the best books, reports, conference proceedings, and the most up-to-date papers that I know of in the Zero Point Energy and Free Energy fields. I also have included in the references the complete names and addresses of several technical societies, groups, and book sources.


There are several patents of phenomena and devices that are of interest. Rather than discuss them here, I will list them in the references. They may be referred to later.

It is important to note that you can quickly obtain any patent from a local US patent clearinghouse, such as the one in Sunnyvale, California, by a telephone call or a FAX once an account has been set up for you. If you are not in a hurry, you can order a copy of any patent for $3.00 (three dollars) each from the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks in Washington DC, although it may take 2-6 weeks. Just provide the long patent number.

Books and Reports

Many books and reports have been published that relate to the Free Energy fields. I have listed the ones I have looked at in the references in this section. I have included all of Lt. Col. Tom Bearden's books and reports. It should be pointed out that Tom's book entitled AIDS: Biological Warfare (1988) probably has the best description of the pumped phase conjugate mirror wave theory model of any of his books. The book by Moray B. King (1989) gives an excellent overview of the definition of Zero Point Energy. Several books and reports have recently emerged regarding gravity and the Earth's apparent energy grid network. Books regarding the Orgonne Accumulator and ether vortex mechanics are also included. The book by Hans Nieper (1981) is a great reference book, and sometimes hard to find: use the source listed. The theories promoted by Richard Hoagland and the Mars Mission are also interesting, including the fact that a solid tetrahedron placed in a sphere will intersect the sphere at 19.5 degrees latitude, which is the same Earth latitude upon which Tesla was constructing his Wardenclyffe Tower in New York. The theories of Victor Schauberger (Alexandersson, 1982) are also very interesting, including his descriptions of Natural energy vortices, the changing properties of 4 degree C water with the phases of the moon, as descriptions of other Natural wonders.


I am familiar with only a few of the many technical conferences held that deal with the Zero Point and Free Energy fields. The one's I have recently attended are the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), held in August 1991 in Boston, MA; the 1992 International Tesla Symposium, held in July 1992 in Colorado Springs, CO; and the 27th IECEC held in August 1992 in San Diego, CA. As I organized the authors and papers for both the 26th and 27th IECECs in the "Innovative Concepts" sessions for the "New Technologies for Energy Utilization Area," I am more familiar with their papers and contents. The material presented in other conferences, such as the bi-annual International Tesla Society conferences, do relate and overlap with much of the material presented in the recent IECEC conferences. It is my desire that future authors will network and exchange information before they write their next paper, so we can accelerate and converge the work that is being performed in these fields.

Societies and Publications

All the ones that I feel are of importance are listed in the references for your use. Make multiple photocopies of all of the six pages of the references and distribute them.

Free Energy Theory, Experiments, and Devices

"Come on, let me show you where it's at." Well, I can show you what I have been able to find out from the referenced sources within the past three years anyway. I have learned that there is a lot of very sound scientific theory that supports the existence of additional energy sources, ways of interacting with those potential energies, and extracting energy for use. There is also a lot of experiments, devices, and just good ol' fooling around going across the country to try to measure new ways of measuring these new energy sources. There are also devices that have been built, tested, demonstrated, and provided for testing by others - that seem to have passed all of the tests. These will be discussed below. First some truths and definitions.

Energy exists. It can not be created nor destroyed. Energy can only be converted from one form into another. In that conversion process, some energy is lost, in the form of friction or heat, so the efficiency of the energy transfer process is always less than 100 percent. The process (you can envision a box) will always give less energy out than energy goes in. The ratio of "energy out" to "energy in" is always less than one: under-unity. An over-unity device cannot exist. Perpetual motion does not exist. All motion eventually will run down. (Whether you live to be here when it does run down is another matter.) So, let's see. A car battery is a good example. It has so much energy to start with, and it eventually runs down from starting the starter motor and friction in the wire. Draw a larger box. The car runs and recharges the battery because the engine converts the potential energy within the fuel during combustion into crankshaft motion, which is then used to recharge the battery, until it runs out of gas. Draw a larger box. The car can go downhill with the engine off by transforming the potential energy of the hill into kinetic or moving energy at the bottom of the hill. OK. But what about Hoover Dam? It just sits there and creates energy. We don't put any energy into it, except when we built it. And we sure didn't put as much energy into it as we have gotten out of it. And it for sure is not going to last forever. But it's doing just fine now. So is that an example of a Free Energy device with an energy conversion factor of over-unity? Yes or No?

To handle such mind benders, workers in the Zero Point and Free Energy fields have, for better or worse, and probably for the near term worse, have adopted a simple way of describing the results of their research, in terms of what they can immediately measure and see. So there are three categories that are generally expounded upon: "Free Energy Under- unity," "Free Energy, Over-unity," and "Zero Point Energy." (1) "Free Energy Under-unity" would be when I get more energy out than before and I only made a small change to my design, like to increase the overall system efficiency. An example might be those magnets that when placed onto a car gas line give 5 miles extra per gallon. That's Free Energy dude! This appears to be the case for several motors and generators that utilize magnets on their rotating shafts. (2) "Free Energy Over- unity" would be where I seem to get more energy out than I know am putting in. Period. An example would be pushing a car over the top of a hill. When it takes off without you, it appears additional energy is coming from somewhere. And, in all cases, of such experiments, the energy MUST be coming from somewhere in some form. It just hasn't been figured out yet, and the researcher has probably not drawn a large enough box. (3) "Zero Point Energy" refers to the energy that comes from outside your influence: the wiring in the wall; the transmission lines nearby; a large EM signal on a specific FM radio station; the Earth's EM or gravitational field; solar EM energy; or possibly directed energy from outer space. Just because we can't measure it, doesn't mean it's not there.

With these definitions in mind, we see that Hoover Dam is a good example and could be considered by some Dam Engineer to be an over-unity device. A good Dam Scientist would probably point out that the Sun evaporates the oceans and lakes, moves the vapor, makes the rain that fills the Dam, and the potential energy of the water produces the electrical power. The Dam Engineer could probably care less, and could also say that the Dam is a perpetual motion machine that will last forever; which means at least until he retires and his kids are out of college. The Dam Engineer would say: "The Dam thing runs on Free Energy out of the air! The city of Los Angles believes it!" But: you know it won't last forever. Neither will the Sun.

So we need to be careful in our choice of words. For the purposes of this paper, a Free Energy device will appear to produce more energy than it uses, because it is not known from what form of potential energy source the other required input energy comes from. Thus, we will allow system efficiencies over 100%, and over-unity energy conversion until we are either proven wrong, or we finally draw a larger box and understand what is happening inside that box.

It is very important here to be a Fair Witness. (Thank you Robert Heinlein!) That is a person who reports exactly what he or she sees; no more, no less. Researchers and investors really do not give a(guess what) about what you think is going on. They want the facts of exactly what you observed. If a device appears to be promising: say so, and report it to be so. If it has a problem, say it seems to have a problem. Only after extensive support, testing, and cross-examination should an experiment or a device be classified or labeled a fraud or a failure. Once labeled as such, they will not easily obtain further support. Be responsible.

Free Energy Theoretical Considerations

Harold Aspden from the United Kingdom (1991) shared insights into the basic factors involved with vacuum field or zero point energy so that: "the 'free energy' challenge to win through and revolutionize the energy scene can involve more people with design skills and resources." He proposes a frontal attack on currently accepted physics, urging: "a theoretical and experimental program to follow projects in five classifications: (1) Non-relativistic energy theory; (2) Ferromagnetic vacuum energy generation; (3) Electrodynamic vacuum energy generation; (4) Electromagnetic vacuum energy generation; and (5) Gravitational vacuum energy generation." He also pointed out the need for much of the work to be proprietary in order to attract investment funds, but eventually the published literature would be augmented by disclosure arising by development on these projects. Aspden (1992) this year described a foundation of a new technology for converting environmental heat energy into electricity. The structure involved, whether in the tested thermoelectric device or the suggested radiation concentration device, uses thin film metal films separated by non-conductive materials. An efficiency of 70% of the Carnot maximum has been demonstrated for the thermoelectric device operating at ambient temperatures with a 20 degree temperature differential.

Moray B. King (1992) presents a very good detailed review of the "Progress and Results in Zero-Point Energy Research" in his paper with the same title, available from Tesla Inc. Moray states:

"Since the advent of quantum mechanics, modern physics has supported the view that the fabric of totality of empty space is not void but contains a plenum of energy called the zero point energy (ZPE). The energy consists of fluctuations of electric field energy that persists even at zero degrees Kelvin. A question applicable to engineers is can the ZPE be tapped as an energy source? At first this idea seems to be a blatant violation of conservation of energy, but if the zero-point energy really exists as is suggested by modern physics, energy is present and its conversion would not be the issue."

"The surprising cold current effect has been associated with other inventions, such as T. Henry Moray's, using number 30 wire within his 50 kiloWatt device. It might be explained by the hypothesis that the coupling of synchronous ion oscillations with the ZPE can manifest macroscopic vacuum polarization displacement currents, which can surround a conductive wire and be guided by it. Conduction band electrons, lacking stable, radially convergent vacuum polarization lines, have a minimal interaction with these displacement currents, and the wires remain cold. If engineers could replicate this effect, zero- point energy research would receive widespread interest."

"Another area where coherent ion motion is associated with energy anomalies involves abrupt electrical discharges. (This is apparent in controlled water explosion experiments.) Hyde's device was faced with a similar problem of absorbing large voltage pulses in his patented invention. He solved the problem and created an advanced embodiment which produced over 20 kiloWatts of net output power while free running."

"From the concentrated vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei arises the possibility of triggering a macroscopic ZPE coherence with the synchronous motion of many nuclei. Further supporting evidence arises from inventions that utilize coherent ion motions and output excessive energy. The sharp voltage spikes that arise from ion-acoustic activity can be converted by use of circuits such as Hyde's voltage divider. The largest effects might be produced by solid state methods that manifest dual, counter-rotating, acoustical, lattice spinor waves. If synchronous ion-acoustic activity coheres the zero-point energy, there will be many more inventions forthcoming, and a new energy source will be recognized."

It should be pointed out that the voltage divider circuit in Hyde's patent (patent Fig. 6) has been questioned by several engineers. Moray King is assisting a network of scientists and engineers who are redesigning this circuit to replicate and produce a working model of this device.

For some years, Tom Bearden (1991) has worked on an extended electromagnetics theory, involving the scalar component of the quaternion. (A scalar is a number with no vector direction, like speed. A vector has numerical values in each defined direction, like velocity. A quaternion is like a 4-component vector in a real-complex plane space). In MAXWELL'S ORIGINAL QUATERNION THEORY, this scalar component often remains when the directional components zero. Further, it enfolds vectors and functions of vectors inside, in a hidden variable manner. Specifically, Tom has patterned a unified field theory concept upon the previously unnoticed but remarkable early work of E. T. Whittaker. "In 1903 and 1904, Whittaker showed that all present day vector EM can be replaced by scalar potential interferometry, and that bidirectional harmonic EM plane wave sets could be used to produce a standing wave of force-field-free potential. In modern terms, this shows how to turn EM wave energy into electrogravitional potential energy, then how to interfere two such scalar potentials to recover the EM energy, even at a distance. This unrecognized work is of great importance: when applied to modern physics, it produces supersets of quantum mechanics, classical electromagnetics, and general relativity. Further, all three extended disciplines unify on their common Whittaker subset, in a testable and engineerable fashion." All of Tom's theories to unify electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics are summarized in his 1991 paper, which is only six pages long! These are all available from the Association of Distinguished American Scientists.

Bearden (1992) this year points out that: "By utilizing fundamental new definitions for energy, potential, and scalar potential, the mass of the atomic nucleus may be considered a powerful electrostatic scalar potential, referred to as the mass potential. The Whittaker EM biwave structure of the scalar potential then becomes a new and universal internal EM structure for mass, including the atomic nucleus. This structure can be directly manipulated electromagnetically, which allows direct EM alternation of the mass potential, and the nucleus itself. This totally new class of nuclear interactions is briefly explored, and several hypothesized mechanisms advanced for neutralizing or processing nuclear wastes. Additional applications are hypothesized for experimental falsification or verification. We have previously pointed out two successful experiments by Sweet, one for extracting useful EM energy from the vacuum, and one for the production of unilateral forces, including antigravity. We have also pointed out the implications of the approach for possible testable unification of electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. The cited Whittaker theory establishes a greatly expanded but engineerable EM, with external (spatial) and internal (hyperspatial) subsets. Scientists and engineers are urged to seriously study the two cited Whittaker papers and their implications, and to set up experiments to falsify or verify the hypotheses advanced."

A new paradigm and a theoretical analysis supporting experimental tests of the N-Machine was given by Shiuji Inomata from Japan (1991). He points out that H. A. Lorentz's treatment, in which a stationary ether is assumed, gives the correct answer. Even in this case, a new paradigm of science is necessary for the full understanding of the functioning N- Machine.

Kurt Van Voorhies (1991) is conducting his graduate work at a well known state university in the prospects of world-wide wireless power transfer, as first proposed by Tesla. Tesla had designed and was building the Wardenclyffe tower on Long Island in 1900, featuring a 187 foot wooden tower designed to support a 68 foot diameter copper hemisphere. While Tesla intended to use the facility publicly for communications, his secret aim was to implement wireless power transmission. The transmitter was to have operated at 30-100 megaVolts, which Tesla claimed was sufficient for worldwide power distribution. However, when Marconi demonstrated transoceanic wireless communications with much simpler equipment (illegally using Tesla's patents in the process), J. P. Morgan withdrew funding for Tesla's project. Research indicates that the power receiver requires the most development to demonstrate Tesla's early theories.

Toby Grotz (1991) also presented theory and results of Project Tesla to determine if the Earth's electrostatic (atmospheric) Schumann Cavity can be resonated, if the power that is delivered to the cavity propagates with very low losses, and if power can be extracted at other locations within the cavity. The theory, bases of operation of a transmitter, related computer programs, and component values are all given in Toby's paper.

A theoretical analysis of Tesla's "Death Ray" was also presented by Toby Grotz (1991). By carefully examining historical records, this 1937 design was probably the first attempt to construct a high voltage particle beam device. Tesla's estimates indicate that a 5 meter diameter metal sphere charged to 60 million volts could project a high energy charged particle beam up to 60 kilometers through the air in a given direction.

Oliver Nichelson (1991) summarized two of Tesla's later energy generation device designs, including a turbine-shaped Unipolar Dynamo design for a machine that can continue to produce electricity after being disconnected from an outside power source. This paper is also important because it also describes Tesla's "Coil for Electro- Magnetics," patented in 1893. This coil looks exactly the same as would the counter-wound conical coils of Walter Russell, if Russell's coils were drawn on a piece of paper in two dimensions. (Surprise.)

Don Kelly (1991) examined the theory and operation of an enhanced tank circuit from two dated Soviet papers translated from the Russian. The experiments suggest that the full band of a tank circuit can be utilized to take advantage of a full EMF output over an extended period of time, and then periodically and uniformly re-exciting the circuit as an effective electrical energy conservation method. Don suggests that over-unity operation may be possible by proper adjustment of the resonant driver frequency and time-varying component reactances.

Paul LaViolette (1991) suggested taking a more lenient interpretation of the First Law of Thermodynamics and allowing the possibility that free energy devices could operate at efficiencies exceeding 100%. He evaluates several ways of generating free energy in the context of subquantum kinetics gene energy (photon blueshifting), zero-point fluctuations, Ampere law forces, and electrogravitic gravity field manipulations.

Lynn Surgalla (1991) presented a tutorial on non-linear resonance phenomena which describes the mathematical theoretical techniques she feels necessary for modeling the design, tuning, and control of nonlinear effects.

Jose Zoleta from the Philippines (1991) proposed his TAF-13 device: Triac Alternator Flywheel Motor, as an alternate source of energy. By carefully choosing the components and resonant frequency of operation, he expects to produce 150% or more energy than input into his motor-generator system. However, I feel that more details and data on his design are necessary to expect his system to provide over-unity operation.

In discussing plans for the quad-disc electrostatic generator, Donald Kelly (1992), described the basic principles of the Wimshurst twin counterrotating electrostatic (E/S) disks, and in addition a twin rotor- to-stator E/S generating factor is included in this composite generator. The positive and negative stator discs on each side of the rotor disc receive E/S transfer from the multiple conductive segments on the outer side of each rotor. The voltage and current amplification functions would be accomplished by twin, large capacitive transformers, similar to those used in the Swiss M-L converter, discussed in the next section below.

An improved method of winding inductors, transformers, and motors was publicized by Toby Grotz (1992). This invention greatly enhances the ability to generate magnetic fields with a given amount of wire. This invention may be as fundamental to the use of magnetic fields as was Nikola Tesla's use of rotating magnetic fields for the generation of alternating current.

George Hathaway in Canada (1991, 1992) has suggested the engineering requirements necessary to begin to investigate and demonstrate zero point energy. He draws together the most practical theoretical aspects of this work, and explains how they are already at a sufficiently advanced stage to allow initial experiments to be designed. He states that the extraction of energy from such sources is really not an ivory tower pipe dream, but more a matter of nuts and bolts. Thus, his suggestions should serve as a sound basis for those engineers and researchers to keep a close watch on vacuum energy physics.

The Integrity Institute is interested in providing the new measurement devices and instrumentation that will be needed to conduct meaningful experiments in these new advanced energy machine areas. Tom Valone (1991) presented an overview of the interests of the Institute, and the various technical areas they have supported and hope to support in the future.

Finally, in the important related area of theoretical financing, Professor Charles Berg (1991) pointed out the relationship between available investment capital in the current conventional energy resource and conservation areas, and possible funding in these new innovative technologies. He points out that: "an innovative concept, as initially applied, usually results in only a small rise in productivity. However, immediately afterward, there follows a wave of rapid improvement in the implementation of the new concept. This wave is responsible for almost all the improvements in productivity that the innovation brings to society. Still; without the introduction of the innovative concept, there would be nothing upon which to improve." To me, his message to investors is: plan on very little return in the short term, and through licensing and networking agreements, reap a harvest that benefits all the World in the near term and thereafter.

Reports on Experiments and Working Devices

John and Kevin Moray (1956, 1991) were kind to allow publication of a portion of their book The Sea of Energy: the history of T. Henry Moray and his devices, who from the early 1900s to the 1930s demonstrated to the US press's satisfaction massive over-unity energy conversion.

"In 1901, T. Henry Moray theorized that energy was coming from within the earth. Through continuous experimentation and in spite of the doubts held by the scientific community of the day, he discovered that the energy was not coming from the ground but from an outside source away from the earth. The energy came in continuous surges, like waves of the sea, more in the daytime than at night. At this time Moray had enough power to light a 16-candle power carbon lamp at about one-half capacity. He labeled and defined his "Radiant Energy: The source of energy coming from the cosmos to the earth and radiating back from whence it came."

"Upon completion of his first Radiant Energy Device, many tests and experiments were conducted for the scientific and public communities. Channeling the waves of energy was done by way of an antenna. When set up and connected to the ground, priming and then tuning, the device would draw electrical energy. Results of this experimentation proved that the power generation had not originated from within the device. The device, through channeling radiant energy, produced up to 50,000 Watts of power and worked for long periods of time. For political reasons many people, organizations, and agencies of the day opposed him strongly. Despite the deliberate destruction of the R. E. Device, threats against his work and his family, and armed attacks by unknown assailants, T. Henry Moray continued with his dream of harnessing a usable energy that the world could benefit from, and the same time save the earth from the many methods of energy retrieval which now scar and pollute its land, air, and seas."

(As a side note, Moray's first germanium solid-state device (semiconductor) was submitted to the U. S. Patent Office in 1927, and was rejected on the basis that it would not work without a heated cathode.) (Boy. Am I glad times have changed. Whew!) (That's a sick joke folks!) Wake Up!

A complete description of operational electrostatic motors is given in the book by Oleg Jefimen-ko (1973). Some small electrostatic motors can be operated using only Earth-field antennas.

Paul Brown (1992) describes recent developments in materials technology that now make it possible to fabricate nonthermal thin-film isotopic energy converters with a specific power of 24 kiloWatts/kilogram and 5 to 10 years working life at 5 to 10 Watts. He states: "This creates applications never before possible, such as placing the power supply directly on integrated circuit chips. The efficiency of the converters is about 25%, which is two to three times greater than the 6 to 8% capabilities of current thermoelectric systems."

In a very impressive and I feel extremely important paper, Paul Brown (1991) described his ability to place radioactive nuclear isotope material into a resonant tank circuit and extract energy from the decaying nuclide. He writes: "A phenomena known as the 'Beta Voltaic Effect' is used to directly convert radioactive decay energy into electricity without going through a thermal cycle. A great attraction of isotopic power sources is that radioactive decay energy is several orders of magnitude greater than chemical energy." Specifically Paul uses a strong beta-emitting nuclide, like Krypton-85 or Strontium-90 as the radioactive material and places it directly into a tunable LC tank circuit. He claims that results of 50% conversion efficiencies have been demonstrated, and greater efficiencies are hoped for in the future. I have heard that T. Henry Moray had used radioactive substances in his device in the 1930s. I wonder if charged particles or charged ions play an important role in these effects. Moray King (1992) thinks they do.

Recent research has been conducted by Toby Grotz, Tim Binder, and Ron Kovac (1992) in order to verify Walter Russell's theories and experiments. They write: "The experiments that Russell conducted in 1927, which were verified by Westinghouse laboratories, have been repeated. Russell at that time thought that he had found a novel way to change the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in a sealed quartz tube containing water vapor. Russell's data indicated that, where there had only been water vapor consisting of hydrogen and oxygen in the tube, the addition of inert gasses in the amount of 69% were detected. The use of magnetic fields was shown to produce this effect. The end result of the experiment was to demonstrate a cheap and efficient method of hydrogen production for a hydrogen based fuel economy." Russell also developed and tested counter-wound sets of coils, each in the shape of overlapping cones. The device was based on the "power multiplication principle" discussed in the many books that he had written. According to a memo dated in 1961, the device worked: "because of the false concept of gravity which assumes it to be force of attraction which pulls inward from within instead of a cyclic force which controls the expansion of cold into heat, and the expansion of heat into cold... Nature's first principle of power production and the construction of matter is to produce heat from the cold of space. The heat thus generated radiates back into cold to complete the wave cycle which automatically repeats itself in this ageless universe of infinite continuity." (This is very similar to the theories of Victor Schauberger; Alexandersson, 1982). On September 10, 1961, Walter and (his wife) Lao Russell reported to their contacts at NORAD, that the coils had worked and that the President of the United States could announce to the world that a "greater, safer power than atomic energy" could be provided for industry and transportation. The Russell's were convinced that they had found and demonstrated a new source of energy and a conversion process for what is now known as the zero point energy.

Bill Muller has developed the Muller Motor/Generator and presented a very good review of the theoretical principles in his 1991 referenced paper. His motors utilize super powerful permanent magnets with amorphous metal parts that have practically zero hysteresis losses! Utilizing their design, based upon an odd-even magnetic pole design developed in 1852, they describe the creation of a magnetic balance in the motor which eliminates the work required to remove one pole from the other no matter how large or how strong the magnetic surface would be. I liked how Bill talked about powerful permanent magnets: "It is only because these super powerful magnets carry enormous ampere pressures within themselves that they are now able to lift their own weight." This supports my view that permanent magnets, including planets, are vast sources of potential energy. The Muller's are very excited about the operational characteristics of their motors and generators, and demonstrated one large motor at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA. Their paper includes a detailed description of their circuits with voltage and current analyses. They have obtained very high system efficiencies, and state that "Up to this point, there is no reason to expect what is called over-unity either on the motor or the generator." Bill has promised to continue his experiments and keep in contact with interested parties.

The Reed (1991) Magnetic Motor is an electromechanical device that Troy Reed says runs on magnetic power. The author has developed a small prototype and a larger unit that have both undergone several demonstrations and testing programs. He has also filed for a Patent with the Patent Office and the Foreign PTO/EPO. In his design, eight permanent magnets are placed on each of four disks. Two outer disks remain stationary while the two inner ones are mounted on a common shaft and are allowed to turn freely. Videotapes and other information are available.

The electrical dynamo patented by Barbara Hickox (1991) is an interesting device. The design includes a central rotating non-conductive cylinder into which small cylindrical permanent magnets are placed. The interesting part is that the magnets are all positioned with one pole outward, and located on two spiral lines down the surface of the rotating cylinder. Barbara claims that when properly designed, single-wound coils in the proximity of these rotating magnets will exhibit power transfers much higher than the power required to turn the cylinder. Again, here is the idea of a spiral or cyclic texture within the substance of existing energy fields. It must be pointed out here that accurate measurements of high frequency power can be difficult to make and results can be inferred that are very much in error (Triner & Hansen, NASA, 1977). All measurements of input and output voltages and currents must be very carefully performed.

The Bedini free energy generator (1991) was also discussed. Complete plans are given for the construction of a free energy system. While not an over-unity device, the battery recharging circuit does allow a battery to operate for a much longer period of time than it normally would, thus giving the user that much more energy for free. However, it was pointed out that certain circuit components, such as the transistor numbers, may be in error in these plans, and that a brand new battery must used. Refer to Moray King's 1992 paper for more details.

Gary Johnson (1992) reported that electrically induced explosions in water exhibiting free energy are relatively easy to produce with a 2 micro-farad capacitor charged to 10 kiloVolts. "Expanding steam does not seem to be the main cause for the explosions. Similar explosions are obtained with significantly different peak currents, which raises questions about the longitudinal Ampere forces being the primary cause. It is therefore conceivable that we are tapping a new energy source." (Of course, this technique may not be the optimum one to extract this energy. But it could lead us toward a better understanding of this source.)

Professor P. T. Pappas from Greece gave an informative review of the theory and his experiments with the creation of energy in sparks and discharges. Pappas points out that in Maxwell's theory, it is assumed that there is continuity and the closeness of the path for the flow of every current. He examines the Cardinal current force law of Ampere, and claims that energy creation is considered as not binding, but as possible, according to this Cardinal law as an alternative principle to the continuous creation hypothesis of Astronomy. Various inherent arc oscillations are presented as direct evidence of energy creation.

Wingate Lambertson (1991) discussed the WIN Process as a solid state method for converting zero-point energy into electrical energy that has been developed over the past 19 years. He places a semiconductor ceramic barrier with a parallel capacitance between an oscillating tank circuit and a power supply. He has included test results that indicate a power input of 84 Watt-sec producing an output of 810 Watt-sec, for an over-unity ratio of 9.6.

Rhetta Jacobson (1991) summarized an evaluation of Tesla Bladeless pumps and turbines. As these pumps use the fluid friction to operate, she finds that: "no other pump or engine can match the longevity, economy, size, safety, silence and vibration free performance of these devices."

While not specially related to energy conversion devices, Glen Rein (1991) presented results of his research with cell culture bioassays and the effects of time varying quantum potentials. I feel this work is extremely important. A modified caduceus coil was used to test the hypothesis that bucking (opposite) electromagnetic fields can cancel their vector fields and generate a time varying quantum potential (the "A field," for those in the know). These experiments prove the existence of the "A field" that Tom Bearden and others refer to that has been excluded from the simplified EM equation s (thanks to the simplifications of Heavyside) taught in physics today. The coil was shown to dramatically stimulate the growth of lymphocytes in culture cells, both directly in proximity and indirectly through storing its information in water. For those in the health fields: think very carefully about what is being said here! Then contact Glen!

Bruce dePalma (1991) points out that the key to understanding and explaining the baffling situation of anomalous excess electrical energy generation in free energy machines lies in a re-interpretation of magnetism as not being a property of the magnet, but of space itself. The Primordial Energy Field is then also distorted as a consequence of the spatial reaction to the centripetal force field existing within a ROTATING magnetized conductor. Bruce says that a N-machine/Space Power Generator is an electrical machine which has the capability of producing electrical energy with significantly less mechanical power input than the presently employed induction machines. In 1978, he constructed such a rotating device, the Sunburst machine. In 1985, tests were performed under the direction of a well-known Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University. The test report quotes: "Known for over 150 years, the Faraday homopolar generator has been claimed to provide a basis for so-called free energy generation, in that under certain conditions the extraction of electrical output energy is not reflected as a corresponding mechanical load to the driving source. During 1985 I was invited to test such a machine. While it did not perform as claimed, repeatable data showed anomalous results that did not seem to conform to traditional theory. ... DePalma may been right in that there is indeed a situation here whereby energy is being obtained from a previously unknown and unexplained source."

While my research estimates that N-machines usually report over-unity conversion ratios of 1.00 to 1.20, Bruce reports design improvements that could result in a machine with an output/input power ratio of 5:1. Many fundamental questions in electromagnetics are reopened by the implications of the experiment with a rotating magnetic conductor. For those interested in delving more deeply into these questions, I recommend reading Bruce's paper, and his paper reference's 14-18.

Tom Valone (1991) also presents theoretical and experimental data that he has obtained with a Faraday disk, or homopolar generator. He obtained a measured back torque of 0.17 N-m for a 25 Watt generator which is in agreement with his theory. Tom is one of the few researchers who has been doing accurate measurements on such devices within the US today. George Hathaway (1991, 1992) is also continuing to perform various experiments in Canada.

Richard (Scott) McKie (1991) has designed and tested a small model of a PODMOD device: a Power On Demand MODule. The circuitry invokes Tesla's theories of electron flow, resonance, and magnetism, combined with modern theories on high frequency electronics and radio antennas to generate power directly, without the inefficient conversion of energy from other sources. A US patent has been filed and granted. Scott claimes to be able to generate output power as much as 4,000 times the input power. Prototypes have been built and tested, including independent tests by accredited specialists. Plans are currently underway to build full-scale commercial PODMOD units, to be housed in standard 40 foot shipping containers, each having a continuous base-load generating capacity of 10 megaWatts.

Don Kelly (1991) presented a very good review of the Methernitha free energy machine, also known as the Swiss M-L Converter, or the "Thesta-Distatica." The spiritual and communal group of Methernitha is located in Switzerland, and a videotape might be available from Don at the Space Energy Association that summarizes their community and shows the device in operation. An English transcription of that video is also available (Methernitha, 1989). The device contains two counterrotating disks (about two feet in diameter) that are set in motion by hand. They continue to spin thereafter, and the machine generates usable power that lights or powers small tools. The device appears to operate continuously and generates a continuous 3 to 4 kiloWatts power at about 220 Volts and about 10 Amps DC. From an analysis of Wimshurst electrostatic generators, this would require a power increase factor, or over-unity factor of about 20. Groups of investigative scientists from Europe and Japan have been allowed to examine the device in the 1980s, and have all verified these claims without understanding the machines principles of operation (Nieper, Hans A.,1981).

Methernitha is committed to not release details on their device, as they believe that present mankind is not ready for such advanced energy technology. Their point of view is adequately summarized in a quote from a typed letter from Methernitha in 1988:

"To surprise present mankind with a free-energy device would literally mean to pour oil into a world which is already set on fire in too many places and domains of human life. What mankind needs is peace, peace of mind to start with, to have a chance to find back to nature and god, and not more and further technological support in his strife for pleasure, which would rather drown him in an ocean of noise, over-action and pollution in general. If you can not accept this point of view please discover a new 'free'-energy device by yourself. The responsibility for its publication with all of its consequences will then be yours only. May peace be with you. Methernitha."

From the videotape (or the transcription published in 1989), Methernitha states:

"This wondermachine is lurked from nature, nothing else. Nature is the greatest source of power as well as knowledge which man has, and it still conceals many secrets, which are only revealed to those, who approach and tie in them with highest respect and responsibility." "In order to understand nature and to perceive its voice, man is obliged to experience silence and solitude, and it was there, where the knowledge about this technology was obtained." "To the educated physicist many a thing of this machine may seem impossible, maybe even crazy. Maybe he is also offended by the conceptions used to explain the whole. Only partly we could use the concepts of conventional physical terminology in order to explain and define only approximately the functions and properties of the various parts of the machine." "It has to be remembered that the established sciences were already many times forced to change or give up some of their very fundamental concepts. Think about Galileo Galilei, in order to name only one example. Our human society almost condemned this man as a sorcerer and magician, just because he investigated and discovered a truth which seemed unacceptable by the established science of the days." "The book of knowledge is not wrong, but it is incomplete, and therefore allows to draw wrong conclusions." "We are part of a new era which brings to light many new facts and new knowledge. The clothes of nowaday science have become too tight and should be stripped off, just like the larva of an insect does with its skin. Only this will allow a true metamorphosis to take its course, and finally, at the limits and at the destination of all worldly knowledge, a universal and unlimited spiritual science, radiating and beautiful, just as the completed imago of an insect, may give its blessings and benediction to a renovated humanity." Tom Bearden (1991) described a Vacuum Triode developed by Sweet. I have seen Tom's videotape of this device in operation, when it was operating. Tom considers the highly nonlinear nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase conjugate mirror (PPCM). He likens this effect to a triode tube since the amplified phase conjugate replica of the signal wave is much like the amplified output of a triode, and the input to a PPCM is much like a triode's grid signal input.

Sweet has developed working devices based upon this vacuum triode concept utilizing paired barium ferrite magnets and resonant circuits. It should be noted that in order for the device to work, the magnets were preconditioned by an undisclosed process. Devices have been reported and demonstrated to reliable witness that have produced continuous 6, 500, and 5,000 Watts output from a nine volt DC battery. Through Tom's theoretical suggestions, the circuit was modified to test possible antigravity effects. The test results performed by Sweet alone indicated a 90% weight reduction of the device itself, from 6 pounds to about 20 ounces on a spring scale, when the external load was increased from 0 to 10 Watts. To my knowledge, no further tests have been performed with this device, as Sweet has had severe heath and family difficulties.

Devices Worthy of Future Study

It is difficult to separate which devices should be considered as more important or better to research than the others listed in this paper. All have potential merit and application. However; for a first step, what is really needed is repeatable experimental evidence of a new potential source, to produce the so-called zero point energy, free energy, or over-unity effects. As funding is presently limited, the lack of resources limits our research to simple and uncomplicated devices. I would recommend the following devices, in order of increasing complexity and financial commitment, as worthy of careful attention and rapid duplication:

* Kelly's Soviet Resonant Circuit, A Computer Model and Analyses;

* Bedini Free Energy Generator (Brand new motorcycle battery);

* Hickox's Electric Dynamo (US Patent No. 4,249,096);

* Kelly's Soviet Resonant Circuit;

* Russell's Counter-wound Overlapping Conical Coil Designs;

* dePalma's and Valone's Homopolar Polar N-Machine Generator;

* Brown's Radioactive Decay Resonant Circuit (US Patent No. 4,835,433);

* Hyde's Electrostatic Energy Field Power Generating System (US Patent No. 4,897,592);

* Sweet's Vacuum Triode;

* McKie's PODMOD Generation Device; and

* Methernitha's Swiss M-L Converter.


Of all of the devices reported herein, I know of none that have been adequately tested and accepted to allow unconditional support of their claims, nor have any of these devices been replicated or reproduced by another party to confirm their operation. The devices that appear most promising appear to be held as proprietary or secretive for financial, legal, or philosophical reasons. This very frustrating situation is being actively overcome by the creation of a dedicated and growing network of interested scientists and engineers, that are providing accurate and honest information transfer, pooling resources, and looking ahead to create, organize, and provide adequate financial support that works.

Business Plan

What is needed is an international organization that is committed to the study of these fields and the support of its researchers. Such an organization cannot survive within the United States alone. What is proposed is a three step plan: (1) The creation of an annual advanced energy conference to bring together those who will openly discuss ideas, experiments, and devices; (2) The creation of an international non-profit corporation that would support these activities and extend and network these conferences internationally; and (3) The creation of a financial dividend structure that would allow all participants to gain from the success of others. Research and advancement done at the expense of others must become a thing of the past.


I thank all of the researchers and authors that have promoted these ideas and have placed themselves on the line in the face of so-called adversity. I also thank the staff and promoters of the IANS for conducting this conference, and I thank Tom Bearden for allowing me to take his place during this conference in his absence. Finally, I thank myself and my higher guides for allowing me to be able to continue to increase my consciousness, to learn to accept knowledge without fear, and to accurately transmit that knowledge to others.

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