by T.E.B.
James C. Hayes, Ph.D.
James L. Kenny, Ph.D.
Kenneth D. Moore, B.S.
Stephen L. Patrick, B.S.
Magnetic Energy Limited
Huntsville, AL 35801

from IndyBay Website


Special Note: Posting of this document on a DoE website does not imply approval or disapproval by the Department of Energy. This work is made available to illustrate innovative energy research by multiple researchers involving new concepts. Scientific method requires replication and independent test and verification, and an additional research prototype build-up for those purposes is presently underway by the authors.


For about 10 years the inventors have been working together as a team, and exploring many avenues whereby electromagnetic energy might be extracted from various sources of potential, and eventually from the active vacuum itself.


This has been very arduous and difficult work, since there were no guidelines for such a process whereby the electrical power system becomes an open dissipative system in the manner of Prigogine’s theoretical models {17-19} but using determinism instead of statistics. There was also no apparent precedent in the patent database or in the scientific database.

Since the present “standard” U(1) electrodynamics model forbids electrical power systems with COP>1.0, we also studied the derivation of that model, which is recognized to contain flaws due to its 136-year old basis. We particularly examined how it developed, how it was changed, and how we came to have the Lorentz-regauged Maxwell-Heaviside equations model ubiquitously used today, particularly with respect to the design, manufacture, and use of electrical power systems.

Our approach was that the Maxwell theory is well-known to be a material fluid flow theory, since the equations are hydrodynamic equations. So in principle, anything that can be done with fluid theory can be done with electrodynamics, since the fundamental equations are the same mathematics and must describe consistent analogous functional behavior and phenomena. This means that EM systems with “electromagnetic energy winds” from their external “atmosphere” (the active vacuum) are in theory quite possible, analogous to a windmill in a wind.

The major problem was that the present classical EM model excluded such EM systems. We gradually worked out the exact reason for the arbitrary exclusion that resulted in the present restricted EM model, where and when it was done, and how it was done. It turned out that Ludvig Valentin Lorenz {55} symmetrically regauged Maxwell’s equations in 1867, only two years after Maxwell’s seminal publication in 1865, and Lorenz first made the arbitrary changes that limited the model to only those Maxwellian systems in equilibrium in their energy exchange with their external environment (specifically, in their exchange with the active vacuum).


This is not a law of nature and it is not the case for the Maxwell-Heaviside theory prior to Lorenz’s (and later H. A. Lorentz’s) alteration of it. Thus removing this symmetrical regauging condition {31, 34-38} is required - particularly during the discharge of the system’s excess potential energy (the excitation) in the load.

Later the great H. A. Lorentz, working independently and apparently unaware of Lorenz’s previous 1867 work, independently regauged the Maxwell-Heaviside equations so they represented a system that was in equilibrium with its active environment.



Implications of the Arbitrarily Curtailed Electrodynamics Model

Initially an electrical power system is asymmetrically regauged by simply applying potential, so that the system’s potential energy is nearly instantly changed. The well-known gauge freedom principle in gauge field theory assures us that any system’s potential - and hence potential energy - can be freely changed in such fashion. In principle, this potential energy can then be freely discharged in loads to power them, without any further input from the operator. In short, there is absolutely no theoretical law or law of nature that prohibits COP>1.0 electrical power systems - else we have to abandon the successful modern gauge field theory.


But present electrical power systems do no such thing. However, all of them do accomplish the initial asymmetrical regauging by applying potential. So all of them do freely regauge their potential energy, and the only thing the energy input to the shaft of a generator (or the chemical energy available to a battery) accomplishes is the creation of the potentializing entity - the source dipole.

It follows that something the present systems perform in their discharge of their nearly-free1 regauging energy must prevent the subsequent simple discharge of the energy to power the loads unless further work is done on the input section. In short, some ubiquitous feature in present systems must self-enforce the Lorentz symmetry condition (or a version of it) whenever the system discharges its free or nearly free excitation energy.

Lorentz’s curtailment of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations greatly simplified the mathematics and eased the solution of the resulting equations, of course. But applied to the design of circuits - particularly during their excitation discharge - it also discarded the most interesting and useful class of Maxwellian systems, those exhibiting COP>1.0.

1 In real systems, we have to pay for a little switching costs, e.g., but this may be minimal compared to the potential energy actually directed or gated upon the system to potentialize it.

Consequently, Lorentz 2 unwittingly discarded all Maxwellian systems with “net usable EM energy winds” during their discharge into their loads to power them. Thus all present systems - which have been designed in accord with the Lorentz condition - cannot use the electromagnetic energy winds that freely arise in them by simple regauging, due to some universal feature in the design of every power system that prevents such action.

We eventually identified the ubiquitous closed current loop circuit as the culprit which enforces a special kind of Lorentz symmetry during discharge of the system’s excitation energy. With this circuit, the excitation-discharging system must destroy the source of its EM energy winds as fast as it powers its loads and losses, and thus faster than it actually powers its loads.


Also, as we stated and contrary to conventional notions, batteries and generators do not dissipate their available internal energy (shaft energy furnished to the generator, or chemical energy in the battery) to power their external circuits and loads, but only to restore the separation of their internal charges, thereby forming the source dipole connected to their terminals. Once formed, the source dipole then powers the circuit {16, 22}.


Some Overlooked Principles in Electrodynamics

We recovered a major fundamental principle from Whittaker’s {1} profound but largely ignored work in 1903.


Any scalar potential is a priori a set of EM energy flows, hence a set of “electromagnetic energy winds” so to speak. As shown by Whittaker, these EM energy winds pour in from the complex plane (the time domain) to any x, y, z point in the potential, and pour out of that point in all directions in real 3-space {1, 26, 43}.

Further, in conventional EM theory, electrodynamicists do not actually calculate or even use the potential itself as the unending set of EM energy winds or flows that it actually is, but only calculate and use its reaction cross section with a unit point static charge at a point. How much energy is diverged around a single standard unit point static coulomb, is then said to be the “magnitude of the potential” at that point. This is a non sequitur of first magnitude.3


E.g., just as the small “swirl” of water flow diverged to stream around an intercepting rock in a river bottom is not the river’s own flow magnitude, and certainly is not the “magnitude of the river”, neither is the standard reaction cross section of the potential a measure of the potential’s actual “magnitude”.


Indeed, the potential’s “magnitude” with respect to any local interception and extraction of energy from it, is limited only by one’s ability to,

(1) intercept the flow

(2) diverge it into a circuit to power the circuit

The energy flows identically comprising the potential {1} replenish the withdrawn energy as fast as it can be diverged in practical processes, since the energy flows themselves move at the speed of light.


2 Although Lorenz did this first, such was H.A. Lorentz’s prestige that when he advanced symmetrical regauging, it was rather universally adopted by electrodynamicists, and is still used by them today. E.g., see J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, 1975, p. 219-221; 811-812.

3 E.g., just replace the assumed unit point static charge assumed at each point with n unit point static charges, and the collected energy around the new point charge will be n times the former collection. If the former calculation had yielded the actual magnitude of the potential at that point, its magnitude could not be increased by increasing the interception. But since the potential is actually a flow process, increasing the reaction cross section of the interception increases the energy collection accordingly.

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