ORIGIN OF THE EARTH’S MATERIALS
We must learn that any person, who will not accept what he knows to
be truth, for the very love of truth alone, is very definitely
undermining his mental integrity.
As the autumn leaves fell at the end of a five week rainless period,
the edges of the pavements of the streets of suburban New York City
held layers of thoroughly dried out, brittle leaves that crumbled to
a fine yellow powder of desiccated vegetation, a light rain then
washed the finely granulated materials into the gutters, where they
changed into mud.
I took pains to terminate it and found that it was
no longer a yellow powder, but had become a dark, slimy mud. When
the mud dried out, it became dirt. Dirt becomes bargain, and hardpan
Layers of black, wet mud, exposed at low tides along the shores of
Long Island Sound, consist mainly of organic matter that once
floated in the waters and then sank to the bottom. On the other side
of New York City, the large area of the Hackensack Meadows is made
up of dark brown, compact mud, consisting mainly of disintegrated
vegetable matter that during the past 7," years first floated and
then sank m the waters, changing e shallow estuary, tidewater lake
into meadow lands
Burnouts inform us that all vegetation consists of one percent
mineral matter which is left behind, like ashes from a fire, when
the vegetation dies, its other ingredients change into water vapor
and carbon dioxide gas and escape into the atmos. plower. This gives
n elementary, picture of how minerals develop on the earth and why
the earth has been constantly growing larger during approximately
four and a half billion year
Physicists inform us that matter consists of molecules that are
composed of atoms in constant vibration, each atom being made up of
a nucleus charged with positive electricity and surrounded by
negatively charged electrons in circular motion. A piece of steel is
composed of submicroscopic elements in constant motion and these
expand when heated because the atoms then move faster and take up
Spectroscope operators show us that each of the 92 basic chemical
elements, every material of the earth, can be identified by the wave
lengths of its light rays when made incandescent or is burned, at
which moment the materials change into gases and light rays. The
spectroscope intercepts the light rays as they return to space from
which they originally came, and identifies the material by the wave
lengths of its light rays.
The chemical elements of the materials in rocks which were once
leaves and vegetation, can be identified by the light rays that
created them; we thus assume that they all came from celestial space
in the form of light rays, and that the atoms of the light rays
became frozen or occluded and changed into the atoms in the
materials of the earth.
The process is called photosynthesis the
synthesis of chemical compounds effected with the aid of radiant
energy, especially light, and specifically, the formation of
carbohydrates in the chlorophyl containing tissues of plants exposed
Coal is a mineral rock that was once vegetable matter and is found
sporadically in all parts of the world, at different depths in
successively created strata of the earth. The minerals silica and
calcium are now found associated with former vegetation in the form
of petrified trees and granitic rocks. Silica sands and calcium
limestones are created in the oceans.
The association of these
minerals can be explained as being one result of the recurrent great
cataclysms of the earth; these occurred when polar areas,
overburdened by ice, rolled to the tropics and tropical areas were
moved to the poles, and, they marked the end of that particular
epoch of time.
Research appears to confirm that the sun, stars, planets and
meteorites, comprising the entire universe, are composed of the same
ingredients and that these ingredients sometimes appear as energy
and sometimes as matter. Energy and matter have been proven to be
mutually convertible. We have abundant evidence that energy from
celestial space changes into matter.
The coal beds which are now
underground organic rock layers are one example. What is now rock
was once energy which was transmuted into vegetation and then
metamorphosed from vegetation to rock. Petrified wood, leaves, figs,
and animal bones have gone through a similar process, having first
been created on the surface of the earth, and then been
metamorphosed to mineral rock while buried underground.
Television, radio, and electronics give us clues to certain
processes of creation. In television we have an artificial
transmitter of electrical oscillations and a receiver for utilizing
them. Certain forces of nature are harnessed and utilized, by the
intelligence of man, to produce pictures on a screen at great
distances from the sources of their creation. The oscillations are
broadcast, like the radiations from the sun.
A blade of grass grows in a field because an intelligence, far
superior to man’s intelligence, has caused the creation of radiant
energy which creates blades of grass, at great distances from the
Neither the light rays nor the radio waves are visible; but they are
just as real as the blades of grass and the television pictures
which we see and which are the result of the invisible energy
radiations. These energy radiations created them and caused them to
become visible to our eyes, whenever captured by the receptive
Consider now the enormous volume of energy being radiated by the
uncountable number of stars in celestial space, all of which radiate
energy just as our sun throws off energy radiations. This energy
arrives at the surface of the earth in a continuous shower. Earth
bound electrical or ethereal images convert certain of these
invisible forces into materials, by photosynthesis, under suitable
conditions of temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, and a
suitable electrical condition of the atmosphere.
Nature creates blades of grass in a field. Man creates television
pictures on a screen.
Both the blades of grass and the
television pictures indicate to us the existence of creative
intelligence. The original forces of nature were in existence a very
long time before men learned to utilize them in order to produce
television pictures on a screen. The creation of the television
pictures provides us with an analogy of the invisible forces which
create the blades of grass; but the methods used are quite
The 92 basic chemical elements of the earth (now sometimes listed as
102) are identified by the lengths of the light rays into which they
metamorphose on being made incandescent. These chemical elements
arrive on the earth as energy rays and return again to celestial
space as energy rays.
Based on the latest findings of physical and cosmic science it seems
reasonable to postulate that everything in and on the earth,
excepting its core, has been created within the past 4% billion
years including land, oceans, and atmosphere. These three entities
are each composed of some or all of the 92 basic chemical elements,
whose essences all become individual light and heat radiations and
return to celestial space at temperatures above incandescence in the
case of minerals and metals, and at hydrogen bomb temperatures in
the case of certain gases.
Consider the topsoil of the United States some 50,000 years from
now, when it may be metamorphosed into solid rock and buried, say,
100 to 400 feet below the surface of the earth. Thick rock would
mark the bottoms of present valleys and river deltas.
would mark the areas of some of our highlands, while the bottoms of
swamp lands, such as the Everglades and Dismal Swamps, would have
become peat or coal.
Elements of Continuous Creation
WE WILL REVIEW briefly what is known and suggested concerning the
growth of vegetation and layers of inorganic materials.
The germs of vegetable growth are the male and female life forces
which develop in stamen and pistil respectively, and when joined
together in an environment suited to the species, create zygotes.
These, in turn, create cells or minuscule bodies, and plants grow by
cell division at upper terminal of stem and lower ends of roots. The
individual cell, once formed, does not move upward.
created by the zygotes consist of atoms, which makes it reasonable
to suggest that the zygotes create the molecules and that they have
the function of attracting and binding electrical ions of the air
with photons from celestial space. The photons are corpuscles of
light, mainly from the sun. The ions are absorbed from currents that
flow from stem to root and are caused by the difference in
electrical potential between air and ground.
The omnipresent ions
create the voltage gradient of the ambient air, and moist earth
creates the necessary conducting electrical contact between root and
The zygote cells have the unique property of subdividing; then, as
each subdivision grows to the size of the original cell it again
subdivides, and this process continues indefinitely but only within
limiting temperatures. The zygotes of each succeeding cell are the
life forces of vegetation. The ions, which are captured or occluded
when flowing through the live parts of the plant, are postulated to
become the protons and neutrons of atoms, whose whirling electrons
are the captured corpuscles of light.
These known ingredients of air
and sunlight account for the continuous creation of the atoms by
metamorphosis. The end use of most of the tremendous quantity of
energy from celestial space, which is being rained continuously upon
the surface of the earth, is thus accounted for, and the equivalence
of energy and matter is confirmed.
The primary forces of nature are identified as radiant energy acting
on electrical entities which gather and hold matter. The prime
creations become identified as meristomatic cells, auxines, enzymes,
and growth hormones, as observed in plants. Each develops along an
astral or ghostlike pattern, which manifests its presence visibly
when clothed with the materials which it holds together, as
presently described for the snowflake. Every atom of each material
of the earth is an electrical entity of earthbound energy, which has
been occluded, captured, or frozen in its transient material form.
The metamorphosis from radiant energy to matter is being observed
constantly where microscopes reveal the growths of the cell
structures of plant and animal life, and electrical instruments
reveal the concurrent voltages of the cells; the source of their
growths is thus identified as being an unseen all pervading energy
Chlorophyl is the medium in which electromagnetic forces of
photosynthesis convert the photons and quanta of light rays, by a
form of metamorphosis, into atoms of the earth. Atoms unite to form
molecules, which are grouped along the astral patterns or ghosts of
the creating zygotes, and nowhere else. By analogy the astral
pattern is somewhat like an invisible but necessary molecular
hatrack, whose form varies with the species.
The building materials
include the invisible life forces, light corpuscles and ions, and
the visible materials which are carbohydrates plus some inorganic
materials. All vegetation has an average content of approximately
C6H1201 with about one percent of minerals.
When vegetation dies, the carbohydrates are consumed by slow
combustion (rotting) and are metamorphosed into carbon dioxide gas
and water vapor. The C02 is re used in creating new vegetation. The
H2O condenses as rain and adds to the volume of the oceans, as
explained presently. The minerals are left behind as a residue or
ash and are found throughout the successive earth strata in which
they were created.
Mineral matter, found in all vegetation, consists of calcium, iron,
copper, and other inorganic materials. Calcium is being created
continuously in vegetation and appears in the limestone strata of
the earth. Sandstone is created by sand crystals of silica, which is
a direct fixation of photosynthesis, occurring only in shallow seas
and never at depths below which the sun’s rays penetrate.
formations of crystals in the air, snowflakes, is an analogy. Each
of these citations will be presently explained in further detail. Granitic rocks and petrified trees are developed underground by
silica and calcium carbonate, which crystallize with the buried
vegetation to form petrified forest floors and trees, after having
been picked up and carried in tenuous solutions of rain water
percolating through the overlaid strata.
A part of the vegetation,
buried by the cataclysm that ended one epoch, is returned to the
surface, in the form of rock, by one of the succeeding convulsions
of the earth.
The snowflake is an example of electrical forces promoting the
binding together of materials.
The ions of the air are recognized as
the cause of the voltage gradient of the ambient atmosphere, as
outlined later in the chapter "Volcanoes and Hot Springs." They hold
together the water in raindrops. The condensation of water vapor in
dust free air is demonstrated by the Wilson cloud chamber.
All snowflakes which fall to the earth are electrically alive until
the voltages of the ions are neutralized by becoming grounded on the
earth’s surface. Microscopic water particles have become
electrically charged by the ions of the air, causing them to have
north and south poles. The south and north poles attract each other.
The south pole of a microscopic moisture particle then freezes fast
to the north pole of an adjacent particle, and they become visible
when enough of them have collected on the ion. The beautiful astral
pattern, or ghost, of the ion then becomes visible because the
moisture particles are ionized and gathered only along the straight
lines of this astral pattern, now clothing itself with frozen
moisture and becoming a snowflake.
The snowflake is a mineral
crystal which, like all other elements of the earth, exists only
within a given temperature range. Water is one of the minerals of
The identity of the ions of the air with snowflakes have been proven
true by reports of St. Elmo’s fire leaving the wing tips of planes
as well as propeller blades when airplanes fly through snowstorms.
The ions arrive on the planes as snowflakes and their flow off as
St. Elmo ’s fire confirms their being electrically charged. Due to
the excess of static, radios of airplanes become useless during
snowstorms. The static is created by the Hertzian waves being
generated as the ions of the snowflakes become grounded on the
bodies of the airplanes.
Atoms, when grouped as molecules and occluded or frozen as matter,
make up the chemical elements of the earth’s materials. The are
identified by their wave lengths on spectrograph charts,
as previously explained. All of the earth’s materials are transient,
occluded, earth bound forms of the stellar radiations which fill all
Energy radiations, atoms and ions, are the same thing in
different manifestations. The growth of the earth and its stratified
construction are accounted for by this new cosmic, geophysical
theory of continuous creation, caused by electrodynamic interactions
of radiant energy from celestial space and earth bound energy forms.
This explanation identifies the earth’s materials with the rest of
the universe, all being the same essence in different natural
manifestations. It explains how each of the successive strata of the
earth represents, generally, the accumulated growths of vegetable,
mineral, and animal matter, created during each one of the epochs of
time punctuated by the successive cataclysms of the earth.
The growth of upland materials varies with their locations being
greater in temperate and tropical zones than in frigid zones; while
few data have as yet been gathered about the rates of growth of
slimes, mucks, corals, limestones, and sands of the sea bottoms.
The earth is growing larger in diameter at the rate of approximately
four feet in each thousand years. The average buildup of topsoil for
any one place is about one foot in each five hundred years. This
approximation is based on the data of the drilling at Spur Ranch as
already given in detail. (See page 73) . The average stratum was
found to be about thirteen feet in depth.
It is assumed that each stratum represented one epoch of time, each
of which averaged six thousand years for the upper strata; this
figure is subject to correction when better data on the duration of
epochs become available.
At Ur of the Chaldeans and at Cnossus, Crete, where excavations have
been made, the build up is found to be six or eight feet for each
thousand years. Those underground remains of cities clearly show how
the development of topsoil materials have buried the evidences of
the various civilizations.
Entirely new concepts of the formation of some of the
earth's materials will follow, as naturally as day follows night,
when we accept as an axiom in geophysics the fact that the earth
rotates on different Axes of Figure at recurrent intervals of 6,000
to 7,000 years.
The metamorphosis of the rocks of the earth will be
seen to be the natural consequence of a new earth layer overlying an
earlier one; and the percolating rain waters become recognized as
the agent which dissolves the elements in the new layer; these
elements then impregnate and crystallize with the elements of the
Pre Historic Forest Floors
IN PRIMEVAL FORESTS there was formed a deep bedding of vegetable
matter which constituted their floor or ground such as is noticeable
to a lesser extent during a walk through woodlands today.
consists of the remnants of tree trunks, twigs, leaves, and any
buds, blossoms or fruits thrown off in the yearly life cycles of
plant life. A topsoil is thus developed, and this annual growth
continues throughout an epoch of time lasting between 6,000 and
7,000 years, resulting in a considerable thickness or depth of newly
developed earth materials.
If a raging fire consumes a forest, a new forest will eventually
grow up in the same area. The layer of ash will appear as a telltale
streak or vein in the rock layer into which the dead vegetation
becomes metamorphosed during subsequent epochs.
During a normal careen of the globe, as described in Part One of
this book, a layer of sand, shells, and other flood debris from the
oceans may also be laid over this former forest floor in varying
depths. And this area of the earth with its topsoil formed during an
entire epoch will be moved by the careen of the globe to a new
latitude, where new forests will grow, either temperate or tropical,
depending upon the new location.
Regardless of the latitude to which the area is shifted, or what
debris covers the area, the usual secondary forces of nature
continue at work including rains which fall and sink into the
ground. Water, under certain conditions, as it percolates through
the new top layers of the earth takes up, or dissolves, silica and
other chemical elements in the sands and shells of the newly
overlaid upper stratum.
Now containing minerals in solution, the
waters slowly penetrate the vegetable matter of the organic
substrata, causing petrification of the vegetation.
The minerals are given up by the percolating waters.
being in an amorphous condition produces a different effect of petrification from that found as trees or produced from vegetation
having definite solid shapes. The dissolved minerals crystallize
according to their natures and combine the chemical elements of the
amorphous vegetation with their own elements, resulting in the
crystalline structures recognized today in granite and similar
rocks, now normally classed as igneous rock formations that is,
rocks formed by volcanic work.
As an example of the work of ancient causes which produce the same
effects even today, let us consider the creation of the fossil
forests of Yellowstone Park, described in Part One. In the U.S.
Geological Survey, 1912, Trees and Vegetation, Arnold Hague mentions
about 2,000 springs in the Yellowstone area, mostly alkaline hot
water springs, and states that ’a to 3’s of the mineral content of
the waters is silica.
When the hot spring waters sink into the ground, become chilled
while percolating amid the buried vegetable ground materials, and
have to give up their minerals, it is found that most of the
minerals have become captured by the vegetable materials, or have
captured the vegetation with which the minerals have crystallized.
Thus, the petrification of trees and other smaller vegetation is now
going on underground.
Several hundred thousand years have evidently been required to
produce the 27 non contiguous strata of forest tree levels in
Amethyst Mountain, along the Lamar River (page 36). The silica
became quartz, opal, and granite rock.
When it is hot at 194 F. as in hot springs or geysers water will
absorb and carry more than twice the amount of silica absorbed when
it is cold at 68 F. and is percolating in the ground.
water is fully saturated with silica when hot, it must surrender
more than half its load of silica when it is chilled to 68 F.
"The remarkable efficiency of silicification processes at least
indicates that silica can be transported in solutions of such
mobility and tenuousness as to effect widespread penetrations and
(CS. Hitchins, in Bulletin of Institute of Mining
and Metallurgy, Vol. XLIV, 1935. )
We have shown how soils build up through vegetation and that trees
become petrified when underground. It follows that plants, grasses,
and other particles of the soil also become petrified.
examples are the glass like obsidian strata and the immense
quantities of stone like, glassy materials of angular shapes, or breccia, which have resulted from the weathering and decay of these
fossilized materials when exposed on the ground in Yellowstone Park.
The rock structures in which these trees and other vegetation are
entombed also contain great numbers of impressions of plants many of
which are perfectly preserved, including roots, stems, branches and
fruiting organs, as well as grasses. (Knowlton, in the U.S.
Geological Survey, 1944, Yellowstone.)
These granitic rocks appear to be "soil rocks", such as have once
been soil. The identified vegetation could not have developed and
withstood the molten lava of the laccolith theory or the fine
volcanic dust of another theory. To say that the rocks are "igneous"
is now superfluous and unnecessary. It seems more reasonable to
account for these so called "igneous" rocks by the new theory of
"soil rocks," and the word "orgneous" would more correctly express
More detailed data linking vegetation and granitic rocks are given
later (pages 248 and 249) . For the moment, let it merely be pointed
out that more than 25 of the mineral elements that occur in
vegetation are also found in granites.
The theory that granitic rocks are igneous is attributed to the Scot
James Hutton (born 1726). He saw that granitic rock layers were
interleaved between other layers of rocks, and concluded that what
he saw could only have been created by molten magma from the earth’s
interior. In Hutton’s days nothing was known about Antarctica nor
about the wobble of the earth.
The careenings of the globe with the attendant growth of successive
earth strata explain the development of granitic rocks, and the
occurrence of granitic rocks is offered as proof of the recurrent
careenings of the globe.
During a world flood a layer of ocean sand together with other
materials is assumed to have been thrown up and to have covered a
forest of broken tree trunks. Rain waters, having penetrated the
sand layer, picked up silica and other minerals in tenuous
solutions, carried them along in penetrations of buried trees and
forest floors causing petrification of both by replacement,
impregnation and crystallization.
Quartz seams appear in many rocks. Silica (Si0=) in tenuous water
solutions appears to have crystallized into quartz. Clearly, if
silica laden waters were penetrating buried forest areas and became
crystallized into quartz in fractures and cracks, then the
activating solutions must have penetrated the vegetable and mineral
elements of the soil from which the granitic rocks were eventually
Thus, we have a new twentieth century theory for the formation of
granitic rocks. They are products of underground petrification.
Petrification must be assumed to have taken place on the forest
floors or the ground, which consists largely of vegetable matter,
because it is generally so assumed in regard to the trees. If the
latter is true, why not the former
"Origin of Granite," Geological Society of America, Memoir 28, 1948,
contains the following items, with my comments added: A.F.
Buddington (page 36) finds two layers of granite separated by one
layer of amphibolite.
"The granites locally contain these
interleaves of limestone."
COMMENT: This shows that the area of the
granite has been a sea bottom and an upland area, in previous
epochs, in sequence. (Page 29)
"The sillimantic granite . . . occurs
almost wholly as fibres and fibrous aggregates in association with
COMMENT: This shows that it was a forest floor which was
metamorphosed into granite.
Frank F. Grant in the same memoir finds very little massive granite
(page 47). On page 51 he mentions Duluth gabbro, of which the upper
10% is granite with somewhat irregular distribution.
(page 68) finds that the dominant mechanism is the gradual
penetration of activating solutions.
In Internal Constitution of the Earth, Chap. IV, page 8, L.H. Adams
"Granites are hard and soft materials . . . highly
compressible and less compressible mineral grains."
COMMENT: If this
condition does not apply to igneous rocks, then volcanic lavas and
granites are different types of rocks.
If all of the so called igneous rocks were once in the same molten
mass, seething into soupy form at excessively high temperatures,
after which they cooled and crystallized, how can we account for
hard and soft materials remaining separated in the same rock We
cannot account for the many differences in the so called igneous
rocks when we suppose them all to have been ejected from the same
When the modern theory of volcanoes (see page 236) becomes accepted
and replaces the prevailing "molten internal core of the earth"
theory, granitic rocks will no longer be classified as "igneous."
Volcanic rocks generally contain less silica than granites (see page
249) . Sandstones and limestones as well as granitic rocks become
crystalline volcanic lava when fused by excessive earth electric
currents; but the fact that granites are crystalline formations does
not prove them necessarily to have been lava magma.
Unlike ingots cast from molten metals, which have uniform internal
structure, granites are not uniform internally. They appear to
resemble dirt and debris in tiny horizons which have become
crystallized. They split apart on their bedding layers when forcibly
broken. Many are classified by their bedding characteristics.
Gneisses are a laminated or foliated group. The orthoclase group
consists of granite rocks that break in directions at right angles.
The plagioclase group includes those having oblique slanting
cleavage or splits. Pyroxene abundant in some granitesis often
laminated. The word itself comes from the Greek, meaning fire
stranger, which connotes "not igneous."
Photomicrographs, showing cross sections of various types of
granitic rocks, reveal their contents. Some are mosaics, and the
particles in the mosaic show bedding layers, indicating that the
mosaic particles were formed separately, by sedimentation, before
they were combined into the present granite rock.
Petrified vegetation, as seen in micrographs (see U.S. Geological
Survey, Monograph 3, Part 2, 1899, Geology of Yellowstone National
Park), appears to range, in varying amounts, from grasses and wood
dust to small vegetable fibers, with or without an occasional grain
of dirt. "Orgneous" would appear to be a more accurate definition of
these rocks than "igneous."
The petrified trees of Amethyst Mountain, Yellowstone Park, are
composed mainly of silica; those at Cairo, Egypt, are composed
mainly of calcium.
The transportation of a knocked down and buried
forest to a warm climate or to an undersea location due to a normal
careen of the globe may be considered a prerequisite for the
calcification of the wood. Wood which has turned to stone (excluding
coal) is generally found to be silicified, calcified, or partly
silicified and partly calcified. The colorings of the petrified wood
are due to other chemical elements and vary from red to blue, from
garnet to turquoise.
When a soil layer is superimposed on another soil layer after a
flood, a formation develops which is different from a superimposed
In the tropics when mining tin ore normally hard
rocks, like granites, are found to be so soft that they can be dug
with a spade to depths of scores or even hundreds of feet. R.H.
Rastall, in The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1947, Vol.X, pages 158 59,
describes this and explains it as decomposition of rocks due to
chemical action. If the theory of orgneous rocks is accepted, these
soft granites are now identified as partially crystallized
Another example of non silica type of rock formation is given by
Nordenskiold in his description of frozen Wood Hill of the New
Siberian Islands. In his The Voyage of the Vega, he states that the
tiered rock strata showed layers alternating between bare rock
strata and strata containing fissile bituminous tree stems. The
trees were not petrified but had turned into coal. In Yellowstone
Park the trees have turned into stone.
Coal beds are found below layers of granite. But if granitic rocks
were of igneous origin and were ejected from a molten magma of the
earth’s interior, then the heat of the magma would have destroyed
the coal layer when it penetrated through the volatile coal!
The Coal Resources Section of the U.S. Geological Survey advises:
"At several places in Wyoming large masses of granite overlie
sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age, which may contain coal at depth.
The granite is not in contact with the coal. The occurrences one on
the south side of Owl Creek Mountain, and another on the southwest
side of the Wind River Mountain are interpreted by most geologists
as being the result of thrust faulting that took place when the
mountains were uplifted."
Coal beds are found below layers of limestone. Limestone was created
in the oceans by corals and shellfish.
Coal is formed from
vegetation that grew in upland areas. Limestone is now found iii the
upper strata and coal beds in the lower strata of the earth. These
natural phenomena cannot be accounted for except by the theory of
successive creation of the earth’s strata, during the epochs of time
between the recurrent careenings of the globe.
The granitic rocks of Yellowstone Park are identified as soil rocks
on account of the vegetable growth contained in them. During the
very same epochs of time, ocean rocks were also being created
including limestones, marbles, and sandstones. Where land and water
met, different types of rocks were developed such as clays, shales,
The formation of soil rocks and sandstones is due to the fact that
water absorbs, dissolves, and carries minerals in solution and in
suspension, and that minerals form into crystals when changing from
aqueous to solid form.
The mineral content of drinking water is indicated by the scales
which form on the bottoms of kettles used for boiling water, and
also by the tiny crystals or flakes which are the sediment from the
microscopic mist produced by cold water spray type home humidifiers
and appear as a dust on floors and furnishings.
Mud - which is a viscid form of silt - is wet dirt and is composed mostly of tiny, even microscopic, mineral and vegetable
particles. On drying out, the absorbed minerals crystallize
according to their natures and solidify with the organic and
inorganic particles. Mud changes to hardpan.
Hardpan changes to
In penetrating strata of vegetable matter, the water-borne minerals
have replaced the vegetable matter in petrified trees and wood, and
have crystallized to unite closely and intimately all of the
molecules of the amorphous vegetation and join them so as to form an
In penetrating sand strata, the water-borne minerals have permeated
and impregnated the interstices between the adjacent grains of
sand-welding them together to form solid sandstones.
Embryonic rocks, which have not yet become fully solidified, are
common among sandstones and granitic rocks. Their powers of cohesion
vary over a very wide range under test pressures. Some of these soft
rocks such as those found in the Long Island terminal
moraine-resemble the mottled gray granites common in the vicinity of
New York City.
The softer stones will crumble under finger pressures and are
commonly called rottenstone. Some granitic-type samples crumble with
a tendency to break in parallel planes of about a sixteenth of an
inch in thickness. They are evidently not deep layered rocks which
were once hard but have now softened: but they appear to be recently
formed rudimentary stones still undergoing the process of formation,
but not yet fully solidified.
The prevailing notion that rocks do not grow is refuted by recent
developments with regard to mica an element that is present in many
granitic rocks. Today mica is being grown from what are called tiny
seeds of midi, and the synthetic mica has the same properties as the
natural mica of granitic rocks. (See Technical Report 1040, National
Bureau of Standards.)
Rock making, by the injection of silica and calcium, is today an
established commercial routine. Engineering specialists have
developed techniques for the strengthening of the supporting soils
of building foundations, highways, and mines. Subsoil earths of less
firm textures are converted into rock by the injection of silicate
of soda, calcium chloride, and other activating agents, which gel or
crystallize with the soil.
Heat cycles have been important in developing some of the existing
types of rock. Water, when warm, absorbs and holds double the amount
of silica that it can continue to hold when cold as already
indicated. Magnesium and other minerals appear in dissolved form in
warm water; but calcium is dissolved in cold water but is rejected
when the water gets hot.
Cold water issuing from underground springs in Italy and Spain, for
example is found to contain calcium, dissolved from underground
limestone. When these cold spring waters become warmed up in the
sun, in slow flowing streams, the calcium crystallizes out as
travertine and as aragonite two forms of very hard, crystalline
Thus, in an ever continuing process of creation, rocks develop as
the result of two opposite heat cycles. Granitic rocks are formed in
Yellowstone Park and elsewhere because water absorbs silica and
other minerals when hot and rejects them when it gets cold.
Travertine and aragonite are formed because water, containing carbon
dioxide, absorbs calcium when cold but rejects it when warm.
Topsoil is well known to all dwellers in temperate zones. It is
dirt consisting mainly of decayed vegetation, including roots and
wind blown dust grains. Under certain conditions soil becomes
hardpan and hardpan becomes rock.
The creation of certain kinds of dirt created from vegetables can be
traced to very humble beginnings. The lichens, for example, found in
Antarctica and in Greenland are described by Rutherford Platt as,
strange partnership of fungus and algae, whose acid bearing growths
hold fast to glass hard boulders. Lichens have no need for soil, but
producing it, lay the cornerstones for flowers and trees. They are
the plant world pioneers, bringing life where none existed."
(National Geographic Magazine, April, 1957).
The Creation of Limestone
THE SEQUENCE from grasses to corals to limestone epitomizes the
Limestone is calcium carbonate (CaC03). It is
developed mainly from corals, shellfish, and the various crustacea
and foraminifera. The calcium is created in vegetation. To
illustrate, calcium is the bone building material in the bodies of
calves, and very obviously it is produced from the grasses which
cows eat. Grasses are rich in calcium. From these well known facts
the theory develops naturally that the calcium contained in
limestone comes from vegetation.
Billions of tons of grasses are grown each year. When dead and
decayed they are leached by fresh rain water which picks up calcium
and carbon and carries these elements to the oceans by way of the
Many references to the percentages of calcium in grasses, legumes,
and other vegetation are condensed and assembled in "Bibliography of
the Literature on the Minor Elements and their Relation to Plant and
Animal Nutrition," by the Chilean Nitrate Educational Bureau.
Research conducted at Oklahoma State University on chemical elements
of the earth found in vegetation is reported on by H. A. Daniels in
The Journal of the American Society of Agronomy, 26, 1934, No.6, pp.
496?503. He reports:
"368 samples of 25 different kinds of grasses
showed an average calcium content of 0.351%. 336 samples of 12 kinds
of legumes showed an average calcium content of 1.373%. Grasses of
India showed 0.314 to 0.814% calcium. Bermuda grass was 0.659% and
alfalfa was 1.507% calcium. A listing of legumes showed 1.040 to
In his report Daniels further states,
"Crops high in mineral content
but low in calcium and phosphorus remained low when grown on fertile
soil. Crops high in calcium and phosphorus always bad large amounts,
even on poor soil."
This can be paraphrased by saying that the
percentage of calcium in a plant is not a function of the soil in
which the plant grew; but it may be influenced by it.
All of the many successive layers of limestone rock grew originally
at the bottoms of shallow seas in warm climates. They are now
observable where mountains have been elevated or canyons gouged out.
Each of the individual limestone strata of the earth grew in one of
the successive epochs of time which ended many thousands of years
before the epoch of time in which we live.
The calcium which created
these stone layers was absorbed from sea waters by animal life and
it was constantly replaced through the agency of vegetable life.
That same creative process of metamorphosis is going on today.
Much of the calcium now being carried to the oceans by the rivers
has been dissolved and taken from limestone rocks by flowing fresh
water. It is being used over again by animal life to create new
coral polyps and new oyster shells in tropical and temperate zones
Volcanoes and Hot Springs
VOLCANOES FUNCTION somewhat on the same principle as that on which
the electric arc furnace is based, where electric currents melt iron
to be used in certain types of steel. Hot springs develop on the
principle of the electric blanket that keeps you warm on cold wintry
Very small electric currents flow through the wires of the electric
blanket, creating a gentle heat. Excessive electric currents would
melt the wires. The electric earth currents causing hot springs are
not strong enough to melt the rocks through which they flow, but
volcanoes come about when the electric currents are strong enough to
melt the rocks.
The elimination of the older hypotheses of a molten
core of the earth and a shrinking crust leaves electric earth
currents as the more rational explanation of the concentrations of
heat which cause volcanoes and hot springs.
The internal heat of the earth aside from that received directly
from the sun can be readily accounted for as being a condition
related to the surface of the earth and caused by myriads of
electric currents flowing in the upper earth strata. We know that
all electric earth currents heat the materials through which they
Measurements of the internal heat of the earth at different places
show great and conflicting variations. They have been reported
rather fully in The Internal Constitution of the Earth published by
The National Research Council. Those data and others disprove
dramatically the presently accepted theory that temperatures below
the earth’s surface increase uniformly with depth.
The mistaken assumption that the earth’s internal temperature
increases with depth was underscored when the 12’.i mile long Simplon Tunnel connecting
Switzerland and Italy was built during the
first decade of this century. The records show that great fear was
expressed at the time that the tunnel temperatures would be
The level of the tunnel was, therefore, made higher than the grade
of the railroad required, in order to keep away from the assumed
"hot core" of the earth, it being generally assumed that the
temperature gradient for the internal heat of the earth followed the
surface configuration. The hot internal temperatures which had been
predicted were found not to exist. Today as shown by a recent
test the temperature in the middle of the tunnel varies between 75
and 84 degrees Fahrenheit.
Proofs that the earth is not hot at great depths are also provided
by deep water wells and by oil and gas wells, after the heat of the
drillings has been dissipated. We find ice cold waters in the
abysmal deeps of the oceans nearly seven miles nearer to the assumed
"hot core" of the earth than to the surface waters. The deep water
does not get hot and no convection currents of rising hot water have
There is little or no evidence of the conduction of heat
through the ocean bottoms to the ocean waters (The Oceans, by
Sverdrup, pages 110 and 738) .
All this refutes the current theory
to the effect that the earth’s "crust" is very thin under the
oceans, and also the theory holding that there is a hot molten core
below it. The empirical data contradict all those theories.
Electrically created heat is the main cause of the variations of the
internal heat of the earth at different cross sections, and at
different times for the same sections. This can be checked by
research in many cases. Electric voltages, from thousands of causes,
create the earth electric currents, and the earth currents are the
cause of the heat. Local voltages are equalized by the flow of the
A knowledge of electric earth currents is a prerequisite for
comprehending the electrical origin of volcanoes and hot springs and
the nature of electric voltages must be understood for one to
understand electric earth currents.
An electric voltage or potential was called an electromotive force
in the early days when batteries were the prime source of generating
electricity commercially. These batteries consisted of two
dissimilar metals, usually immersed in an acid solution. It was
found that the metals generated different electrical potentials
between themselves. Later it was discovered that voltages or
differences in potential could be created by moving a copper
conductor in a magnetic field so that the conductor cut across the
magnetic lines of force or flux.
Electric voltages in the earth are today being created, like battery
voltages, by two dissimilar metals, and, as in the case of dynamo
voltages, by externally driven conductors of earth material being
moved across magnetic fields of force.
It was also discovered that whenever an electric voltage or
potential was created and an electric conducting medium was used to
make an electric circuit, by connecting the positive to the negative
terminals, electric current would flow and a contact maker and
breaker, or electric switch, was needed in the electric circuit
either to permit or shut off the flow of electric current by closing
or opening the switch.
When electric current flows from one terminal
to the other of a dynamo, the voltage is sustained by the driving
force of the prime mover. In a thunder cloud, by contrast, the
voltage is dissipated and equalized by the flow of electric current
in the flash of lightning.
It was discovered that the rate of flow of an electric current was
directly in proportion to the voltage and inversely in proportion to
the resistance of the electric circuit. This is expressed as Ohm’s
The formula is,
C = E / R
R where C is current, E is voltage, and R is resistance.
It is usually expressed in amperes, volts and ohms, respectively.
Then it was found by test measurements that the flow of electric
currents heats the mediums through which they flow in proportion to
the square of the electric current multiplied by the resistance of
the material through which it flows. The heat is measured in watts
of energy. The law is written W - C2R, where W is watts, C is
current in amperes, and R is resistance in ohms.
One watt is the product of one ampere multiplied by one volt and is
equivalent in energy to 0.0009477 B.T.U’s (British Thermal Units)
per second, also approximately 3.4 B.T.U’s per hour and 82 B.T.U’s
per day of 24 hours.
Data are lacking on the volume of the earth currents which cause
fusions of the upper strata of mountains; but the rate of current
flow, measured in amperes, can be readily approximated from the
above formula if the accumulated B.T.U’s of heat energy and the
elapsed time of the heat build up can be computed, together with the
cross section of the fused area and the distance and direction of
the current flow.
Volcanic craters often occur at or near mountain tops. This proves
to be entirely natural when the cross sections of the mountains are
analyzed. All earth strata, when originally created, were laid down
in approximately horizontal layers.
Mountains are up-thrusts which
bend and crack the upper strata. A rounded or circular type mountain
may be visualized as half an onion, resting on its cut section, with
some of the peak layers of the onion’s successively created skin
layers damaged or cracked by folding or faulting.
Earth electric currents, traveling in the rock strata, become
concentrated at the peak, where they are retarded by the high
resistances of the fractured sections of stone; or the higher
voltages of the ambient air, due to elevation, may influence the
flow of electric currents. The voltages of the air vary greatly with
location, weather conditions, and time of day, the voltage gradient
per foot of elevation ranging from around 10 to 80 volts. (See
Physics o f the Air, by W.J. Humphreys, page 398.)
Air voltages at
the tops of mountains are correspondingly high. St. Elmo’s Fire at
the tips of s1iips’ masts is a visual display of the electric
current always flowing between air and ground and caused by the
differences in the voltages of air and ground.
It becomes easy to conceive of a volcano resulting, when voltages
become too high and there is an uncontrolled excess of electric
current. The fault in the rocks becomes overheated by the electric
current because of its high resistance. A blowout occurs in the
electric circuit just as blowouts occur in any other electric
circuits where a loose joint or fault occurs.
The fusing of the rock materials is nature’s way of repairing the
break in the electric circuit. The volcanic eruption is the
incidental display of the process and nature of the repair job.
The variations in the chemical compositions of lavas from different
volcanoes indicate that magma basins are isolated and hence imply
that they are enclosed in solid rock and are not directly connected
with a terrestrially large and general source such as the
hypothetical hot core of the earth.
Some specific proofs follow:
Paracutin volcano, our youngest mountain, was born in 1943. Its
appearance as a volcano is most reasonably and simply explained as
being the result of earth electric currents which overheated the
earth substrata at that particular location. The farmland got hot.
Finally, a fusing temperature was reached. The earth materials
became incandescent and soft. They lost their rigidity and
resistance to the compression pressures which exist in the upper
earth strata, such as the pressures that cause excavations to cave
in unless they are shored up and buttressed against the lateral
pressures by bulkheads.
Earth pressures at the Panama Canal force the bed of the canal
upward in locations where the rock is soft. Coastal mountains and
rocks thrust up in Antarctica and Greenland are the results of the
inland pressures of the central, growing ice masses.
The U.S. Navy has sponsored research on earth pressures, since they
affect their piers and bulkheads.
At Paracutin these lateral pressures caused earth materials to flow
sideways, replacing the soft molten earth materials; these became
elevated by the lateral pressures into the shape of a dome or
blown up bladder to the height of about 820 feet above the plain of
the former Mexican farmland.
Paracutin is a new mountain but an old phenomenon. Hundreds of other
great cinder cones in the area can be rationally attributed to the
internal heat of the earth, generated by the development of electric
voltages which created earth electric currents which became too
concentrated and strong for the rocks to carry without becoming
The last previous eruption in this area was that of Jorullo
mountain about 80 to 90 miles to the northwest. This mountain, was
created in 1759 and became inactive in 1760. Both mountains are less
than a hundred miles from the Pacific coast and at elevations of
about 7,400 and 4,300 feet above sea level, respectively.
If magnetic types of rock, magnetite, can be discovered in the
vicinity of the volcanoes, where the earth electric currents flowed,
they will be found to possess a magnetic saturation many times
greater than the magnetisms being imparted to rocks by normal earth
electric currents. Verification of this fact by future research is
predicted this will, in turn, confirm that earth electric currents
have caused those volcanoes.
Electric storms frequently occur in the earth’s atmosphere, often
accompanied by a display of aurora borealis. Such storms interrupt
grounded telegraph and telephone systems. These interruptions are
associated with an overcharged condition of the ambient air.
Electric currents and magnetism are always inseparable; therefore,
the overcharged ambient atmosphere creates a voltage condition of
higher potential in the conducting earth materials, rotating from
west to east below. The conducting sections of earth materials cut
across magnetic lines of force and, like the windings on a dynamo
armature, create higher potentials.
Higher potentials with unchanged
earth resistance create an increase in the rate of flow of the
electric earth currents in the circuits of the earth’s materials.
Electric storm voltages have been recorded as high as 500 volts, and
the resulting electric earth currents, in grounded telegraph
circuits, have caused sufficient heat to burn out coils and char
paper insulation on cables. This gives us an analogy for the earth
electric currents which blow the tops off mountains, cause volcanic
mountains, and create hot springs.
Thousands of forces are at work creating earth electric currents by
means of changes in the electric voltages occurring in the upper
strata of the earth and in its ambient atmosphere.
Some of the causes of the changes in electric voltage conditions are
heat, friction, and contact of dissimilar metals or materials,
including changes in voltage due to changes in temperature, as in
thermo couples and thermo piles.
Other causes of electrical potentials are impact, percussion,
vibration, disruptive cleavage as in tearing paper, crystallization,
combustion, evaporation, pressure, pyro and piezo-electricity in
crystals, animal and vegetable electricity, and chemical,
electrochemical and dynamo electricity resulting from voltages being
created by power-driven conductors being moved across a magnetic
field of force, or magnetic fields of force moving across
conductors, including earth strata.
The rock strata of conducting materials of the earth, moving with
its daily rotation, cut across the lines of force established by the
incoming energy from celestial space, including the energy of the
sun’s light and heat radiations, which creep from east to west
against the rotation of the globe. The rock strata resemble the
windings of a big, externally driven dynamo, creating earth
It is recognized at once that the voltages thus created must cause
electric earth currents to flow. These voltages are mainly surface
voltages, and the currents flow in inverse ratio to the resistances
of the earth materials.
The electromagnetic force of the sun’s rays is demonstrated by the
sun flower with the single broad flower and stalk, which turns with
the sun from morning to night, and then at sunrise next day,
reverses itself and again follows the sun on the succeeding day.
James Clerk Maxwell formulated the rule that every portion of a
circuit is acted upon by a magnetic force urging it in such a
direction as to make it embrace the greatest possible number of
lines of force. It was from that principle that the direct current
electric motor was developed.
Gravitation based on the new theory of tremendous amounts of
electrical energy reaching the earth continuously from the suns of
celestial space fits the theory of earth electric currents like a
piece in a jigsaw puzzle. The theory holds that energy rays from
celestial space, shot out by countless billions of stars, collide
with the earth, create its weight, and by striking unevenly make it
This incoming electrical energy, together with the sun’s light and
heat radiations, acting, for example, on thermo couples and thermo
piles of adjacent dissimilar materials, produce spontaneous voltages
which cause the flow of electric earth currents; many of these
change in intensity between noon and midnight, since they are tied
in with the rotation of the earth on its Axis of Figure.
Earth electric currents do not flow uniformly but vary with the
conductivity of the earth’s strata. Some are good and others are
poor electrical conductors. Some are dielectrics when dry, but
become good conductors when wet. Sandstone, marble, and limestone,
which are poor conductors when dry, become fairly good conductors
Earth electric currents will become concentrated in the good
conducting earth materials. Activities of volcanoes should be
expected and predicted when the materials of the earth in that
particular area are wet or moist and become good conductors of
Telltale magnetic rocks whose directional pointings differ from the
directions in which the earth’s electrical field is now magnetizing
similar rocks, are described in Part One (page 85). The failure of
present earth electric currents to change the orientation of some of
these old magnetic rocks supports the theory that the earth electric
currents are generally near the surface but not always.
Earth electric currents are found to be present at considerable
depths in some areas. For example, a constant volume of steam arises
from a 3,189 foot deep drilling in Geothermal Valley near Rotorua,
North Island, New Zealand, indicating the presence of deeply flowing
earth electric currents; and similar thermal conditions exist in
many other regions, including Iceland, Tuscany, and Yellowstone
The universal presence of earth electric currents and their
variations in magnitude and directions support the theory that they
are the causes of volcanoes and hot springs.
Two erroneous but widely held theories hold that the earth has a
molten core and that the core is largely of iron, a fact which
causes the inductor compass to point north south. Iron loses its
magnetic characteristics at red heat.
When molten, iron is
nonmagnetic and, therefore, a molten iron core of the earth could
not affect the pointing of an inductor compass.
The Inductor Compass
The Inductor compass, commonly called the magnetic compass, reveals
the presence of earth electric currents everywhere. The compass
action indicates that it responds more nearly to the laws of
electromagnetic inductance than to the laws of magnets.
Electromagnetic induction results from the myriad and all-pervading
electric earth currents. The compass needle turns and dips with a
magnetic moment of force, but it does not move itself toward a
magnetic pole the way a magnet does. In most places on the earth’s
surface it does not point directly to the earth’s magnetic poles.
If fastened to a block of wood, freely floating in water, it will
turn and point in a north south direction, but it will not move
toward either magnetic pole. It does not move toward a magnet the
way a toy magnetic fish, floating in a bowl of water, moves toward a
magnet. It has a north-seeking and south seeking end and is held in
its north-south pointing position by the magnetic flux established
by the electric earth currents.
The inductor needle can be used to
measure the intensity of the earth’s magnetism at any location.
These measurements, in turn, give the direction and intensity of the
coexisting activating earth electric currents.
The inductor needle can be used to measure the intensity of the
earth’s magnetism at any location. These measurements, in turn, give
the direction and intensity of the coexisting activating earth
No earth current exists without creating a magnetic field of force.
If one is created, the other one simultaneously exists at right
angles to it. The two always coexist.
Observations of the compass and dipping needle at many places on the
earth’s surface show daily and annual variations in direction and
magnitude, which appear to be a natural result caused by the
variations in the local earth currents and their coexisting magnetic
fields of force. An iron core in the earth’s center, even if cold
and not molten, would not produce these observed variations.
Observations of the variations in the declination of the compass for
ship routes all over the globe, show that the pointing directions
follow an irregular curved line not a straight nor a meridian earth
circle line. This would indicate that the chief motivating force of
the inductor compass must come from local earth magnetic fields of
force, created by the coexisting earth electric currents. It
disproves the theory of a unidirectional great earth magnet.
Earth electric currents, if flowing from east to west, would cause
an inductor compass needle placed above the currents to point north;
if placed below the currents, the needle would point south. This is
based on the observed action of the compass needle when held above
and below a wire carrying a unidirectional current.
A simple test of this would be to lower an inductor compass into a
mine shaft, so that it is placed below the earth’s surface currents.
Theoretically, the needle should reverse its direction of pointing.
Engineers consulted for corroborative empirical data say that they
never use the compass in mines because it is unreliable due to the
electric currents in adjacent wires, including trolley wires, and to
the nearby presence of steel rails and iron and steel pipes in the
Aviators have reported that the inductor compass becomes useless and
gyrates wildly upon entering thunderstorm areas, where electric
currents are rushing about in all directions between clouds. In this
case it is clear that it is electric currents, not a magnetic core
of the earth, that control the needle fluctuations.
The knowledge of earth electric currents, gained through
observations of the actions of the inductor compass, shows their all
pervading existence and adds to the proofs that make it reasonable
to assign the causes of volcanoes and hot springs to their excessive
concentrations in specific areas.
The first reference to an iron core in the earth was made by William
Gilbert in 1600. He called the earth a great magnet with an iron
core. Later, the nebular hypothesis expanded mathematically by
LaPlace was based on the assumption that the heavier elements would
be concentrated in the center of the earth; and iron is a heavy
metal. The current edition of The Encyclopaedia Britannica carries
adequate refutation of LaPlace’s mathematics as applied to the
Among former attempts to explain the creation of the earth, within
the scope of the laws of nature, are the nebular hypothesis, the
planetesimal hypothesis, and the tidal theory. All leave unexplained
why the earth has been created in strata and how and why fossil
plants and animals got into the lower layers.
The new cosmic geophysical theory here presented and explaining the
origin of the earth’s materials also explains why the earth is
composed of stratified layers, why well cores, drillings,
excavations, cliffsides, and ravaged mountainsides show earth
formations by periods of time, and why clays, shales, and slates and
some other rocks show their development and growth by years, like
the annual rings in trees.
This new theory of the continuous creation of earth materials from
radiant energy resulting in rock layers which generally represent
epochs of time between the recurrent careens of the globe is a
contradiction of the theory which presently prevails in academic
circles that the so called igneous rocks are the ultimate source of
all of the materials of the earth’s upper layers (excepting
limestones, peats, coal, fossil trees), and that they have become
solidified from a previous molten condition, forming the so called
crust of the earth.
Contradictions of widely held popular theories are supported by the
The earth does not have a molten core
Laccoliths were not produced by molten rock extruded from below
The earth does not have a shrinking crust The earth is not shrinking
These evidences also show that:
The earth has been constructed in consecutive layers of strata
Fossils in the successive layers indicate the ages of the strata
It must be recognized that all academic geology is not a body of
indisputable and immutable truth. Geology has never been anything
more than a body of well supported probable opinion!
treatment of geological phenomena must eventually concentrate on the
opinions requiring the fewest postulates to explain them a well
accepted philosophic principle. The postulation of earth electric
currents is such a simple and unifying theory that explains a host
of geological phenomena.
Minerals in Vegetation
THE CHEMICAL elements that constitute the average content of all
vegetation can be assumed to be C6H12O6 with about 1% mineral
matter; or 6 atoms of carbon, 12 of hydrogen and 6 of oxygen, plus
This information was kindly furnished in a communication
from Dr. Richard M. Klein, Curator of Plant Physiology of The New
York Botanical Garden; and his estimate was confirmed by the
Director of the Division of Radiation and Organisms of the
Half a century ago wood and vegetation were generally sidered as
being composed of only three chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen, and they were classed as carbohydrates. Today,
vegetation is known to contain 5 1 of the 92 basic chemicals of the
earth; and many of the minerals found in vegetable growths are
currently considered as being essential to these growths either
activating growth directly or functioning as catalysts to promote
growth, as when sprayed or painted on plants or embedded in the
In "Bibliography of the Literature on the Minor Elements and their
Relation to Plant and Animal Nutrition," published by Chilean
Nitrate Company, thousands of references are given to books and
essays pointing out the existence of the following chemical elements
in vegetation (table, right):
(Nine rare chemical elements have also been identified in plants,
but have not been listed here.)
The above named chemical elements found in plants and in the animals
which cat the plants all become normal constituents of the soil,
because all animal and plant life at death become part of the soil.
There is, therefore, a constant buildup of earth materials
containing the chemical elements found in plants and animals. The
chemical elements found in plants are also found in the rocks. More
have been found in rocks than in plants; but it also happens that
data on rock analyses have been gathered more extensively by more
persons and for a longer period of time than have data on the
mineral analyses of plants.
Chemical elements identified in some of the common rocks are listed
below. Seventy five of the chemical elements have begin identified
in rocks, and 54 in vegetation.
|CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF
(Percentages of total weight)
A Copper Bearing Tree
. . . was reported by Professor G.B. Frankfurter of the University
of Minnesota in Chemical News, Vol. 79, 1899, page 44.
"bright copper colored powder is disseminated through the pores
of the tree... granular copper... some granules formed flakes
as large as 1 ? millimeters diameter... found to be pure metallic
copper... 1.2 milligrams of copper to 100 grams of wood...
distributed heart 0.8, half way 1.86, near bark 3.95, average 1.2."
These data indicate an increase in copper content with increase in
age of the tree, an oak, whose age and weight are not given.
Assuming that this one oak tree produced a half ounce of copper,
lived one hundred years and then died and rotted by slow combustion
oxidation its mineral contents left in the soil would develop to a
depth of about thirteen feet during a 6,000year epoch of time (see
page 36); assuming also that during that period of time many more
such copper bearing trees grew in that same area and disappeared at
death, then that soil can be assumed to have copper particles
disseminated throughout its mass.
It would be classed as porphyry
A forest fire destroying such copper bearing trees in past ages
could account for our now finding molten globules of copper in the
former soil, which is now rock and displays an occasional dark
streak of rock strata, which indicates that it was once a burnt over
This resume of developments indicates that such rocks
were never igneous.
The recurrent roll arounds of the earth explain many sporadic
locations of mineral ores. The copper bearing oak tree is a specific
example of minerals occurring in a land plant (see page 247 for
percentage of minerals in vegetation).
It is further postulated that
copper was developed in the lush vegetation of some ancient sea
bottoms, and enveloped in successive layers of what was once the
accumulating muck of thousands of years. In our present epoch of
time some of these deposits happen to be high above sea level.
The high elevations of some porphyry copper deposits and their large
areas have an analogy in the elevations and comparable sizes of
chalk deposits. The chalk cliffs of Dover, England, are now high
above sea level and cover many square miles, including parts of the
formation that is now across the English Channel, in Normandy.
materials of the chalk cliffs were created on the ocean bottoms by globergerina, during a period covering thousands of years. The
animals themselves have disappeared, just as the oak trees that bore
copper disappeared, but their mineral content has remained as a part
of the growth of the earth.
In view of the recurrent roll arounds of our globe, and of the
successive epochs of time between earth revolutions, it is
reasonable to postulate that copper and other minerals have at times
been dissolved and then re-crystallized with other elements of the
earth, during epochs of time when they were at other latitudes, in
other temperatures, and under conditions favoring such
This new cosmic geophysical theory may also be the correct
explanation for the occurrence of copper in large masses, as is the
case in mines in Michigan. It is assumed that the copper grew in sea
vegetation or in land plants.
Copper is among the minor or trace elements found to be invariably
present to some extent in all plants and animals. I have tried to
find seaweed, rich in copper, that would break loose and drift in
ocean currents and settle in an eddy, hole or submarine canyon, and
there disintegrate, leaving the copper and other minerals to
accumulate as a residue, like ashes from a fire.
At any one location
it should be found in alternate layers of the earth’s strata, and
widely distributed over the earth. A likely source would seem to be
the weed of the Sargasso Sea, known as sargassum, but research
centers have so far no record of the copper content, if any, or of
any minerals, in sargassum.
Seaweed research disclosed that titanium, a valuable and scarce
metal, occurs in Scottish seaweeds, Fucas speratis, in
concentrations 10,000 times stronger than that found in the
"Soaking a fresh Laminaria (seaweed) frond in
water . . . does not remove the trace elements, which appear
therefore, to be in insoluble form."
(Black and Mitchell, in The
Journal of the Marine Biological Association, Plymouth, England.)
This statement would appear to be substantial proof that the trace
elements do not arrive in the seaweeds from waterborne solutions;
but rather that the trace elements in the water come from plant life
which, in turn, develops it from the energy of light rays which
become occluded or frozen as atoms making up the plant structures.
"Below about 300 feet depth, where the light rays fade out, marine
plants cease to grow."
(Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopaedia, page
When the temperatures of the seaweeds are raised to
incandescence or above, the atoms of the plants return to the state
of radiant energy.
"Cadmium, chromium, cobalt and tin have been found in the ash of
marine organisms and hence it is implied that they occur in
seawater, although so far they have not been obtained directly."
(Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, 1956, page 1107. )
Mineral ash may result from both vegetable and animal life.
squirt, Phallusia mamillata, for example has 1,000,000 times more
vanadium in its blood than the water it lives in; the deep blue
blood of the octopus has 100,000 times as much copper," according to
Professor Ernst Bayer of Tubingen University in Germany, who has
studied the ability of marine animals to effect concentrations in
their bodies of some of the rare metals found in sea water.
Magazine, May 15, 1964, page 90 ).
Vegetation whose ash produces
minerals is mentioned on page 235 for calcium and on page 250 for
copper; on page 265 the creation of water from vegetation is
This creative process has been going on continuously epoch after
epoch as part of the creation of the successive layers of the
earth’s minerals. If we know how and where metals are formed as
minor trace elements, it will be easier to determine the likely
locations of such metals in the ground.
Our increasing knowledge of the buildup of the materials of the
earth, strata by strata, epoch by epoch, and of the successive
changes in the latitude of the various areas of the earth’s surface,
affords an opportunity for introducing a new theory of the creation
of some of the mineral ore deposits. The minerals of the earth have
developed as explained elsewhere in this treatise, and ore bodies
have grown in situ, always resting on the earth strata that were the
surface of the earth or ocean bottom of the epoch of their creation.
Shallow ore bodies are found to follow extensive synclines and
anticlines of the underlying rock strata which supported them when
developing, and the metals are generally found in veins, faults,
sills, dikes, saddles, lenses, flats, sheets, reefs, and bedded
formations, all of which are now at various angles to the
Many metallic minerals are found along faults.
Faults are likely to
have occurred along lines of weakness and are naturally created
along the unconformities between a former ocean bed and a new earth
layer, because new earth material had not had time to become rigidly
consolidated rock before the next rollaround of the globe occurred.
Many of the metallic ores have been found in the ashes of seaweeds,
and as the oceans cover about 71% of the earth’s surface, it can be
logically assumed that most of such minerals were created in the
Many of the branching ore veins, now slanted or vertical,
may have got this shape because the ocean bottom was not level, or
because it had been grooved by the erosion of water streams when it
was an upland area in the previous epoch.
Earth strata were generally created horizontally. Due to the
repeated cataclysms, these once flat layers of the earth are now
greatly twisted and distorted; most are now slanted, some are
vertical and some completely overturned. There have been more than
one hundred cataclysms, due to the recurrent roll arounds of the
earth, during the past million years, and that accounts for the
twisted, jumbled condition of the inner rock strata.
The chemical elements classed as metals, which are most abundant in
light spectra of stellar atmospheres as recorded by observatories,
are generally also the most abundant in the top layers of the
earth’s strata. Also, there is considerable evidence that the
composition of the chemical elements of the stellar atmospheres do
not vary greatly from star to star, although spectra radiations do
vary with the star temperatures.
Knowing that plants and animals grow at night, when the sun is not
shining, as well as in the daytime, when it is shining (corn grows
faster at night, the night blooming cereus opens only at night), we
look around for the sources of energy for creating mass in the
absence of sunshine; and we find it in the radiant energy rays sent
to the earth, and absorbed by the earth’s elements, from countless
myriads of stars each of which is a sun and a source of radiant
It is well known that heat conditions vary on the surface of the
earth, and that plants and animals vary accordingly. It is a truism
to say that both plants and animals depend on the sun for heat and
light. Animals and plants differ with the temperatures. There are
torrid zone, temperate zone, and frigid zone plants and animals yet
all feel the same drag of gravity exerted by the incoming radiations
from celestial space. These radiations are identified in this
treatise as being the major source of the energy from which the
materials of the earth are created.
At death, both vegetable and animal life become part of the soil.
During life, trees shed branches and twigs, due to storms, which all
become part of the soil. Deciduous trees shed leaves and fruits or
seeds annually. All vegetation has tremendous quantities of roots
growing downward. These all finally disintegrate and become part of
the soil in which they grew. All this growing tissue adds to and
subtracts very little from the soil volume.
In addition to the soil increments from trees and from all other
forms of plant life, prolific increments are added by animal life,
in the form of dung while living and carcasses at death.
All of this
has become merged in the building up processes of the earth’s soil.
"If you live to be 70 in the United States, your lifetime menu will
have included 150 head of cattle, 26 sheep, 30 pigs, 225 lambs,
2,400 chickens, 26 acres of grains, and 50 acres of fruits and
(George Fuermann, in the Houston Post.)
This quotation calls attention to the vast volume of bodily
excrements from human beings that go into the formation of topsoil.
Man is, of course, a very small percentage of the total animal life
which has flourished on this earth during past ages. The soils
change eventually to soil rocks through petrification and
metamorphism caused, at least partially, by agency of the mineral
laden, sub surface waters percolating through it.
In the ocean, other forms of future rock strata are now being
created by the animal life of corals and shellfish; they create
limestones, marbles, and shales. Seaweeds and other vegetable growth
also crate future rock strata. All of these processes are going on
today, just as they did in past ages.
These citations illustrate the fact that matter is created from
radiant energy; but matter is also convertible into energy such as
by incandescence and, as recently demonstrated, by atomic type
bombs. The atom bomb has demolished older ideas, and appears to have
established the equivalence of mass and energy. Two principles, the
very cornerstones of the structure of modern science, hold that
neither matter nor energy can be created or destroyed but only
altered in form.
The quantitative equivalence of mass and energy is based on the
accepted but unproven suggestion by Albert Einstein that the
relationship of energy, E, to mass, m, is shown in the equation E
mc2, where c is the velocity of light.
If measured according to our conventional time distance reckoning,
the velocity of light is estimated at 186,300 miles per second. From
this, there has come to be a general acceptance among men of science
that mass is condensed energy occluded or captured energy.
The atomic bomb provides a demonstration of the fact that when mass
is suddenly converted back into energy, it disintegrates and
apparently reverts to energy at about the speed of light.
Originally, the materials were celestial energy rays. It is
photosynthesis which brings about the condensation of energy rays
The equation for energy is:
E = 1/2mv2
where m is mass and v is velocity.
When mass is converted into energy, as in the atom bomb there is no
longer mass, but only the energy of the liberated light rays, plus
some unconverted energy that appears as fallout.
It is therefore suggested, quite logically, that the equivalence of
energy and mass is more accurately expressed by the formula:
E = MC
Mathematical computation of the buildup of the earth’s materials is
now a possibility by substituting actual physical values for mass
and energy in the formulas
E = mc or M = E / c
This will substantiate previous observations and deductions.
From celestial space we receive each day more than 2iz billion
B.T.U.’s (British Thermal Units), and from the sun approximately
14’11 B.T.U’s; an estimate of the energy arriving on the surface of
the earth is given on page 178.
In calculating the age of the earth
(page 55) we have used a rate of buildup of one foot in 500 years
(page 17) , based on the Spur Ranch drilling; but at Ur of the Chaldeans and at
Cnossus, Crete, as indicated above, the
archeologists give figures for the earth buildup of one foot in
about 125 years. They appear to have been areas of lush vegetation
and much animal life.
These computations are based on "c" the speed of light being 186,300
miles per second. There are however known differences in the speeds
of light rays.
Red light rays have longer wave lengths and travel
faster than violet light rays having shorter wave lengths.
"Altering the wave length of the light does change its velocity."
(The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1956, Vol. 14, page 620)
is generally accepted in science that the light rays which become
the atoms of lead travel at the same rate of speed as the light rays
that become the atoms of hydrogen; but we know that their wave
lengths are different and that, therefore, their speeds should be
Let us inquire into what becomes of the 1418 B.T.U’s received daily
on the earth from the sun. This energy must be stored up somewhere,
because very little is rebroadcast back into space, and the
temperature of the earth remains practically constant.
clue is the coal beds, which are huge layers of stored energy. The
coal derives from vegetation, a fact which constitutes one more
proof that vegetation is the result of the photosynthesis of the
incoming radiant energy, the creator of all the materials of the
Von Helmont’s experiment, in the seventeenth century, is an
interesting illustration of how the change from incoming radiant
energy to earth materials occurs. He planted a 5 pound willow tree
in 200 pounds of earth and added only water. At the end of five
years the tree weighed 169 pounds, with practically no change in the
weight of the earth materials in which it grew.
It grew on air,
water, and radiant energy from celestial space. Knowing that the
increased weight of the tree, 164 pounds, represents energy
according to the formula E mc, we can compute, approximately, the
amount of energy required to be added to the earth to create the
materials of the tree.
That tree is known to have absorbed C02 and
to have given off hydrogen and oxygen; but what the relative amounts
are is a question beyond the frontiers of present day science.
Multiply that one tree by the countless billions which have grown on
the earth’s surface, and on dying, have returned materials to the
earth most of which they did not extract from it and the nature of
the building up process of the earth’s surface becomes apparent.
Trees, plants, and animals have been shown to eventually become
parts of the soil rocks. Corals and sea shells become limestones.
Parts of fishes make additions to bottom accumulations. But there is
a preponderant rock known as sandstone that grows from sand. Sand
appears to be created in the shallow seas directly from radiant
LOOKING ABOUT us, we discover that sea sands occur throughout the
world, in shallow ocean waters, around the coasts of all continents
and islands even coral islands. We discover that there are today
tremendous areas of seacoast sands, which have not as yet turned
into rocks, and which can be accounted for only by the theory of the
creation of sand by the slow process of conversion of energy into
We know that crystals of snowflakes are formed in the air (see page
223) by water, which is a mineral, so we may assume that by some
similar, but not identical, metamorphosis the crystals of sand are
formed in the shallow seas. They do not seem to form elsewhere.
Both snowflakes and sand crystals have this in common: they
disintegrate at critical temperatures. Snowflakes change to water
vapor above 32’’F., and sand crystals change to gases at
temperatures above the melting point of iron. Sandstone, having once
been the sands created in the shallow seas, make up over 50% of the
upper rock strata of the earth.
The name "authogenetic sand" has
been used by oceanographers to denote sands formed by direct
precipitation from sea water through chemical reactions and in order
to distinguish such sands from two other forms of sand of the seas,
"terriginous" and "calcaranite," which signify, respectively, sands
formed from disintegrating rocks and by shells and other fragments.
We can convert the sand back to light rays and can identify the wave
lengths of the rays by the spectroscope; thus, it is not
unreasonable to assume that what is now sand in our shallow seas and
in the sandstone strata of our globe was once radiant energy in the
form of light rays; and that the same general conditions of oceans,
continents, islands, and sandy seacoast bottoms and beaches existed
in former epochs when the now existing sandstone strata of our globe
were being created.
Silica sands predominate in the shallow seas of the temperate zones,
although considerable sections of ocean beaches consist mainly of
broken and eroded sea shells.
Geological reports of the shallow seas and beaches of tropical
islands and atolls show that the sands are mainly composed of
granulated and pulverized materials derived from the mechanical and
chemical disintegration of corals and sea shells, with very small
amounts of silica sands.
There has never been any doubt that coral and shell formations have
developed in the shallow seas from the growths of corals and
shellfish. This material, which grew as part of animal life,
consists of calcium carbonate and calcium magnesium carbonate, and
eventually becomes limestone and dolomite, respectively. Both are
common rock strata of our earth.
The Creation Of The Oceans
FOUR AND A half billion years ago there were no earth strata and no
waters of the earth. Now there are both.
Their having been created
is universally acknowledged, though the theories of creation have
varied with time and place. It becomes perfectly reasonable to
accept the new theory that the waters of the earth have been
created, molecule by molecule, drop by drop, when we realize how
other earth materials grow through photosynthesis from celestial
The creation of water from radiant energy,
transmitted and converted through vegetation and animals, and
released by combustion, is in accordance with the laws of nature.
The sources from which the waters of the earth are created, are
identified as (1) combustion of organic materials, (2)
photosynthesis in vegetation, (3) chemical reactions in animals.
Combustion of Materials Creates Water
HAVING shown and verified that the land areas of the earth were
created through photosynthesis and are growing in volume, we will
now show with equally compelling evidence, that the waters of the
earth are growing in volume and that they are being created in
plants and animals; and that the water is mainly the product of the
combustion of vegetation and animal materials.
In his book Photosynthesis, Eugene I. Rabinowitch states on page 1,
"One trillion tons of organic carbon are produced each year."
(Carbon fixation was a name previously used for photo synthesis.)
"The best estimate for the rate of the total carbon dioxide
reduction on earth is a turnover of 1011 tons of carbon per year;
more than 9% of which is contributed by the flora of the oceans:’
(The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1959, Vo1.17, page 848).
and reduction are thus seen to be equal, 1011and one trillion being
different notations for the same number!
Vegetation shows constant growth and it all eventually disappears by
decay, or rotting, which is slow combustion. As much dies each year,
on the average, as is replaced by new vegetable growth; thus, one
trillion tons of vegetable growth may be considered as being burned
up by oxidation each year. This figure is one factor in the
approximate rate of growth of the oceans. The quantity of vegetation
that is converted into coal and lignite or that becomes petrified as
stone is not essential for the following calculation.
In all plant materials the average ratio of the main chemical
elements is indicated by the formula C6H12O6 (see page 247, on
minerals in vegetation). Approximately 7% of the weight of all
vegetation is hydrogen, based on the atomic weights of the chemical
elements. The combustion of each pound of hydrogen creates nine
pounds of water vapor, as shown by the formula below. The vapor
condenses as rain, and the waters flow through the rivers to the
Based on the above data we now have for consideration the yearly
burning up of one trillion tons of vegetation, containing 7%
hydrogen; 7% of one trillion tons is 70 billion tons, or (multiplied
by 2,000) 140 trillion pounds of hydrogen; which, on combustion,
creates nine times as much water, or 1,260 trillion pounds of water.
Reduced to cubic feet, at 62.4 pounds of water per cubic feet, we
have 20.2 trillion cubic feet of created water. There are 147’2
billion cubic feet in a cubic mile; we thus have 137 cubic miles of
water created each year by the combustion of vegetation. To
visualize this amount of water, consider Lake Erie, which contains
approximately 109 cubic miles, and Lake Superior with 2,927 cubic
miles of water.
No less than 3,064,128,000 tons of water were created by the
combustion of fossil fuels in the year 1958.
It is roughly a of a
cubic mile, and can be visualized as a lake with an average depth of
twenty feet and covering 175 square miles. It is more water than is
contained in the entire course of the Hudson River. This information
is contained in a communication from the Bureau of Mines, U.S.
Department of the Interior; it is based on World wide Fuel Data 1958
and assumes the complete combustion of the fuels.
The equation representing the combustion of hydrogen:
2H2 Plus O2 = equals 2H2O plus 246,960 B.T.U.s (heat)
(4 lbs.) (32 lbs.) yields 36 Ib. of water vapor
The equation representing the combustion of carbon:
C Plus O2 equals CO, plus 169,800 B.T.U.’s (heat)
(12 lbs.) (32 lbs.) yields 44 lbs. of carbon dioxide gas
(Based on a pound molecular weight of carbon, 12 lbs. C hydrogen, 2
lbs. H2 oxygen, 32 lbs. Oz)
(From American People’s Encyclopedia, 1954, Vol. 5, page 922 )
When you burn a ten gallon tankful of Esso regular gasoline in your
automobile, you add 9.295 gallons of water to the oceans, according
to a memorandum from Standard Oil (N.J.) Company’s Research
Department. Its weight is 61.51 lbs. and it contains 14%) hydrogen.
A recent communication from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
expresses the opinion that sea levels generally are rising at an
average rate of 0.3 to 0.4 feet per century.
Assuming this to be
0.0035 feet per year and with the area of all ocean seas being
estimated at 139,495,122 square miles, then:
139,495,122 X 27,878,400 [sq. ft. per sq. mile] X 0.0035 47.5
billion cubic feet, or about 1/3 of a cubic mile, being the extent
to which the ocean level is rising.
This valued opinion indicates that the yearly growth rate of the
oceans is practically stationary, while, as previously explained,
ocean water increases at more than 137 cubic miles per year.
This makes it logical to assume that the excess volume is being
stored in the glacial ice of the polar regions.
The U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey has estimated that the volume of
ice now in the South Pole Ice Cap would make a layer 120 feet deep
if spread uniformly around the earth. A depth of 120 feet of ice
corresponds approximately to a layer of water 110 feet deep, and as
the oceans occupy about 71% of the earth’s surface, we have 110
divided by .71 155 feet. If all of the ice now accumulated in
Antarctica’s cold storage were to change back to water, the ocean
levels would rise about 155 feet. Put in reverse order the ocean
levels are about 155 feet lower than they would have been if there
were no South Pole Ice Cap.
Sea levels have not remained constant. Determinations by Carbon 14
dates of materials taken from below sea level has shown a continuous
rise in the ocean levels. The reports carried in scientific journals
have generally attributed the rise in sea levels to the melting of
the glaciers of a theoretical ice age, rather than this having been
caused by the continuous creation of water.
We have records of both rising and receding sea levels. They appear
to have fluctuated and to be lower now at the Bay of Fundy, Nova
Scotia, and Long Island, New York, than they were in the past.
receding of the Red Sea caused the abandonment of a pre Suez canal
which was built about 2000 B.C., it was later extended but was
discontinued in the eighth century A.D. (Columbia Viking Desk
Encyclopedia, page 958).
The Production of Water
"DAVY LN 1817 discovered that when hydrogen and oxygen are passed
through a tube, heated to temperature between 360 and 500 C. they
combine to form water, without any violence and without light."
(The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1952, Vol. 6, page 98. )
Around 1780 Henry Cavendish, found that,
"When inflammable air and
common air are exploded in a proper proportion, almost all the
inflammable air and near one fifth of the common air . . , are
turned into pure water."
(From Gaseous Combustion at High Pressures,
by W.A. Bone and D.T.A. Townsend, 1929).
"Water may be produced by exploding a mixture of two volumes of
hydrogen and one volume of oxygen at a temperature above 1190F . . .
. It may also be produced by passing hydrogen over the heated oxides
of several of the metals, and in various other ways."
(The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1951, Vol. 29, page 13).
ANIMAL LIFE CREATES WATER.
"All the hydrogen that unites with oxygen
in our bodies forms water, and for the average person it amounts to
about a pint a day."
(Water, Miracle of Nature, by Thomson King,
The internal production of water seems to be the only way
some animals get enough of it. The carpet moth is one of the bugs
which drinks no water, yet lays eggs containing 80% water.
The camel as a creator of water is cited by John Eric Hill in
Natural History magazine of October, 1946. He states:
starch of glycogen, stored in the muscles, and the fat in the hump
also provide water indirectly. When these are used by the body as
energy, water of equivalent weight is produced. Thus, the fat of the
hump independent of the matter in the connective tissues makes some
eight gallons of water."
An excellent review of sources of water in vegetables and animals is
given by S.M. Babcock in "Metabolitic Water Its Production and Role
in Vital Phenomena," in Research Bulletin, 22 (1912), Wisconsin
Agricultural Experiment Station.
Authors of biology and physiology
books, when discussing metabolism, give chemical equations for the
water and carbon dioxide given off in the oxidation of carbohydrates
and fats in the body cells.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS CREATES WATER
The growth of the vegetation of the
earth is now accepted in theory as being the result of
Trees and vegetation are classed as carbohydrates,
i.e., composed mainly of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, combined
through photosynthesis. By extending this theory one will be led to
suggest that the hydrogen and oxygen, which are products of
photosynthesis, were created during the growth of vegetation, and
that they united to form water, H20
The theory here postulated is
that water is created by photosynthesis. Water is created through
the agency of vegetation, and vegetation depends on water. Water is
found in trees 300 feet above the ground. Leaf suction and root
pressure theories fail, as long as they adhere to the laws of
physics, to account for the bringing of this water up and out of the
Moisture in trees moves both upward and downward also
sideways in both directions in the branches. (See Plant Physiology,
by Meyer and Anderson, 1952. )
Trees absorb carbon dioxide, CO2, and give o$ oxygen, O. Animals
absorb oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. Thus, vegetation and
animal life have cooperated as they have developed on the earth. In
the web of life one depends upon the other. The growth processes are
postulated as originally having been started by photosynthesis of
those incoming celestial radiations of energy whose wave lengths are
the same as the wave lengths of the atoms of carbon, oxygen, and
Electric currents in vegetation have a share in the formation of
water from two products of photosynthesis, oxygen and hydrogen. A
unidirectional electric current carries oxygen toward the positive
pole and hydrogen toward the negative pole of any electrolytic
For a 300 foot tree top there is normally a difference of
around ten thousand volts in electrical voltage between the ambient
air of the tree top and the ground, and during thunderstorms the
difference in voltage of the air between tree top and ground may
increase to around a million volts. (Physics of the Air, by W. J.
Humphreys, pages 397 98) .
Air voltages become so high at times, and the resulting passage of
electric current between air and ground is so heavy and
concentrated, that it becomes visible as a violet light or flame.
St. Elmo’s fire at the tips of the ships’ masts is an example. High
air voltages are today bled off to the ground by means of metal
conductors in order to circumvent sudden discharges of large volumes
of electricity by lightning flashes.
Tree tops are normally electrically positive and the ground
negative, but this condition is often found to be reversed,
especially during thunder storms. Electric currents will flow
wherever and whenever a difference in electrical potential exists
and a conducting medium connects them. Tree saps are such conducting
mediums. The liquid elements between wood and bark of trees are
conductors of electricity.
In an electrolytic solution some, but not all, of the molecules are
broken down into ions by the electric currents. The ions keep
resociating into molecules. (The Arrhenius theory. See Plant
Physiology, by Meyer and Anderson, page 12.) The oxygen and hydrogen
ions, which are carried by the electric currents, will, under proper
conditions, unite to form water, H2O. The molecules of water form
into drops of water and little drops of water make the mighty
Moisture in the ground soil is necessary to complete the electric
circuits which conduct the electricity between air and ground.
Moisture is required for the roots to make adequate conducting
contacts with the ground. Damp soil is a good electrical conductor;
dry soil becomes a dielectric, or insulator. When the ground soil
becomes dry, the electric currents are reduced in volume; and when
the electric currents cease to flow, the creative processes of
Trees and other vegetation have been generally assumed to get their
main water supply from the ground; but Spanish moss and tropical
orchids, called air plants or epiphytes, have been assumed to obtain
their water from the atmosphere. The latter grow on other plants or
on grounded supports, and normally have holdfasts instead of roots.
Mistletoe, which grows in a manner similar to the epiphytes, is
classed as a parasite. It grows, like other plants, from
photosynthesis; and it appears rational to assume that the water
contained in it is also a product of photosynthesis.
A well established theory holds that sugars are products of
By analogy, the photosynthesis of water appears to
be an equally reasonable theory. For example: sugar and molasses
(produced from the consecutive yearly crops of sugar cane, and the
maple sugar concentrated from the saps of sugar maple trees) do not
come up out of the ground. Today, few educated people believe that
these products of photosynthesis come out of the ground. We know
that the ground does not contain sugar and molasses.
The wood in trees is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The
carbon does not come up out of the ground. It is produced by
photosynthesis, some of it being absorbed from the carbon dioxide of
Land and water are postulated as having been contemporary and
cooperative products of creation during the past 4X billion years of
the earth’s existence and growth. Soil rocks have been previously
accounted for and it has been explained that they result from
various vegetable, animal, and mineral growths. The continuous
creation of the land has resulted in the development of continents
and islands in the oceans.
There appears to be a Balance of Nature. If water is created too
fast, it floods the land and thus decreases the area for the
manufacture of water by allowing less space for vegetation and
animals. The coastal shelves of many continents seem to indicate
that the oceans have encroached on the land areas and have thus cut
back water production. The Atlantic shelf of the east coast of the
United States has that appearance.
The World Almanac, 1958, page 507, quotes the U.S. Navy Hydrographic
Office as follows:
"Surrounding most of
the continents is a shallow zone of varying width which
represents underwater continuation of continental land masses.
These continental shelves are connected to oceanic basins by
continental slopes, which are characterized by much greater
angles of slope than either the continental shelves or the
floors of the oceanic basins. The continental shelf and
continental slope make up the continental terrace"
The change in the angle of slope in the continental terrace gives us
a clue to a remote period of time when the oceans increased the
rates or speeds of their growth; this, in turn, indicates a
corresponding increase in the vegetable and animal life upon which
the creation of water depends.
What was a coastal shelf in one epoch of time may have been either a
land area or a sea bottom during the next epoch and
then a coastal shelf again in the following epoch; for it must be
remembered that the temporary sea levels of continents for any
single epoch of time are determined mainly by the latitudes at which
the land areas happen to arrive after a normal careen of the globe.
More water than is contained in the combined volumes of Lakes Erie
and Ontario is being evaporated each year from the oceans and
deposited as snow, which becomes glacial ice on the Antarctic
A major percentage of this water is assumed to be
returned to the oceans by the yearly flow off of icebergs and
ablation. Notwithstanding this yearly loss, and according to the
evidence previously cited, the volume of water in the oceans and the
amount of water frozen in the polar glaciers are both increasing.
A Cosmic Cycle in the Eternity of Time
Our earth is composed of materials which are made up of atoms.
atoms group together to form molecules. In modern physics all atoms
and molecules are considered to be in continuous vibratory motion.
When a material body is heated, it generally expands in volume
because the atoms and the molecules increase the speeds of their
"In general, when heat is applied to substance, molecules
vibrate faster and move farther apart; at constant pressure this
causes expansion. When heat is withdrawn contraction occurs. If heat
is added continuously, the velocity of the molecules becomes so
great that change of state occurs."
(Columbia Viking Desk
Encyclopedia, page 646. )
The escape of atoms and molecules into the atmosphere, due to
excessive velocities of vibration, is apparent in the boiling of
water and in the burning of materials. The escape of atoms occurs in
radium, carbon 14, and ionium.
Materials of the earth can exist in their present form only as long
as they are kept at temperatures below those which cause them to
become incandescent. A basic tenet of modern physics is that neither
materials nor energy can be annihilated or destroyed; they can only
be changed from one state to the other.
All of the 92 basic chemical elements of the earth have definite
properties relative to light rays. They have the same wave lengths
as the various light rays. Every material of the earth can be
identified by its wave length, when it is heated to incandescence.
The mark of identification is its wave length on the spectrograph
charts the wave length scale of the light charts. The wave lengths
show which light rays the materials correspond to, which they came
from, and to which they return when overheated.
Atoms and light rays are, therefore, seen to be mutually
convertible. Materials, made of atoms, and the radiant energy rays
of light from celestial space are mutually convertible. Hence, mass
and energy, planets and stars are mutually convertible.
Astronomers have reported, from time to time, the appearance of new
stars in the heavens and the sudden disappearance of old established
stars. Star births, called supernova, occur when a faint star
suddenly becomes a brilliant star. (Another such star birth will
occur when our earth planet suddenly blazes forth in a million times
its present reflected light.)
Photosynthesis and combustion are postulated as the causes of the
continuous creation of the materials of the earth. Photosynthesis is
a process by means of which the incoming energy rays from celestial
space are converted into earth materials. Combustion of materials
creates water, as outlined in the section on "Page ."
Tropical fauna and flora usually differ from those of the cold
regions. This makes it evident that each material body requires a
surrounding atmosphere, temperature, environment, and protection
suitable for its formation.
The earth collects the radiated essence of sun and stars in its
vegetable, animal and mineral growth, under specific conditions of
temperature anal environment. But raise the temperature of any of
the earth’s materials to incandescence or above, and it immediately
metamorphoses and becomes flying molecules, or gases, with apparent
release of some atoms. In the atomic type bombs nearly all of the
materials are apparently returned to energy, which becomes dispersed
The continuous buildup of the materials of the earth, from its core
to its present surface, suggests a cycle of time for the growth arid
development of the earth. It is built up in a series of
stratifications, one superimposed on the other. The number of these
layers is estimated to be about one million.
We can readily perceive that the top layer is building up and
enlarging; and that topsoil is being created by vegetation and other
materials. Our knowledge of earth materials below the surface is
confined to the top four miles of these earth layers, these being
all that has been penetrated and sampled by drillings. It is readily
found that the chemical elements in the successive layers generally
differ from those immediately above and below at any one location.
The time cycle for the development of this layered accumulation of
superimposed earth materials is about 4.5 billion years, and there is
no known reason why the bottom layers of the earth’s stratifications
should have been created in any manner substantially different from
the top layer which is now being created.
We have learned how to reverse the slow process of the creation of
certain materials of the earth and return them explosively back to
energy. The atomic type bombs, when detonated, do just this. Each of
those sudden releases of atomic energy is equivalent to a tiny
element of the sun’s fiery heat.
To date, the atomic bomb is known to be made of only two of the
earth’s chemical elements. Whether the other ninety basic chemical
elements are fissionable or not has not yet been demonstrated.
It seems quite reasonable to conclude that if fission is effected
with the use of the chemical elements uranium and thorium, or their
isotopes, some of the other elements will also prove to be
fissionable or fusible and bring about thermonuclear reactions.
The hydrogen bomb is considered to be a self sustaining
thermonuclear reaction, similar to that of the sun. Therefore,
should a self supporting thermonuclear reaction become established
by the materials of the earth it will change the earth into a sun,
It is postulated that at the moment fission or fusion is started
with. some of the more common elements of the earth’s materials, all
of the earth’s materials will blow uplike a hydrogen bomb and will
be changed back into energy; and at that time our earth will become
a sun or star, just one more of the countless billions of self
sustaining thermonuclear reactions now observable in celestial
A few years ago the question of the possibility of the earth’s
blowing up from the fission of the uranium isotope U 235 was
referred to the Atomic Energy Commission. U 235, which was used to
make the first atomic bomb, is found to occur naturally in rock
outcroppings in proportion of one U 235 to about 140 U 238 atoms.
a communication dated September 27, 1963, the Commission quotes the
official report of Henry D. Smyth, Atomic Energy for Military
Purposes, section 12:10:
"No self sustaining chain reaction could be
produced in a block of pure uranium metal, no matter bow large,
because of parasitic capture of the neutrons by U 238."
conclusion has been borne out by various theoretical calculations
and also by direct experiment.
The Commission mentions the tiny
amount of U 235 in the earth and states:
"This trace of
fissionable material is always too diluted with neutron greedy
atoms to permit a chain reaction from propagating."
The difference between the energy of a star and that of a planet is
that in the star the energy is free and flaming, while in a planet
it is captured, frozen, or occluded. The wave lengths of the
essences of each are the same.
Our earth has a core, possibly of fused materials resembling our
moon, from which it has grown upward, epoch by epoch, to the present
very large globe. Sonic soundings by echo waves, which bounce back
from the core, indicate a change in the kinds of materials about
half way down between the surface and the center of the earth. The
materials of the core differ from those of the stratifications,
The forecast based on what is already known about atomic reactions
is that the earth will eventually blow up by fission or fusion, and
become a star. Through this sudden burst of matter into flaming
energy, it is assumed an electrical condition will be created in the
ether, and will move the moon a greater distance away from the new
star; the earth will become the moon’s sun, and the distance between
them will be something like 93 million miles instead of
approximately 250 thousand miles, as at present.
We can expect this to happen because all heavenly bodies are charged
with "like" electricity. Like repels like. This is what prevents
collisions of the celestial spheres. The distances separating
celestial bodies are postulated to depend on the intensities of
their charges of "like" electricity.
The planet Moon is then expected to develop and grow, through epochs
of time, exactly as our earth has grown through the ages, through
the million epochs or so begun and terminated by the recurrent careenings of the globe.
Meantime, the sun will reach a condition through its profligate
dissipation of its energy, of being depleted to such an extent that
it can no longer maintain its heat and light producing thermonuclear
reactions and it will therefore collapse into fused materials and
become something like our moon of today. The moon is pockmarked with
craters, apparently caused by the eruptions of internal gases from
the molten interior while its viscous surface cooled, shrank, and
solidified. Scientific opinion tends to regard our sun as a red star
which at one time was much hotter and was white.
This indicates the probability of the existence of a super cosmic
cycle in the eternity of time, involving sun, earth, moon, and
possibly other celestial bodies.
For approximately 4 billion years our earth has been bombarded by
a continuous rain of celestial energy in the forms of photons,
quanta, and cosmic rays. This tremendous, quite unimaginable
quantity of incoming energy has been occluded, by photosynthesis,
into atoms and makes up the molecules of all the earth’s materials.
A tiny amount has been rebroadcast back into space.
The buildup of
the earth by the conversion of energy into materials is a snail like
process, in which celestial energy is transmuted into materials. The reconversion of matter back into energy may be explosive, as in the
atom bomb, or slow, as in incandescence, carbon 14, and radium. When
we detonate an atom type bomb we release an infinitesimal fraction
of this accumulated energy.
These deductive analyses and discoveries of natural and measurable
forces which govern earth phenomena, may be described as the New
Cosmic Geophysics. It recognizes the incoming energy radiations from
celestial space as the primary forces of nature. These forces,
together with the light and heat radiations from the sun, govern
Incoming radiant energy is the cause of gravitation, of the rotation
of the earth, and of the growth of the earth by continuous creation.
This celestial energy is indirectly the cause of the earth’s
careening, for it creates the centrifugal force which, acting on a
rotating ice cap thrown off center by the wobble of the earth,
causes the roll arounds of the globe at irregular recurrent
intervals of time.
Scholarly thought and opinion in the field of historical geology
have undergone a gradual change during the past one hundred and
fifty years. New evidence has been discovered and classified. The
records left for us to read, fossils, etc. in all of the earth
strata penetrated by drillings are now better understood. This
geological evidence fits very well into the theories of the new
cosmic geophysics, and it aids in confirming the recurrent
careenings of the globe.
The theory of the evolution of biological forms postulates that the
variations and mutations (which occurred from time to time and were
better adapted and more suited to the environment in which they had
to live) were the final survivors; similarly, the development of a
philosophical geological science will depend on the discovery of
better methods for evaluating the records left for us to read in the
fossils and in the rocks.
Basic progress occurs like a mutation or a sport. By its very nature
it must be the product of the nonconformist.
The Earth Is a Great Stone Book
Each single layer of earth
Tells a story that’s all its own;
The sands of the ancient beaches
Have changed into strata of stone.
The growths of corals and sea shells
Made limestones, marbles, and shales;
While animals, trees, and vegetable growths
Made rocks which also tell their tales.
Each stratum of earth was created
During one of the epochs of time;
Remains of life growths are now embedded
In rocks that were once dirt and slime.
The limestone strata of Himalaya
Grew in ocean waters’ shoal;
The glacial markings in tropical lands
Are the epoch’s ice cap scroll.
Siberian mammoths were buried alive,
Interrupting their tropic stroll;
And a tropical land of the previous age
Now lies ice embalmed at the Pole.
For the earth is a great stone book
With strata of stone for pages;
In which we’ll find if we look
The living record of ancient ages
H. A. B.
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