by Oliver Nichelson
Tesla Wireless and the
Tesla’s writings have many references to the use
of his wireless power transmission technology as a
directed energy weapon. These references are examined in
their relationship to the Tunguska explosion
of 1908 which may have been a test firing of Tesla’s
This article was first published in a different form in
1990. The idea of a Tesla directed energy weapon
causing the Tunguska explosion was
incorporated in a fictional biography (1994), by another
writer, and was the subject of a Sightings
television program segment.
The French ship Iena blew
up in 1907.
Electrical experts were sought by the press for an
explanation. Many thought the explosion was caused by an electrical
spark and the discussion was about the origin of the ignition.
Lee De Forest, inventor of the Audion vacuum tube adopted
by many radio broadcasters, pointed out that Nikola Tesla had
experimented with a "dirigible torpedo" capable of delivering
such destructive power to a ship through remote control.
though, Tesla also claimed that the same technology used for
remotely controlling vehicles also could project an electrical wave
"sufficient intensity to cause a spark in a ship’s magazine and
explode it." (1)
In the summer of 1913, Signor Giulio Ulivi, blew up a gas meter with
his "F-Ray" device and destroyed his laboratory.
Then, in August of
that year, exploded three mines in the port of Trouville for a
number of high ranking French naval officers. The following
November, he travelled to Spezia, Italy to repeat the experiments
on several old ships and torpedo boats for that country’s navy.(2)
the Spring of 1924 newspapers carried several stories about "death
rays" inventions in different parts of the world. The work of
Harry Grindell-Matthews, London, was the first reported.
Times of May 21st had this one:
Paris, May 20
- If confidence of Grindell Matthews, inventor of the so-called ’diabolical ray,’
in his discovery is justified it may become possible to put the
whole of an enemy army out of action, destroy any force of
airplanes attacking a city or paralyze any fleet venturing
within a certain distance of the coast by invisible rays.
much the inventor consented to tell The New York Times
correspondent today while continuing to refuse to divulge the
exact nature of the rays beyond that they are used to direct an
electric current able to perform the program just mentioned.(3)
Grindell-Matthews stated that his
destructive rays would operate over a distance of four miles and
that the maximum distance for this type of weapon would be seven or
Asked if it would be possible to destroy an approaching
enemy fleet, the inventor said it would not, because,
"Ships, like land, are in continual
contact with the earth, but what I can do is to put the ships
out of action by the destruction of vital parts of the
machinery, and also by putting the crews temporarily out of
action through shock."(4)
Airplanes, on the other hand, could be
completely destroyed. As soon as his ray touched the plane it would
burst into flames and fall to earth.
"I am convinced the Germans possess the
He believed, though, they were carrying out their experiments
with high frequencies and at high power, around 200 kilowatts, and
could not control the weapon to hit a specific target.
So far, said Grindell-Matthews, he had tried tests at 500 watts in his laboratory
over a distance of sixty-four feet.
A French company, the Great Rhone Engineering Works of Lyon, had
offered Grindell-Matthews extensive financial backing that would
allow him to test his device at much higher power levels. He replied
that would not undertake such tests "except under conditions of
absolute safety on a wide tract of uninhabited land," such was the
destructive power of his rays.
Details of the "diabolical rays’" destructive power surfaced that
"Tests have been reported where the
ray has been used to stop the operation of automobiles by
arresting the action of the magnetos, and an quantity of
gunpowder is said to have been exploded by playing the beams on
it from a distance of thirty-six feet."
Grindell-Matthews was able, also, to
electrocute mice, shrivel plants, and light the wick of an oil lamp
from the same distance away.(6)
His own laboratory assistants were themselves became unintentional
victims of the ray. When crossing its path during tests they were
either knocked unconscious by violent electrical shocks or received
The inventor stated that though it would be possible
to kill enemy infantry with the ray,
"it would be quite easy to graduate
the electric power used so that hostile troops would only be
knocked out long enough to effect their capture."(7)
On May 25th, a second death ray was
announced in England.
Doctor T.F. Wall, a "lecturer in electrical
research in Sheffield University," applied for a patent for means of
transmitting electrical energy in any direction without the use of
According to one report. even though he has not made tests on
a large scale yet,
"Dr. Wall expressed the belief that
his invention would be capable of destroying life, stopping
airplanes in flight and bringing motor cars to a standstill."
On a more positive note, he added that
his invention would have beneficial applications in surgical and
Germany joined the technology race on May 25th when it announced its
electrical weapon. As the Chicago Tribune reported:
- That the German Government
has an invention of death rays that will bring down airplanes,
halt tanks on the battlefields, ruin automobile motors, and
spread a curtain of death like the gas clouds of the recent war
was the information given to Reichstag members by Herr Wulle,
chief of the militarists in that body. It is learned that three
inventions have been perfected in Germany for the same purpose
and have been patented.
Sensing something of importance the New
York Times copyrighted its story of May 28th on a ray weapon
developed by the Soviets.
The story opened:
"News has leaked out from the
Communist circles in Moscow that behind Trotsky’s recent
war-like utterance lies an electromagnetic invention, by a
Russian engineer named Grammachikoff for destroying airplanes."
Tests of the destructive ray, the Times
continued, had began the previous August with the aid of German
A large scale demonstration at Podosinsky
Aerodome near Moscow was so successful that the revolutionary
Military Council and the Political Bureau decided to fund enough
electronic anti-aircraft stations to protect sensitive areas of
Similar, but more powerful, stations were to be constructed
to disable the electrical mechanisms of warships. The Commander of
the Soviet Air Services, Rosenholtz, was so overwhelmed by the ray
weapon demonstration that he proposed "to curtail the activity of
the air fleet, because the invention rendered a large air fleet
unnecessary for the purpose of defense."
An English engineer, J.H. Hamil, offered the American army plans for
producing "an invisible ray capable of stopping airplanes and
automobiles in midflight," invented by a German scientist. The ray
device was said to have been used the previous summer to bring down
French planes over Bavaria.
Hamil noted, however, that,
"the fundamental work was done by
Nikola Tesla in Colorado Springs about 30 years ago. He built a
powerful electrical coil. It was found that the dynamos and
other electrical apparatus of a Colorado fuel company within a
100 yards or so were all put out of business.(10)
Hamil believed the Tesla
scattered rays which short-circuited electrical machinery at
close range. Laboratories all over the world, he added, were
testing methods of stepping up the Tesla coil to produce its
effects at greater distances.
"Working on an entirely different
principle," Hamil said, "the German scientist has succeeded in
projecting and directing electrical power."
Those Colorado Springs tests carried
out by Tesla were well remembered by local residents. With a 200
foot pole topped by a large copper sphere rising above his
laboratory he generated potentials that discharged lightning
bolts up to 135 feet long. Thunder from the released energy
could be heard 15 miles away in Cripple Creek.
along the streets were amazed to see sparks jumping between
their feet and the ground, and flames of electricity would
spring from a tap when anyone turned them on for a drink of
water. Light bulbs within 100 feet of the experimental tower
glowed when they were turned off. Horses at the livery stable
received shocks through their metal shoes and bolted from the
Even insects were affected: Butterflies became
electrified and "helplessly swirled in circles - their wings
spouting blue halos of ’St. Elmo’s Fire.’"
The effect that captured the attention
of foreign death ray inventors occurred at the Colorado Springs
Electric Company powerhouse.
One day while Tesla was conducting a
high power test, the crackling from inside the laboratory suddenly
stopped. Bursting into the lab Tesla demanded to know why his
assistant had disconnected the coil. The assistant protested that
had not done anything. The power from the city’s generator, the
assistant said, must have quit.
When the angry Tesla telephoned the
power company he received an equally angry reply that the power
company had not cut the power, but that Tesla’s experiment had
destroyed the generator!
The inventor explained to The Electrical Experimenter, in August of
1917 what had happened.
As an example of what has been done
with several hundred kilowatts of high frequency energy
liberated, it was found that the dynamos in a power house six
miles away were repeatedly burned out, due to the powerful high
frequency currents set up in them, and which caused heavy sparks
to jump thru the windings and destroy the insulation! The
lightning arresters in the power house showed a stream of
blue-white sparks passing between the metal plates to the earth
When questioned about the Ulivi ray that
created so much comment a few years earlier, Tesla asserted, in the
same interview, that,
"it was transplanted from this country to
He saw it as simply a modification of his ultra-powerful
high frequency coil tested in Colorado.
With thousands of horsepower
"it would become readily possible to
detonate powder and munition magazines by means of the high
frequency currents induced in every bit of metal, even when
located five to six miles away or more."
With others attributing an energy
weapons technology to Tesla’s wireless power transmission research,
his comments on the destructive capabilities of his system take on a
great deal of importance.
Writing tersely for Liberty magazine of
February 1935 he stated:
My invention requires a large plant,
but once it is established it will be possible to destroy
anything, men or machines, approaching within a radius of 200
miles. It will, so to speak, provide a wall of power offering an
insuperable obstacle against any effective aggression.(14)
He went on to make a distinction between
his invention and those brought forward by others.
He claimed that
his device did not use any so-called "death rays" because such
radiation cannot be produced in large amounts and rapidly become
weaker over distance.
He likely was making reference to a Grindell-Matthews
type of device that, according to contemporary reports, used a
powerful ultra-violet beam to make the air conducting so that high
energy current could be directed to the target. The range of an
ultra-violet searchlight would be much less than what Tesla was
As he put it:
"all the energy of New York City
(approximately two million horsepower [1.5 billion watts])
transformed into rays and projected twenty miles, would not kill
a human being."
Not wanting to give away a potentially
valuable creation in an interview, he was intentionally opaque
concerning the details of his design.
He did clarify how his design
differed from the ray type of devices.
My apparatus projects particles which may be relatively large or of
microscopic dimensions, enabling us to convey to a small area at a
great distance trillions of times more energy than is possible with
rays of any kind. Many thousands of horsepower can be thus
transmitted by a stream thinner than a hair, so that nothing can
Tesla’s energy weapon cannot be called a "ray" device, but as one
projecting microscopic particles, it would seem that it had to
differ from the other designs in one of two ways.
Either he was
making the distinction between a beam of radiant energy, like a beam
from a flashlight that has billions of energy carrying photons, and
his own with all of its energy concentrated into a stream a single
particle wide, or he was making a distinction about the size of the
beam and the method it is used to reach the target.
In a Grindell-Matthews type of beam, the flashlight model, a huge
number of high energy particles or photons would have to be sent out
from the system so that a large enough area on the target would be
covered to disable it.
What Tesla seems to have intended was that
his energy transmitter would set up a field of force around itself
which, when penetrated, would release its energy directly to the
The effect would be like sending a current of particles
through a wire directly to the target.
A large area on the target
would not have to be "painted" by a beam, so the current reaching
the intruder could be very thin and deliver a great deal of energy
to a small area.
The Colorado tests that gave rise to the variety of "death ray"
inventions in the U.S. and Europe may have lead to the development
of a much more powerful weapon.
When Tesla realized that economic forces would not allow the
development of a new type of electrical generator that would supply
power without burning fuel he,
"was led to recognize [that] the
transmission of electrical energy to any distance through the
media as by far the best solution of the great problem of
harnessing the sun’s energy for the use of man."(15),(16)
His idea was that a relatively few
generating plants located near waterfalls would supply his very high
energy transmitters which, in turn, would send power through the
earth to be picked up wherever it was needed.
Receiving energy from this high pressure reservoir only would
require a person to put a rod into the ground and connect it to a
receiver operating in resonance with the electrical motion in the
As Tesla described in 1911,
"The entire apparatus for lighting
the average country dwelling will contain no moving parts
whatever, and could be readily carried about in a small valise."
The difference between a current used to
"light the average country dwelling" and a current used as a method
of destruction, however, is a matter of timing.
If the amount of
electricity used to run a television for an hour is released in a
millionth of a second, it would have a very different, and negative,
effect on the television.
Tesla said his transmitter could produce 100 million volts of
pressure and currents up to 1000 amperes, with experimental power
levels of billion or tens of billions of watts.(18)
If that amount of power were released in "an incomparably small
interval of time,"(19)
the energy would be equal to the explosion of millions of tons of
TNT, that is, a multi-megaton explosion.
Such a transmitter would be
capable of projecting the force of a nuclear warhead by radio. Any
location in the world could be vaporized at the speed of light.
Not unexpectedly, many scientists doubted the technical feasibility
of Tesla’s wireless power transmission scheme whether for commercial
or military purposes. Modern authorities in electronics, even those
who express admiration for the Tesla’s genius, believe he was
mistaken in the interpretation of his experiments when it came to
electrical transmission through the earth.(20),(21),(22)
On the other hand, statements from authoritative witnesses who saw
Tesla’s equipment in operation support his claim about transmission
with something other than the radio waves known today.
During the Chicago World’s Fair of 1893, the Westinghouse exhibit set up by
Tesla was visited by the Herman von Helmholtz, the first director of
the Physico-Technical Institute of Berlin and one of the leading
scientists of his time.
"asked the celebrated physicist
for an expression of opinion on the feasibility of the
[transmission] scheme. He stated unhesitatingly that it was
In 1897, Lord Kelvin visited New York and stopped at the Tesla
laboratory where Tesla "entertained him with demonstrations in
support of my wireless theory."
Suddenly [Kelvin] remarked with evident astonishment:
’Then you are not making use of
Hertz waves?’ ’Certainly not’, I replied, ’these are
radiations.’... I can never forget the magic change that came
over the illustrious philosopher the moment he freed himself
from that erroneous impression.
The skeptic who would not
believe was suddenly transformed into the warmest of supporters.
He parted from me not only truly convinced of the scientific
soundness of the idea but strongly express his confidence in its
A recent analysis of Tesla’s wireless
transmission method shows that he used an electrostatic transmission
technique that did not radiate radio waves as we know them and could
sent waves through the earth with little loss of power.(25)
The question remains of whether Tesla demonstrated the weapons
application of his power transmission system.
evidence found in the chronology of Tesla’s work and financial
fortunes between 1900 and 1908 points to
there having been a test of
Tesla returned to New York from Colorado Springs after
completing the tests of wireless power transmission that destroyed
the power company’s generator.
He received $150,000 from J.P. Morgan
to build a transmitter to signal Europe. With the first portion of
the money he obtained 200 acres of land at Shoreham, Long Island and
built an 187 foot tall tower with a steel shaft running 120 feet
into the ground.
This tower was topped with a 55 ton, 68 foot
diameter metal dome. He called the research site "Wardenclyffe"
(right image) and
envisioned 2000 people eventually working at his global
A stock offering is made by the Marconi
Company. Supporters of the
Marconi Company include his old adversary Edison and one-time
associate Michael Pupin. Investors rushed to buy the Marconi shares.
On December 12th, Marconi sent the first transatlantic signal, the
letter "S," from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland, Canada.
this with, as the financiers noted, equipment much less costly than
that being built by Tesla.
transmitter nears completion. Marconi is hailed as a hero around
the world while Tesla is seen as a shirker by the public for
ignoring a call to jury duty in a murder case (he was excused
from duty because of his opposition to the death penalty).
When Morgan sent the balance of the $150,000, it
would not cover the outstanding balance Tesla owed on the
To encourage a larger investment in
the face of Marconi’s success, Tesla revealed to
Morgan his real
purpose was not to just send radio signals but the wireless
transmission of power to any point on the planet. Morgan was
uninterested and declined to provide further funding.
A financial panic that Fall put an end to
Tesla’s hopes for
financing by Morgan or other wealthy industrialists. This left
Tesla without money even to buy the coal to fire the
transmitter’s electrical generators.
1904 - 1906:
Tesla writes for the Electrical World, "The
Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires," noting that
the globe, even with its great size, responds to electrical
currents like a small metal ball.
Tesla declares to the press the completion of
Marconi is hailed as a world hero.
Tesla subject to multiple law suits over unpaid Colorado Springs
expenses. George Westinghouse, who bought Tesla’s patents for
alternating current motors and generators in the 1880’s, turns
down the inventor’s power transmission business proposal.
Workers gradually stop coming to the Wardenclyffe laboratory
when there are no funds to pay them. In an article, Tesla
comments on Peary’s expedition to the North Pole and tells of
his, Tesla’s, plans for energy transmission to any central point
on the ground.
When commenting on the destruction of the
ship Iena, Tesla noted in a letter to the New York Times that he
has built and tested dirigible torpedoes (remotely controlled
torpedoes), but that electrical waves would be more destructive.
"As to projecting wave energy to any particular region of the
globe ... this can be done by my devices," he wrote.
claimed that "the spot at which the desired effect is to be
produced can be calculated very closely, assuming the accepted
terrestrial measurements to be correct."(26)
Tesla repeated the idea of destruction by
electrical waves to the newspaper on April 21st. His letter to
the editor stated,
"When I spoke of future warfare I meant that
it should be conducted by direct application of electrical waves
without the use of aerial engines or other implements of
He added: "This is not a dream. Even now wireless
power plants could be constructed by which any region of the
globe might be rendered uninhabitable without subjecting the
population of other parts to serious danger or inconvenience."(27)
In the period from 1900 to 1910 Tesla’s
creative thrust was to establish his plan for wireless transmission
Undercut by Marconi’s accomplishment, beset by financial
problems, and spurned by the scientific establishment, Tesla was in
a desperate situation by mid-decade. The strain became too great by
1906-1907 and, according to Tesla biographers, he suffered an
In order to make a final effort to have his grand scheme recognized,
he may have tried one high power test of his transmitter to show off
its destructive potential. This would have been in 1908.
The Tunguska event took place on the morning of June 30th, 1908. An
explosion estimated to be equivalent to 10-15 megatons of TNT
flattened 500,000 acres of pine forest near the Stony Tunguska River
in central Siberia.
Whole herds of reindeer were destroyed. Several
nomadic villages were reported to have vanished. The explosion was
heard over a radius of 620 miles. When an expedition was made to the
area in 1927 to find evidence of the meteorite presumed to have
caused the blast, no impact crater was found. When the ground was
drilled for pieces of nickel, iron, or stone, the main constituents
of meteorites, none were found down to a depth of 118 feet.
Several explanations have been given for the Tunguska event. The
officially accepted version is that a 100,000 ton fragment of
Encke’s Comet, composed mainly of dust and ice, entered the
atmosphere at 62,000 mph, heated up, and exploded over the earth’s
surface creating a fireball and shock wave but no crater.
Alternative explanations of the disaster include a renegade
mini-black hole or an alien space ship crashing into the earth with
the resulting release of energy.
Associating Tesla with the Tunguska event comes close to putting the
inventor’s power transmission idea in the same speculative category
as ancient astronauts. However, historical facts point to the
possibility that this event was caused by a test firing of Tesla’s
In 1907 and 1908, Tesla wrote about the destructive effects of his
energy transmitter. His Wardenclyffe facility was much larger than
the Colorado Springs device that destroyed the power station’s
Then, in 1915, he stated bluntly:
It is perfectly practical to
transmit electrical energy without wires and produce destructive
effects at a distance. I have already constructed a wireless
transmitter which makes this possible... But when unavoidable
[it] may be used to destroy property and life.
The art is
already so far developed that the great destructive effects can
be produced at any point on the globe, defined beforehand with
great accuracy (emphasis added).(30)
Nikola Tesla, 1915
He seems to confess to such a test
having taken place before 1915, and, though the evidence is
circumstantial, Tesla had the motive and the means to cause the
His transmitter could generate energy levels and
frequencies capable of releasing the destructive force of 10
megatons, or more, of TNT. And the overlooked genius was desperate.
The nature of the Tunguska event, also, is consistent with what
would happen during the sudden release of wireless power. No fiery
object was reported in the skies at that time by professional or
amateur astronomers as would be expected when a 200,000,000 pound
object enters the atmosphere at tens of thousands miles an hour.
Also, the first reporters, from the town of Tomsk, to reach the area
judged the stories about a body falling from the sky was the result
of the imagination of an impressionable people.
He noted there was considerable noise coming from the explosion, but no stones fell.
The absence of an impact crater can be explained by there having
been no material body to impact. An explosion caused by broadcast
power would not leave a crater.
In contrast to the ice comet collision theory, reports of upper
atmosphere and magnetic disturbances coming from other parts of the
world at the time of and just after the Tunguska event point to
massive changes in earth’s electrical condition.
cite in their study of the explosion, The Fire Came By, that the
Times of London editorialized about "slight, but plainly marked,
disturbances of... magnets," which the writer, not knowing then of
the explosion, associated with solar prominences.(31)
In Berlin, the New York Times of July 3rd reported unusual colors in
the evening skies thought to be Northern Lights:
"Remarkable lights were observed in
the northern heavens ... bright diffused white and yellow
illumination continuing through the night until it disappears at
Massive glowing "silvery clouds" covered
Siberia and northern Europe.
A scientist in Holland told of an
"undulating mass" moving across the northwest horizon. It seemed to
him not to be a cloud, but the "sky itself seemed to undulate." A
woman north of London wrote the London Times that on midnight of
July 1st the sky glowed so brightly it was possible to read large
print inside her house.
A meteorological observer in England
recounted on the nights of June 30th and July 1st:
A strong orange yellow light became
visible in the north and northeast... causing an undue
prolongation of twilight lasting to daybreak on July 1st...There
was a complete absence of scintillation or flickering, and no
tendency for the formation of streamers, or a luminous arch,
characteristic of auroral phenomena... Twilight on both of these
night was prolonged to daybreak, and there was no real darkness.(33)
The report that most closely ties these
strange cosmic happenings with Tesla’s power transmission scheme is
that while the sky was aglow with this eerie light it was possible
to clearly see ships at sea for miles in the middle of the night.(34)
Tesla specifically claimed this as one of the effects he could
achieve with his high power transmitter. Of particular importance is
that none of his claims for lighting the ocean appeared before 1908.(35)
A typical statement about the light induced by his transmitter is
this from the New York American of December 7th, 1914:
The lighting of the ocean ... is
only one of the less important results to be achieved by the use
of this invention [the transmitter]. I have planned many of the
details of a plant which might be erected at the Azores and
which would be amply sufficient to illuminate the entire ocean
so that such a disaster as that of the Titanic would not be
repeated. The light would be soft and of very small intensity,
but quite adequate to the purpose.(36)
Nikola Tesla, 1914
When Tesla used his high power
transmitter as a directed energy weapon he drastically altered the
normal electrical condition of the earth.
By making the electrical
charge of the planet vibrate in tune with his transmitter he was
able to build up electric fields that effected compasses and caused
the upper atmosphere to behave like the gas filled lamps in his
laboratory. He had turned the entire globe into a simple electrical
component that he could control.
Given Tesla’s general pacifistic nature it is hard to understand why
he would carry out a test harmful to both animals and the people who
herded the animals even when he was in the grip of financial
desperation. The answer is that he probably intended no harm, but
was aiming for a publicity coup and, literally, missed his target.
At the end of 1908, the whole world was following the daring attempt
of Peary to reach the North Pole which he claimed in the Spring of
If Tesla wanted the attention of the international press, few
things would have been more impressive than the Peary expedition
sending out word of a cataclysmic explosion on the ice near or at
the North Pole.(37)
Tesla, then, if he could not be hailed as the master creator that he
was, could be seen as the master of a mysterious new force of
Transmitter’s Test Path
test, it seems, was not a complete success.
It must have been
difficult controlling the vast amount of power in transmitter to the
exact spot Tesla intended. The North Pole lies close to a great
circle line connecting Shoreham, Long Island and the
region. That path passes close by Alert on Ellesmere Island where
Peary spent the winter.(38)
The uninhabited region between Alert and the North Pole might have
been the intended target for a test firing of the wireless
transmission system. However, "the accepted terrestrial
measurements" of that day were not precise enough for the task. The
destructive electrical wave overshot its target.
Whoever was privy to Tesla’s energy weapon demonstration must have
been dismayed either because it missed the intended target and would
be a threat to inhabited regions of the planet, or because it worked
too well in devastating such a large area at the mere throwing of a
switch thousands of miles away. Whatever was the case, Tesla never
received the notoriety he sought for his power transmitter.
The evidence is only circumstantial. Perhaps Tesla never did achieve
wireless power transmission through the earth. Maybe he made a
mistake in interpreting the results of his radio tests in Colorado
Springs and really saw a low frequency phenomenon,
oscillations, and not an effect engineers believe a scientific
Perhaps the mental stress he suffered caused him to
retreat into a fantasy world from which he would send out
preposterous claims to reporters who gathered for his yearly
pronouncements on his birthday. Maybe the atomic bomb size explosion
in Siberia near the turn of the century was the result of a
meteorite nobody saw fall.
Or, perhaps, Nikola Tesla did shake the world in a way that has been
kept secret for over 85 years.
New York Times, "Wireless Caused Iena Disaster?", Mar. 19, 1907,
p. 4, col. 4.
York Times, "Signor Ulivi First Blew Up Gas Meter," Nov. 2,
1913, III, p. 4, col. 5.
York Times, "Tells Death Power of ’Diabolical Rays’," May 21,
4. Note 3.
Mechanics, "’Death Ray’ Is Carried by Shafts of Light," Aug.
1924, pgs. 189-192.
Opinion, "A Violet Ray That Kills," June 1924, pgs. 828-829.
7. Note 6.
York Times, "Second British Inventor Reveals a Death Ray," May
25, 1924, p. 1, col. 2.
York Times, "Suggests Russia Has A ’Ray’," May 28, 1924, pg. 25.
Colorado Springs Gazette, "Tesla Discovered ’Death Ray’ In
Experiments Made Here," May 30, 1924, pg. 1.
Goldman, Harry L., "Nikola Tesla’s Bold Adventure," The American
West, Mar. 1971, pgs. 4-9; Reprinted by Nick Basura, 3414 Alice
St., Los Angeles, Ca. 90065, 1974.
Nikola, "Famous Scientific Illusions," Electrical Experimenter,
Feb. 1919, pgs. 692f.
horsepower equals 745.7 watts.
Nikola, "A Machine to End War," as told to George Sylvester
Viereck, Liberty, Feb. 1935, p. 5-7.
Nikola, "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy - Through Use of
the Sun’s Energy," The Century Illustrated Magazine, reprinted
in Lectures, Patents, and Articles, Nikola Tesla Museum,
Belgrade, 1956; reprinted by Health Research (Mokelumme Hill,
Calif., 95245), 1973, pg. A-143.
Nichelson, Oliver, "Nikola Tesla’s Later Energy Generation
Designs," IECEC, 1991.
American Examiner, Copyright 1911, no date, no pg.
Nikola, New York Times, "How to Signal Mars," May 23, 1909, pg.
10. He claims to have sent "a current around the globe " on the
order of "15,000,000" horsepower or 11 billion watts.
H. Winfield, "The Tesla High Frequency Oscillator," The
Electrical Experimenter, March 1916, pg. 615.
James R., "Propagation of ELF Electromagnetic Waves and Project
Sanguine/Seafarer," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol.
OE-2, no. 2, April 1977, pgs. 161-172.
Marinic, Aleksandar, Nikola Tesla, Colorado Springs Notes
1899-1900, Nikola Tesla Museum, Published by Nolit, Beograd,
James F., and Corum, Kenneth L., "Disclosures Concerning the
Operation of an ELF Oscillator," Tesla ’84: Proceedings of the
Tesla Centennial Symposium, Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher and Mr. Toby
Grotz, editors, International Tesla Society, Inc., Colorado
Springs, 1985, pgs. 41-49.
Nikola, "Famous Scientific Illusions," Electrical Experimenter,
Feb. 1919, pg. 732.
Nichelson, Oliver, "Tesla’s Wireless Transmission Method," 1992.
Nikola, "Tesla’s Wireless Torpedo," New York Times, Mar. 20,
1907, pg. 8.
Nikola, New York Times, "Mr. Tesla’s Vision," April 21, 1908,
Marc J., "Nikola Tesla: The Lost Wizard," Tesla ’84: Proceedings
of the Tesla Centennial Symposium, op. cit., pgs. 31-40. Seifer,
a psychologist, believes Tesla suffered a nervous breakdown
catalyzed by the death of one the partners in the Tesla Electric
Company and the shooting of Stanford White, the noted architect,
who had designed Wardenclyffe. Seifer places this in 1906 and
cites as evidence a letter from George Scherff, Tesla’s
Dear Mr. Tesla:
I have received your letter and am glad to know you are
your illness. I have scarcely ever seen you so out of sorts
as last Sunday; and I was frightened.
Cheney, Margaret, Tesla: Man out of Time, Dell Publishing Co.,
N.Y., 1983, pg. 187. Cheney sees a mental change taking place
about 1907. Having lost most of his money and many of his
friends and seeing less talented people praised for achievements
based on his inventions "exerted a corrosive and lasting effect
on his personality."
Nikola, "Tesla’s New Device Like Bolts of Thor," New York Times,
Dec. 8, 1915, pg. 8.
Baxter, John and Atkins, Thomas, The Fire Came By, Warner Books,
N.Y., 1977, pg. 27.
30, pg. 26.
Spenser Russell quoted in Baxter and Atkins, The Fire Came By,
page 28, from the Royal Meteorological Society Quarterly, 1930.
earliest mention of lighting the ocean appears to have been in
1911 in a N.Y. Americanarticle (Sept. 3rd by Marcel Roland).
Ratzlaff, John and Anderson, Leland, Dr. Nikola Tesla
Bibliography, Ragusan Press, 1979, pg. 93.
York American, "Tesla Light to Rob Oceans of Every Danger," Dec.
7, 1914, no pg.
suggested a similar test of his power transmission system aimed
at the moon where everyone could see "the splash and
volitization of matter." See note 19, pg. 255.
Bayshore, L.I. is at 40 N 43, 73 W 13; Alert, Canada (Ellesmere
Island) 82 N 31, 62 W 05, and Tunguska at 60 N 55, 101 E 57.