by Steven J. Smith
No natural force is more destructive than earthquakes. The
energy released by a magnitude 6.0 earthquake lasting 45
seconds, is several thousand times greater than a nuclear bomb.
Furthermore, according to the USGS (united states geological
survey), earthquake forecasting remains little more than an
elusive goal. Sadly, many earthquakes strike locations where the
population and government institutions have little or no
capability to deal with the aftermath. Places like southern Iran
and rural China.
Looked at from another perspective, an earthquake would make an
ideal tool of destruction. Able to strike without warning, and
appearing to be an act of nature, can you imagine any government
or military organization that wouldn't want to add such an
awesome capability to it's arsenal? But of course generating
synthetic earthquakes is pure science fiction. Or is it?
The standard model:
If you ask a geologist what causes an earthquake, he/she will
tell you it's caused by slippage or abrupt movement between two
plates of rock at a location called a fault zone. They will go
on to explain there is a slow but constant differential motion
between the plates, and over time this results in deformation
and the buildup of stress between the plates. When this stress
exceeds the frictional resistance of the fault zone, slippage
occurs causing an earthquake.
There are several problems with the standard model of
earthquakes. First, not all earthquakes are associated with
fault zones. Second, and even more troubling, the origin points
for many earthquakes are greater than 100km below the surface of
At this depth, the rock is either
plastic or fully liquefied and therefore no longer able to
support the frictional slippage mechanism postulated by
geologists as the primary cause of earthquakes. Another poorly
explained phenomena is the tendency of earthquakes to cluster
over a brief period of time, lasting from hours to days and
sometimes even weeks.
The mechanical slippage paradigm
would seem to predict just the opposite should take place, since
the initial earthquake lowered the deformation stresses in the
plates, making further slippage less likely.
While the standard model of earthquakes is appealing in it's
simplicity, it is also clearly insufficient to explain many of
the observed phenomena.
Chemical phase change:
When two or more substances are involved in a chemical reaction,
the resulting compound will occupy a different volume than that
of the original substances. In other words, the total volume
will shrink or expand as a result of chemical reaction.
Furthermore, pressure and/or
temperature can cause the internal molecular arrangement of a
compound to undergo an abrupt shift or phase change, thereby
causing a change in volume of the compound. In many cases, the
reaction or rearrangement is very swift, requiring mere
fractions of a second to complete.
Piezoelectric & electrostriction effects:
Under the influence of
mechanical stress, dielectric materials exhibit a phenomena
known as the piezoelectric effect. Simply stated, an electric
field or potential is generated within the material due to
physical deformation created by the applied mechanical stress.
While generally considered to be an
exclusive property of crystalline dielectrics, the phenomena is
also observed in both amorphous solids and liquids. Any material
that exhibits piezoelectric activity, will also exhibit
electrostriction phenomena. This is the inverse of the
piezoelectric effect, whereby the material changes shape and/or
volume under the influence of an externally applied electric
Acoustic wave guides:
Most people associate
acoustic (or sonic) waves with air, however these waves also
travel through liquids and solids. Different materials conduct
acoustic waves at different propagation velocities. In general,
propagation velocities in liquids are greater than in gases, and
propagation velocities in solids are greater than in liquids,
however each unique material has a specific propagation
velocity, that is also dependent on environmental variables such
as temperature and pressure.
Whenever an acoustic wave undergoes an abrupt change in
propagation velocity, the wave is reflected to a greater or
lesser extent, depending on the degree of propagation velocity
shift. A large change in propagation velocity will result in
nearly total reflection, while a small change in propagation
velocity will result in a partial reflection of the acoustic
wave. Changes in acoustic wave propagation velocity are caused
by transitions between differing materials, or because of a
change in the environmental conditions within a single material.
A related phenomena known as a surface acoustic wave, results
from the entrapment of the wave energy by an extreme shift in
propagation velocity between differing materials. In effect the
boundary between very dissimilar materials acts as a wave guide,
thereby channeling the acoustic wave energy along the surface of
Both cathedral whisper galleries,
and pressure zone microphones (also known as boundary
microphones) make use of the effect. The fault zone between two
plates (1.1.1) is also an excellent acoustic wave guide.
Acoustic energy transformation:
The energy contained in an acoustic wave is the product of both
displacement (length of movement) and pressure (force per unit
area). This relationship is shown in Equation 1.
E = Energy (in Joules).
a = Area (meters squared).
l = Length of displacement (in meters).
F = Force (in Newtons).
P = Pressure in Pascals (Newtons per meter squared).
Eq. 1 Implies that a high pressure
small displacement acoustic wave contains the same energy as a
low pressure large displacement wave.
Consider an acoustic wave with a 1 millimeter displacement,
generated over a 1 meter square area, 5 kilometers below the
surface of earth. The pressure at this depth will be over 100
million Pascals, and therefore this small (1 millimeter)
displacement represents an enormous quantity of energy.
Next consider what happens as this acoustic wave travels upward
to the surface of the planet. At the surface, atmospheric
pressure is approximately 100,000 Pascals. Conservation requires
the energy contained in the wave to be constant. Therefore as
the pressure drops, the displacement must increase.
If the wave remained focused, and
the pressure at a depth of 5 kilometers was exactly 100 million
Pascals, the displacement at the planet surface would be 1
kilometer! The acoustic wave energy would have to be spread over
a surface area of 1 square kilometer to retain a 1 millimeter
displacement. As this example clearly demonstrates, small
displacements within the earth will create very large movements
at the surface of the planet.
The alternant model:
Suppose a one cubic kilometer volume of mineral such as
perovskite undergoes an abrupt chemical phase change, caused by
a small alteration in pressure and/or temperature, thereby
creating a change in volume of just 0.0001%. A volumetric change
of 0.0001% in one cubic kilometer represents a change of 1,000
cubic meters, or approximately 0.17 millimeters of displacement
on all sides of the cubic kilometer volume.
Furthermore, suppose this reaction
takes place at a depth of just 10 kilometers. The pressure at
any depth can be calculated by:
P = Pressure (in Pascals).
g = Acceleration of gravity (in meters per second squared).
M = Mass (in kilograms).
V = Volume of mass (in cubic meters).
d = Depth (in meters).
Using granite, the mass is 2691
kilograms per cubic meter, and earth standard gravity at 9.8
meters per second2, gives a value of 2.637 x 107
Pascals. A displacement of 0.17 millimeters at this pressure,
over a surface area of just 1 square meter represents an energy
(1.1.5 Eq. 1) of 4.48 x 103 Joules per meter2,
and when multiplied by the surface area of our 1 cubic kilometer
of perovskite mineral (6 million meters2) equals a
staggering 2.69 x 1010 Joules, or over two hundred
billion Joules of energy!
Spread this energy over one hundred
square kilometers of planetary surface, and you still have 2,690
Joules of energy per square meter. More than enough energy to
transform a home into a smoking pile rubble...
On May 26, 1998
States patent number 5,757,177 was issued to one David F.
Farnsworth (inventor) located in Forest Grove, Oregon and
assigned to a company called OTW LLC located in Paradise Valley,
Arizona. The seemingly innocuous title of this patent is:
"Infrasonic frequency resonant
circuit and method for use thereof".
However, a careful reading of the
section entitled "Background of the Invention" reveals something
far more intriguing. The following are three direct quotes from
the patent. [Note: ISF = Infrasonic
One emerging, particularly valuable application for
receiving and evaluating ISF signals is to identify
electromagnetic energy produced by tectonic activity which
has been found to precede the occurrence of earthquakes.
Receiving and identifying ISF electromagnetic signals
has been found to be valuable in studying and evaluating
various naturally occurring electromagnetic phenomena, as
well as man made signals.
It has now been recognized by the inventor herein that
ISF electromagnetic energy produced by tectonic activity
preceding earthquakes induces ISF signals on the power line
and that an electric power distribution system, of which a
power line is a part, makes an especially good ISF antenna.
Quote number 3 when coupled with
quote number 2, begs the question:
Receiving OR transmitting
Remember ANY material that produces electro-magnetic
energy under the influence of mechanical deformation, ALSO
produces mechanical deformation under the influence of
The piezoelectric and
electrostriction effects are completely complimentary AND
reversible (1.1.3). In other words, an antenna that will
intercept the electro-magnetic energy preceding an earthquake,
can also be used to transmit electro-magnetic energy, thereby
producing an earthquake.
Furthermore, under the alternant model (1.2.1) if some deeply
buried volume of mineral was at or near the critical
pressure/temperature required for chemical phase change, a
relatively small mechanical shock (deformation of surrounding
material) is all that would be required to trigger a massive
earthquake. By analogy, the transmitted electro-magnetic energy
acts in a manner similar to a blasting cap inserted in a stick
Several of the references cited in this patent are also rather
disturbing. In particular:
1. "The Acoustical Laser",
pre-1994, pp. 9-11.
2. "The Silent Sound that Kills", Science & Mechanics,
Dunning, 1968, pp. 31-33, pp. 75-76.
3. "Silent Sound Can Make You Nervous, Exhausted and
Physically Ill", McCrindell, pre-1994,p.1
A search of Arizona state corporation records shows no company
by the name of "OTW LLC". Obviously the company name listed in
the patent is either ruse, or misspelled. Either way, we are
left with a plethora of unanswered questions.
For instance, if it's possible to
forecast earthquakes, why does the USGS ignore a technology that
could save thousands of lives every year? And why is this patent
entitled "Infrasonic frequency resonant circuit and method for
use thereof"? While accurate in the narrow sense, a far more
descriptive title would be "Method and apparatus for detection
of earthquake precursors".
Diplomacy by other means:
In the post 9-11 environment, American foreign policy has
adopted a new strategy known as the "Bush Doctrine". This
strategy calls for pre-emptive strikes against any nation, group
or individual that threatens American national security
interests. As I write this document (in early December 2004),
several apparently coincidental events weigh heavy in my mind.
Was the massive earthquake in southern Iran, near the city of
Bam a natural occurrence, or was it an example of the Bush
Doctrine in action?
Recently the American government has
expressed it's displeasure with the Japanese and Chinese
governments over their continued technological and financial
involvement with Iran. Both Japan and China have also
experienced a sudden rash of earthquake activity.
something more sinister? Perhaps you should ask
George W. Bush.
ALL information contained herein is derived from public sources
and/or widely accepted scientific principles. The author has NO
written or verbal agreement with ANY governmental agency
forbidding disclosure of the information contained herein.
In disclosing this information, the
author is exercising his right to free speech as a private
citizen of the United States of America.