by Richard Alan Miller, Burt Webb, and Darden
Department of Paraphysics and
Parapsychology, Experimental College
University of Washington
This paper was presented
at the First International Congress of Psychotronics,
Prague, 1973. First printing was in the journal
Psychoenergetic Systems, Vol.1, 1975. 55-62. Gordon &
Breach Science Publishers Ltd., Great Britain. Reprinted
in the book PSYCHOENERGETIC SYSTEMS, S. Krippner,
editor. c1979. 231-237. Gordon & Breach, New York,
London, Paris. Reprinted in the journal Psychedelic
Monographs and Essays, Vol.5, 1992. 93-111. Boynton
Beach, FL Reprint on request
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The organization of any biological
system is established by a complex electrodynamic field which
is, in part, determined by its atomic physiochemical components and
which, in part, determines the behavior and orientation of these
The holographic model of reality
emerging from this principle may provide a scientific explanation of
"The pattern or organization of any
biological system is established by a complex electrodynamic
field, which is in part determined by its atomic physiochemical
components and which in part determines the behavior and
orientation of those components. This field is electrical in the
physical sense, and by its properties it relates the entities of
the biological system in a characteristic pattern and is itself
in part a result of the existence of those entities.
It determines and is determined by
the components. More than establishing pattern it must maintain
pattern in the midst of physiochemical flux; therefore it must
regulate and control living things. It must be the mechanism,
the outcome of whose activity is wholeness, organization and
continuity. The electrodynamic field then, is comparable to the
entelecy of Driesh, the embryonic field of Spehmann, and the
biological field of Weiss."
Burr and Northrop, 1935
Since the dawn of time there have been
two conflicting explanations for the nature and structure of the
world in which we live. Those can be most simply stated as the field
and the particle. These two conflicting ideas appear in Greek
thought, Democritus stressing the field and Heraclitus the particle.
Today, fields are stressed in relativity physics, while particles
are emphasized in quantum mechanics.
Throughout history, many attempts have been made to synthesize the
field and the particle theory. In current physics, those attempts
fall under the name of geometrodynamics (Wheeler, 1959). It is our
intent in this paper to show how a cross synthesis of particle
theory and field theory will shed new light on living processes.
Field theory can be interwoven with particle theory in an attempt to
better understand biological processes.
This effect will enable us to approach
an understanding of life because we can conceptualize all structures
and functions, all levels from the electronic to the super
molecular, as one single unit (Szent-Gyorgyi, 1960:135).
A. Quantum Mechanisms
Particles found in biological
processes include photons, electrons, protons, elementary ions,
inorganic radicals, organic radicals, molecules, and molecular
aggregates. Photons act upon electrons by raising their energy
This process is called excitation.
Excited electrons can drop back to more stable energy levels and
emit photons. Electron excitation can lead to the formation of
an electronic bond between molecules. This is the traditional
bond of classical chemistry. The breaking of such bonds can, by
reverse process, lead to the excitation of electrons.
In living systems the excitation of electrons by photons and the
subsequent conversion of that excitation into the bond energy is
called photosynthesis and is the basic builder of biological
structures. The reversal of this process is called
bioluminescence. This phenomenon is the transfer of energy from
a bond to an excited electron, resulting in the emission of a
photon. It has been suggested by Szent-Gyorgyi (1957: 8) that
the energetics of living creatures can be understood in terms of
photosynthesis and its reversal, bioluminescence.
All cellular processes are driven by energy derived from the
breaking of chemical bonds and the excitation of electrons.
Depending upon the particular environment and circumstances, the
excitation of the electron can be converted in one of three
conversion into heat and
translation of molecules or
ions through the cell
transformation of the
molecules' shapes which profoundly influences their
The formation of a certain type of
chemical bond known as the resonance bond (which is most easily
seen in the case of the Benzene molecule) leads to a peculiar
situation in which certain electrons are freed from a local or
particular location in the molecule.
These are then free to travel around
the entire molecule. This means that the electrons occupy an
energy shell of the whole molecule as opposed to any particular
atom in the molecule. The existence of molecular systems with
mobile electrons has been found to be of profound significance
in the phenomena of life.
Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which
compose 99 percent
of all living systems, are among the atoms in the periodic table
which form the multiple bonds most easily leading to mobile
electrons. Sulphur and phosphorus, which are extremely important
for life processes, also form such multiple bonds quite easily.
All the essential biochemical substances, which perform the
fundamental functions of living matter, are composed completely
or partially of such mobile electrons. Molecules which contain
these electrons are known as conjugated systems (Pullman and
Pullman, 1963, chapter 18). The essential fluidity of life may
correspond with the fluidity of the electronic cloud in
conjugated molecules. Such systems may best be considered as
both the cradle and the main backbone of life.
Conjugate bonded molecules may interact in a variety of ways.
Among these types of interaction can be found the
interpenetration of electron orbitals which permits an
electromagnetic coupling. This coupling can permit activated
electron energy to pass from one molecule to another in the same
way a radio can transmit a message to a radio receiver.
There is also the possibility of the
transfer of an entire electron which is known as charge
It is possible for a molecular complex to contain several
radicals at different positions on the main molecule, each of
which are conjugated. If these are in close enough proximity, or
can be brought into proximity by changes in the structural
configuration of the molecule, a charge can pass between these
This is the case of the transfer of electron charges
on or around a single molecular complex. It has been suggested
by Szent-Gyorgyi (1968) that the sugars and phosphates that make
up the side of the alpha helix of DNA can permit the passage of
electrons, functioning as a conductor.
The biological conduction systems operate primarily on an
amorphous semiconductor mode as opposed to resembling metallic
conductors (such as the new devices being developed for computer
These do not have sharply defined
energy bands in which electrons may flow, as opposed to other
bands in which they are bound rigidly. There is a spread or
bell-curve in which the points or tails are bound more closely
to a particular molecule. The hump indicates a conducting band
that permits electrons to flow across the surface of a
particular molecule or between molecules (McGinness, 1972).
This means, in essence, that protein molecules which are
composed of amino acid sequences, may act as organic circuits.
The amino acids each have a donor group and an acceptor group on
opposing ends. This means that a string or series of amino acids
could pass a charge along as if it were being passed along a
series of spines sticking up from the main body of the molecule.
Different pathways could be defined across the surface of a
protein molecule by the amino acid radicals projecting out from
the surface of the protein. The shape of the protein molecules
is a function of the charges and the conjugate systems on the
radicals that make up the protein. When a protein is
manufactured and peels off the ribosome, it immediately assumes
a three-dimensional spatial pattern that is directly related to
the charges on its surface and the ways in which they interact.
The biological activity or specificity of action of various
molecules is intimately related to their structure or their
exact three-dimensional spatial configuration. Electronic energy
and electrons can move through a protein molecule between its
different parts and can pass among different molecules. We now
come to understand a possible mechanism for biological
regulation involving flows of electrons and transfer of
electronic energy between molecules.
These can change their shape and
thereby change their specific action and activity. The fusion of
electron clouds can exist within a conjugated system and among
conjugated systems. This can account for cohesion or the
adherence of such molecules to each other.
Such fusion is a very important
determinate of the structure of larger aggregates of molecules
and portions of living cells, such as membranes.
A liquid crystal in a cell
through its own structure becomes a proto-organ for mechanical
and electrical activity, and when associated in specialized
cells in higher animals gives rise to true organs such as
muscles and nerves. The oriented molecules in liquid crystals
furnish an ideal medium for catalytic action, particularly of
the complex type needed to account for growth and reproduction.
A liquid crystal has the possibility
of its own structure through singular lines, rods and cones,
etc. Such structures belong to the liquid crystal as a unit and
not to its molecules which may be replaced by others without
destroying them, and they persist in spite of the complete
fluidity of the substance (Needham, 1936).
Bernal's statement (1933) would seen to support Burr and
Northrop's macro-atomic theory (1935), which postulates that
there are two aspects to reality, the field and the particle.
They associate the field with what they term the macroscopic
aspect and the electron with the particle. They associate the
field with what they term the macroscopic aspect and the
electron with the particle. The particle is associated with
The structure of biological material
seems to be associated with the field aspect. The electric field
causes polarization of the macromolecules in the solution due to
the fact that molecules possess a dipole moment, and changes the
position of protons in the molecule.
Such action can affect the relative
stability of different possible configurations of the
macromolecules. The field affects the degree of structure
present in the solution.
A constant magnetic field can, in principle, affect the various
processes in biological objects. Three possible mechanisms for
this biomagnetic affect are,
the orientation of
diamagnetic or paramagnetic molecules by the magnetic
distortions of the angles in
orientation of the spins of
molecules in a magnetic field
(Fowler and Bernal, 1933;
Freedericksz and Zolina, 1933; Van Iterson, 1933;
Osborne, Ambrose and Stuart, 1970).
Presman (1970) has postulated that
such electromagnetic fields normally serve as conveyors of
information, from the environment to the organism, within the
organism, and among organisms.
He suggests that organisms employ
these fields in conjunction with the well known sensory,
nervous, and endocrine systems, in effecting coordination and
Becker (1972) has stated that it is already established that
electromagnetic forces can be used to change three fundamental life
processes in mammals. These processes are:
the stimulation of bone-growth
the stimulation of partial
multi-tissue regenerative growth
the influence on the basic level
of nerve activity and function.
All these affects appear to be mediated
through perturbations in naturally pre-existing bioelectronic
systems. The organism's bioelectronic system also seems to be
related to levels of consciousness and to biological cycles (Ravitz,
Experimental evidence indicates that part of the environment of
living organisms consists of a complex four-dimensional, space-time,
field pattern, that the organism responds to and requires for a
healthy existence (Brown, 1971).
Research carried out with organisms
in fields lower than the normal magnetic field strength of the earth
inevitably results in deterioration and death of the organisms
involved (Purrett, 1971).
Recent research indicates that an organism utilizes its sensitivity
to cope with the complex electromagnetic and gravitational fields in
This process serves to calibrate its
internal biological rhythms with external factors such as
the rotation of the earth
variations in the earth's
the transit of the moon around
the influences of the sun (e.g.,
short term field variations, yearly seasonal changes, sun
spot cycles occurring every 11 years)
Changes in these various external
systems influence the organism profoundly (Burr, 1972; Garrison,
1971). Correlations have been drawn between collapse and reversal of
the earth's magnetic field and extinction of various species (Purrett,
The complex field pattern also carries other information to living
creatures. Fluctuations of the field patterns reflect the presence,
location and other characteristics of different physical and
biological phenomena in the environment (e.g., other creatures,
physical objects). Alterations in electomagnetic parameters in the
environment can be related to such physical phenomena as
conductivity, permeability, and space and surface charges. Organisms
themselves contribute to the environment by virtue of the end
products of their various physiological processes. These may alter
the environmental electrical and magnetic properties.
Weather systems also have electrical and magnetic correlates (Brown,
One can see a very positive contact or
connection between electromagnetic phenomena associated with weather
and the behavior and health of organisms. A more advanced theory
would connect weather changes and changes in the physical
environment to behavior and biological products attributable to
More precisely stated not only does
weather in a variety of ways profoundly influence living creatures,
but also it is possible that living creatures can influence weather.
Moving from a consideration of various mechanisms and influences of
electromagnetic field phenomena upon living creatures, a more
intimate role for electromagnetic fields in life phenomena will be
examined. The first phenomenon that shall be considered is the
relationship between electrodynamics and development.
It is a current hypothesis that the electrical fields associated
with a cell are intimately related to processes that have to do with
structure and motion in the cell.
The first such influence or effect would
be that of providing a directive force in the laying down of
substances in the growth of the creature. In dealing with
extra-cellular electric fields, such fields most probably correlate
the growth activities among cells, and thus determine the origin and
orientation of symmetrical axes for the cell groups and the entire
organism (Lund, 1945, chapter 6).
The next area for consideration has to do with regeneration of
damaged tissue. Recent research has shown that electrical current in
living tissue can serve to precipitate regeneration and growth of
new tissue (Becker, 1972).
This mechanism apparently operates by
causing the cells at the site of the injury that are still alive, to
dedifferentiate back into cells resembling embryonic cells and
thereby to divide and grow. This new growth is guided to repair the
damage and ceases when the damage has been repaired and the creature
is again intact.
From the very beginning, the electromagnetic field provides a
sustaining and directing matrix for the cells and the biological
substances in the creature. There is evidence that all creatures
possessing a central nervous system have a direct current system
that displays a field pattern expressing the anatomical arrangement
of the central nervous system itself.
It has been suggested that this DC
system serves as a primitive data transmitting and control system
which regulated the ability of the central nervous system to process
data by a more sophisticated and neural transmission (Becker, 1963).
Consciousness may be seen as a frame of electrical charges in motion
such as electrons bombarding a television screen; personality is a
time series of these scintillating frames of consciousness.
Personality becomes a reverberating input-output pattern of self
creation seeking information or patterns of energy from the
environment as well as from its own memories. The personality never
recreates itself but creates only a close approximation which is
accepted due to the principle of constancy as being the same.
The phenomena of unique individuality and personal continuity depend
on memory. Consciousness involves the most recent memory and thereby
the most subject to erasure and loosening. Personality
transformation becomes energy pattern modification of not only
scintillating consciousness but also of recent circulating memories
and older stored memories.
Thus consciousness can be conceptualized as an electronic phenomena
occurring in the brain that involves both dynamic charges in motion
and also stored structure (Tien, 1969). Referring to the mechanisms
mentioned earlier, a very close connection between electronic
activity and structure can be seen. A good deal of work on human
psychological processes indicate that human beings are extremely
sensitive to the various electromagnetic events in their
Daily variations are related to the rotation of the earth.
Correlation has been found between deviant human behavior and
alterations in consciousness to cycles of the moon. Work has been
done on the correlation of deviant behavior in schizophrenia and sun
spot activity (Becker, 1963).
All these various factors indicate that
human consciousness is modulated by electromagnetic events in the
Mechanisms of molecular influence, influences of field phenomena on
whole organisms, and various factors relating to human consciousness
shed interesting light on ancient metaphysical systems having to do
with psychophysiological regeneration. We suggest that the conscious
experience of various profound electromagnetic events in our
terrestrial environment can have a salutary affect on the health of
When human beings consciously
experiences a sunrise or sunset, a new moon or full moon, the
equinoxes and solstices, as well as the points of maximal and
minimal sun spot activity, a calibrating effect results which
involves their various biological rhythmic systems.
It has been shown that stress can uncouple synchronized and
harmonious biological rhythms resulting in pathological conditions
for the organisms (Burr and Northrop, 1935). We are proposing that
these biological systems can be resynchronized and recalibrated
through conscious effort. The proposed mechanism for this influence
has to do with the indicated coupling of these various external
events to biological processes.
The amplifying effect of consciousness has also been seen to be
relatable to the various electromagnetic occurrences in the brain.
At a deeper level of analysis, it can be suggested that the field
phenomena which we have been studying and working with are in fact
more real, if that term can be used, than the particulate matter and
various objects of which we have been speaking (Wheeler, 1959).
Briefly stated, the fields and particles may be themselves composed
of empty curved space, trapping lines of electromagnetic force. This
is the holographic concept of reality. The structural configurations
themselves or the geometry of the fields and the particles are more
fundamental than either the fields or the particles themselves.
We suggest that an epistemology based upon the concept of a human
being as a material object composed of particulate substances in
various configurations and patterns would be erroneous. Human beings
are better seen as on-going, dynamic, shifting, changing, field
entities (or field patterns) that serve as a matrix for the
flow-through of biological substances and various simple chemicals.
This proposal has profound significance for human behavior,
extending from the actions of the individual and personal ethics all
the way to the actions of sociological aggregate systems such as
nations and multi-national groups. We feel that many of the problems
of society that are current today can be traced to our ignorance of,
or refusal to embrace, this larger holographic electrodynamic
reality in which we live.
Furthermore, this knowledge is not new. It is the main core of the
message of the social reformers throughout history.
It is also discussed, in other terms, by
many individuals who characteristically experience
phenomena (e.g., psychokinesis, clairvoyance, telepathy,
As postulated by Northrop and
Burr (1935), the pattern or organization of any biological
system is established by a complex electrodynamic field
which is in part determined by its atomic physiochemical
components and which in part determines the behavior and
orientation of those components.
Presman (1970) has postulated
that such electromagnetic fields normally serve as conveyors
of information from the environment to the organism, within
the organism, and among organisms. He has postulated that in
the course of evolution, organisms have come to use these
fields in conjunction with the well-known sensory, nervous,
and endocrine systems in effecting coordination and
Szent-Gyorgyi (1957, 1960) has
theorized that cells and other biological components might
have various electronic solid-state physical properties such
as semi-conductors. He suggests that the use of quantum
electrodynamics is necessary in order to understand
biological processes which regulate the vital activity of
Becker (1963) has maintained
that it is already established that electromagnetic forces
can be used to change three fundamental life processes in
mammals. Those processes are the stimulation of bone growth,
the stimulation of partial multi-tissue regenerative growth,
and the influence on the basic level of nerve activity and
function. All of these effects appear to be mediated through
perturbations in naturally pre-existing electronic control
systems. The neural electronic system also seems to be
related to levels of consciousness and biological cycles,
and we have developed the thesis that this system furnishes
the linkage mechanism between electromagnetic forces in the
environment and biological cyclic behavior.
McGinness (1972) reported that
melanins are excellent electron acceptors and have
semi-conductor properties which appear to be important in
midbrain structures. Melanins are known to act as an
ultraviolet sun screen, but research indicates that they
also have a fundamental biological role. McGinness (1972)
has proposed that melanins may de-excite certain biological
molecules by converting electronic energy to heat. An
analysis of data on melanins suggests that the electronic
properties of melanins can best be explained in terms of a
band model for semi-conduction in amorphous materials, which
may also explain the behavior of proteins, and other
biological macromolecules such as RNA and DNA. In amorphous
materials, there is an essentially Gaussian density of
electron energy states.
Muses (1970) has proposed the
possibility of unit impulse functions evolving from the
Gaussian. His work traces the relation of that mathematical
concept to quantum biological indeterminacy in terms of a
process of the modulation of random fluctuations by
target-seeking perturbations which points the way to the
understanding and computing of the parameters of volitional
experience in quantum biological terms.
He maintains that we
are dealing with Gaussian wave packets, put to use in terms
of a close-range reaction in turn resulting in the resonant
microbiological specificity (arising from the relatively
large number of specific molecular parameters) necessary to
the essential life and evolutional processes of chromosome
synapses, replication, and mutagenesis.
Muses holds that inherently indeterminate processes may be
biologically used in achieving determinate ones such as our
repeatable and commonly accepted volitional experiences of
effort and direction. The range of quantum indeterminate
fluctuation of biological efficacy is in the far
ultraviolet, and it is in this spectral region that we
should expect to look for any modulation effects on Gaussian
wave packets by volitional energies manifesting as
ultramicrobiological field perturbations.
Biologically, there is a threshold of non-randomicity below
which peaks tend to emerge that are sharp enough to possess
biodirectiveness in an enzyme-guiding sense. Random
biological quantum energies which are physiologically
unassigned are the clue to psychosomatic directing, which
can be beneficial or deleterious to the organism. Muses
(1970) describes the mechanism of this effect as a
microbiolaser type process.
Heisenberg explored the possible
relevance of the quantum indeterminacy of elementary
particles for biological systems, especially human systems
(discussed in Koestler, 1972). He stated that there are two
places in the human system where the quantum indeterminacy
of a single particle can have a profound influence. The
first important effect is that of mutation in the genetic
code. The second important influence is the alteration of
the behavior of neurons during human thought processes.
Tien (1969) has conceptualized
mind as mass in relative motion and brain as energy at
relative electrical charges in motion, like electrons
bombarding a television screen, and personality is seen as a
time series of scintillating frames of consciousness.
Personality becomes a reverberating input-output pattern of
self-creation, seeking information or patterns of energy
from the environment as well as from its own memories. The
stability of any given personality of its identity, which is
maintained by feedback upon the principle of most
The personality never recreates itself, but creates only a
close approximation which is accepted due to the principle
of constancy as being the same. The phenomena of unique
individuality and personal continuity depend on memory, of
which consciousness is the most recent and, thereby, the
most subject to erasure and loosening. Personality
transformation becomes energy pattern modification of not
only scintillating consciousness but also of recent
circulating memories and older stored memories of childhood.
According to the holographic model of reality, all the
objects we can observe are three-dimensional images formed
of standing and moving waves by electromagnetic and nuclear
processes. All the objects of our world are
three-dimensional images formed electro-magnetically, i.e.,
This concept and the models of human information processing
based on the hologram, throw interesting light on the
philosophical tradition which holds that the world of
objects is an illusion. With the triumph of relativity and
quantum physics, the interpenetration of the philosophical
and the scientific is possible.
LeShan (1969) has observed, in
discussing some individuals who purportedly experience
psycho-energetic phenomena, that their view of the universe
as a great thought of which they are a part is quite similar
to many physicists' view that they see reality only in their
own mental image.
We propose that the "reality hologram"
which appears as a stable world of material objects is the
elementary particle which has a long-term existence and fairly
simple rules of interaction. We also propose the existence of a "biohologram"
which appears as mobile and evolving, through the DNA molecule.
This "biohologram" projects a dynamic
three-dimensional image that serves as a guiding matrix for the
manipulation and organization of the "reality hologram."
Thus we have mobile self-organizing holograms moving through a
relatively static simpler hologram. The possibility exists that such
"bioholograms" could achieve sufficient coherence to continue
existence as a pattern of radiant energy apart from a material
We feel that such an occurrence could
form the scientific basis of such psychoenergetic phenomena as:
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