by James Maxlow, PhD
Extracted from Nexus Magazine
Volume 13, Number 1
(December 2005 - January 2006)
Geologist Dr James
Maxlow presents an update of his research into our
expanding Earth, refuting the popularly held theory of
In NEXUS vol. 7, no. 6 (2000), and again in NEXUS vol. 8, no. 3
(2001), I introduced readers to the concept of an expanding Earth,
whereby the Earth has been steadily increasing its radius, and hence
its surface area, since the beginning of geological time some 4,600
million years ago.
My new book, outlining in detail the concept of an expanding Earth,
Terra Non Firma - Earth
(Plate Tectonics is a Myth).
In this book, I have simply treated our Earth as just another
cosmological entity, an insignificant microdot amongst many, amidst
an unimaginably vast Universe. I then looked at modern geological,
geophysical and geographical evidence to see not only what has
happened to our Earth since its formation, but also to see if
science has in fact got the interpretation of this evidence all
To me, this evidence shows that the concept of an expanding
Earth is uniquely viable and represents a demonstrable global
tectonic process. Similarly all geological, geophysical and
geographical information, when displayed on models of an expanding
Earth, substantiates an Archaean to future Earth-expansion process
and far better explains this readily available physical phenomenon.
By far the single most important contribution to modern scientific
understanding of the concept of global tectonics, and Earth
expansion in particular, has been the completion of geological
mapping and age-dating of all the continental and ocean-floor
crusts. This mapping was not available to early researchers prior to
the late 1980s, and has since been significantly under-utilized in
plate tectonic studies.
In contrast to plate tectonic studies, this mapping has enabled the
assemblage of all crustal plates to be accurately constrained on
models of an expanding Earth, and for the first time has enabled
modeling studies to be extended back to the earliest Archaean era.
It has also provided a means to define Earth expansion
mathematically, and a means to investigate an Earth expansion
process mathematically throughout Earth history.
What this mapping shows is that the post-Triassic oceanic geology in
particular (ocean crusts younger than about 165 million years ago)
can be used to constrain latitudinally and longitudinally and
assemble crustal plates on a smaller-radius Earth.
these crustal plates on models of an expanding Earth consistently
show that each plate assembles with a single unique fit, with all
plates assembling with a very high degree of accuracy along each of
the mid-ocean-rift zones.
If these oceanic plate reconstructions were mere coincidence, then
we should expect that the oceanic mapping, as well as evidence from
adjoining continents, would not match across plate boundaries on
models of an expanding Earth. The evidence, in fact, shows us that
oceanic mapping does match across these plate boundaries, that all
continental sedimentary basins do merge to form a global network of
continental seas, that orogenic and fold mountain belts do coincide,
and that ancient crustal regions do assemble together exactly.
This assemblage of oceanic crustal plates is shown to extend back to
the Triassic period (200 million years ago), and demonstrates the
viability and uniqueness of a post-Triassic Earth expansion process.
This contrasts strongly with plate tectonics reconstructions for the
same time interval, where assemblage of crustal plates is based on magnetic evidence preserved in crustal rocks and constrained by
latitude only. Here, complex apparent-polar-wander paths are used to
generate random, arbitrary, amalgamation-dispersal-amalgamation
plate motion cycles on a constant-radius Earth.
The unique Earth expansion assemblage also contrasts strongly with
the plate tectonics requirement to fragment continents arbitrarily
in order to comply with the oceanic mapping data. It also contrasts
with the requirement to dispose of huge areas of inferred
pre-existing crust beneath subduction zones in order to maintain a
constant surface area.
The utilization of continental crustal geology to constrain a
pre-Triassic expanding Earth crustal assemblage (continental crusts
older than 165 million years ago) has never been done before.
expanding-Earth researchers were limited simply to removing the
oceans and visually fitting the remaining continents together on a
smaller-radius Earth, and, as previously mentioned, plate tectonics
researchers are constrained primarily by magnetic requirements, not
What can be seen from the expanding Earth models
presented in the Terra Non Firma Earth book is that all continental
crust unites precisely to form a single pan-global crust during the
Early Permian period and the bulk of the atmosphere and hydrosphere
is returned to the mantle.
During this time, continental sedimentary
basins merge to form a global network coinciding with continental
seas, and ancient continents and seas are defined by the variation
in coastal outlines during Earth history.
When we progressively return these sedimentary basins to their
pre-extension, pre-rift or pre-orogenic configuration on pre-Permian
models of an expanding Earth (continental crust older than 250
million years), we see that the remaining crustal fragments making
up our continents retain a unique spatial assemblage throughout
This unique spatial assemblage is maintained
throughout the long history of Precambrian (older than 560 million
years ago) and Palaeozoic (crust aged between 560 to 200 million
years ago) crustal extension, prior to crustal rupture during the
Late Palaeozoic era, followed by continental break-up and dispersal
of the modern continents during opening of the modern oceans.
Again, this unique assemblage of all crustal fragments on models of
an expanding Earth demonstrates that Earth expansion, extending back
to the beginning of the Earth's geological past, is again viable.
What these Archaean (crust older than 2,500 million years) to
present-day models demonstrate is that, rather than being a random,
arbitrary, amalgamation-dispersal-amalgamation crust-forming process
(as we are currently led to believe), crustal development on an
expanding Earth is instead a simple, evolving and predictable
It is significant to reiterate that on models of an expanding Earth,
each of the established Precambrian and Palaeozoic crustal
assemblages merge together to form a global network of sedimentary
basins on a common pan-global crust. The mergence of each of these
crustal settings shows us that global crust-forming processes - such
as sedimentary basin extension, crust mobility, orogenesis, mountain
building, distribution of metals, and so on - all correlate precisely
with the overall development of the crust.
In my book, I show that the global network of sedimentary basins
from each of the continents also unites to form a global network of
crustal weakness, operating throughout the Precambrian and
Palaeozoic eras. It is within this network of global crustal
weakness that crustal extension - generated during ongoing Earth
expansion - is focused, as well as ongoing crustal mobility,
mantle-derived heat flow, magmatic activity, crustal rupture,
continental break-up and the eventual opening of each of the modern
On my expanding Earth models, this break-up of the ancient
continental crust results in a disruption of the established polar
ice-caps, a disruption of the ancient continental seas, changes to
sea levels and a disruption of established climatic zones. These
disruptive changes in turn affect plant and animal species' habitats
and drive the evolution of these species, their long-term decline or
their periodic extinction.
I also show that when imposed constant Earth surface area and
constant Earth radius premises are removed from geophysical
observations, these same geophysical observations, when applied to
models of an expanding Earth, demonstrate that the data are
consistent with an expanding Earth.
Similarly, geographical and biogeographical information, when applied to expanding Earth models,
aptly quantifies crustal development on an expanding Earth and
quantifies the locations of the ancient magnetic poles and equators
determined from the unconstrained geophysical data.
The application of ancient magnetic measurements to models of an
expanding Earth shows us that all ancient magnetic poles cluster as
diametrically opposed north and south poles on each model
constructed. This diametrically opposed clustering of poles is
impossible on conventional plate tectonics reconstructions, where
pole data are instead used to generate complex apparent-polar-wander
paths. When used to determine an ancient Earth radius, this same
magnetic evidence, traditionally used to negate Earth expansion, in
fact confirms Earth expansion.
An interrogation of published space-based geodetic solutions to the
Earth's geodetic network, while shown to be non-conclusive, also
suggests that raw observational satellite data are being routinely
constrained to a static-radius Earth, thus precluding their
relevance to Earth expansion.
While published geodetic measurements are routinely quoted to sub-centimeter
accuracy, large unexplained fluctuations in Earth radius for most
observation sites throughout the world tell us that mathematical
solutions to the present Earth radius are not as sufficiently well
constrained for use in vertical plate motion studies as they are for
For horizontal plate motion studies, published
results for current-day horizontal motion of the major plates are
shown to be close to the million-year average-motion vectors
determined from oceanic mapping.
This conclusion is consistent with
Earth expansion, and in fact forms the basis for model construction.
Seas and Supercontinents
When I plotted the published coastal geography on expanding Earth
models, I saw that the large, ancient Panthallassa, Tethys and
Iapetus oceans of plate tectonics are not present on a
smaller-radius expanding Earth.
Instead, this same coastal geography
defines the presence of more restricted continental Panthallassa,
Iapetus and Tethys seas, which, on an expanding Earth, represent
precursors to the modern Pacific and Atlantic oceans and the
emergent Eurasian continent.
From this coastal geography, the emergent land surfaces on models of
an expanding Earth equate to Rodinia, Gondwana and Pangaea - the
assemblages of supercontinents and smaller sub-continents of plate
tectonics theory. Instead of fragments of these ancient continents
randomly colliding, breaking up and dispersing to reassemble
arbitrarily as new supercontinents, the coastal geography on the
expanding Earth models demonstrates an evolutionary development of
each of the ancient continents throughout Earth history.
On each expanding Earth model, this evolutionary development of the
ancient supercontinents is found to be intimately related to changes
in sea level, with no requirement for random continental assemblage
or crustal break-up.
What the coastal geography shows is that the
outlines of emergent supercontinents are intimately related to
changes in the outlines of continental sedimentary basins, to
changes incurred during crustal mobility, to climate changes, and to
changes in sea levels as the modern oceans developed and rapidly
opened to the present day.
Distribution of Species and Minerals
When examples of faunal and floral species are plotted on expanding
Earth models, the distributions illustrate the ease and
simplification of migration and species development.
cosmopolitan and provincial distributions and inter-relationships
are maintained without the need for complex plate tectonic
continental assemblage-dispersal requirements. This contrasts
strongly with plate tectonics reconstructions, where assemblages and
movements of the continents do not correspond to the known or
necessary migration routes required by the established species
During continental break-up and opening of the modern oceans on an
expanding Earth, the traditional migration routes of the various
species are then shown to be disrupted, enabling species endemic to
the various regions to interact and extend their boundaries with
time. The timing of species development is then shown to be
reflected intimately in the changes to sea level and the opening of
the modern oceans. This timing either facilitated species migration
by extending and expanding on existing migration routes or caused
species extinction because of failure to adapt to the changing
The distribution of climate-dependent rocks (such as limestone, coal
and glacial rocks) as well as biotic species shows that these rocks
and species coincide precisely with the climatic zones expected on
an expanding Earth.
Each of these climatic indicators also displays
a distinct latitudinal zonation, paralleling the ancient equator,
and a distinct northward shift in climatic zonation, suggesting that
an inclined Earth rotational axis - inclined to the pole of the
ecliptic - was well established during the Palaeozoic era and has
persisted to the present day.
The distribution of metals and petroleum products on an expanding
Earth also shows global clustering into distinct provinces, and the
timing of formation coincides with well-established global tectonic
events. The recognition of these ancient metal and petroleum
provinces on the present Earth is shown in the book to enable
mineral search and genetic relationships to be extended beyond their
The distribution of metal deposits and the nature
and styles of mineralization in time and space also suggest that
there has been an evolutionary trend in the concentration of metals
as well as in the diversity of the various types of mineral and
Model for Earth Expansion
To round off the investigation into the concept of an expanding
Earth, I was then compelled at least to speculate on a causal model
for Earth expansion.
It is emphasized that, while speculative, this
does not in any way detract from the vast amount of empirical global
geological, geophysical and geographical evidence presented in the
book to support Earth expansion.
It is an unfortunate human trait that requires us instinctively to
want to know or at least comprehend the cause well before the
evidence, which far too often blinds us from fully understanding the
physical evidence available to us. This is equally true for Earth
expansion as it originally was for plate tectonics, where for a long
time plate tectonics was rejected by science because of a lack of a
suitable cause for crustal or plate motion.
The proposed causal model for Earth expansion presented in my book
involves the generation of and an increase in mass within the core.
This new matter accumulates at the core-mantle interface and the
increase in volume results in a swelling of the mantle. Mantle swell
is then transferred to the outer crust as continental crustal
extension and also extension along the mid-ocean-rift zones.
matter-generation process is considered ultimately to result in a
decay of the matter-formation process within the core and cessation
of expansion with time.
So, what does the Earth really have to say?
The evidence presented
in my book tells us that an expanding Earth is indeed a viable and
demonstrable global tectonic process. At no stage was any
fundamental physical law, apart from human comprehension, violated
during this investigation. I simply removed what was not previously
there (young crustal rocks), to end up with a primitive Earth
comprising an assemblage of equally primitive crustal components.
then simply displayed published physical evidence on the expanding
Earth models created, and all of this evidence was shown to
complement each other and substantiate an Earth expansion process.
While this evidence is compelling, it certainly makes me wonder why
we continue to allow modern science to constrain our thinking to a
static-radius Earth model.
As I show in my book, the physical data
suggest that the static-radius Earth of plate tectonics is a myth
and that our Earth is, in reality, a terra non firma expanding
More related information:
The Earth Is Growing and Expanding Rapidly