by D.M. Murdock/Acharya S
Excerpted from the ebook
11 May 2009
"The result of the Church's
encounter with the sun-cults of antiquity was nothing
less than the dethronement of Helios."
Dr. Hugo Rahner
Greek Myths and Christian
In my books and articles, I present the
evidence that many aspects of the gospel story about Jesus Christ,
and of Christian tradition in general, represent motifs from older
astrotheology and solar mythology, specifically reflecting legends
and myths regarding the sun gods of antiquity.
There remains much confusion concerning
this subject, including erroneous claims that this equation of Jesus
with the sun only started to be expressed during the 19th century.
This contention that connecting Jesus to the sun constitutes a
"modern" phenomenon is easily demonstrated to be false, through the
study of ancient texts, including the Bible and works of the early
Church fathers, as well as Christian traditions, rituals,
architecture and artifacts.
From a wide variety of sources, it is
clear that associating, identifying and equating Christ with the sun
began in ancient times and has continued abundantly over the many
centuries since then.
The exploration of Christ as a solar
figure includes a study of ancient sun worship not only in the Pagan
world but also in Israel, as exhibited by the solar nature of
Jesus’s purported Father, the Israelite god
Demonstrating the copious substantiation
for Israelite sun worship, especially as concerns the main Jewish
god, in Yahweh and the Sun - Biblical and Archaeological Evidence
for Sun Worship in Ancient Israel, Rev. Dr. J. Glen Taylor,
a theologian and professor of Old Testament and Biblical
Proclamation at Wycliffe College, remarks:
This book is a slightly revised
version of my doctoral dissertation entitled "Solar Worship in
the Biblical World" which was submitted to the Graduate School
of Yale University in the Spring of 1989.
As may be judged from
the title of that work, I had at one time planned to cover more
territory than sun worship in ancient Israel, but found the
material pertaining to ancient Israel so vast that I never got
The description of
Yahweh and the Sun
"This challenging provocative book
argues that there was in ancient Israel a considerable degree of
overlap between the worship of the sun and of Yahweh - even that
Yahweh was worshipped as the sun in some contexts."
As Rev. Dr. Taylor further says:
"Probably the most provocative issue
related to the nature of sun worship in ancient Israel...is the
specific claim that Yahweh was identified with the sun."
In his tome, Taylor discusses Yahweh as
a sun god - terming this adulation "solar Yahwism" - as reflected in
the sun worship by Israelites described in the biblical texts of
Deuteronomy, the Prophets, Job and the Psalms.
He also addresses linguistic evidence as
well as various archaeological finds that reveal Israelite sun
worship, including artifacts such sun disks and temple/shrine
In the present analysis of Judeo-Christian astrotheological
underpinnings, let us start therefore with the Old Testament, in
which God is depicted as the creator of and power behind the sun,
thus making the solar orb an expression of the Lord's divinity - a
notion that was not lost on the Israelitish peoples.
In the book of Job, traditionally considered one of the oldest texts
in the Bible, we find God reiterated as the power behind the sun, as
at 9:7, which refers to him,
"who commands the sun, and it does
not rise; who seals up the stars..."
Job contains other astronomical,
astrological or astrotheological knowledge, as in the discussion of
the "Mazzaroth" or Zodiac at 38:22:
Can you lead forth the Maz'zaroth in
their season, or can you guide the Bear with its children?
Strong's Concordance (H4216) defines
mazzaroth or mazzarah as,
"the 12 signs of the Zodiac and
their 36 associated constellations."
The "Bear with its children" refers to
the constellation of Arcturus or Ursa Major and the three stars in
its tail. (McClintock, 381)
With such a sacred origin and with the pervasiveness of the
astrotheological religion of their neighbors, Israelite sun
worshipping understandably became prevalent, so much so that the
biblical writers proscribe it on several occasions, such as at
And beware lest you lift up your
eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun and the moon and the
stars, all the host of heaven, you be drawn away and worship
them and serve them, things which the LORD your God has allotted
to all the peoples under the whole heaven.
Yet, these celestial bodies possess
divine origins, as it is God who has,
"allotted to all peoples" the "host
of heaven," including "the sun and the moon and the stars."
At Deuteronomy 17:2-3, we read further
about Israelites "whoring after" sun worship and astrotheology:
"If there is found among you, within
any of your towns which the LORD your God gives you, a man or
woman who does what is evil in the sight of the LORD your God,
in transgressing his covenant, and has gone and served other
gods and worshiped them, or the sun or the moon or any of the
host of heaven, which I have forbidden..."
The Israelites, however, cannot stop
their sun worshipping, which is engaged in even by the kings and
priests, and which must be suppressed, as at 2 Kings 23:5:
And he deposed the idolatrous
priests whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in
the high places at the cities of Judah and round about
Jerusalem; those also who burned incense to Ba'al, to the sun,
and the moon, and the constellations, and all the host of the
The continual Israelite/Hebrew/Jewish
sun worship is logical, when we read at Psalms 84:11:
"For the Lord God is a sun and
The Israelite reverence of the sun was
so intense that by Jeremiah's era (c. 625-565 BCE), the Jewish
kings, princes, prophets and general inhabitants of Jerusalem
continued to be portrayed as loving, serving and worshipping the
host of heaven, including the sun and moon:
At that time, says the LORD, the
bones of the kings of Judah, the bones of its princes, the bones
of the priests, the bones of the prophets, and the bones of the
inhabitants of Jerusalem shall be brought out of their tombs;
And they shall spread them before
the sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, whom they
have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have
walked, and whom they have sought, and whom they have
worshipped: they shall not be gathered, nor be buried; they
shall be for dung upon the face of the earth.
Despite this apparent desecration of
Jewish bones evidently because of astrotheological practices,
Ezekiel (c. 586 BCE) relating that the Israelites / Hebrews / Jews
continued to worship the sun, as at 8:16:
And he brought me into the inner
court of the house of the LORD; and behold, at the door of the
temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about
twenty-five men, with their backs to the temple of the LORD, and
their faces toward the east, worshiping the sun toward the east.
In this scripture, it is not just the
common people but the very priests themselves who are engaging in
As concerns the prevalence of solar Yahwism in ancient Israel, Dr.
J. Glen Taylor concludes:
Several lines of evidence, both
archaeological and biblical, bear witness to a close
relationship between Yahweh and the sun. The nature of that
association is such that often a "solar" character was presumed
Indeed, at many points the sun
actually represented Yahweh as a kind of "icon."
Thus, in at least the vast majority
of cases, biblical passages which refer to sun worship in Israel
do not refer to a foreign phenomenon borrowed by idolatrous
Israelites, but to a Yahwistic phenomenon which Deuteronomistic
theology came to look upon as idolatrous... an association
between Yahweh and the sun was not limited to one or two obscure
contexts, but was remarkably well integrated into the religion
of ancient Israel.
Hence, the sun was worshipped by the
Israelites, who associated it with their tribal god Yahweh.
Like Father, like son, and the
connection between Jesus and the sun is first evidenced in the OT
book of Malachi (4:2), which immediately precedes the New Testament
and in which the author refers to the,
"Sun of Righteousness" who
will "arise with healing in his wings."
This scripture, which is in the last
chapter before the Gospel of Matthew, sounds much like the winged
solar disc of Babylon and Egypt.
"The Sun of Righteousness will arise
with healing in his wings."
This scripture in Malachi is perceived
as a reference to the coming messiah, Jesus Christ.
In this regard, this clearly solar
appellation "Sun of Righteousness" is repeated many times by early
Church fathers as being applicable to Christ.
In the Gospel of Luke (1:78), Christ's
very advent is depicted as a visitation from the "dayspring on
"Through the tender mercy of our
God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us..."
The word for "dayspring" or "day" in the
original Greek is
ἀνατολή or anatole, which
means "sunrise, east." In reference to this scripture, Rev.
Christ is the Morning Light, the
rising Sun, Mal. 4:2.
Christ's solar imagery continues in the
New Testament, as at John 1:9:
"The true light that enlightens
every man was coming into the world."
The "true light" is also discussed at
Again Jesus spoke to them, saying,
"I am the light of the world; he
who follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the
light of life."
Jesus's role as the "light of the world"
and "Sun of Righteousness" is elucidated at Matthew 17:2:
"And he was transfigured before
them, and his face shone like the sun, and his garments became
white as light."
In the book of Revelation (1:7), we read
"Behold, he is coming with the
clouds, and every eye will see him," much like the material sun.
As it was in Matthew, the face of Christ
as the sun is likewise revealed at Revelation 1:16:
"...in his right hand he held seven
stars, from his mouth issued a sharp two-edged sword, and his
face was like the sun shining in full strength."
Jesus's astrotheological nature is
further indicated at Revelation 22:16, in which he is equated with
the "bright morning star":
"I Jesus have sent my angel to you
with this testimony for the churches. I am the root and the
offspring of David, the bright morning star."
The "bright morning star" is typically
said to be the planet Venus, but it could also refer to the sun
To paraphrase New Testament sentiment
"I am the light of the world that
every eye will see."
If every eye can see this "light of the
world," it is understandable that many individuals in ancient time
believed Jesus Christ to be the solar orb itself, as they had with
numerous gods preceding his purported advent.
It is not only natural but logical that
thousands of people in the earliest days of Christianity would have
believed Christ to be the same as the gods they were already
worshipping, the bulk of which possessed solar attributes and were
often considered to be sun gods to a significant extent.
In this regard, the early Christian
Church fathers were quite cognizant of the astrotheological nature
of other religions, remarking, for instance, as does Church father
Tertullian (fl. 190-220) concerning the Egyptians (Ad Nationes, II,
"Most of the Egyptians believe that
there are four gods - the Sun and the Moon, the Heaven and the
(Roberts, ANCL, XI, 457.)
In the same book (Ad Nationes, II, 5),
Tertullian further demonstrates his knowledge of the astrotheology
of the ancients:
On this account, men have accounted
as gods - the sun, because it imparts from itself the light of
day, ripens the fruit with its warmth, and measures the year
with its stated periods; the moon, which is at once the solace
of the night and the controller of the months by its governance;
the stars also, certain indications as they are of those seasons
which are to be observed in the tillage of our fields; lastly,
the very heaven also under which, and the earth over which, as
well as the intermediate space within which, all things conspire
together for the good of man.
(Roberts, ANF, III, 133.)
In his "Sermon 27: On the Feast of the
Nativity, VII," Pope Leo the Great (c. 400-461) adamantly criticizes
the prevalent nature worship and astrotheology, which he states was
engaged in by both Pagans and Christians:
IV. The foolish practice of some who
turn to the sun and bow to it is reprehensible
From such a system of teaching proceeds also the ungodly
practice of certain foolish folk who worship the sun as it rises
at the beginning of daylight from elevated positions: even some
Christians think it is so proper to do this that, before
entering the blessed Apostle Peter’s basilica, which is
dedicated to the One Living and true God, when they have mounted
the steps which lead to the raised platform, they turn round and
bow themselves towards the rising sun and with bent neck do
homage to its brilliant orb.
We are full of grief and vexation
that this should happen, which is partly due to the fault of
ignorance and partly to the spirit of heathenism: because
although some of them do perhaps worship the Creator of that
fair light rather than the Light itself, which is His creature,
yet we must abstain even from the appearance of this observance:
for if one who has abandoned the worship of gods, finds it in
our own worship, will he not hark back again to this fragment of
his old superstition, as if it were allowable, when he sees it
to be common both to Christians and to infidels?
V. The sun and moon were created for use, not for worship...
(Schaff, NPNF, XII, 140.)
It is important to emphasize that Pope
Leo specifically relates that,
"even some Christians think it is so
proper to do this," referring to the worship of the sun!
Church Father Tertullian
As early as the late second century,
Tertullian was forced repeatedly to address the claim that
Christianity itself represented sun worship.
Tertullian's discussion of purported
Christian sun worship was so clear that under its entry for
"Tertullian" the Catholic Encyclopedia says:
The "Ad nationes" has for its entire
object the refutation of calumnies against Christians [such as]
You say we worship the sun; so do you.
(CE, XIV, 521.)
In Ad Nationes (I, XIII, 1), Tertullian
THE CHARGE OF WORSHIPPING THE SUN
MET BY A RETORT.
Others, with greater regard to good
manners, it must be confessed, suppose that the sun is is the god of
the Christians, because it is a well-known fact that we pray towards
the east, or because we make Sunday a day of festivity. (Roberts,
ANCL, XI, 449-450.)
In the same book, Tertullian says to the Pagans (paraphrased by CE
in the same place):
"...your gods are images made on a
cross framework, so you worship crosses."
In his Apology against the Heathen
(XVI), Tertullian likewise discusses the Pagan veneration of the
cross, as well as the belief that Christians were sun worshippers:
"...But ye worship victories also,
when, in your triumphs, crosses form the inside of the trophies.
The whole religion of the camp is a worshipping of the standards
above all the gods. All those rows of images on your standards
are the appendages of crosses; those hangings on your standards
and banners are the robes of crosses...
Others certainly, with greater
semblance of nature and of truth, believe the sun to be our God.
If this be so, we must be ranked with the Persians; though we
worship not the sun painted on a piece of linen, because in
truth we have himself in his own hemisphere. Lastly, this
suspicion ariseth from hence, because it is well known that we
pray towards the quarter of the east.
But most of yourselves too, with an
affectation of sometimes worshipping the heavenly bodies also,
move your lips towards the rising of the sun..."
Naturally, Tertullian wished to deny
that Christians are sun worshippers, but the charge was clearly laid
before him, again, as early as the end of the second century.
Concerning Tertullian, in my book Suns of God: Krishna, Buddha and
Christ, I remark:
Despite his protestations, in On the
Resurrection of the Flesh (XLIX), Tertullian referred to Paul's
comments at 1 Cor. 15:21 and compared the "glory of the sun" to
that of Christ.
In like manner does he take examples from the heavenly bodies:
"There is one glory of the sun" (that is, of Christ), "and
another glory of the moon" (that is, of the Church), "and
another glory of the stars" (in other words, of the seed of
Another Christian authority who compares this "glory of the sun"
to that of Christ is Church father Archelaus (c. 277), who in
The Acts of the Disputation with the Heresiarch Manes refers to
"the true Sun, who is our Saviour."
The contention of Christian sun
worshipping not only emerged early in Christian history but also
lingered well into the fifth century, as St. Augustine was compelled
to address it as well, in his "Tractate on the Gospel of John"
I think that what the Lord says, "I
am the light of the world," is clear to those that have eyes, by
which they are made partakers of this light: but they who have
not eyes except in the flesh alone, wonder at what is said by
the Lord Jesus Christ, "I am the light of the world."
And perhaps there may not be wanting
some one too who says with himself: Whether perhaps the Lord
Christ is that sun which by its rising and setting causes the
day? For there have not been wanting heretics who thought this.
The Manichaeans have supposed that
the Lord Christ is that sun which is visible to carnal eyes,
exposed and public to be seen, not only by men, but by the
beasts. But the right faith of the Catholic Church rejects such
a fiction, and perceives it to be a devilish doctrine: not only
by believing acknowledges it to be such, but in the case of whom
it can, proves it even by reasoning.
Let us therefore reject this kind of
error, which the Holy Church has anathematized from the
beginning. Let us not suppose that the Lord Jesus Christ is this
sun which we see rising from the east, setting in the west; to
whose course succeeds night, whose rays are obscured by a cloud,
which removes from place to place by a set motion: the Lord
Christ is not such a thing as this.
The Lord Christ is not the
sun that was made, but He by whom the sun was made. For "all
things were made by Him, and without Him was nothing made."
(Augustine, 200. Emph. added.)
It is evident from this paragraph and
Augustine's protestations that there were many "heretics" who
believed that Jesus Christ was the actual, physical sun.
The group includes the heretical
Christian sect of the Manicheans:
"The Manichaeans have supposed that
the Lord Christ is that sun which is visible to carnal eyes,
exposed and public to be seen, not only by men, but by the
Augustine also states that this "error"
was anathematized or denounced by the Holy Church from the
When exactly "the beginning" occurred
depends on when we perceive the "Holy Church" to have been created -
was it at the end of the second century, with the formal
the Catholic Church, or was it when Jesus Christ
allegedly walked the earth?
In any event, the "error" of equating
Jesus Christ with the material sun which "every eye will see"
happened in the earliest times of Christianity, many centuries
before the modern era.
Augustine's discussion confirms that the
notion of Christ as the actual, physical sun was widely held,
evidenced by the Church father's need to denounce the claim in no
From its inception, Egyptian
Christianity was represented by those who readily equated Jesus with
both Osiris and Horus, the latter two symbolizing sun gods or
aspects of the sun.
Indeed, the Egyptian Christians or Copts
repeatedly identified Osiris and Horus with Jesus in both myth and
ritual, as the mythical lives of all three characters coalesced in
As related by Egyptologist Sir Dr.
E.A. Wallis Budge:
"In Osiris the Christian Egyptians found the prototype of
Christ, and in the pictures and statues of Isis suckling her son
Horus, they perceived the prototype of the Virgin Mary and her
This fact of identifying both Osiris and
Horus - again, essentially sun gods - with Jesus is demonstrated
thoroughly in my book Christ in Egypt: The Horus-Jesus Connection.
For instance, as stated in Christ in
Regarding the connection between the Egyptian religion,
Gnosticism and Christianity, Dr. Wilson B. Bishai states:
...the Copts of Egypt during the
early Christian centuries were known for their massive
production of Apocrypha and pseudepigrapha. This
characteristic of the early Copts should not be surprising
to us in light of the evidence of gnostic influence on the
early Coptic Christian thought.
The gnostics were literate
people and well acquainted with ancient religions and
mythology. As Christianity was spreading in Egypt, a group
of these gnostic Christians apparently made an effort to tie
old Egyptian myths to Christian beliefs.
...In this same regard, Dr. Reginald
E. Witt provides further, archaeological evidence:
The fusion of Horus with Judaeo-Christian
features can be exemplified in Gnostic gems from Egypt...
In the theology and art of
Gnosticism Horus and Christ could easily be blended... Aeon/Horus
was born of the Virgin Isis... Clearly in the Gnosticism which
fringed Christian orthodoxy Horus and Christ could merge.
(Murdock, CIE, 229.)
Demonstrating the remarkable ancient
Horus-Jesus connection, one of the old Coptic spells to remove pains
of childbirth and the stomach was,
"Jesus! Horus!" or just simply
(Murdock, CIE, 297.)
Egyptian influence on Christianity is
likewise discussed in The Secret Lore of Egypt - Its Impact on the
West by Dr. Erik Hornung, a professor emeritus of Egyptology
at the University of Basel, who remarks:
"Notwithstanding its superficial
rejection of everything pagan, early Christianity was deeply
indebted to ancient Egypt. In particular, the lively picture of
the ancient Egyptian afterlife left traces in Christian texts;
thus, among the Copts, and later in Islam, we encounter a fiery
hell quite like that of the Egyptians...
The descensus [descent]
of Jesus, which played no role in the early church, was adopted
into the official Credo after 359, thanks to apocryphal legends
that again involved Egypt.
Christ became the sun in the realm of
the dead, for his descent into the netherworld had its ultimate
precursor in the nightly journey of the ancient Egyptian sun god
This last part bears repeating:
According to a respected modern Egyptologist, in ancient times,
because of Egyptian religion - Christ became the sun in the realm of
Christ's descent into
And so on, through well over 500 pages of evidence in Christ in
Egypt of the Horus-Jesus connection, wherein Christ is identified
and essentially equated with Egyptian sun gods.
Therefore, denials of the influence of
Egyptian religion upon Christianity and the very early
identification of Christ as the sun - a thousand and a half years
before it supposedly surfaced in the world, as is erroneously
claimed - have no foundation in truth.
The relationship of Christianity to sun
worship continued throughout the ages, as exemplified by Marsilio
Ficino, an Italian Neoplatonic-Christian philosopher of the 15th
century who wrote an extensive essay on sun worship called The Book
of the Sun, or De Sole.
In the Preface to his book - written in
a Catholic country by someone well aware of the Inquisitor toes he
would be stepping on - Ficino expresses his purpose:
I am daily pursuing a new
interpretation of Plato... Therefore when lately I come to that
Platonic mystery where he most exquisitely compares the Sun to
God Himself, it seemed right to explain so great a matter
somewhat more fully, especially since our Dionysius the Areopagite, the first of the Platonists, whose interpretation I
hold in my hands, freely embraces a similar comparison of the
Sun to God.
Ficino provides an extensive comparison
of God with the Sun.
In fact, chapter IX of Ficino's book is
entitled, "The Sun is the Image of God. Comparisons of the Sun to
God," in which he remarks:
"Having very diligently considered
these things, our divine Plato named the Sun the visible son of
Goodness itself. He also thought that the Sun was the manifest
symbol of God, placed by God himself in this worldly temple."
Ficino further states:
According to Plato, [Socrates]
called the Sun not God himself but the son of God...
It is thus Plato (c. 428-c. 348 bce)
and/or Socrates (c. 469-399 bce) in the fourth to fifth centuries
prior to the common era who determined that the son of God is the
sun of God, although, of course, the sun was likewise considered the
son of one god or another much earlier in ancient Egypt and
elsewhere as well.
Naturally, this statement by Plato was
made in Greek, so there appeared no natural play on words as occurs
in English with "son" and "sun."
Nevertheless, the motif of the "sun
of God" being the "son of God" is pre-Christian, and there is no
other way to express it in English. Moreover, this sun-son word play
has been noted many times previously in history by a variety of
The sun-son play on words as applicable to Christ has been deemed so
"common" as to represent a "devotional pun."
Obviously, this "devotional pun" was
widely recognized centuries ago by the English-speaking
intelligentsia and educated elite. Therefore, shallow criticisms of
the statement that the son of God is the sun of God represent
illogical straw men reflective of ignorance of this fact and should
be dismissed as such. In reality, the repeated punning across
several centuries proves once more that Christ was widely associated
with the sun long before the 19th century.
In any event, the idea of the sun as
both God and the son of God predates the Christian era by centuries,
and the ancient solar role was most obviously transferred first to
Yahweh and then to his supposed son, the alleged Jewish messiah
In the 18th century, French scholar
Charles Francois Dupuis, a professor at the College de France,
produced his multivolume book "Origines de tous les cultes," in
which he discussed astrotheology as the root of major religious
In the English translation of various
excerpts from this work, The Origin of All Religious Worship, Dupuis
Let us well bear in mind here, what
we have proved in another place, that Christ has all the
characteristics of the God Sun in his birth, or in his
incarnation in the womb of a virgin, and that this birth arrives
just at the same moment, when the ancients celebrated that of
the Sun or of Mithras...
The actual question now is, to show,
that he has also the characteristics of the God Sun in his
Dupuis calls Christians,
"those worshippers of the Sun under
the name of Christ" (43), while he later refers to the
description "the Christians have of the holy face of their God
Dupuis also refers to "the Sun Christ in
Palestine", and he discusses the Greek gods Dionysus/Bacchus
and Hercules as being the "God Sun," saying:
"...Should the reader be well
convinced of this truth, he will then easily admit our
explanation of the solar legend, known by the Christians under
the title of the life of Christ, which is only one of the
thousand names of the God Sun, whatever may be the opinion of
his worshippers about his existence as a man, because it will
not prove anymore than that of the worshippers of Bacchus, who
made of him a conqueror and a hero.
Let us therefore first establish as
an acknowledged fact, that the Bacchus of the Greeks was merely
a copy of the Osiris of the Egyptians...and worshipped in Egypt
was the Sun."
Dupuis cites many ancient authorities to
prove his points, including,
Macrobius, et al.
Moreover, Dupuis has an entire chapter
entitled, "AN EXPLANATION OF THE FABLE, IN WHICH THE SUN IS
WORSHIPPED UNDER THE NAME OF CHRIST."
"When we shall have shown - that the
pretended history of a God, born of a Virgin at the winter
solstice, who resuscitates at Easter or at the equinox of
spring, after having descended into hell; of a God, who has
twelve apostles in his train, whose leader has all the
attributes of Janus; of a God-conqueror of the Prince of
Darkness, who restores to mankind the dominion of Light, and who
redeems the evils of Nature - is merely a solar fable, like all
those, which we have analyzed, it will be quite as indifferent,
or of as little consequence to examine, whether there ever
existed a man by the name of Christ, as it would be to enquire,
whether some Prince was called Hercules, provided it will be
conclusively demonstrated that the being, consecrated by worship
under the name of Christ, is the Sun, and that the marvelousness
of the legend or of the same poem, has that luminary for its
object; because it would seem then to be proved, that the
Christians are mere worshippers of the Sun..."
Dupuis also addresses the history of the
contention for Christian sun worship:
"We are not the only ones, nor the
first, who have this idea of the religion of the Christians.
Their apologist Tertullian, agrees,
that from the earliest days of the introduction of this religion
in the West, the more enlightened men, who had examined into it,
pronounced it to be merely a sect of the Mithraic religion, and
that the God of the Christians like that of the Persians, was
In Christianism there were sundry
practices remarked, which betrayed that origin; the Christians
never said their prayers, without facing the East, or that part
of the World, whence the sun rises. All their temples, or all
their religious meeting houses were anciently facing the rising
Sun. Their holy days in each week had reference to the day of
the Sun, called Sunday, or the day of the Lord Sun...
All these practices derived their
origin from the very nature of their religion."
on, throughout his magnum opus - indeed, Dupuis's entire work is
designed to demonstrate the astrotheological underpinnings of
religion in general and the solar mythology of Christianity in
Dupuis was followed also in the 18th century by French scholar
Count Volney, who likewise put forth the case for Christ being the sun in
his book The Ruins of Empires.
In the 1820s, English clergyman Rev. Dr.
Robert Taylor likewise wrote about Christ as the sun, paying
for his insight with two prison terms for "blasphemy."
In more modern times, in 1925 F.J.
Dölger published a comprehensive study of "Christ as the sun in
Christian antiquity" called Sol salutis, while Finnish
scholar Dr. Yrjö Hirn (1870-1953),
"mentions Christ as the sun and the
Virgin as a cloud, citing this analogy by Bernard of Clairvaux
[1090-1153] and Gualterius Wilburnus."
Far from being a "modern" conspiracy contrived by various shady
globalists, the equation of Christ with the sun and the solar nature
of Christianity were so obvious not only to the early Pagans and
Christians alike, based on the Bible, writings of Church fathers,
Christians traditions and artifacts, but also to the Mexican natives
the Virgin Guadalupe Nahua, for example, that they,
"combine the sun and Christ into a
composite personality who is the masculine creative force in the
As anthropologist Dr. James M.
Taggart - one of my professors at Franklin & Marshall College -
remarks in Nahuat Myth and Social Structure:
"The annual movement of the sun
toward the north from its lowest point on the horizon at the
winter solstice is concordant with the annual festival cycle.
The major winter solstice ceremony celebrates the birth of
Christ and the annual re-birth of the sun as it begins to move
north bringing more heat and light with gradually longer and
The annual movement of the sun along
the horizon is analogous to the movement of the sun during the
24-hour period, so that the winter solstice is to the summer
solstice as midnight is to noon.
The climactic moment of the
Christmas celebration - a procession carrying the Christ child
from the house of the mayordomo (ritual sponsor) to the church -
occurs at the time of the day (midnight) analogous to the
corresponding time of the year (winter solstice).
Other major festivals fall on or
near other major events in the solar year.
celebration occurs near the vernal equinox; the festival in
honor of San Juan [St. John] occurs just after the summer
solstice; and All Saints' Day in honor of the dead is near the
Other native cultures - uninfluenced by
anything other than the Christian church in one form or another -
likewise perceived Christ as the sun and Christianity as another
permutation of the ancient solar religion they were already
following before their conquest and subjugation under Christian
There remains much more about the solar origins of Christianity and
the solar nature of Jesus Christ beginning from the earliest times
to the latest.
Suffice it to say that this equation did
not begin or end in the 19th century with any particular group or
individual but, rather, has a long history within Christian
tradition itself, as we can see proved abundantly here and
elsewhere, such as in my books.
In the end, we need to ask ourselves:
Is it more scientifically plausible
that 2,000 years ago the God of the cosmos took birth through
the womb of a virgin as a Jewish man who walked on water,
performed miracles, raised the dead, resurrected himself from
death and ascended into heaven-or could it be that this tale is
a reworking of older myths in currency around the known world of
Acharya S, The Christ
Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold, AUP, IL, 1999.
--Suns of God: Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled, AUP, IL,
Archelaus, The Acts of The
Disputation with The Heresiarch Manes, Kessinger, 2004.
Augustine, St. Augustin on
Homilies on the Gospel of John, Kessinger, 2004.
Budge, E.A. Wallis, Egyptian
Ideas of the Future Life, Kessinger, 2004.
Catholic Encyclopedia, XIV,
Charles G. Herbermann, et al., eds., The Universal Knowledge
Foundation, NY, 1913.
Dodgson, Charles, tr., A Library
of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church: Tertullian, John
Henry Parker, Oxford, 1842.
Dupuis, Charles Francois, The
Origin of All Religious Worship, University of Michigan,
Hornung, Erik, The Secret Lore
of Egypt: Its Impact on the West, tr. David Lorton, Cornell
University Press, NY, 2001.
Jenkins, William, ed., The
Comprehensive Commentary on the Holy Bible, Fessenden and
Co., Brattleboro, 1834.
Katz, Israel J., et al., Studies
on the Cantigas de Santa Maria: Art Music, and Poetry,
Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1987.
McClintock, John and Strong,
James, Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and
Ecclesiastical Literature, I, Harper & Brothers, NY, 1891.
Murdock, D.M., Christ in Egypt:
The Horus-Jesus Connection, Stellar House Publishing,
Rahner, Hugo, Greek Myths and
Christian Mystery, Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1971.
Roberts, Alexander, Ante-Nicene
Christian Library, XI, T&T Clark, Edinburgh, 1869.
--Ante-Nicene Fathers, III, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY,
Schaff, Philip, Nicene and
Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, XII, The
Christian Literature Company, NY, 1895.
Taggart, James M., Nahuat Myth
and Social Structure, University of Texas Press, 1997.
Taylor, Glen, Yahweh and the
Sun: Biblical and Archaeological Evidence for Sun Worship in
Ancient Israel, Continuum International Publishing Group,