Chapter IV - Rays


I have already discussed rays to a great extent in the two preceding chapters.

 

There are, however, many points connected with rays which have not yet been brought forward. The universe is made up of elements and forces. Most of the elements are apparent to vision. None of the forces can be seen by the human eye.


Elements and forces are indispensable to each other. All movements of elements are made through the agency of forces. If there were no elements, then only the supreme force could exist.


Without the forces the elements would be dead and immovable. All earthly elements emit rays. Forces do not emit rays.


Some elements emit visible rays at high temperatures only, while others emit them at low temperature. In some cases temperature is in no way responsible for the rays.


All forces emanating from the sun, and all forces coming our of the electro-magnetic division of the primary force, are carried and transported in rays. All rays are carriers of forces; the rays themselves are not forces but only the carriers of the forces. This is similar to a pitcher of water, the pitcher is not the water, only the carrier of it.


Super-heated bodies emit rays. A super-heated body is red, yet while the body remains red, it may appear to be white or straw in color, on account of its light rays which surround it. A colored visible ray may become so intensified as to become invisible.


The vari-colored rays, the light-visible rays, are not due to any change in the color of the body emitting them, because when they leave the body they are dark invisible parent rays.

 

Their various colors are due to the dividing up and filtering out each separate ray from the parent ray by our specialized atmosphere. When any particular ray has been filtered out, it becomes the carrier of some particular force.

 

Looking into a fiery furnace, we never see the actual body emitting the rays.

 

 

We only see the halo formed by the light visible rays, after they have been filtered out from the parent rays, and then only before they become dispersed in the atmosphere. To see the body itself, the light rays must be veiled and the halo eliminated.


Could the human eye distinguish the dark rays as it can the light rays, all breathing animals would appear as living within a halo.


The dark invisible parent ray first breaks into a pyramidal zig-zag form of wave (A, above image). These zig-zags have the colors of the spectrum. This I believe to be a dividing out between the light and dark rays.

 

From these zig-zags the final filtering takes place in the form of fine straight lines (B, page 101), of all colors, and as they shoot out, so the wave is reduced, until finally it disappears entirely; the colored rays can only be traced for a short distance from the pyramid, then they get lost to the eye in the atmosphere.

 

 

Although I have stated that the parent ray assumes the form of a zig-zag pyramid, it is absolutely impossible to say whether this pyramidal form commences directly the parent ray leaves the body or whether it travels some distance before it commences to form, because no parent ray can be seen on leaving its source.

 

Not until the light rays begin to be divided out from the dark ones, can any ray be seen. It is quite possible that the parent ray may assume some other form before showing the zig-zag pyramid.


To illustrate my previous statement "that we never see the actual body that is emitting the rays," I have selected an electric incandescent lamp for an example.

 

The film which is emitting the light is only as thick as a fine hair. By carefully measuring the diameter of the halo of light rays around the film in a medium kilowatt bulb, it is found to be fully of an inch in diameter, several hundreds of times the diameter of the body emitting the rays. We see the rays, but we cannot see the actual film.


In the electric incandescent light there are no flames, - it is purely rays. Flames require to be fed with oxygen; the bulb is a vacuum with no oxygen, therefore the necessary adjunct to actual flames is not present.


There are many peculiar phenomena connected with rays; one is that different bodies emit the same colored rays at vastly different temperatures.


The burning end of a cigar emits a cherry-red ray at 600 F. Steel emits the same ray at 1200 F. An incandescent lamp with a carbon filament emits a straw-colored ray; remove this bulb and put one in its place with a tungsten filament, and a white ray is emitted.


The flame of a tallow candle emits a straw-colored ray. The flame of a refined wax candle a white ray.


Fire-flies and glow worms emit a white ray. The temperature of these insects is under 100 F. Yet to get the same colored ray from steel, a temperature of from 1800 F to 2000 F is required.


I can form a gas from certain elements that when lit burns with a pure white ray, yet the temperature of the flame is under 100 F (atmospheric temperature). The flame will pass through the fingers and hands without any sensation of heat.

 

The flame will pass through a piece of cloth without raising the temperature of the cloth. To obtain the same colored ray from steel a temperature of 2000 F is required. By adding another element to the compound, the flame jumps to 3000 F -3200 F immediately.

 

Hundreds of other examples might be given, corroborative of my experiments. I presume, however, as the foregoing are representative of all others, that they are all that is necessary. The most simple have been selected for the sake of the layman, who, as a rule, does not make a deep study of obtuse sciences.


It has been clearly shown that temperature does not in all cases govern the color of the ray. As I have shown, a white ray, which is generally understood to emanate from a superheated body only, also comes from cool bodies of atmospheric temperature. The actual factor governing the color of a ray, is the chemical compound of the body from which the ray emanates, and the difference, to a great extent, is due to the degree of radio-activity possessed by the substance emitting the ray.


As I have before stated, all bodies are more or less radioactive, although in nearly all, the degree is so low as to be unseen and immeasurable. The cause for this general radioactivity is that the electro-magnetic division of the primary force permeates all substances, and, as a force is never still, but always moving, and as rays are the agents which move the forces, it can plainly be seen why all substances are radioactive.


I have previously stated that what is erroneously called solar or sun's heat is governed by the angle at which the sun's rays meet the earth's forces in the atmosphere.

 

Herewith I give an illustration:

Angles A1 and A2 show the sun's forces cutting the earth's lines of forces at the most obtuse angle from the sun, but at right angles of the lines of force. Angles B' and B" are obtuse, but not to the degree of Angles A1 and A2. The sun's forces cut the earth's lines of forces at an obtuse angle, so that to a certain extent the earth's lines are followed a distance by the sun's forces, giving a greater effect than when going through them at right angles.
Angle C. Here the sun's forces meet the earth's lines of forces end on, and work from end to end of the line, thus producing the maximum effect. The foregoing is proven from the fact that where the sun's forces cut the earth's lines of forces at right angles, we have our frigid zones; where the earth's lines are cut obtusely, we have our temperate zones; and where the earth's lines are cut throughout their whole length, we see the maximum result - our tropical or torrid region.


My next illustration of angles and effects will be with a pair of armor plates undergoing ballistic test.

 

These two targets are of equal strength and resisting power.

 

One is placed so that it is at an obtuse angle to the gun, corresponding with the sun's rays when they are obtusely cutting the earth's lines of forces. The other target is placed at direct angles to the gun, like the sun's forces striking our torrid zones. The same gun is used, the same projectile is used, and the same charge for both.

 

All conditions are the same except the angles at which the targets are placed with respect to the gun.

Fig. 1. The obtuse angle. On reaching the target, the projectile ploughs along its face a little, a - and then flies off at a tangent, b. The target is not penetrated.
Fig. 2. Right angles. The projectile passes clear through the target.


The difference in effect of these two shots is caused solely by angles; so it is with the suns forces striking the earth's forces.

 

The power and force are the same from pole to pole, the difference in effect - variations of temperature - is entirely due to the difference in the angles at which the sun's forces cut the earth's lines of forces.

 

The four seasons, which are variations in temperature, are due to the oscillation of the earth's poles, which change the angle of the sun's rays.

Rays with their forces may be collected and concentrated and their effects magnified by the use of a lens.

 

An ordinary lens is a piece of clear glass convexed on both sides. It has the faculty of collecting all of the rays that fall upon its face or upper surface and then concentrating or focusing them at a given point beyond the lower surface. The distance from the lens of the focus point is governed by the convexity of the glass.


I shall now describe an experiment with focused rays and the heat force.


The source will be a 100-candle power electric lamp. At the focus point the rays with their forces are drawn together and form an incandescent spot or point. This bright spot arises from an accumulation and concentration of the light force at the focus point. The accumulation is due to a number of rays, with their volumes of the light force, meeting and crossing each other in the area represented by the focus spot. This may be compared to a funnel subject to super-pressure.


At the focus point, the rays carrying the heat force are collected and concentrated like those of the light force. The heat thus concentrated is capable of burning up substances, and if the lens is large and powerful enough to melt platinum, the light rays may be veiled and repelled leaving only the heat rays to focus at the point. In this case there will be no incandescent spot, but the platinum will be melted all the same.


It may be claimed that the glass is in some way responsible for the super-heat.

 

To prove that it is not, I shall make a lens out of a piece of ice and get the same results. As the ice does not melt, it shows that the heat force is carried in the rays passing through the ice, and in this condition it is a cold force.


I cannot do better at this point than to repeat certain experiments made by the late John Tyndall, experiments which I have duplicated many a time, and each time gained some knowledge about rays and forces.


As Cuvier was the father of paleontology, so Tyndall unknown to himself was the father of the science of forces. Tyndall never fully appreciated his own greatness.


Before taking extracts from his lecture and showing his experiments, I shall mention a few points about affinities and repellents, as they are very clearly shown in Tyndall's work.

 


AFFINITIES

An affinity may be either a force or an element, or an elementary compound, and is disclosed where one is seen to be attracted by the other, - when one is drawn towards the other. The magnetic needle is an example of an affinity between a force and an element.


REPELLENTS

A repellent may be either a force or an clement, and is shown where one casts off the other.

 


NEUTRALS

A neutral may be a force or an clement, and is shown where one has no influence over the other.


A magnetic force is an affinitive force when it attracts and draws towards itself. A centrifugal force is a repellent force, as it throws off, casts away from itself. The movements of bodies are accomplished by cither affinitive or repellent forces, sometimes both.


Rays carrying forces have their affinities, repellents, and neutrals, in other rays and colors. Colors have their affinities, repellents, and neutrals in rays, also in colors.

 

EXTRACTS FROM JOHN TYNDALL'S LECTURE

"A common sunbeam contains rays of all kinds and colors but it is impossible to sift or filter out the beam so as to intercept all of the light rays, and allow the dark obscure ones to pass unimpeded; or, to filter out all of the dark rays and allow the light rays only to pass through, but for all practical purposes this can be done.

 

Substances have been discovered which while extremely opaque to the light rays, are perfectly transparent to others. On the other hand, it is possible with the choice of proper substances to intercept to a great degree the pure heat rays1 and to allow the pure light rays free transmission.

 

This separation cannot be made as perfect as filtering the light rays.

 

We have never seen the movements of waves that produce light, but we judge of their presence, their position, and their magnitude by their effect. Their lengths, however, have been determined and found to vary from 1/30,000th to 1/60,000th part of an inch.


"But besides the rays which produce light and heat, the sun sends forth multitudes of other rays. The largest and most powerful rays which the sun sends forth are of this character.
2


"Heat issuing from any source not visibly red cannot be concentrated so as to produce the effects about to be referred to. To obtain this it is necessary to use a ray emanating from a body raised to the highest state of incandescence.3


"The sun is such a body, and its dark rays are therefore suitable for our experiments. But for such experiments as we are about to make, a little sun of our own is sufficient, an electric light. The electric light has also an advantage, as its dark radiation embraces a larger proportion of the total radiation of the sun's rays. An electric light is therefore not only suitable, but best for the experiments we are about to make." 4

 

1. Here Tyndall assumes that the ray is the force. I have hitherto pointed out that the ray is the carrier of the force and not the force itself-

2. The sun's rays do not carry cither the light or heat forces. These are both earthly forces. The most, powerful rays and forces which the sun sends forth are those which control the movements of the bodies of the solar system. These axe magnetic forces.
3. I have previously shown that bodies are not incandescent: the dark parent ray precludes the possibility of it.
4. At least one-half of the sun's dark radiation is unmeasurable on account of its intensity. This part of the sun's dark radiation is an extreme. Electric lamps also vary in their dark radiation. dependent on the elements forming the film.

 

 


EXPERIMENT I

"From the source of an electric light a powerful beam may be sent through the room, revealing in its passage the motes in the air, for, were there no motes, the beam would not be seen.5


"Let the beam fall on a concave mirror. It will be gathered up in the mirror into a cone of reflected light. The luminous apex of the cone is the focus point. Now place in the path of the beam a substance perfectly opaque to light. The substance to be used is iodine dissolved in a liquid bi-sulphate of carbon. The light at the focus point will immediately vanish when the dark solution is introduced. But this dark solution is intensely transparent to the dark rays, and a focus point of these dark rays remains after the light has been abolished.

 

The heat of these rays can be felt 6 by the hand. You can let them fall on a thermometer and thus prove their presence, or, best of all, you can cause them to produce a current of electricity which will affect a large magnetic needle.

"We shall now filter the dark rays so as to intercept the dark rays. This can be done with a clear solution of alum and water. It will permit the purely luminous rays to pass through. Place a small piece of gun cotton at the focus point and let the luminous rays exert their utmost power over it; no effect whatever is produced. Withdraw the alum filter and allow the full beam unfiltered to fall upon it.

 

The cotton is immediately dissipated in an explosive flash. This proves that the light rays are incapable of exploding the cotton, while the rays of the full beam are competent to do so. Hence we might conclude that the dark rays are the real agents: but this conclusion might only be probably, for it might be argued that the mixture of the dark rays and the light rays is necessary to produce the result.

"Now by means of the opaque iodine solution let us filter the light rays and allow the dark rays to focus on the cotton, it will explode as before. Hence it is the dark rays and the dark rays alone that cause the ignition of the gun cotton. At the same focus point a sheet of platinum will become red-hot, zinc will melt, and paper will instantly blaze, and all the while the atmosphere around the focus point remains as cool as that in any other part of the room."

 

5. The beam here spoken by Tyndall is not the parent ray, it is a collection of rays of all colors, but separate from one another. They are the rays shown shooting off from the pyramidal zig-zag. Dark rays do not disclose the motes in the atmosphere, only the light rays.

6. The rays cannot be felt. What is felt is the heat carried on them.

 

 

I cannot conceive of any experiment better than the foregoing to demonstrate and prove:

  1. That there are parent rays, and that these parent rays are made up of a multitude of various colored rays.

  2. That in our specialized atmosphere these parent rays are divided up and each separate ray filtered out and isolated from all the others.

  3. That there are two prominent divisions coming out of the parent ray. One division is composed of light visible rays, the other of dark invisible ultra rays.

  4. That the light rays carry the light force and do not carry a particle of the hear force.

  5. That some of the dark rays carry the heat and magnetic forces, but not a particle of the light force.

  6. That some colors are affinitive to the light rays, and these same colors are repellent to the dark rays.

  7. That some colors are affinitive to the dark rays, and these same colors are repellent to the light rays.

  8. That affinities partake of the same colors. Dark rays are affinitive to dark colors and light rays are affinitive to light colors.

On studying the foregoing experiment, it would seem that Tyndall only attempted to prove that there were two kinds of rays, light and dark; that the light rays were responsible for light and the dark rays responsible for heat and magnetism.


These points he most conclusively proved, but, he stopped short in his oratory - his experiments proved ten times as much as he pointed out and claimed.
I think Tyndall was under the impression that it was the rays themselves that were responsible for the various phenomena, and, indirectly, they were; but directly, it was the forces which were carried in the rays that were the direct agents.

 

Tyndall omitted to show the difference between the rays and the forces they carried. He also omitted to explain why the different colored solutions or veilings were responsible for the different effects. He failed to point out affinities and repellents, which leads to the conclusion that he either overlooked them or was not aware of the facts.


This experiment demonstrates and proves out some of the characteristics of the workings of the forces. For instance: it shows that there are affinities and repellents in colors, for, when the rays from the electric lamp arrived at the dark solution, the color of the solution repelled the light rays, but permitted the dark rays to pass through, and as the heat remained at the focus point, it proves that the dark solution was extremely affinitive to the dark rays and their forces.

 

This experiment also demonstrates and proves that the light solution was affinitive to the light rays and repellent to the dark ones.


It may be argued that the light solution did not repel the dark rays and their forces but absorbed them. If this were the case, there should be an accumulation and a concentration of the heat force in the light solution which should raise its temperature. I have duplicated this experiment several times, and not once did the temperature of the light solution rise a particle of a degree, thus convincingly showing that the dark rays with their forces were repelled, and not absorbed. Tyndall did not explain why an electric current should deflect the magnetic needle.


There were two separate and distinct rays that passed through the dark solution. One of the rays was an "ultra-steely" blue. This carried the magnetic force. The other was an ultra-red or reddish brown. This ray carried the heat force. It must be understood that when I mention two rays, I do not mean that they were all that passed through the filter. On the contrary, they were only two out of a multitude, but these two apply to the phenomena in question.


The iodine filter was affinitive to both the heat and the magnetic ray in question. It was more affinitive to the heat ray than to the magnetic ray. There was, however, a sufficient volume of the magnetic force concentrated to deflect the needle.


The needle was deflected because all forces coming out of the electro-magnetic division of the primary force have a tendency to join, aggregate, and concentrate. In this case it was an attempt of the concentration of the force in the focus point, to draw out that which was concentrated in the needle, thus making a greater aggregation.

 

The magnitude of the deflection of the needle would indicate the size of the volume of the force aggregated and concentrated at the focus point.

 

Tyndall's experiment shows that electricity, which is the main branch of the electro-magnetic division, can be subdivided into three separate sub-branches, namely, light, heat, and magnetism. In addition to these three, I have filtered out a dozen or more separate rays with their individual forces, and can truly say that this dozen docs not represent the first letter in the alphabet of the whole tale.


To finish this section, and to corroborate Tyndall, I shall make a little experiment of my own, a simple natural phenomenon that can be understood by a child.

 

BLACK AND WHITE

The following are simple examples of affinities:

Place two pieces of iron on the ground, cover one with a white cloth, the other with a black. Let them be placed where the sun's rays fall directly on them. In an hour, measure the temperatures of the two pieces of iron. The one under the black cloth will be many degrees higher in temperature than the one under the white. Instead of two pieces of iron, take two cakes of ice. The one under the black cloth will be completely melted before the cake under the white cloth is half gone.

Suspend two pieces of cloth in the sun for an hour - one white and the other black.

 

The black at the end of the hour will be many degrees hotter than the white. When a lady disbelieves that we do not get our heat from the sun and there is no such thing as affinities in colors, persuade her to put a white stocking on one leg with a white shoe on the foot and dress up the other leg and foot in a black stocking and shoe, then go out and sit in the sun where the rays strike directly on them. In a short time she'll be coming in to replace the black with white.

 

This experiment may seem out of place here, but it is based on an actual test, and, believe the writer when he says there were no further proofs necessary to convince that lady.


The explanation of these phenomena is that black is an affinitive to the heat force, white a repellent.


All rays carry forces. Some rays have peculiar effects on human beings, brute animals, and plant life.


The force carried by a peculiar blue ray induces sleep and unconsciousness to pain. The force in a red ray induces a fighting spirit. There is much truth in the old saying, "like a red rag to a bull." Sunstroke is the effect of a certain ray striking the back of the neck and penetrating the cerebral cord. A red, vermilion, is the repellent of this ray. A red cloth falling over the back of the neck will prevent sunstroke.

 

The force that causes sunstroke can no more pass through a piece of red cloth than the light rays could pass through John Tyndall's dark mixture.

 


SURGERY AND MEDICINE OF THE FUTURE

Forces are nature's tools for performing her works.

 

All forces have opposites. One particular force will induce a growth, its exact opposite will kill it. The force may be known by the color or tint of the ray it is carried in. Therefore in the exact opposite colored ray will be found the counteracting force. This can be worked out in the form of a star with the three primary colors.


The science of medicine and surgery will, I feel sure, in the near future, be governed to a great extent by the use of forces through rays, rather than that of drug and knife. The time is ripe for this discovery to be made by the medical fraternity.


As no doubt the force will be known by the color of the ray by which it is carried, to avoid confusion and induce simplicity I shall speak of the force as being the ray, but it must be understood that I say most emphatically that the ray is not the force, only its carrier.


The physician and surgeon have to deal with the elementary part of the body - the machine itself. I have previously stated that forces have their affinities, repellents, and neutrals in elements, thereby showing that the elements may be and are affected by the forces. Some forces will induce a growth, another force will kill it, and the third and neutral will not affect it in any way.


Each colored ray carries its own peculiar and definitive force. Rays again are dividable into tints, and each tint carries its own definite force.


All compounds of elements are subject to destruction from the application of some force. Therefore some ray bacteria, germs and growths such as cancer and tuberculosis, are all elementary compounds. Therefore they are all subject to destruction by the application of the right rays.


One particular ray may be found that will kill a germ and yet not affect a growth and vice versa. It is only necessary to discover the right rays for each particular purpose.


Glass as filters should be avoided, as the tint is never uniform throughout the plate and no two plates are identically alike. Taking a piece of colored glass a foot long, one end may filter out one particular tint and the other end a different tint, and yet a third in the middle, each tint carrying a separate and distinct force. On this point I speak from experience, and yet the glass to all intents and purposes appears the same.


I know of no substance that is perfect, but it exists, and may be found by those who have the time, inclination, means and perseverance.

 


A FEVER

A fever is indicated by a rise in the temperature of the body.

 

The rise is due to a super-amount of the vital life force in the body, and is the beginning of a step, which, if continued, will aggregate the force to such an extent that the force banked up and aggregated in the body will overbalance the elements. Then all movements and functions will cease. The life will pass away.


For a body to be normal, the force after having passed through the system in the form of Ziis, and become exhausted or tired out, should pass unobstructed from the body through the pores of the skin. Perspiration, which is water, is an exceedingly strong affinitive force. Perspiration attracts, collects, and carries off exhausted forces, thus leaving the channels open for following forces to take their place.


When perspiration ceases, or when the pores of the skin get clogged in any way, the exhausted forces have no exit, no means of escape. Then they bank up and clog all channels, eventually, if not relieved, back to the heart. Thus heat, one of the constituent parts of the life force, becomes accumulated in the body and raises its temperature.


During a fever, it will be noticed that the breathing of the patient is weak, short, and spasmodic, with a fluttering weakened heart action. This peculiar action of the heart is due to its inability to dispose of the forces brought to it by every breath through the lungs. The heart is trying to drive the force into channels already filled up.


The lungs, which are the channels of the force to the heart, have to be governed by the capabilities of reception by the heart - hence the short, weakened, spasmodic breathings.

 

The heart, with all channels ahead blocked, can only accept from the lungs just what it can force into the filled channels. When it can force no more, then the next cannot be disposed of by the heart, the heart being incapable of handling it, breaks down and stops altogether - a phenomenon called by physicians "heart failure."

 

The volume of the force taken in in breathing may be in excess of the central point of the range, on what physicians term "normal" without endangering life, provided the pores are kept open and action accelerated, i.e., perspiration accelerated and increased. The actual danger arising from a fever is not the question of temperature, but an overbalance of the elementary compound of the body.


A change in the volume of force also means the advent of new forms of life.

 

As the temperature of the body ascends above normal, new forms of life are liable to appear within the body. The blood is the part of the body very intimately connected with the force - therefore in the blood we may look for possible developments. The blood is made up of corpuscles.

 

To me, each corpuscle is a life in itself. Each corpuscle is chemically arranged to carry a certain volume of the force. By blocking the pores of the skin, the corpuscles cannot dispose of their exhausted forces; yet they have to take in more from the heart, resulting in the corpuscle becoming very much overcharged and increased in temperature.

 

Now comes a question:

Can any new life be formed in or between the corpuscles?

This I cannot say, for I do not know. But, the natural result of a prolonged fever would be microscopical life of some sort forming in the blood. A microscopical examination of the blood under such conditions would probably answer the question.

 

I simply offer this suggestion for the benefit of science. I have stated that the exhausted forces leave the body through the pores of the skin. A dark, invisible ray carries them. Although this ray is invisible to the human eye, yet it has a color. If our atmosphere were so specialized, or if the forces left the body in sufficient volume to cause incandescence of the atmosphere, like lightning, all human beings, and all breathing animals, would appear surrounded by a halo of light, similar to what is pictured as angels to children.

 

This halo would vary in length in human beings, also at different times. People with a strong heart and lungs would have an extended halo, and those with weak heart and lungs a curtailed halo.


Certain forces advance, and also cause certain growths. A growth is the work of a positive force.


The negative force will retard and kill the growth. By the word growths I intend to include all forms of life from germs to mammals.


Any disease caused by germs can be killed by the use of the negative force.


All forms of life and growths are governed by forces. All forces are carried in and delivered by rays. A gun fires a shot, it is the shot which kills, not the gun. The ray carries the force but it is the force which does the work, not the ray. The ray is the carrier of the force. The ray is not the force any more than the pitcher is the water it is carrying.


Each colored ray, and even each tint of the ray, carries its own distinctive force, so that as there are innumerable tints, so there are innumerable forces. The negative force is carried in the opposite colored ray to that which carries the positive force.


The positive and negative forces can be determined by a star formed out of three primary colors. A certain force may cause the growth and expansion of a cancer; the negative force will kill it.


A certain germ may grow and multiply under the influence of a certain force; its negative force will kill the germs.

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