Appendix D:

Scientific Evidence


Bacteria from Space (Panspermia)

An international team of scientists has recovered microorganisms in the upper reaches of the atmosphere that could have originated from outer space…The living bacteria, plucked from an altitude of 10miles or higher by a scientific balloon, could have been deposited in terrestrial airspace by a passing comet, according to the researchers.


The microorganisms are unlike any known on Earth, but the astrobiologists,

“want to keep the details under wraps until they are absolutely convinced that these are extraterrestrial…”


“A recent discovery indicates that microbes can remain dormant for millions of years…enough time to travel from planet to planet….”

Living fungal spores have been discovered at altitudes of 7 miles…But observations from this and a related study suggest the presence of living bacteria far too high in the atmosphere to have originated from the surface of the planet… (Abstracted from p. 5, Psychic Reader, April 2000)

The bacteria could easily have originated on Earth, rising into the high atmosphere after any one of the major cataclysms that have occurred here. But more likely and probably the reason why things have be kept “under wraps” is that the bacteria originated on Tiamat (Lucifer, Phaeton) the planet that was destroyed by atomic weaponry and whose remains now make up the so-called asteroid belt and whose debris has continually fallen into earth atmosphere and onto the very surface, as Charles Fort and others have researched for decades.


Scientists Find 'Lost City' of Ancient Rock

Now researchers probing the ocean bottom have found 18-story-high towers of stone - the tallest ever near a section of volcanic fault ridges that extend for 6,200 miles along the Atlantic Ocean floor.

Inspired by the formations' majestic heights and by the fact that the stone towers appear on a sea-floor mountain named Atlantis Massif, the scientists named the field of about two dozen stone structures the Lost City in honor of the fabled, flooded city.

Not only are the underwater stone spirals unusual in composition and their location, scientists think they may offer a glimpse into Earth's earliest environments when life began and may possibly host new life forms.

“It was clear these were unlike anything we'd ever seen before,” says Deborah Kelley, an oceanographer at the University of Washington and one of three people who traveled to the newly discovered underworld in a submersible vessel.


A Mountain With Fingers

Scientists have found about 100 other underwater vent systems made up of clusters of mineral deposits around volcanic cracks in the ocean floor. Colonies of strange, primitive creatures, including blood-red tubeworms and large clams feed on nutrients leached by hot, dissolving gas from the vents.

But this network of stone is unique. Rather than forming directly around volcanic vents, the formations are about 9 miles from the cracks. The towers extend like groping fingers above Atlantis Massif, a submerged mountain about the size of Washington's Mt. Ranier.

As Jeff Karson, an oceanographer who explored the Lost City with Kelley remarked, “If this were on land, this would be a national park.” The Lost City is also strikingly bright–or as bright as things can appear under artificial light a half-mile below sea level.

While rock formations around volcanic ridges normally appear black, these formations are gleaming white because they are made up of materials similar to pale concrete, such as carbonate minerals and silica. Kelley, who was lead author of a study about the formations in this week's issue of the journal, Nature, says the steep-sided towers of rock blossom into feathery ledges of precipitated stone which sprawl outwards for as wide as 30 feet.

Most unusual about the structures are their size. The highest stone spiral reaches 180 feet above the ocean floor. Before finding Lost City, the highest known underwater structure was an 80-foot-highstone chimney known as “Godzilla” on the seafloor off the Washington state coast. “Godzilla” cracked in half and toppled to the sea floor three years ago.


Heat From a Green Rock

Part of the reason Lost City's sea-scrapers could grow so high is because they're located 9 miles away from the volcanic vents of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. This distance buffers the rocks from volcanic eruptions that occur once every 5-10 years at the ridge's axis and from earthquake activity that's more frequent around the vents. But the structures' distance from the underwater vents also suggests the towers must be formed by a unique process.


In so-called “black smoker” formations, ocean water sloshes near hot magma at the volcanic vents and then heats up to 750 degrees Fahrenheit. The hot water absorbs minerals and chemicals from surrounding rocks and eventually flows upwards. As the hot water rises it cools and releases the minerals and chemicals, which form towers of dark mineral rock and nutrient-rich ecosystems.

At Lost City, the construction of the stone towers appears to be driven not by hot magma, but by a rare rock. In this region, sections of a glassy green rock known as olivine are exposed directly under small cracks in the ocean floor. When ocean water seeps into this 1.5-million-year-old mantel rock, it reacts with the olivine to form a scaly, dull green rock known as Serpentine.

This reaction generates heat, which triggers the same building of mineral deposits as seen at black smokers. But these deposits are made of a different, paler rock.

“The fluids coming out of these cracks at Lost City have not been found before,” says Karen Von Damm of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. “So it's likely there's also new life there that hasn't been found before.”

By “new” life, Von Damm means undiscovered life, and this life might in fact be very ancient. Some believe any life around the chalky towers of Lost City could resemble Earth's earliest life forms.


Lost City Like Earliest Earth?

Unusual life forms called Archaea have been found around traditional oceanic vent systems and these animals have been placed near the bottom of the evolutionary scale. Scientists believe life around Lost City might be even more primitive.

Animals around Lost City would be living in temperatures a little more similar to Earth's suspected early climate –around 160 degrees Fahrenheit, compared with the even more scorching temperature at hydrothermal vents. The new vents also have high pH levels - or low acidity - which some have proposed was also present when life began on the planet.

Finally, the site produces high levels of methane, which the most ancient forms of bacteria are thought to have feasted on billions of years ago.

“The area conjures up the origins of life,” says Richard Lutz, an oceanographer at Rutgers University who was among the first oceanographers to explore the first hydrothermal vent system ever discovered in the late 1970s. “There's a good case that this could have been the kind of environment where life began.”


Egyptian Artifacts in the Grand Canyon

The Arizona Gazette - April 5, 1909

Remarkable Finds Indicate Ancient People Migrated From Orient
The latest news of the progress of the explorations or what is now regarded by scientists as not only the oldest archaeological discovery in the United States, but one of the most valuable in the world, which was mentioned some time ago in the Gazette (see photo at left), was brought to the city yesterday by

G.E. Kinkaid, the explorer who found the great underground citadel of the Grand Canyon during a trip from Green River, Wyoming, down the Colorado, in a wooden boat, to Yuma, several months ago.

According to the story related to the Gazette by Mr. Kinkaid, the archaeologists of the Smithsonian Institute, which is financing the expeditions, have made discoveries which almost conclusively prove that the race which inhabited this mysterious cavern, hewn in solid rock by human hands, was of oriental origin, possibly from Egypt, tracing back to Ramses. If their theories are borne out by the translation of the tablets engraved with hieroglyphics, the mystery of the prehistoric peoples of North America, their ancient arts, who they were and whence they came will be solved.

Egypt and the Nile, and Arizona and the Colorado will be linked by a historical chain running back to ages, which staggers the wildest fancy of the fictionist. Under the direction of Professor S. A. Jordan, the Smithsonian Institute is now prosecuting the most thorough explorations, which will be continued until the last link in the chain is forged.

Nearly a mile underground, about 1480 feet below the surface, the long main passage has been delved into, to find another mammoth chamber from which radiates scores of passageways, like the spokes of a wheel. Several hundred rooms have been discovered, reached by passageways running from the main passage, one of them having been explored are 854 feet and another 634 feet. The recent finds include articles, which have never been known as native to this country and doubtless they had their origin in the orient.

War weapons, copper instruments, sharp-edged and hard as steel, indicate the high state of civilization reached by these strange people. So interested have the scientists become that preparations are being made to equip the camp for extensive studies, and the force will be increased to thirty or forty persons.

“Before going further into the cavern, better facilities for lighting will have to be installed, for the darkness is dense and quite impenetrable for the average flashlight. In order to avoid being lost, wires are being strung from the entrance to all passageways leading directly to large chambers. How far this cavern extends no one can guess, but it is now the belief of many that what has already been explored is merely the “barracks”, to use an American term, for the soldiers, and that far into the underworld will be found the main communal dwellings of the families. The perfect ventilation of the cavern, the steady draught that blows through, indicates that it has another outlet to the surface.”

Mr. Kinkaid was the first white child born in Idaho and has been an explorer and hunter all his life, thirty years having been in the service of the Smithsonian Institute. Even briefly recounted, his history sounds fabulous, almost grotesque:

“First, I would impress that the cavern is nearly inaccessible. The entrance is 1,486 feet down the sheer canyon wall. It is located on government land and no visitor will be allowed there under penalty of trespass.”

The scientist's wish to work unmolested, without fear of the archaeological discoveries being disturbed by curio or relic hunters. A trip there would be fruitless, and the visitor would be sent on his way.

“The story of how I found the cavern has been related, but in a paragraph: I was journeying down the Colorado River in a boat, alone, looking for minerals. Some forty two miles up the river from the El Tovar Crystal canyon, I saw on the east wall, stains in the sedimentary formation about 2,000 feet above the river bed. There was no trail to this point, but I finally reached it with great difficulty. Above a shelf, which hid it from view from the river, was the mouth of the cave.”


“There are steps leading from this entrance some thirty yards to what was, at the time the cavern was inhabited, the level of the river. When I saw the chisel marks on the wall inside the entrance, I became interested, securing my gun and went in.”

“During that trip, I went back several hundred feet along the main passage till I came to the crypt in which I discovered the mummies. One of these I stood up and photographed by flashlight. I gathered a number of relics, which I carried down the Colorado to Yuma, from whence I shipped them to Washington with details of the discovery. Following this, the explorations were undertaken.”

“The main passageway is about 12 feet wide, narrowing to nine feet toward the farther end. About 57feet from the entrance, the first side-passages branch off to the right and left, along which, on both sides, are a number of rooms about the size of ordinary living rooms of today, though some are 30 by 40 feet square. These are entered by oval-shaped doors and are ventilated by round air spaces through the walls into the passages. The walls are about three feet six inches in thickness. The passages are chiseled or hewn as straight as could be laid out by an engineer. The ceilings of many of the rooms converge to a center.”

“The side-passages near the entrance run at a sharp angle from the main hall, but toward the rear, they gradually reach a right angle in direction.”

The Shrine

“Over a hundred feet from the entrance is the cross-hall, several hundred feet long in which is found the idol, or image, of the people's god, sitting cross-legged, with lotus flower or lily in each hand. The cast of the face is oriental, the carving shows a skillful hand, and the entire object is remarkably well preserved, as is everything in this cavern.”

“The idol almost resembles Buddha, though the scientists are not certain as to what religious worship it represents. Taking into consideration everything found thus far, it is possible that this worship most resembles the ancient people of Tibet.”

“Surrounding this idol are smaller images, some very beautiful in form; others crooked-necked and distorted shapes, symbolical probably, of good and evil. There are two large cactus with protruding arms, one on each side of the dais on which the God squats. All this is carved out of hard rock resembling marble. In the opposite corner of this cross-hall were found tools of all descriptions, made of copper.”

“These people undoubtedly knew the lost art of hardening this metal, which has been sought by chemists for centuries without result. On a bench running around the workroom was some charcoal and other material probably used in the process. There is also slag and stuff similar to matte, showing that these ancients smelted ores, but so far, no trace of where or how this was done has been discovered, nor the origin of the ore.”

“Among the other finds are vases or urns and cups of copper and gold, made very artistic in design. The pottery work includes enameled ware and glazed vessels. Another passageway leads to granaries such as are found in the oriental temples. They contain seeds of various kinds. One very large storehouse has not yet been entered, as it is twelve feet high and can be reached only from above. Two copper hooks extend on the edge, which indicates that some sort of ladder was attached. These grannies are rounded, as the materials of which they are constructed, I think is a very hard cement. A Gray metal is also found in this cavern, which puzzles the scientists, for its identity has not been established. It resembles platinum.”

“Strewn promiscuously over the floor everywhere are what people call 'cats eyes,' a yellow stone of no great value. Each one is engraved with the head of the Malay type.”

The Hieroglyphics

“On all the urns, or walls over doorways, and tablets of stone which were found by the image are the mysterious hieroglyphics, the key to which the Smithsonian Institute hopes yet to discover. The engraving on the tablets probably has something to do with the religion of the people. Similar hieroglyphics have been found in southern Arizona. Among the pictorial writings, only two animals are found. One is of prehistoric type.”

The Crypt

“The tomb or crypt in which the mummies were found is one of the largest of the chambers, the walls slanting back at an angle of about 35 degrees. On these are tiers of mummies, each one occupying a separate hewn shelf. At the bead of each is a small bench, on which is found copper cups and pieces of broken swords. Some of the mummies are covered with clay, and all are wrapped in a bark fabric. The urns or cups on the lower tiers are crude, while as the higher shelves are reached, the urns are finer in design, showing a later stage of civilization.”

“It is worthy of note that all the mummies examined so far have proved to be male, no children or females being buried here. This leads to the belief that this exterior section was the warriors' barracks. Among the discoveries, no bones of animals have been found, no skins, no clothing, no bedding. Many of the rooms are bare but for water vessels. One room, about 40 by 700 feet, was probably the main dining hall, for cooking utensils are found here.”

“What these people lived on is a problem, though it is presumed that they came south in the winter and farmed in the valleys, going back north in the summer. Upwards of 50,000 people could have lived in the caverns comfortably. One theory is that the present Indian tribes found in Arizona are descendants of the serfs or slaves of the people, which inhabited the cave. Undoubtedly a good many thousand of years before the Christian era a people lived here which reached a high stage of civilization. The chronology of human history is full of gaps.”

Professor Jordan much enthused over the discoveries and believes that the find will prove of incalculable value in archaeological work.

“One thing I have not spoken of, may be of interest. There is one chamber, the passageway to which is not ventilated, and when we approached it a deadly, snaky smell struck us. Our light would not penetrate the gloom, and until stronger ones are available, we will not know what the chamber contains.

Some say snakes, but other boo-hoo’d this idea and think it may contain a deadly gas or chemicals used by the ancients. No sounds are heard, but it smells snaky just the same.”

“The whole underground installation gives one of shaky nerves the creeps. The gloom is like a weight on one's shoulders, and our flashlights and candles only make the darkness blacker. Imagination can revel in conjectures and ungodly daydreams back through the ages that have elapsed till the mind reels dizzily in space.”

An Indian Legend
In connection with this story, it is notable that among the Hopi Indians the tradition is told that their ancestors once lived in an underworld in the Grand Canyon till dissension arose between the good and the bad, the people of one heart and people of two hearts.

Machetto, who was their chief, counseled them to leave the underworld, but there was no way out. The chief then caused a tree to grow up and pierce the roof of the underworld, and then the people of one heart climbed out. They tarried by Paisisvai (Red River), which is the Colorado, and grew grain and corn. They sent out a message to the Temple of the Sun, asking the blessing of peace, good will and rain for people of one heart. That messenger never returned, but today at the Hopi villages at sundown can be seen the old men of the tribe out on the housetops gazing toward the sun, looking for the messenger. When he returns, their lands and ancient dwelling place will be restored to them. That is the tradition.

Among the engravings of animals in the cave is seen the image of a heart over the spot where it dislocated. The legend was learned by W. E. Rollins the artist, during a year spent with the Hopi Indians. There are two theories of the origin of the Egyptians. One is that they came from Asia; another that the racial cradle was in the upper Nile region. Herein, an Egyptologist, believed in the Indian origin of the Egyptians. The discoveries in the Grand Canyon may throw further light on human evolution and prehistoric ages.



Connection Between Egypt And China
BEIJING, Aug. 7, 2001

More than a dozen heads of maces dating back to between 3,000 and 5,000 years ago, extremely similar to those used by kings of ancient Egypt, were recently unearthed in northwest China.

“The findings indicate that the contact between east and west civilizations began as early as the prehistoric period,” said Li Shuicheng, a professor from the archaeological department of Beijing University.

Previously, historical documents and archaeological discoveries have shown that east and west cultural exchanges started from the Qin and Han dynasties over 2,000 years ago. The new discovery greatly pushes back that date. The oldest ones among the mace-heads found in Gansu, Shaanxi and Xinjiang innorthwest China date back to 5,500 years ago, judging from the stratum of the relic site and the type of the remains.

“Many experts shared the view that the mace-heads were not a product of the ancient Chinese civilization, but were transmitted from the west,” said Li, adding “The exchange ability of the ancients might have surpassed our imagination.”

Li showed pictures of the mace-heads, found in Gansu, Shaanxi and Xinjiang in northwest China. Theyare made of stone, jade or bronze, and are in the shape of balls, peaches, oblates, pentagrams, sheep-heads or bull-heads. Some of them even carry colored drawings. Their shapes and functions are surprisingly similar to those of ancient Egypt, said noted.


The mace was a special instrument indicating status and authority. Egypt has the earliest and the most mace-head relics in the world. In addition, a large number of mace-heads have been discovered in the Near East, Mesopotamia and the prairie of Eurasia.


But they are seldom found in the valley of the Yellow River.

“When the mace-heads were excavated in China, some of them were mistaken for strange weapons or spindles,” said Li.



South American Atlantis
By Kathy A. Svitil

The Aymara people of the Bolivian highlands have long told stories of a lost underwater city: Wanaku, the Atlantis of South America. They have whispered tales of a mysterious island in Lake Titicaca, the world's highest navigable lake, with a hidden entrance to underground passageways built by the Inca. Now researchers have found the first concrete evidence that those legends may be true.

In August, divers with the Italian firm of Akakor Geographical Exploring conducted a series of 250 dives in Titicaca's murky waters. Led by a 2300-foot-long ancient road, now under water, they found the remains of a 660-foot-long and 160-foot-wide stone temple between 65 to100 feet below the water's surface. The team also discovered a terrace, a 2600-foot-long containing wall, along with a stone anchor, vases, and bones from cameloid animals such as llama or alpaca that may have been killed in a ritual sacrifice.

The ruins lie in the waters between Bolivia's Copacabana Peninsula and Isla del Sol, home to the Temple of the Sun, where the Incan dynasty is said to have been born. They date to between 1,500 and 1,000years ago, before the rise of the Incan Empire, when the Tiahuanaco people occupied the shores of Titicaca.

The submerged ruins may be the remains of the Aymara's legendary city, or could have been assimilated by the Inca Empire itself.

“The underground passageways were reputed to link many parts of the Incan Empire with the capital at Cossack,” says head diver Stefano Castelli. “Somebody else said he removed a stone from the bottom of the lake, and saw water going down inside the hole.”


Ancient Skeletons Expand Man's Past
By Robert S. Boyd

(Knight Ridder Newspapers)

An astonishing number of previously unknown relatives are turning up in the human family scrapbook, as archaeologists dig up the remains of long-lost great-great-uncles and aunts who once shared our planet. The fossils of three more ancient ancestors were reported this year. Scientists have now identified at least 17 pre-human species that once walked on Earth. The skulls and bones of more than 5,000archaic individuals have been found, some dating more than 5 million years, according to Rick Potts, director of the Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian Institution.

The latest find, reported earlier this month, appears to introduce the earliest members of our family tree yet discovered — a colony of 5.5 million-year-old forest dwellers living in what is now Ethiopia. Their remains share features common to both apes and humans. Thanks to the rapid pace of discovery, the number of known or suspected human ancestors has almost doubled since the 1980s. Experts have been forced to rewrite their textbooks and encyclopedias.

A Tangled Family tree
The old idea of a straight line of evolution leading steadily upward from apes to shaggy cavemen to clean-shaven Wall Street brokers has been abandoned.

“Our evolutionary history now looks more like a tangled bush than a simple tree,” Leslie Aiello, an anthropologist at University College, London, wrote in the journal Nature.

Some of these vanished species were “immensely successful,” Potts reports in his book, “Humanity's Descent.” One line, called Homo erectus, survived for almost 2 million years — at least 10 times longer than modern humans have been around. But all except our own species, Homo sapiens, turned out to be evolutionary dead ends. In the struggle for survival, our own forebears out-competed, out-thought and possibly slaughtered less versatile, less intelligent rival species.

The last of our ancient cousins, the lumbering Neanderthals, coexisted with Homo sapiens in Europe and the Near East until about 25,000 years ago. They may even have mated with our forebears. Homo erectus survived until about 50,000 years ago, overlapping with both Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens.

In the latest version of the story of human origins, we are members of a large family called “hominids,” which arose in Africa and included apes and humans. The apes and our ancestors parted ways about 6million years ago. Our branch of the hominids eventually split into various subfamilies, tribes, genera and species. A species is a collection of creatures that can breed with one another. A genus is a closely related group of species. A tribe is a group of genera (the plural of “genus”). At last count, there were three tribes, five genera and 18 species assigned to the hominid family, including six extinct species of the genus Homo and us.

The Adaptability Factor
Anthropologists don't all agree on the details of these classifications, but the general outline is broadly accepted. Orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and humans are the only survivors of these multiple evolutionary experiments.


The question, said Potts, is

“What allowed some hominids to endure while others died out?”

Part of the answer is that Homo sapiens was better able than more specialized species to adapt to the rapidly changing climate of its homeland in Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, when what had been a warm, moist environment turned cold and dry.

“If a species is tied to a given setting, it can be annihilated if the setting changes,” William Schopf, director of the Center for the Study of Evolution and the Origin of Life at the University of California, Los Angeles, wrote in his book, “Cradle of Life.”

In addition to its adaptability, the ability of Homo sapiens to use language was the key new behavior that let our ancestors prevail over their rivals, according to Ian Tattersall, curator of anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Speech enabled our forebears to communicate and cooperate more effectively to hunt prey, escape predators and pass on skills to the next generation.

Pre-Modern Homo Sapiens
The Jinniushan cranium found in 1985 by a student excavation team from Peking University under the direction of Prof. Lu Zun'e, is one of the more recent fossil human specimens discovered in China. The cranium was directly associated with a partial skeleton, including a complete pelvis, portions of the spinal column, and nearly complete hand and foot bones.  


The remains were recovered from a collapsed limestone cave in Yingkou county, Liaoning. The human bearing deposits have been dated to approximately 250-280,000 years ago. The Jinniushan cranium shows certain derived features that ally it to early forms of H. sapiens. These traits include a cranial capacity within the range of modern people, thin vault bones, an expansion of the parietal region, a more gracile cranial base and a more rounded occipital bone, posteriorly. In other respects it shares features with H. erectus such as projecting brow ridges, low cranial height and an elongate, strongly buttressed cranial vault.

In this oblique view many of the salient features of the Jinniushan cranium discussed above can be clearly seen. This cranium, as well as those from Dali and Maba to be discussed below display derived traits generally associated with H. sapiens yet are definitely more archaic looking than early modern humans. They may best be characterized as pre-modern forms of H. sapiens.


Such “pre-modern” human specimens have only recently come to light in China. The presence of these transitional forms in China during the Late Middle through Early Late Pleistocene has been used to support the argument for local evolutionary continuity in China between H. erectus and modern humans.

The Dali specimen from Shaanxi, is dated to approximately 180,000 YA. It is similar in many ways to Jinniushan and represents a pre-modern form of H. sapiens. Its cranial capacity is intermediate between earlier forms of H. erectus and later more modern forms of H. sapiens, although it overlaps the range of variation seen in both. Dali is also intermediate in its morphological character, retaining many features associated with Asian H. erectus while evincing a number of derived features associated with modern humans such as expansion of the parietals and transformation in cranial base anatomy.

In this oblique view the long, low contour of the Dali cranial vault is readily apparent. The upper jaw has been fractured and dislocated upwards giving the cranium the appearance of having a very short face. Actually the face would be very similar in overall dimensions to the Jinniushan cranium upon reconstruction. The Dali cranium has extremely robust brow ridges. They do not, however, assume the straight bar-like character of the brow seen at Zhoukoudian and are more similar structurally to the brow seen in archaic humans from Europe and Africa.


Dali is dated to a time when Neanderthals were spread throughout much of Europe. The facial anatomy of Dali is very different from that seen in Neanderthals and is much more similar to that seen in later, more modern looking humans not only in China but northern and eastern Africa as well. This lateral view of Dali shows the rounding of the posterior contour of the skull, differing in this respect from the “pinched” look seen in H. erectus. The base of the Dali cranium is much more modern looking than that of H. erectus. The tympanic plate is thin and foreshortened, much as in modern humans and quite distinct from the tubular form seen in H. erectus.

The Maba cranium, dated to approximately 120,000 years ago was discovered in 1958 in the southern Chinese province of Guangdong. It was the first substantial specimen of a pre-modern form of H. sapiens found in East Asia. It was initially thought to be an Asian Neanderthal but does not in fact show any of the derived features of Neanderthals as known from Europe and the Near East.


The Maba skull dissimilar to other more complete finds of pre-modern H. sapiens subsequently found in China, differing only in minor ways, such as the size and shape of the orbits and nasal bones. Maba is also somewhat reminiscent of the recently discovered Narmada skull from India.

Alien Skull Discovered in Bulgaria
Leyla Degirmen, UFO Roundup correspondent in the Balkans, has come across a strange story in the Turkish newspaper Milliyet, which stated that an alien skull was found last May in southern Bulgaria.

“On May 21, 2001, a villager found an unusual skull on Rodolp Mountain in Bulgaria,” somewhere near Ardino and Madan, about 200 kilometers (120 miles) south of Sofia, the national capital.

“Some scientists held a meeting in Asenovgrad. Prof. Yordan Yordanov, one of the best-known anthropologists in Europe, claimed that he had never seen a human or an animal skull like this in his life. Katya Melamet, one of the archaeologists at the Bulgarian Science Academy, has also told that she has never seen anything like this.”

“The story of the villager is also very interesting,” Leyla writes, “He claimed that he had seen five people, with yellow metallic clothes, in his dream. They told the villager to go to the area on the 21st of May, and when he went there, he found the skull and a (small) elliptical metal object.”

“The skull is (weighs) about 250 grams and has six holes in it to (which apparently) belong to the senses. The skull also has no mouth hole.”

“This summary is from an article published in Milliyet on January 4, 2002."


Giants on the Loose

(From http//

Rex Gilroy on the “Yowie”
According to the Aborigines, the yowies were terrifying to look upon: fearsome and hairy, up to or over 2.6 meters in height, with strong muscular bodies, powerful arms and large hands longer than a human's. They walked upright upon two legs with a stooped gait. Their heads were sunk into their shoulders, giving them the stooped appearance. They had a pointed sagittal crest {skull dome} and are ceding forehead with thick, protruding eyebrow-ridges and large deeply-set eyes. Males were often hairier than females, who had long pendulous breasts. The feet of the yowie were much larger than those of a normal-sized human, and possessed an opposable big toe.

These mysterious hominids roamed the remoter, forest-covered mountain regions either in small family groups or hunting in ones and twos, their females and young secreted back in their lairs. The Aborigines both feared and respected the yowies, venerating them as sacred creatures from the Dreamtime. In fact, as already pointed out, Aboriginal folklore is still full of giant manlike beings, creatures sometimes over three meters in height. While some were giant humans who made massive stone tools and sometimes fire, others were more ape-like.

These giants are perhaps the real enigma of Australia's Stone Age history, for apart from these tools there are no fossil bones to convince anthropologists of their former presence here. They accept the presence of such beings in Pleistocene Java and China, for their massive fossil jaws and teeth are known from there; but otherwise, nothing short of such fossil evidence from Australia will ever convince these scientists that giant hominid forms once roamed this continent-not even evidence of their huge fossil footprints which, together with those of other, smaller hominids, have turned up in every Australian state!.

Monster Hominids in Australia
Let us now examine these monster hominids in more detail with other evidence which further demonstrates that Australia possesses a vast, rich store of hitherto unknown and 'unwritten' history.

Cowra, Central Western NSW
Embedded in a shoal of mudstone on a hillside near Cowra in central western New South Wales are two half intact, enormous manlike footprints. Measuring almost one meter in length by 45 centimeters width across the toes, local Aborigines claim they were made by a giant man who stood 7.6 meters tall and who lived around Cowra in the long ago Dreamtime.

If such height for any giant hominid ancestor seems unbelievable to some people, I might add here that I have found the Aboriginal descriptions of extinct giant marsupial and other mega fauna of the last ice-age extremely reliable. And, as I have said, giant-sized fossil hominid tracks are found Australia-wide.

Penrith, New South Wales
Take, for example, the six 61-cm long by 46-cm wide manlike fossilized footprints discovered in mudstone in April 1970 near Penrith at the base of the eastern escarpment of the Blue Mountains of NSW. The size of the tracks, spaced two meters apart, suggested the monster that made them must have been at least four meters tall.

Bathurst NSW
Identical fossil tracks have been found in the Bathurst district to the west of the Blue Mountains in the vicinity of the giant mega-tool discoveries of mine. Could we be looking at the fossilized tracks of Meganthropus, or as I have suggested earlier, a 'home-grown' race of giant people?

Townsville-Rockhampton Queensland
Another giant fossil footprint, identical to the Penrith and Bathurst examples and measuring 61 cm long by 46 cm wide across the toes, was found near Townsville, Queensland, in 1952. More fossilized giant manlike footprints of these dimensions have been found in the Mount Isa district of Queensland. In the same region, according to Aborigines, a race of monstrous four-to-five-meter-tall giant men and women-the “Kalkadoons”-once lived during the Dreamtime.

These monsters are reminiscent of the “Illankanpanka” of Rockhampton, Queensland, Aboriginal lore10-to-12-metre-tall giant beings. Are all these monster hominids representative of a single race? Given Aboriginal size exaggeration over vast distances, there nonetheless exists some truly monstrous stone implements, such as a number found sometime ago on a property outside Rockhampton, that are far, far larger and heavier than any I have found near Bathurst.

Monster hominids of the six-to-eight-meter-tall variety could help explain some of the truly unbelievable large manlike fossil footprints to be covered in this chapter. Were they from outside Australia? Or, as Aborigines claim, did they originate on this continent? Townsville Aborigines claim the huge fossiltracks found there in 1925 was made by a member of the “Narragun” race.

Roper River {Northern territory} Aborigines have left rock carvings of giant-sized footprints, measuring up to 38 centimeters and more in length., which represent those made by the legendary giant “Nagarun” people who, during the Dreamtime walked from the east coast of Arnhem Land down the Wilton River to the Roper, and then eastward to the Borroloola in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Prehistoric ochre cave art in Arnhem Land depicts giant marsupials, among other animals.

Wullagun, a tribal elder, once described them:

“When giant fellas alive, them big animals still bin walkabouts this country. White men say they all dead, but we savvy one place where him still live. Ground shake when he walk. He eat peoples”

Similar traditions are built around the charcoal painting of two five-meter-tall figures depicted upon the side of a rock overhang near Townsville, representing two Illankanpanka giant men who wandered mountains thereabouts in the long ago Dreamtime.

Orange NSW
South-west of Orange, NSW, embedded in a 3.6-metre by 6.6 meter lump of solid mudstone is an apparent giant manlike footprint, an astounding 1.6 meters long by one meter wide across the toes. The question is whether the footprint is an actual fossilized track or an example of ancient weathered rock art depicting a footprint of the Bulloo, the giant men and woman known to the Aborigines of western New South Wales in ancient times.

Apart from the fossil footprints of manlike beings, there are also fossil tracks of giant creatures that appear more ape-like than manlike. Could these tracks be those of Gigantopithecus, the giant manlike ape that roamed mainland Asia and Java half a million years ago? Much smaller, although still quite large ape-like tracks are preserved in mudstone near Jenolan Caves south-west of Katoomba and resemble the much larger Gigantopithecus-like footprint fossils.

But how are footprints fossilized? Scientists have demonstrated that most footprint fossils have been preserved through the action of volcanic eruptions, a layer of ash covering the tracks to cool and solidify them quickly, thus protecting them over thousands of years, weathering disintegrated the solidified volcanic ash covering to expose the now fossilized tracks. The problem with dating many tracks is in determining exactly when volcanic eruptions ceased in the areas where fossil footprints have been found.

Huge fossil tracks said by Aborigines to have been left by the “Narragun giants” near Mt Gambier, South Australia, come from volcanic deposits which could be anywhere up to a million years old. Volcanic eruptions in ice-age Victoria, on the other hand, have produced hominid evidence preserved bymuch recent lava flows.

For example, the lava flow from the Scoria Cone at Mount Buninyong, about 10 kilometers south-east of Ballarat, covered a lake deposit from which, in 1864, the disputed Buninyong bone implement was found at a depth of 80 meters together with the remains of an extinct Kangaroo. The implement is part of a rib of a 'Nototherium', and has been cut to an irregular point from opposite sides. The Buninyong remains are dated at least 200,000 years old.

The most extensive series of giant-and smaller-sized, volcanically-preserved fossil hominid footprints and handprints so far discovered at any single Australian location are embedded in mudstone deep in the Carrai Range, which rises up to 1,300 meters above sea level, 60 Kilometers west of Kempsey on the New South Wales north coast. My wife Heather and I discovered the tracks during the course of ayowie field research expedition which we made to the Kempsey district in April 1977. Early sightings reports from last century led us to explore the Carrai Range, and it was during an inspection of cliffs overlooking a remote gully that we stumbled upon the fossil tracks.

They are embedded in two huge, obliquely-tilted slabs situated either side of a deep cutting overlooking wide, deep gully. Although, it is difficult to visualize now, the whole area once had been swampland. Groups of giant creatures and their children had walked, squatted and sat upon the edge of this swamp. Then, soon afterwards, the peace was shattered. Volcanic ash and lava poured out of a nearby crater and forced the giants to flee for their lives, covering the tracks. In great ages past, a river cut its way through the swamp, gradually cutting a deep into the Earth below the layers of lava and ash and forming a deep gully.

Heat and rain gradually re-exposed the tracks, while wind and erosion cut away at the base of the nearby cliffs, hollowing out deep rock shelters beneath the fossil tracks. This gradually had the effect of splitting the rock above, which eventually resulted in two huge sections containing the fossils falling into the cutting created by erosion. Volcanologist's are divided on when the volcanic eruptions hereabouts ceased, but it is certain that this event took place no later than about one million years ago!

Since the initial fossil/handprint discovery, two further mudstone track sites have been discovered nearby, bringing the total fossil impressions to about 90 tracks! The footprints range from child-sized examples measuring 20 cm long by 10 cm wide and 26 cm long by 13 cm wide, to monstrous tracks 62cm long by 33 cm wide across the toes, and one truly monstrous half-intact track of 42 cm width across the toes by 60 cm length to the mid-foot where the track breaks off. Had this track been complete it would have reached up to 120 centimeters in length!

There are handprints of various sizes, from 13 cm length by 23 cm width, to one monstrous left-handprint measuring an astounding 41 cm width from outstretched thumb to little finger, by 35 cm length from mid-finger to palm! Some footprints look like giant human tracks, whereas others are more apelike, but it is obvious that the monstrous beings who made these tracks in the sands of time stood anywhere from 4 to 6.6 to even 8.3 meters tall.

Aborigines who have seen the fossil tracks and handprints say they were made by two different races of giant beings: the giant “Goolagah, and the half-man, half-animal forefathers of the yowies. The evidence suggests that giant hominids shared the region with Gigantopithecus-type creatures in the beginning of the last ice age when volcanic eruptions were commonplace in northern New South Wales.

Blacktown NSW
On Thursday 27th, July 1989, my wife Heather and I stumbled upon two fossilized giant-man tracks preserved on two mudstone slabs a few meters apart from one another upon a creek-bank near Black-town, west of Sydney. One is a modern human foot and measuring 53 cm length by 19 cm width across the toes.


The second example, a right foot, is 44 cm long by 22 cm wide and is obviously distorted due to it having been impressed into softer mud than the other track. Were the tracks those of two separate hominids or a single individual? Even allowing for size distortions in the original soft mud, the creature or creatures who left these tracks must have been of considerable size-at least three meters in height.


The mudstone itself is at least 200,000 years old.

Penrith NSW
The former presence of the Goolagah is preserved in the rock art of the old Dharuk people of the Penrith district. Upon a vertical rock-face near the town is the pecked rock carving of a large “mundoe” or manlike foot, indicating the Doolagahs once inhabited the area. It measures 35 cm length by 17 cm in width across the five toes.


According to the former Blue Mountains Aborigines who related these tales to European settlers in the 1800's, the Goolagah monster men and women were gigantic in every physical feature, with large heads, thick arm and leg muscles, and feet much larger than any normal Aborigine. Males were big-chested and very hairy, while the females had less hair and long pendulous breasts far larger than those of any udder!

These monstrous beings lived and hunted throughout the Sydney region. In what is now the western suburbs area, the giant men, women and their children were a commonplace sight, hunting monitor lizards with their large stone or wooden clubs and spears. The Aborigines lived in fear of the Goolagah, whose powerful forms must have been an awesome, terrifying sight to any lone tribesman crouching in fear behind bushes as they passed by.

As Aboriginal traditions across Australia tell of battles fought with the giant creatures, it is obvious that they were wiped out around 40,000 years ago-although some present-day Aborigines maintain that in some far-off unexplored mountainous areas some of these giant people linger on.

Blue Mountains Aborigines claimed the Doolgahl wandered the mountain-tops hunting the giant kangaroos, giant monitor lizards and other creatures, killing them with spears and stones. They were/are said to inhabit the New England region of northern New South Wales where fresh campsites could be found.

I know of stories even from Europeans, telling of giant-sized stone and wooden tools and weapons found in north-western and northern New South Wales today-such as one freshly abandoned campsite found by a prospector near Brewarrina in 1973.

Tweed Valley
Giant man-beasts with large wooden clubs have been claimed seen in the Tweed Valley on the Queensland side of the NSW-Queensland border even in the 70s.

Giant Aboriginal People: And then there are the traditions of a form of giant Aboriginal people, claimed by their smaller, modern counterparts to have survived in remote regions. If such Astraloid giants existed, they were, like their monster hominid neighbors, the result of genetic mutation caused by various environmental factors. A population of giant Aborigines were said to have once roamed the central west of NSW, side by side with the other giant hominids.


Old Aboriginal tales of a giant race having roamed the Pilliga region near Coonabarabran were perhaps vindicated in 1969 with a farmer's discovery near Coolah, east of Coonabarabran, of a reputed giant-sized Endocast fossil hominid skull, said to be not unlike the Bathurst Skull No. 1 described in Chapter 14.

Marble Man, Caleula
One day in May 1889, Mr. Frederick Sala, an Orange, NSW quarryman, was digging at the Caleula quarry, about 50 kilometers out of Blayney, when he unearthed what he thought at first was an ancient statue of a normal-sized male body encased in marble. Thinking it might also be the fossilized body of some prehistoric human, he lifted it with some difficulty into a large crate on his cart and journeyed into Orange to show off his find to the amazed locals. The figure, he thought, had to be that of a freak fir it had seven toes on each foot, one eye and no arms, and one leg was thinner than the other.

The arms had probably been lost in the course of the fossilization process. The marble in with the figure was found with a molted color, whereas that of the corpse was pure white. Doctors who subsequently studied the 'marble man' thought him unique because of the perfect preservation of such features as water humors of the eye and the cartilage of the nose which, in normal human remains, dry up after death. The one remaining eye was well-formed, but there were an unequal number of ribs on each side of the figure's chest.

A Sydney based scientist, Dr. C. W. McCarthy, declared the 'marble man' to be an actual petrified human corpse. It was obvious the 'marble man' was a form of Endocast, which would explain certain irregularities of the figure due to geological pressures over untold thousands of years. The “Marble Man of Orange” was soon taken to Sydney for public exhibition at two shillings admission, attracting large audiences of inquisitive people. Sculptors who examined the figure declared it was definitely not a statue as some people had suggested.

The 'marble man' was undoubtedly of very great antiquity to have first been buried in lime-impregnated sediments and gradually to have become fossilized in the way 'he had'. However, the mystery remains unexplained because after the exhibition 'he' was sold to an antiquarian dealer and shipped to Europe where the remarkable fossil disappeared.

Marble Man, Gympie Queensland: Another 'marble man', seven feet tall in height, was discovered by miners outside Gympie, Queensland, in 1914. They had just used explosives to blast a quantity of limestone at an open-cut operation. As one of the workmen began clearing away some of the rubble, his eyes fell upon a large human-looking head which had completely turned to limestone. Meanwhile, other miners began finding pieces of arms, legs, a torso, etcetera, until finally, after a detailed search of the rubble, they had collected an entire body-a seven-foot-tall giant male. The fossil giant was obviously another Endocast and of immense age.

It is said the fragmented hominid was crated down to the Brisbane Museum but subsequently, once there, all trace of it was lost. Such remains which question long-accepted indoctrination's of our ancient past seldom see the light of day once they fall into the hands of such institutions. As I mentioned earlier, the Endocast process is along one and can take up to 250,000 years.


But if mudstone and limestone endocasting can preserve remains up to this age, then how old might an agatised hominid skull be?

About 1971, a fossicker working on a property near Moree, northern NSW, dug up from a gravel bed a fossilized, primitive-looking hominid skull reminiscent of my Bathurst Skull No. 2. it was completely agatised, showing teeth and empty sockets. This Wadjak-type skull is surely of Pre-Astraloid age, but just how old it might be remains a mystery, for agatisation of a fossil must take considerably longer than mudstone endocasting.

Once again, as with the skull-types already dealt with, as well as the fossilized hominid ape-like footprints preserved in volcanic ash-flows uncountable years ago, we are faced with the obvious conclusion; in comparison with these and other early hominids, the Australian Aborigines, while they undoubtedly evolved here, were mere latecomers on the Australian landscape.

Inverell 1993
On Friday (September 1993), yet one more giant-sized hominid fossilized footprint was added to such a list of such 'Titan tootsies' coming to light across the continent. My wife heather and I were exploring scrub country outside Inverell in Northern New England, about 140 kilometers east of Moree, when quite by accident we stumbled upon a shoal of weathered mudstone. Here, embedded in the rock, we found and measured a single large hominid footprint impression.

The track is that of a right foot, probably distorted in the original soft mud, and is 44 cm in length by 30cm across the toes. There were signs that other tracks had been embedded nearby, but these have gradually weathered away 'till hardly any trace of them remains. perhaps they were originally covered by a volcanic ash flow. Signs of volcanic activity are to be found all around the Inverell district, and weathered basalt nearby the fossil footprints suggests that this and the other tracks had originally been covered by volcanic activity.

Maybe this single surviving weathered giant tracks belonged to one of a whole group, perhaps a family of giant hominids, fleeing from the eruption which subsequently covered their tracks-in a similar way to those more famous normal-sized hominid tracks, found in 1974 by anthropologist Dr Mary Leakey at Laetoli in Tanzania, which proved to scientists at the time that early hominids were already walking fully upright like modern humans three and a half million years ago.

The Inverell 'megaman' and his relatives obviously walked the landscape hereabouts a very long time ago. If the Carrai range fossil tracks are any guide, then we could be safe in assuming the Inverell fossilis of the same antiquity-that is, preserved by a lava flow that occurred no later than a million years ago! The monster hominid whose single footprint still survives must have been enormous, at least four meters in height and of great weight and strength.

Aborigines of later times across Australia, particularly the New England district, kept well clear of these hairy giants unless they were well-armed and in sufficient numbers to oppose them. According to traditions of the New England tribes, they eventually killed off the giant race in the long ago Dreamtime. Old settlers' tales of the Inverell region speak of other, earlier giant fossil footprint discoveries hereabouts—so perhaps more await discovery, or re-discovery, in the scrub country of this ancient landscape.

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