CHAPTER – 8
SPECIAL STUDY ON ROLE- SPECIFIC FEATURES OF VIMANAS
Narration of specific features (32 features) deserves special
attention. Hence this part of the report is dedicated specially to
these features of the vimanas. Original text is placed under quotes
and comments / observations of the team are noted below each item.
1. Mantrika. :
“As prescribed in ‘Mantradhikaranam’, by invoking the
mantras of chhinna masta, Bhairavi, Veginee, Siddanatha, acquire the
powers of ghutikaa, paadukaa, visible and invisible and other
mantraas with potent herbs and efficacious oils, and Bhuvaneshwaree
mantra which confers spiritual and mesmeric powers, to construct
aeroplanes, which don’t break, cannot be cut, cannot be burnt, and
cannot be destroyed.”
2. Tantrika. :
“By acquiring Mahaamaaya, shambara, and other
taantric powers, to endow the plane with those powers.”
By invoking specific tantric powers to endow the vimana with some
Note: The above two categories as clarified in the later part of
‘Vymanika Shastra’ have no relevance in the current Yuga (a scale to
measure the cluster of years representing certain generations of
mankind). They are ascribed to the earlier yugas. For this reason as
well as lack of literature on these disciplines the study team keeps
them out of its scope in this present report.
3. Kritaka. :
“ By study of architects like Viswakarma,
Chaayaapurusha, Manu, Maya and others, to construct planes of
Definition is suggestive of real hardware, without intervention of
super natural or extraordinary powers.
Applicability of this type of vimana to the current Kaliyuga is
dwelt upon later in the work.
Quoted authorities on this architectural sciences are noted
personalities of epic era.
4. Antaraala. :
“ In the wind swept atmospheric region of the sky,
in the clash at the borders of the mighty currents, an inadvertant
plane is likely to be smashed to pieces. But by getting warned of
the approach of such danger spots, the plane could be halted and
steered with care”
Danger faced by the flying machine in certain cross sections of the
atmosphere is referred to. Advance-warning to the pilot on such
zones is discussed. Avoidance action through a detour of such zone
forms the special feature.
Knowledge of atmosphere and danger zones therein was evidently
available leading to the concept of an avoidance technique.
Primarily an advance weather warning feature as an on-board system
to assist the pilot is under discussion. Perhaps, analogues to
weather-warning radar as a flight safety device.
5. Goodha :
“As explained in ‘Vayutatva prakarana’, by harnessing
the powers, yaasaa, prayaasa in the eighth atmospheric layer
covering the earth to attract the dark content of the solar ray, and
use it to hide the vimana from the enemy”
Concept is one of concealment of vimana from vision.
‘Vayutatwa-Prakarana’ is quoted as the reference text.
Principle of achieving invisibility or camouflaging of aircraft from
enemy is clear. Notably enemy may include enemy aircraft or ground
forces. Strategic and tactical roles of the vimana are distinctly
‘Harnessing the dark content of solar rays’ as a feature is
Concept of concealing aircraft from enemy’s vision was evolved in
modern military aviation only in the latter part of twentieth
century. Invisibility technique spans from simple camouflaging
methods to stealth features to circumvent radar detection. Here the
principle is beyond conventional camouflaging.
6. Drishya :
“By collision of the electric power and wind power in
the atmosphere, a glow is created, whose reflection is to be caught
in the ‘vishwa kriya darpana’ or mirror at the front of the vimana,
and by its manipulation to produce a maaya-vimana or camouflaged
Primarily a concept of decoy and / or diversionary technique.
Using refection of a glow generated by electrical and wind energies
in the atmosphere and manipulating the reflection of the vimana
through ViswaKriya Darpana in creating a decoy Vimana is hinted.
Obviously suggests use in course of vimana performing strategic and
tactical roles to mislead enemy’s air and ground attacks.
Could be a concept of creating mirage of vimana as a decoy.
7. Adrishya. :
“According to ‘Shakti tantra’, by means of the
Vymarathya Vikarana and other powers in the heart centre of the
solar mass, attract the force of the etherial flow in the sky, and
mingle it with Balaahaavikarana shakti in the aerial globe,
producing thereby a white cover which will make the vimana
By definition, to produce the effect of a white glow around the
vimana by attraction of ethereal flow in the atmosphere and mixing
it with the energy in the aerial globe.
A cocooning technique to achieve invisibility.
Harnessing energy sources in atmosphere for on-board use is
Evidently, strategic and tactical applications in aerial warfare.
Refers to specific work “Shakthi tantra”
8. Paroksha. :
“According to ‘Meghotpatti prakarana’ or the science
of the birth of clouds, by entering the second of the summer cloud
layers, and attracting the power therein with the shaktyaakarshana
darpana or force attraction mirror in the vimana, and applying it to
the parivesha or halo of the Vimana a paralyzing force is generated,
and opposing vimanas are paralyzed and put out of action”
Principles of formation of clouds referred to as
“Meghotpatti-prakarana” indicate the possession of knowledge of
science of atmosphere.
Derivation of energy from clouds through “Shaktyakarshana yantra”
eventually to generate paralyzing force and directing this energy
against enemy planes.
A lethal measure in combat flying in strategic attacks.
Could be both in strategic or tactical roles of mission.
Used in the event of multiple air attack.
Distinctly can be
categorized under the concept of Biological
9. Aparoksha. :
“According to ‘Shakti-tantra’, by projection of the
Rohinee beam of light, things in front of the vimana are made
Shakti tantra is referred on the principle underlying this on-board
To achieve a kind of visibility in front of the vimana using Rohinee
Beam. This may be a special optical beam employed for flying during
darkness for the purpose of sighting or landing/take off.
Possibilities of this beam not being a conventional light source,
but for other applications like radar beam cannot be over ruled.
10. Sankocha or Contraction. :
“As prescribed in the Yantraangopasamhaara section, when the vimana is flying at a speed
with fully extended wings and there is danger ahead, turning the
seventh switch in the vimana, its parts can be made to contract.”
Contraction of the wings of the Vimana while flying at high speed.
“YANTRANGOPASAMHAARA” quoted as the guide containing this principle
Evidently a mechanical contrivance provided as an on-board control
Could be to gain add-on speed by constricting the profile
Concept of variable geometry swing-wing / flapping-wing
configuration is evident.
11. Vistrita. :
“According to ‘Akaashatantra’, when the vimana is in
the central air flood in the third and first regions of the sky, by
turning the switch in the eleventh section of the plane, it becomes
expanded suitably according to ‘Vaalmeeki Ganita”.
An inverse function of Sankocha, again with variable geometry
configuration of the structure
Employed for expansion of wings while flying through certain
atmospheric zone as a flight protection measure.
‘Akaasha tantra’ quoted as the guiding text.
‘Vaalmiki ganitha’ is quoted possibly in relation to variable
12. Viroopa karana. :
“As stated in ‘Dhooma prakarana’, by producing
the thirty second kind of smoke through the mechanism and charging
it with light of the heat waves in the sky and projectiong it
through the padmaka chakra tube to the bhyravee oil-smeared
Vyroopya-darpana at the top of the vimana, and whirling with 130
second type of speed, a very fierce and terrifying shape of the
vimana will emerge, causing utter fright to onlookers.
By definition means change of appearance.
With combined use of specified smoke and light of the heat wave in
the atmosphere, and projecting through Padmaka chakra tube on oil
smeared Vyroopya darpana, creating artificial fierce shapes of the
Causing fright among the enemy forces aimed at through this on board
‘Dhooma Prakarana’ is the guiding text.
Partially a Biological warfare concept to psyche viewers.
Use of this feature in strategic and tactical air warfare roles.
Fierce shapes produced could as well be to convey coded signals.
Each shape denoting a signal.
“As stated in ‘Tylaprakarana’, by preparing
griddhrajihwaa, kumbhinee, and kaakajangha oils and anointing the
distorting mirror in the vimana with them, applying to it the
nineteenth kind of smoke and charging with the kuntinee shakti in
the vimana, shapes like lion, tiger, rhinoceros, serpent, mountain,
river will appear and amaze observers and confuse them.”
By definition means ‘conveying varied appearances’
Guiding text is ‘Tylaprakaranam’
Application of mixture of specified oils on distorting mirror in the
vimana, applying specified smoke and charging with Kuntinee shakthi
appearance of special shapes is effected.
Changes in the looks of Vimana might be aimed at for use as coded
signals to convey particular status of operation, or may even convey
specific messages to ones own ground forces in the form of
Though not mentioned as a means to tackle enemy forces, this
technique could also be to psyche them with scary shapes and divert
It could also be to escape pinpoint sighting and targeting of the
vimana itself by opponent forces. Hence it seems to include both
evasive and communicational roles.
Technique is on the lines of colour emission producing aesthetic
effects in air shows in modern aviation
14. Suroopa. :
“By attracting the thirteen kind of karaka force
mentioned in ‘Karaka prakarana’ applying snow-surcharged air and
projecting it on the right side of the vimana and focusing on it the
suragha beam, a heavenly damsel bedecked with flowers and jewels
will appear to onlookers of the vimana.”
Projecting the appearance of a damsel adorned with jewels and
Use of Karaka force and snow charged air, projecting it to
Pushpinee-pinjuala mirror and focussing a special beam results in
creation of such shape
‘Karaka Prakaranam’ is a treatise dealing with this technique
Concept possibly intended to convey aesthetically pleasing look on
the onlookers (obviously not for enemy’s consumption)
Concept is on the lines of Roopantara but appears for employment in
friendly territory on tactical role
Interesting interpretation of a damsel bedecked with flowers may be
intended to announce victory or a favourable status
Could be a mode of entertaining own forces
The technique is similar to modern air displays.
15. Jyothirbhaava. :
“As stated in ‘Amshubodhinee’, out of Samgnaana
and other sixteen digits of the solar glow, by attracting the
twelveth to the sixteenth digits and focusing them on the air force
in the Mayookha section in the fourth pathway in the sky and
similarly by attracting the force of the etherial glow and mingling
it with the glow in the seventh layer of air mass and then by
projecting both these forces through the five tubes in the vimana on
to the section of the guhaa-garbha mirror, a rich glow like the
morning glow of the sun will be produced.
Meaning refers to rich glow of rising sun.
Effect derived from a combination of specified digit of solar glow
energy and air mass of specified sections of atmosphere, etherial
glow coupled with Guha garba mirror.
Guiding work quoted is “Amshubodhini”. This work also ascribed to
Maharshi Bharadwaja, deals all about solar rays and energy
harnessing from these rays. This text is referred to many a time in
Possibly employed as a ‘time-diversionary’ tactic during night
aerial battles. Creating such an effect could be very useful in
confusing enemy ground forces and upset their operational movement
Employment in strategic role is useful.
16. Tamomaya. :
“As described in ‘Darpana Prakarana’, by means of
the dark force mirror, capture the force of darkness, pass it
through the Thamo Yantra in the north-west side of the vimana and by
turning a switch produce at noon-day the utter darkness of the night
of the new-moon.”
‘Tama’ basically means darkness. Tamomaya means Illusory darkness.
Employing dark force creating mirror, capture darkness energy and
using Tamo yantra to produce total darkness at the brightest part of
‘Darpanaprakarana’ is the guiding text and Tamoyantra is the
contraption effecting it.
Instant confusion is created in enemy forces, movement of troops
could be hampered.
Sighting of the Vimaana instantly affected, thus helping a quick
escape, possibly one of the best methods of self concealment for a
A very useful tool in strategic attacks during daytime.
A clever deception tactic in a situation when trapped in the midst
of enemy forces and while the Vimana is caught in crisis situation.
17. Pralaya, :
“As described in the magic book of destruction,
attract the five kinds of smoke through the tube of the contracting
machine in the front part of the vimana and merge it in the
cloud-smoke mentioned in ‘Shadgarbha Viveka’. Pushing it by electric
force through the five limbed aerial tube, destroy everything as in
Total anhilation concept.
Using five kinds of smoke, merging it with cloud smoke and directing
electrical energy to push through five on board naalas create
massive destruction of enemy forces.
Evidently the most lethal strategic weapon discussed so far.
In strategic role, could be even meant as a suicidal action in a
In a way, can be termed as a Biological weapon.
18. Vimukha. :
“As mentioned in ‘Rig-hridaya’, by projecting the
force of Kubera, Vimukha and Vyshawaanara poison powder through the
third tube of the roudree mirror and turning the switch of the air
mechanism, produce wholesale insensibility and coma.”
Using prescribed substances including poisonous materials in
conjuction with Roudree mirror bringing about insensibility in enemy
Guide qouted is “Righridaya”
Unmistakably a Biological weapon.
Confirms conceptualization and knowledge of biological weaponry.
Deployment of similar weapons like “Sanmohanaastra” to cause such
effects as mentioned at a number of occasions in epics such as
Mahabharata and Ramayana War episodes.
Full strategic role of Vimana to be noted.
19. Taara. :
“By mixing with ethereal force ten parts of air force,
seven parts of water force and sixteen parts of solar glow and
projecting it by means of the star-faced mirror through the frontal
tube of the vimana, the appearance of a star-spangled sky is
In combination of ethereal energy, air and water forces and sunglow
projecting the resultant light through star faced mirror to obtain
Creation of such effects in combat flying during nights can be
useful in both strategic and tactical roles.
In strategic role it could be to generate a night sky where
artificial dispositions of stars generated could mislead the enemy
forces on navigation and movements.
In tactical role, the effect is either to create an aesthetic effect
or conveying coded signals to friendly troops.
20. Mahaashabda Vimochana. :
“By concentrating the air force in the
seven tubes of the vimana and turning the switch, produce, as stated
in ‘Shabda Prakaashikaa’ a crescendo of thunderous din, which stuns
people and makes them quake with fear and become insensible.”
Using the Air force through multiple naalas of Vimana to produce a
thunder sound to unnerve the forces.
Analogous to the technique of domination over the enemy
troop-locations and causing insensitivity to put them out of action.
Biological warfare in strategic application.
21. Langhana. :
“As stated in ‘Vaayu tattva prakarana’ when crossing
from one air stream into another, the vimana faces the baadaba glow
of the sun and catches fire. In order to prevent that, the electric
force and air force in the vimana should be conjoined and centred in
the life-centre of the vimana, and by turning the switch, the vimana
will leap into safety.”
Avoidance of Badabda glow of Sun while negotiating from one
atmospheric zone to another and using air and electric energy
(captive in the Vimana) to provide a leaping force.
Essentially a measure to achieve safe flying in specified
Use of captive energy is interesting.
Indications that knowledge of danger zones in atmosphere existed.
Guiding text “Vayutatvaprakarana”.
22. Sarpa-Gamana. :
“By attracting the Dandavaktra and other seven
forces of air and joining with solar rays, passing it through the
zig-zagging centre of the vimana and turning the switch, the vimana
will have a zig-zag motion like a serpent.”
By combining the use of Dandavaktra and other seven forces of air
and solar energy and passing the resultant in zig-zag manner.
Clearly an evasion technique to thwart attempts to pinpoint sighting
of the Vimana.
To evade enemy sighting on detection systems like Dishampati yantra
An evasive tactic while on strategic role.
23. Chaapala. :
“On sighting an enemy plane, by turning the switch
in the force centre in the middle section of the vimana, a 4,087
revolutions an hour atmospheric wave speed will be generated and
shake up the enemy plane.”
Using on board energy to impinge shock waves on enemy plane.
From the manner explained this is used as a specific weapon to
counter enemy plane to cause damage or destruction.
Can be in strategic or tactical role.
Partly a Biological weapon since shock waves cause serious impact on
opponent air crew
Could be a useful weapon in close attack roles and in crisis
24. Sarvatomukha. :
“When a formation of enemy planes comes to
attack one’s viamana, by turning the switch at the crown of the
vimana, make it revolve with agility and face all sides.”
To achieve Omni-directional view as enemy planes attack from
Essentially a detection system.
Concept of multiple aircraft attack in formation is interesting.
In the mode of Sarvathomukha the pilot knows his own disposition and
status of safety and combat capacity with reference to each attack
plane. This will enable him to decide the course of action and type
of attack / defense.
In combination with Sarpagamana, chaapala, Sankocha, a useful
25. Parashabda Grahaka :
“As explained in ‘Sowdaaminee kalaa’ or
science of electronics, by means of the sound capturing yantra in
the vimana, to hear the talks and sounds in enemy planes flying in
the sky .”
Using the sound sensing yantra, to intercept intra crew
communications from enemy aircraft.
Guiding principle is ‘Soudaminee Kala’ ( of Anshubodhinee).
Clearly a frequency interception technique
‘Shabdakarsha Yantra’, later discussed among Yantras, is one such
yantra though for a different purpose.
Concept of devices on the lines of electronic counter measures did
exist. Advanced knowledge of communication-interception of
frequencies must have prevailed.
As a prelude, basic transmitter and receiver devices must have
26. Roopakarshana. :
“By means of the photographic yantra in the
vimana to obtain a television view of things inside an enemy plane.”
Obtaining view of actions inside an enemy plane.
Clearly a counter measure concept in reconnaissance / surveillance
Means more than mere Photography of inside of vimana. To be useful,
has to be relaying pictures penetrating the body of the vimana.
Simple aerial photographic systems in reconnaissance role must have
preceded this technique.
27. Kriyaagrahana. :
“By turning the key at the bottom of the vimana,
a white cloth is made to appear. By electrifying the three acids in
the north-east part of the vimana and subjecting them to the seven
kinds of solar rays and passing the resultant force into the tube of
the Thrisheersha mirror and making the cloth screen face the mirror
and switching on the upper key, all the activities going on down
below on the ground, will be projected on the screen.”
Use of screen cloth projection, combined use of acids and solar ray,
sand using ‘Trisheersha Mirror, all actions going on the ground can
Trisheersha mirror is possibly to obtain a three dimensional effect.
Technique is to obtain a running relay of pictures of ongoing
actions on the ground.
Clearly a combination of strategic air surveillance possibly to warn
the trailing aircraft about ground situation of enemy forces ‘ KRIYA
GRAHANA ‘ meaning motion-picture reception could be used for
assessing damages inflicted.
In a battle role it seems to be for planning attacks on enemy ground
Yantras dealt with later explain the translation of this technique.
28. Dikpradarshana :
“Turning the key at the front of the vimana
Dishaampati yantra will show the direction from which the enemy
plane is approaching.”
By using a device named Dishampati yantra the direction of approach
of enemy aircraft is indicated.
A specific yantra later described under yantras is under discussion.
Concept seems to be on the lines of early warning radar.
Seems to be in a limited sense of direction-finder and not
This concept, in modern military aviation came around 1935 and used
during second world war.
29. Aakaashaakaara. :
“According to ‘Aakaasha-tantra’, by mixing
black mica solution with neem and bhoonaaga decoctions and smearing
the solution on the outer body of the vimana made of mica plates and
exposing to solar rays, the plane will look like the sky and becomes
By applying black mica and decoction of neem etc. over the body of
the vimana, obtain an appearance merging with the colour of the sky
and become indistinguishable.
A stealth technique limited to the extent of escaping visual
detection. An effective detection avoidance system
Use of solar ray to achieve this effect is clear.
Guide referred to is Aakaasha Tantra.
Can be useful only while flying in clear skies.
Deception against enemy surveillance
30. Jalada Roopa. :
“Mixing pomegranate juice, bilva or bael oil,
copper-salt, kitchen smoke, granthika or gugul liquid, mustard
powder and fish scale decoctions and adding sea-shell and rock-salt
powder and collecting smoke of the same solution and spreading it
with solar heat enveloping the cover, the vimana will have the
appearance of a cloud.”
Use of Botanical preparations and calcium materials and solar rays
for application , a cloud like appearance of vimana is obtained.
The concept and technique are similar to that of ‘Aakashakaara ‘
except to achieve cloud-like appearance.
Intended to be employed against detection while flying through
Useful in strategic roles
31. Stabdhaka. :
“By projecting apasmaara poison-fume smoke through
the tube on the north side on the vimana and discharging it with
stambhana-yantra, people in enemy planes will be made unconscious.”
Use of Aapasmara poison fumes and discharging through stambhana
yantra to render crew in the enemy planes unconscious.
Can be an effective tool both in
strategic and tactical roles
Specifies only in aerial engagements
Aapasmara is one of the deadly poisonous
32. Karshana. :
“When enemy planes come in strength to destroy one’s vimana, by setting aflame the Jwaalinee shakti in the Vyswamara
naala or pipe located at the navel of the plane, and switching the
keys of the two wheels to 87 degrees of heat, the burning shakti
will envelope the enemy plane and destroy it.”
To set fire to attacking enemy planes approaching in numbers
Use of ‘Jwalinee Shakti’ through ‘ vyswa maara naala’ is implied
defense tool in multiple attack situation
Could be in strategic or tactical roles in crisis situation
Summary of observations on 32 special features:
Most of the secrets (or features) are based on principle-specific
texts, an indication that each principle was broad-based and evolved
on scientific perceptions.
Strategic/ Tactical / reconnaissance /communication roles of
employment for attack/ defense purposes are clear.
Many features are safe-flying requirements, many of them relating
to atmospheric zone
A number of advance warning features are enunciated.
Many interesting avoidance features are seen
Biological warfare concept is in clear manifestation
Utilization of energy and properties of sunrays, ethereal flow,
air and cloud energy are seen.
Read in correlation with system- specific yantras under the
yantradhikaranam the study will be interesting.