Chapter Ten - A Lesson In Biology

"My debrief was also tape recorded as a back up and to add clarification to the stenographic notes. I debriefed immediately after my interview so that everything that was said was still fresh in my mind.

When I recounted these stories to the gallery stenographer I was still reeling a bit. The perspective on Earth history from the point of view of The Domain is very strange, to say the least. I wasn't sure if my uncomfortable feeling came from being disoriented, or if it came from being re-oriented. Either way, I felt unsteady and confused. Yet, at the same time, there was a ring of truth to it. I was elated and incredulous at the same time!

The stenographer looked askance at me more than a few times as she recorded the "history lesson" I passed on to her. I'm sure she thought I was losing my mind! Maybe she was right. However, if my mind had been filled with hypnotic suggestions and false memories by the "Old Empire", as Airl suggested, perhaps losing my mind would be a good idea!

I didn't have much time to ponder my own, personal thoughts about these things at the time. It was my duty to get all of the information I could from Airl and pass it on to the stenographer as soon as Airl was finished. My job was not to analyze the information, just report it as accurately as possible. The analysis would be left to the men in the gallery, or whomever else was receiving copies of the transcripts.

I also delivered a list of books and materials requested by Airl to the agent in the gallery room so these could be gathered and delivered to Airl. Each night after I left Airl, she spent the rest of the night reading or "scanning" the materials which had been delivered to her. The members of the gallery each received a transcript of the stenographic dictation to study, each looking for information that was of interest to them.


In the morning after breakfast I reported back to the interview room to continue my interviews or "lessons" with Airl."


Official Transcript of the U.S. Army Air Force Roswell Army Air Field, 50 9th Bomb Group

SUBJECT: ALIEN INTERVIEW, 28. 7. 1947, 1st Session

"The origins of this universe and life on Earth, as discussed in the textbooks I have read, are very inaccurate. Since you serve your government as a medical personnel, your duties require that you understand biological entities. So, I am sure that you will appreciate the value of the material I will share with you today.

The text of books I have been given on subjects related to the function of life forms contain information that is based on false memories, inaccurate observation, missing data, unproven theories, and superstition.

For example, just a few hundred years ago your physicians practiced bloodletting 188 (Footnote) as a means to release supposed ill-humors from the body in an attempt to relieve or heal a wide variety of physical and mental afflictions. Although this has been corrected somewhat, many barbarisms are still being practiced in the name of medical science.

In addition to the application of incorrect theories concerning biological engineering, many primary errors that Earth scientists make are the result of an ignorance of the nature and relative importance of IS-BEs as the source of energy and intelligence which animate every life form.

Although it is not a priority of The Domain to intervene in the affairs of Earth, The Domain Communications Office has authorized me to provide you with some information in an effort to provide a more accurate and complete understanding of these things and thereby enable you to discover more effective solutions to the unique problems you face on Earth.

The correct information about the origins of biological entities has been erased from your mind, as well as from the minds of your mentors. In order to help you regain your own memory, I will share with you some factual material concerning the origin of biological entities.

I asked Airl if she was referring to the subject of evolution. Airl said, "No, not exactly".

You will find "evolution" mentioned in the ancient Vedic Hymns. 189 (Footnote) The Vedic texts are like folk tales or common wisdoms and superstitions gathered throughout the systems of The Domain. These were compiled into verses, like a book of rhymes. For every statement of truth, the verses contain as many half-truths, reversals of truth and fanciful imaginings, blended without qualification or distinction.

The theory of evolution assumes that the motivational source of energy that animates every life form does not exist. It assumes that an inanimate object or a chemical concoction can suddenly become "alive" or animate accidentally or spontaneously. Or, perhaps an electrical discharge into a pool of chemical ooze will magically spawn a self-animated entity.

There is no evidence whatsoever that this is true, simply because it is not true. Dr. Frankenstein did not really resurrect the dead into a marauding monster, except in the imagination of the IS-BE who wrote a fictitious story one dark and stormy night. 190 (Footnote)

No Western scientist ever stopped to consider who, what, where, when or how this animation happens. Complete ignorance, denial or unawareness of the spirit as the source of life force required to animate inanimate objects or cellular tissue is the sole cause of failures in Western medicine.
In addition, evolution does not occur accidentally. It requires a great deal of technology which must be manipulated under the careful supervision of IS-BEs.


Very simple examples are seen in the modification of farm animals or in the breeding of dogs. However, the notion that human biological organisms evolved naturally from earlier ape-like forms is incorrect. No physical evidence will ever be uncovered to substantiate the notion that modern humanoid bodies evolved on this planet.

The reason is simple: the idea that human bodies evolved spontaneously from the primordial ooze of chemical interactivity in the dim mists of time is nothing more than a hypnotic lie instilled by the amnesia operation to prevent your recollection of the true origins of Mankind. Factually, humanoid bodies have existed in various forms throughout the universe for trillions of years.

This was compounded by the fact that The Vedic Hymns were brought to Earth 8,200 years ago by The Domain Expeditionary Force. While they were based in the Himalaya Mountains, the verses were taught to some of the local humans who memorized them. However, I should note that this was not an authorized activity for the crew of The Domain installation, although I am sure it seemed like an innocent diversion for them at the time.

The verses were passed along verbally from one generation to the next for thousands of years in the foothills and eventually spread throughout India. No one in The Domain credits any of the material in the Vedic Hymns as factual material, any more than you would use "Grimm's Fairy Tales" 191 (Footnote) as a guide for rearing children. However, on a planet where all of the IS-BEs have had their memory erased, one can understand how these tales and fantasies could be taken seriously.

Unfortunately, the humans who learned the Vedic verses passed them along to others saying that they came from "the gods". Eventually, the content of the verses were adopted verbatim as "truth". The euphemistic and metaphorical content of the Veda were accepted and practiced as dogmatic fact. The philosophy of the verses were ignored and the verses became the genesis of nearly every religion practice on the planet, especially Hinduism. 192 (Footnote)

As an officer, pilot and engineer of The Domain, I must always assume a very pragmatic point of view. I could not be effective or accomplish my missions if I were to use philosophical dogma or rhetoric as my operations manual. Therefore, our discussion of history is based on actual events that occurred long before any IS-BEs arrived on Earth, and long before the "Old Empire" came into power. I can relate part of this history from personal experience:

Many billions of years ago I was a member of a very large biological laboratory in a galaxy far from this one. It was called the "Arcadia Regeneration Company". 193 (Footnote) I was a biological engineer working with a large staff of technicians. It was our business to manufacture and supply new life forms to uninhabited planets. There were millions of star systems with millions of inhabitable planets in the region at that time.

There were many other biological laboratory companies at that time also. Each of them specialized in producing different kinds of life forms, depending on the "class" of the planet being populated. Over a long span of time these laboratories developed a vast catalogue of species throughout the galaxies. The majority of basic genetic material is common to all species of life. 194 (Footnote) Therefore, most of their work was concerned with manipulating alterations of the basic genetic pattern to produce variations of life forms that would be suitable inhabitants for various planetary classes.

The "Arcadia Regeneration Company" specialized in mammals for forested areas and birds for tropical regions. Our marketing staff negotiated contracts with various planetary governments and independent buyers from all over the universe. The technicians created animals that were compatible with the variations in climate, atmospheric and terrestrial density and chemical content. In addition we were paid to integrate our specimens with biological organisms engineered by other companies already living on a planet.

In order to do this our staff was in communication with other companies who created life forms. There were industry trade shows, publications and a variety of other information supplied through an association that coordinated related projects.

As you can imagine, our research required a great deal of interstellar travel to conduct planetary surveys. This is when I learned my skills as a pilot. The data gathered was accumulated in huge computer databases and evaluated by biological engineers. 195 (Footnote)

A computer is an electronic device that serves as an artificial "brain" or complex calculating machine. It is capable of storing information, making computations, solving problems and performing mechanical functions. In most of the galactic systems of the universe, very large computers are commonly used to run the routine administration, mechanical services and maintenance activities of an entire planet or planetary system.

Based on the survey data gathered, designs and artistic renderings were made for new creatures. Some designs were sold to the highest bidder. Other life forms were created to meet the customized requests of our clients.

The design and technical specifications were passed along an assembly line through a series of cellular, chemical, and mechanical engineers to solve the various problems. It was their job to integrate all of the component factors into a workable, functional and aesthetic finished product.

Prototypes of these creatures were then produced and tested in artificially created environments. Imperfections were worked out, modifications made and eventually the new life form was "endowed" or "animated" with a life force or spiritual energy before being introduced into the actual planetary environment for final testing.

After a new life form was introduced, we monitored the interaction of these biological organisms with the planetary environment and with other indigenous life-forms. Conflicts resulting from the interaction between incompatible organisms were resolved through negotiation between ourselves and other companies. The negotiations usually resulted in compromises requiring further modification to our creatures or to theirs or both. This is part of a science or art you call "Eugenics". 196 (Footnote)

In some cases changes were made in the planetary environment, but not often, as planet building is much more complex than making changes to an individual life form.

Coincidentally, a friend and engineer with whom I used to work with at the Arcadia Regeneration Company - a long time after I left the company - told me that one of the projects they contracted to do, in more recent times, was to deliver life forms to Earth to replenish them after a war in this region of the galaxy devastated most of the life on the planets in this region of space. This would have been about seventy million years ago.

The skill required to modify the planet into an ecologically interactive environment that will support billions of diverse species was an immense undertaking. Specialized consultants from nearly every biotechnology company in the galaxy were brought in to help with the project.

What you see now on Earth is the huge variety of life forms left behind. Your scientists believe that the fallacious "theory of evolution" is an explanation for the existence of all the life forms here. The truth is that all life forms on this and any other planet in this universe were created by companies like ours.

How else can you explain the millions of completely divergent and unrelated species of life on the land and in the oceans of this planet? How else can you explain the source of spiritual animation which defines every living creature? To say it is the work of "god", is far too broad. Every IS-BE has many names and faces in many times and places. Every IS-BE is a god. When they inhabit a physical object they are the source of Life.

For example, there are millions of species 197 (Footnote) of insects. About 350,000 of these are species of beetles. 198 (Footnote) There may be as many as 100 million species of life forms on Earth at any given time. In addition, there are many times more extinct species of life on Earth than there are living life forms. Some of these will be rediscovered in the fossil or geological records of Earth.

The current "theory of evolution" of life forms on Earth does not consider the phenomena of biological diversity. Evolution by natural selection is science fiction. One species does not accidentally, or randomly evolve to become another species, as the Earth textbooks indicate,
without manipulation of genetic material by an IS-BE. 199 (Footnote)

A simple example of IS-BE intervention is the selective breeding of a species 200 (Footnote) on Earth. Within the past few hundred years several hundred dog breeds and hundreds of varieties of pigeons and dozens of Koi fish have been "evolved" in just a few years, beginning with only one original breed. Without active intervention by IS-BEs, biological organisms rarely change.

The development of an animal like the 'duck-billed platypus' required a lot of very clever engineering to combine the body of a beaver with the bill of a duck and make a mammal that lays eggs. Undoubtedly, some wealthy client placed a "special order" for it as a gift or curious amusement. I am sure the laboratory of some biotechnical company worked on it for years to make it a self-replicating life form!

The notion that the creation of any life form could have resulted from a coincidental chemical interaction moldering up from some primordial ooze is beyond absurdity! Factually, some organisms on Earth, such as Proteobacteria, 201 (Footnote) are modifications of a Phylum 202 (Footnote) designed primarily for "Star Type 3, Class C" planets. In other words, The Domain designation for a planet with an anaerobic atmosphere nearest a large, intensely hot blue star, 203 (Footnote) such as those in the constellation of Orion's Belt in this galaxy.

Creating life forms is very complex, highly technical work for IS-BEs who specialize in this field. Genetic anomalies are very baffling to Earth biologists who have had their memory erased.


Unfortunately, the false memory implantations of the "Old Empire" prevent Earth scientists from observing obvious anomalies.

The greatest technical challenge of biological organisms was the invention of self-regeneration, or sexual reproduction. It was invented as the solution to the problem of having to continually manufacture replacement creatures for those that had been destroyed and eaten by other creatures. Planetary governments did not want to keep buying replacement animals.

The idea was contrived trillions of years ago as a result of a conference held to resolve arguments between the disputing vested interests within the biotechnology industry. The infamous "Council of Yuhmi-Krum" was responsible for coordinating creature production. 204 (Footnote)

A compromise was reached, after certain members of the Council were strategically bribed or murdered, to author an agreement which resulted in the biological phenomenon which we now call the "food chain".

The idea that a creature would need to consume the body of another life form as an energy source was offered as a solution by one of the biggest companies in the biological engineering business. They specialized in creating insects and flowering plants.

The connection between the two is obvious. Nearly every flowering plant requires a symbiotic relationship with an insect in order to propagate. The reason is obvious: both the bugs and the flowers were created by the same company. Unfortunately, this same company also had a division which created parasites and bacteria.

The name of the company roughly translated into English would be "Bugs & Blossoms". They wanted to justify the fact that the only valid purpose of the parasitic creatures they manufactured was to aid the decomposition of organic material. There was a very limited market for such creatures at that time.

In order to expand their business they hired a big public relations firm and a powerful group of political lobbyists to glorify the idea that life forms should feed from other life forms. They invented a "scientific theory" to use as a promotion gimmick. The theory was that all creatures needed to have "food" as a source of energy. Before that, none of the life forms being manufactured required any external energy. Animals did not eat other animals for food, but consumed sunlight, minerals or vegetable matter only.

Of course, "Bugs & Blossoms" went into the business of designing and manufacturing carnivores. Before long, so many animals were being eaten as food that the problem of replenishing them became very difficult. As a 'solution', "Bugs & Blossoms" proposed, with the help of some strategically placed bribes in high places, that other companies begin using 'sexual reproduction' as the basis for replenishing life-forms. "Bugs & Blossoms" was the first company to develop blueprints for sexual reproduction, of course.

As expected, the patent licenses for the biological engineering process 205 (Footnote) required to implant stimulus-response mating, cellular division and preprogrammed growth patterns for self-regenerating animals were owned by "Bugs & Blossoms" too.

Through the next few million years laws were passed that required that these programs be purchased by the other biological technology companies. These were required to be imprinted into the cellular design of all existing life-forms. It became a very expensive undertaking for other biotechnology companies to make such an awkward, and impractical idea work.

This led to the corruption and downfall of the entire industry. Ultimately, the 'food and sex' idea completely ruined the bio-technology industry, including "Bugs & Blossoms". The entire industry faded away as the market for manufactured life forms disappeared. Consequently, when a species became extinct, there is no way to replace them because the technology of creating new life forms has been lost.


Obviously, none of this technology was ever known on Earth, and probably never will be.

There are still computer files on some planets far from here which record the procedures for biological engineering. Possibly the laboratories and computers still exist somewhere. However, there is no one around doing anything with them. Therefore, you can understand why it is so important for The Domain to protect the dwindling number of creatures left on Earth.

The core concept behind 'sexual reproduction' technology was the invention of a chemical/electronic interaction called "cyclical stimulus-response generators". 206 (Footnote)

This is an programmed genetic mechanism which causes a seemingly spontaneous, recurring impulse to reproduce. The same technique was later adapted and applied to biological flesh bodies, including Homo Sapiens.

Another important mechanism used in the reproductive process, especially with Homo Sapiens type bodies, is the implantation of a "chemical-electrical trigger" mechanism 207 (Footnote) in the body. The "trigger" which attracts IS-BEs to inhabit a human body, or any kind of "flesh body", is the use of an artificially imprinted electronic wave which uses "aesthetic pain" to attract the IS-BE.

Every trap in the universe, including those used to capture IS-BEs who remain free, is "baited" with an aesthetic electronic wave. The sensations caused by the aesthetic wavelength are more attractive to an IS-BE than any other sensation. When the electronic waves of pain and beauty are combined together, this causes the IS-BE to get "stuck" in the body.

The "reproductive trigger" used for lesser life forms, such as cattle and other mammals, is triggered by chemicals emitted from the scent glands, combined with reproductive chemical-electrical impulses stimulated by testosterone, or estrogen. 208 (Footnote)

These are also interactive with nutrition levels which cause the life form to reproduce more when deprived of food sources. Starvation promoted reproductive activity as a means of perpetuating survival through future regenerations, when the current organism fails to survive. These fundamental principles have been applied throughout all species of life.

The debilitating impact and addiction to the "sexual aesthetic-pain" electronic wave 209 (Footnote) is the reason that the ruling class of The Domain do not inhabit flesh bodies. This is also why officers of The Domain Forces only use doll bodies. This wave has proven to be the most effective trapping device ever created in the history of the universe, as far as I know.

The civilizations of The Domain and the "Old Empire" both depend on this device to "recruit" and maintain a work force of IS-BEs who inhabit flesh bodies on planets and installations. These IS-BEs are the "working class" beings who do all of the slavish, manual, undesirable work on planets.

As I mentioned, there is a very highly regimented and fixed hierarchy or "class system" for all IS-BEs throughout the "Old Empire", and The Domain, as follows:

The highest class are "free" IS-BEs. That is, they are not restricted to the use of any type of body and may come and go at will, provided that they do not destroy or interfere with the social, economic or political structure.

Below this class are many strata of "limited" IS-BEs who may or may not use a body from time to time. Limitations are imposed on each IS-BE regarding range of power, ability and mobility they can exercise.

Below these are the "doll body" classes, to which I belong. Nearly all space officers and crew members of space craft are required to travel through intergalactic space. Therefore, they are each equipped with a body manufactured from light weight, durable materials. Various body types have been designed to facilitate specialized functions. Some bodies have accessories, such as interchangeable tools or apparatus for activities such as maintenance, mining, chemical management, navigation, and so forth. There are many gradations of this body type which also serve as an "insignia" of rank.

Below these are the soldier class. The soldiers are equipped with a myriad of weapons, and specialized armaments designed to detect, combat and overwhelm any imaginable foe. Some soldiers are issued mechanical bodies. Most soldiers are merely remote controlled robots with no class designation.

The lower classes are limited to "flesh bodies". Of course, it is not possible for these to travel through space for obvious reasons. Fundamentally, flesh bodies are far too fragile to endure the stresses of gravity, temperature extremes, radiation exposure, atmospheric chemicals and the vacuum of space. There are also the obvious logistical inconveniences of food, defecation, sleep, atmospheric elements, and air pressure required by flesh bodies, that doll bodies do not require.

Most flesh bodies will suffocate in only a few minutes without a specific combination of atmospheric chemicals.

After 2 or 3 days the bacteria which live internally and externally on the body cause severe odors to be emitted. Odors of any kind are not acceptable in a space vessel.

Flesh can tolerate only a very limited spectrum of temperatures, whereas in space the contrast of temperatures may vary hundreds of degrees within seconds. Of course flesh bodies are utterly useless for military duty. A single shot from a hand-held, electronic blast gun instantly turns a flesh body into a noxious vapor cloud.

IS-BEs who inhabit flesh bodies have lost much of their native ability and power. Although it is theoretically possible to regain or rehabilitate these abilities, no practical means has been discovered or authorized by The Domain.

Even though space craft of The Domain travel trillions of "light years" in a single day, 210 (Footnote) the time required to traverse the space between galaxies is significant, not to mention the length of time to complete just one set of mission orders, which may require thousands of years.


Biological flesh bodies live for only a very short time - only 60 to 150 years, at most - whereas doll bodies can be re-used and repaired almost indefinitely.

The first development of biological bodies began in this universe about seventy-four trillion years ago. It rapidly became a fad for IS-BEs to create and inhabit various types of bodies for an assortment of nefarious reasons: especially for amusement, this is to experience various physical sensations vicariously through the body.

Since that time there has been a continuing "de-evolution" in the relationship of IS-BEs to bodies. As IS-BEs continued to play around with these bodies, certain tricks were introduced to cause IS-BEs to get trapped inside a body so they were unable to leave again.

This was done primarily by making bodies that appeared sturdy, but were actually very fragile. An IS-BE, using their natural power to create energy, accidentally injured a body when contacting it. The IS-BE was remorseful about having injured this fragile body. The next time they encountered a body they began to be "careful" with them. In so doing, the IS-BE would withdraw or minimize their own power so as not to injure the body. A very long and treacherous history of this kind of trickery, combined with similar misadventures eventually resulted in a large number of IS-BEs becoming permanently trapped in bodies.

Of course this became a profitable enterprise for some IS-BEs who took advantage of this situation to make slaves of others. The resulting enslavement progressed over trillions of years, and continues today. Ultimately the dwindling ability of IS-BEs to maintain a personal state of operational freedom and ability to create energy resulted in the vast and carefully guarded hierarchy or class system.


Using bodies as a symbol of each class is used throughout the "Old Empire", as well as The Domain.

The vast majority of IS-BEs throughout the galaxies of this universe inhabit some form of flesh body. The structure, appearance, operation and habitat of these bodies vary according to the gravity, atmosphere, and climatic conditions of the planet they inhabit. Body types are predetermined largely by the type and size of the star around which the planet revolves, the distance from the star, the geological, as well as the atmospheric components of the planet.

On the average, these stars and planets fall into gradients of classification which are fairly standard throughout the universe.


For example, Earth is identified, roughly, as a "Sun Type 12, Class 7 planet". That is a heavy gravity, nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere planet, 211 (Footnote) with biological life-forms, in proximity to a single, yellow, medium-size, low-radiation sun or "Type 12 star". The proper designations are difficult to translate accurately due to the extreme limitations of astronomical nomenclature in the English language.

There are as many varieties of life forms as there are grains of sands on the beach. You can imagine how many different creatures and types of bodies have been manufactured by the millions of companies such as "Bugs & Blossoms" for all of the myriad planetary systems during the course of seventy-four trillion years!"

"When Airl finished telling me this "story", there was a long, silent pause while I muddled through all this in my mind. Had Airl been reading science fiction books and fantasy stories during the night? Why would she tell me something so incredibly far-fetched?


If there had not been a 40 inch tall alien, with gray "skin", and three fingers on each hand and foot sitting directly across from me, I would not have believed a single word of it!

In retrospect, over the 60 years since Airl gave me this information, Earth doctors have begun to develop some of the biological engineering technology that Airl told me about right here on Earth. Heart bypasses, cloning, test tube babies, organ transplants, plastic surgery, genes, chromosomes, and so forth.

One thing is very sure: I have never looked at a bug or flower the same way since then, not to mention my religious belief in Genesis."




188 "...Bloodletting... "
"Bloodletting is one of the oldest medical practices, having been practiced among diverse ancient peoples, including the Mesopotamians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Mayans, and the Aztecs. In Greece, bloodletting was in use around the time of Hippocrates, who mentions bloodletting but in general relied on dietary techniques. Erasistratus, however, theorized that many diseases were caused by plethoras, or overabundances, in the blood, and advised that these plethoras be treated, initially, by exercise, sweating, reduced food intake, and vomiting. Herophilus advocated bloodletting. Archagathus, one of the first Greek physicians to practice in Rome, practiced bloodletting extensively and gained a most sanguinary reputation.

The popularity of bloodletting in Greece was reinforced by the ideas of Galen, after he discovered the veins and arteries were filled with blood, not air as was commonly believed at the time. There were two key concepts in his system of bloodletting. The first was that blood was created and then used up, it did not circulate and so it could 'stagnate' in the extremities. The second was that humoral balance was the basis of illness or health, the four humours being blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile, relating to the four Greek classical elements of air, water, earth and fire. Galen believed that blood was the dominant humour and the one in most need of control. In order to balance the humours, a physician would either remove 'excess' blood (plethora) from the patient or give them an emetic to induce vomiting, or a diuretic to induce urination.

Bloodletting was especially popular in the young United States of America, where Benjamin Rush (a signatory of the Declaration of Independence) saw the state of the arteries as the key to disease, recommending levels of blood-letting that were high, even for the time. George Washington was treated in this manner following a horseback riding accident: almost 4 pounds (1.7 litres) of blood was withdrawn, contributing to his death by throat infection in 1799."
-- Reference:

189 "... you will find "evolution" mentioned in the ancient Vedic Hymns..."
"The Vedas are very exhaustive scriptures. Each Veda contains several sections and thousands of hymns. Some of the Vedic hymns, especially the hymns of the Rig Veda, are considered to be at least 6000-8000 years old.

The Vedas are believed to be revealed scriptures, because they are considered to be divine in origin. Since they were not written by any human beings but were only heard in deep meditative states, they are commonly referred as srutis or those that were heard."
-- Reference:

"The Vedas (Sanskrit veda "knowledge") are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. They form the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism. According to Hindu tradition, the Vedas are "not human compositions", being supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called sruti ("what is heard"). Vedic mantras are recited at Hindu prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions.

Philosophies and sects that developed in the Indian subcontinent have taken differing positions on the Vedas. Schools of Indian philosophy which cite the Vedas as their scriptural authority are classified as "orthodox" (astika). Other traditions, notably Buddhism and Jainism, though they are (like the vedanta) similarly concerned with liberation did not regard the Vedas as divine ordinances but rather human expositions of the sphere of higher spiritual knowledge, hence not sacrosanct."
-- Reference:

190 "... the IS-BE who wrote a fictitious story one dark and stormy night..."
Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by the British author Mary Shelley. Shelley wrote the novel when she was 18 years old. The first edition was published anonymously in London in 1818. Shelley's name appears on the revised third edition, published in 1831. The title of the novel refers to a scientist, Victor Frankenstein, who learns how to create life and creates a being in the likeness of man, but larger than average and more powerful.

The story has had an influence across literature and popular culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories and films. It is arguably considered the first fully realized science fiction novel. The novel raises many issues that can be linked to today's society.

During the rainy summer of 1816, the "Year Without a Summer," the world was locked in a long cold volcanic winter caused by the eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, age 19, and her lover (and later husband) Percy Bysshe Shelley, visited Lord Byron at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva in Switzerland. The weather was consistently too cold and dreary that summer to enjoy the outdoor holiday activities they had planned, so the group retired indoors until almost dawn talking about science and the supernatural. After reading Fantasmagoriana, an anthology of German ghost stories, they challenged one another to each compose a story of their own, the contest being won by whoever wrote the scariest tale.

Mary conceived an idea after she fell into a waking dream or nightmare during which she saw "the pale student of unhallowed arts kneeling beside the thing he had put together." Byron managed to write just a fragment based on the vampire legends he heard while travelling the Balkans, and from this Polidori created The Vampyre (1819), the progenitor of the romantic vampire literary genre. Two legendary horror tales originated from this one circumstance.

Radu Florescu, in his book In Search of Frankenstein, argued that Mary and Percy Shelley visited Castle Frankenstein on their way to Switzerland, near Darmstadt along the Rhine, where a notorious alchemist named Konrad Dippel had experimented with human bodies."
-- Reference:

191 "...Grimm's Fairy Tales... "
"The world famous collection of German origin fairy tales Kinder- und Hausmarchen (KHM; English: Children's and Household Tales), commonly known as Grimm's Fairy Tales, was first published in 1812 by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, the Brothers Grimm. The brothers developed an interest in ancient fairy tales. They started to collect and write down tales that they alleged had been handed down for generations. On December 20, 1812 they published the first volume of the first edition, containing 86 stories; the second volume of 70 stories followed in 1814.

The first volumes were much criticized because, although they were called "Children's Tales", they were not regarded as suitable for children, both for the scholarly information included and the subject matter. Many changes through the editions—such as turning the wicked mother of the first edition in Snow White and Hansel and Gretel to a stepmother, were probably made with an eye to such suitability. They removed sexual references, such as Rapunzel's betraying the prince by asking why her clothing no longer fit, and so revealing her pregnancy, but in many respects, violence, particularly when punishing villains, was increased.

The influence of these books was widespread. It ranks behind only the Bible and the works of William Shakespeare in sales. W. H. Auden praised it, during World War II, as one of the founding works of Western culture. The tales themselves have been put to many uses. The Nazis praised them as folkish tales showing children with sound racial instincts seeking racially pure marriage partners, and so strongly that the Allied forces warned against them. Writers about the Holocaust have combined the tales with their memoirs."
-- Reference:

192 "...Hinduism..."
"Hinduism is often referred to as Sanatana Dharma, a Sanskrit phrase meaning 'the eternal path" or "the eternal law".

Hinduism is the world's oldest major religion that is still practiced. Its earliest origins can be traced to the ancient Vedic civilization. A conglomerate of diverse beliefs and traditions, Hinduism has no single founder. It is the world's third largest religion following Christianity and Islam, with approximately a billion adherents, of whom about 905 million live in India and Nepal.

Hinduism is an extremely diverse religion. Although some tenets of the faith are accepted by most Hindus, scholars have found it difficult to identify any doctrines with universal acceptance among all denominations. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsara (The continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (action and subsequent reaction), Moksha (liberation from samsara), and the various Yogas (paths or practices).

Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism and atheism. It is sometimes referred to as henotheistic (devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods), but any such term is an oversimplification of the complexities and variations of belief.

Most Hindus believe that the spirit or soul—the true "self" of every person, called the atman—is eternal."
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193 "... Arcadia Regeneration Company".
"One of the birthplaces reported for Zeus is Mount Lycaeum in Arcadia. Lycaon, a cannibalistic Pelasgian king, was transformed into a werewolf by Zeus. Lycaon's daughter was Callisto. It was also said to have been the birthplace of Zeus' son, Hermes.

Arcadia remained a rustic, secluded area, and its inhabitants became proverbial as primitive herdsmen leading simple pastoral unsophisticated yet happy lives, to the point that Arcadia may refer to some imaginary idyllic paradise.

The Latin phrase Et in Arcadia ego which is usually interpreted to mean "I am also in Arcadia" or "I am even in Arcadia" is an example of memento mori, a cautionary reminder of the transitory nature of life and the inevitability of death. The phrase is most often associated with a 1647 painting by Nicolas Poussin, also known as "The Arcadian Shepherds". In the painting the phrase appears as an inscription on a tomb discovered by youthful figures in classical garb. It has been suggested that the phrase is an anagram for the Latin phrase "I! Tego arcana Dei", which translates to "Begone! I keep God's secrets."
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194 "... the majority of basic genetic material is common to all species... "
"The Genetic Core of the Universal Ancestor

J. Kirk Harris, Scott T. Kelley,1 George B. Spiegelman,3 and Norman R. Pace1

1 Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0347, USA

2 Graduate Group in Microbiology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3

Molecular analysis of conserved sequences in the ribosomal RNAs of modern organisms reveals a three-domain phylogeny that converges in a universal ancestor for all life. We used the Clusters of Orthologous Groups database and information from published genomes to search for other universally conserved genes that have the same phylogenetic pattern as ribosomal RNA, and therefore constitute the ancestral genetic core of cells. Our analyses identified a small set of genes that can be traced back to the universal ancestor and have coevolved since that time.

As indicated by earlier studies, almost all of these genes are involved with the transfer of genetic information, and most of them directly interact with the ribosome. Other universal genes have either undergone lateral transfer in the past, or have diverged so much in sequence that their distant past could not be resolved. The nature of the conserved genes suggests innovations that may have been essential to the divergence of the three domains of life. The analysis also identified several genes of unknown function with phylogenies that track with the ribosomal RNA genes. The products of these genes are likely to play fundamental roles in cellular processes."
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195 "... biological engineers..."
"Biomedical engineering is an application of engineering principles and design to challenges in human health and medicine. Bioengineering is related to Biological Engineering, the latter including applications of engineering principles to the full spectrum of living systems, from microbes and plants to ecosystems. Bioengineering exploits new developments in molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology, and neurosciences as well as sensing, electronics, and imaging, and applies them to the design of medical devices, diagnostic equipment, biocompatible materials, and other important medical needs.

Bioengineering couples engineering expertise with knowledge in biological sciences such as genetics, molecular biology, protein chemistry, cytology, neurobiology, immunology, physiology, and pharmacology. Bioengineers work closely with, but are not limited to, medical doctors and other health professionals to develop technical solutions to current and emerging health concerns.

Bioengineering is not limited to the medical field. Bioengineers have the ability to exploit new opportunities and solve problems within the domain of complex systems. They have a great understanding of living systems as complex systems which can be applied to many fields including entrepreneurship."
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196 "... Imperfections were worked out, modifications made and eventually the new animal was introduced into the actual planetary environment for final testing. "
"The basic ideals of Eugenics can be found from the beginnings of Western civilization. The philosophy was most famously expounded by Plato, who believed human reproduction should be monitored and controlled by the state. The basic eugenic principle from Plato's The Republic was, "The best men must have intercourse with the best women as frequently as possible, and the opposite is true of the very inferior."

However, Plato understood this form of government control would not be readily accepted, and proposed the truth be concealed from the public via a fixed lottery. Mates, in Plato's Republic, would be chosen by a "marriage number" in which the quality of the individual would be quantitatively analyzed, and persons of high numbers would be allowed to procreate with other persons of high numbers. In theory, this would lead to predictable results and the improvement of the human race.


However, Plato acknowledged the failure of the "marriage number" since "gold soul" persons could still produce "bronze soul" children. This might have been one of the earliest attempts to mathematically analyze genetic inheritance, which was not perfected until the development of Mendelian genetics and the mapping of the human genome.

Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome and Sparta, practiced infanticide as a form of phenotypic selection. In Sparta, newborns were inspected by the city's elders, who decided the fate of the infant. If the child was deemed incapable of living, it was usually thrown from the Taygetus mountain. It was more common for girls than boys to be killed this way. Trials for babies which included bathing them in wine and exposing them to the elements. To Sparta, this would ensure only the strongest survived and procreated. Adolf Hitler considered Sparta to be the first "Volkisch State," and much like Ernst Haeckel before him, praised Sparta due to its primitive form of eugenics practice of selective infanticide policy which was applied on deformed children.

The 12 Tables of Roman Law, established early in the formation of the Roman Republic, stated in the fourth table that deformed children would be put to death. In addition, patriarchs in Roman society were given the right to "discard" infants at their discretion. This was often done by drowning undesired newborns in the Tiber River.

Sir Francis Galton initially developed the ideas of eugenics using social statistics. Sir Francis Galton systematized these ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his cousin Charles Darwin during the 1860s and 1870s. After reading Darwin's Origin of Species, Galton built upon Darwin's ideas whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially thwarted by human civilization.


He reasoned that, since many human societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible for extinction of the weakest; and only by changing these social policies could society be saved from a "reversion towards mediocrity," a phrase he first coined in statistics and which later changed to the now common "regression towards the mean."
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197 "...species... "
"In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are often used, such as based on similarity of DNA or morphology. Presence of specific locally-adapted traits may further subdivide species into subspecies.

The commonly used names for plant and animal taxa sometimes correspond to species: for example, "lion," walrus," and "Camphor tree," each refers to a species. In other cases common names do not: for example, "deer" refers to a family of 34 species, including Eld's Deer, Red Deer and Wapiti (Elk). The last two species were once considered a single species, illustrating how species boundaries may change with increased scientific knowledge.

Each species is placed within a single genus. This is a hypothesis that the species is more closely related to other species within its genus than to species of other genera. All species are given a binomial name consisting of the generic name and specific name (or specific epithet). For example, Pinus palustris (commonly known as the Longleaf Pine).

A usable definition of the word "species" and reliable methods of identifying particular species are essential for stating and testing biological theories and for measuring biodiversity. Traditionally, multiple examples of a proposed species must be studied for unifying characters before it can be regarded as a species. Extinct species known only from fossils are generally difficult to give precise taxonomic rankings to. A species which has been described scientifically can be referred to by its binomial names.

Nevertheless, as Charles Darwin remarked,

'I look at the term species as one arbitrarily given for the sake of convenience to a set of individuals closely resembling each other.... it does not essentially differ from the term variety, which is given to less distinct and more fluctuating forms. The term variety, again in comparison with mere individual difference, is also applied arbitrarily, and for mere convenience sake.'

Because of the difficulties with both defining and tallying the total numbers of different species in the world, it is estimated that there are anywhere between 2 million and 100 million different species."
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198 "...species of beetle..."
"Beetles are a group of insects which have the largest number of species. They are placed in the order Coleoptera, which means "sheathed wing" and contains more described species than in any other order in the animal kingdom, constituting about twenty-five percent of all known life-forms. Forty percent of all described insect species are beetles (about 350,000 species), and new species are frequently discovered. Estimates put the total number of species, described and undescribed, at between 5 and 8 million.

Beetles can be found in almost all habitats, but are not known to occur in the sea or in the polar regions. They interact with their ecosystems in several ways. They often feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, and eat other invertebrates. Some species are prey of various animals including birds and mammals.


Certain species are agricultural pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, and the mungbean or cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, while other species of beetles are important controls of agricultural pests. For example, coccinellidae ("ladybirds" or "ladybugs") consume aphids, scale insects, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops."
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199 "One species does not evolve to become another species, as the Earth textbooks indicate, without the intervention and manipulation of genetic material by an IS-BE."

"Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification / manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms applied to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes. Genetic engineering is not to be confused with traditional breeding where the organism's genes are manipulated indirectly. Genetic engineering uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation. Genetic engineering endeavors have found some success in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the onco-mouse (cancer mouse) for research.

Since a protein sequence is specified by a segment of DNA called a gene, novel versions of that protein can be produced by changing the DNA sequence of the gene. The companies that own the modified genome are able to patent it. In the case of basic crops, the companies gain control of foodstuffs, controlling food production on a large scale and reducing agrobidiversity to a few varieties. The only apparent interest in promoting this tecnology appears to be purely economic, despite the claims of seed companies such as

Monsanto and Novartis to solve the world food scarcity. It is now popularly understood that it is not the lack of food on a wholewide scale that is the main problem, but its distribution, aggravated by prohibitive tariffs by rich nations. Genetically modified crops do not reduce hunger. The majority of genetically crops are destined for animal food to meet the high demand for meat in developed countries. No genetic modification have yet to serve the needs of mankind despite all the promises in this direction.

However, even with regard to this technology's great potential, some people have raised concerns about the introduction of genetically engineered plants and animals into the environment and the potential dangers of human consumption of GM foods. They say that these organisms have the potential to spread their modified genes into native populations thereby disrupting natural ecosystems. This has already happened."
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200 "...genetic manipulation of a species..."
"How much genetic variation is there? Historical debate: Classical school held that there was very little genetic variation, most individuals were homozygous for a wild-type" allele. Rare heterozygous loci due to recurrent mutation; natural selection purges populations of their "load" of mutations. Balance school held that many loci will be heterozygous in natural populations and heterozygotes maintained by "balancing selection" (heterozygote advantage). Selection thus plays a role in maintaining variation.

How do we measure variation? To show that there is a genetic basis to a continuously varying character one can study 1) resemblance among relatives: look at the offspring of individuals from parents in different parts of the distribution; can estimate heritability (more later). 2) artificial selection: pigeons and dogs show that there is variation present; does not tell how much variation."
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201 "... Proteobacteria... "
"The Proteobacteria are a major group (phylum) of bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living, and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. The group is defined primarily in terms of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, and is named for the Greek god Proteus (also the name of a bacterial genus within the Proteobacteria), who could change his shape, because of the great diversity of forms found in this group.

All Proteobacteria are Gram-negative, with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using flagella, but some are non-motile or rely on bacterial gliding. The last include the myxobacteria, a unique group of bacteria that can aggregate to form multicellular fruiting bodies. There is also a wide variety in the types of metabolism. Most members are facultatively or obligately anaerobic and heterotrophic, but there are numerous exceptions. A variety of genera, which are not closely related to each other, convert energy from light through photosynthesis. These are called purple bacteria, referring to their mostly reddish pigmentation."
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202 "...Phylum..."
"In biological taxonomy, a 'phylum' is a taxonomic rank at the level below Class and above Kingdom. "Phylum" is adopted from the Greek (puAaf phylai, the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states."
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203 "...intensely hot blue star..."
"Blue stars are very hot and very luminous; in fact, most of their output is in the ultraviolet range. These are the rarest of all main sequence stars, constituting as few as 1 in 3,000,000 in the solar neighborhood. (Blue) stars shine with a power over a million times our Sun's output. Examples: Zeta Orionis, Zeta Puppis, Lambda Orionis, Delta Orionis"..

204 "... responsible for coordinating creature production..."
Editor's Note: For detailed information on the organization that controls the World Congress of the Biotechnology Industry, visit their website at

Here is a statement from their website about who they are and what they do:

"BIO is the world's largest biotechnology organization, providing advocacy, business development and communications services for more than 1,150 members worldwide. Our mission is to be the champion of biotechnology and the advocate for our member organizations—both large and small.

BIO members are involved in the research and development of innovative healthcare, agricultural, industrial and environmental biotechnology technologies. Corporate members range from entrepreneurial companies developing a first product to Fortune 100 multinationals. We also represent state and regional biotech associations, service providers to the industry and academic centers. Visit the BIO Member Directory to browse BIO members and Web site links as well as BIO state and international affiliates. "

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205 "... patent licenses for the biological engineering process ..."
"A biological patent is a patent relating to an invention or discovery in biology.

The 1970's marked the first time when scientists patented methods on their biotechnological inventions with recombinant DNA. It wasn't until 1980 that patents for whole-scale living organisms was permitted. In Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the Supreme Court overturned a previous precedent allowing the patentability of living matter. The subject for this particular case was a bacterium that was specifically modified to help clean-up and degrade oil spills.

Since legal changes have occurred starting in 1980, there has been a general trend of patenting inventions on living matter. More knowledge and data has become available in recent years that have never before been available. However, for us to get to the point where it is making a significant difference in peoples' lives, a tidy sum of money needs to be invested. Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in recent years have found out how lucrative biological research can be.


These firms foster many research opportunities by funding made possible only through the private sector.
Patents have provided an impetus for research to be pursued in that the end goal of money can be envisioned by companies with the funding cash. Especially during the genomic era, more patents were issued. Companies and organizations like the University of California were patenting whole genomes.

In 1998, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) issued a broad patent claiming primate (including human) embryonic stem cells, entitled "Primate Embryonic Stem Cells" (Patent 5,843,780). On 13 March 2001, a second patent (6,200,806) was issued with the same title but focused on human embryonic stem cells.

Recently, there has been a slowdown and backlash against patenting biological material worldwide.

Some feel that the increase in patenting biological information leads to inefficiency in research. Many scientists are coming up against patent thickets, which are masses of information that they must obtain permission (and often pay large fees to utilize) before they can ever work with the information.

Michael Heller and Rebecca Eisenberg (2005) explain that there is a recent trend of patenting more and more steps along the research path. This creates a 'tragedy of the anticommons," whereby "each upstream patent allows its owner to set up another tollbooth on the road to product development, adding to the cost and slowing the pace of downstream... innovation". A report shows that notwithstanding escalating funding, in the past half-decade biomedical innovation has slowed markedly.


The number of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration has fallen below previous eras. The technologies approved, it continues, are less influential than previous innovations approved. The current trend of patenting what previously were thought of as basic science insights have raised the financial bar for other scientists wanting to use such insight. The overall trend of more patents may be slowing innovation.

However, others point out that patents are necessary for research. Without them, scientists would keep secret all discoveries for fear of colleagues and others stealing their ideas. There would also be little incentive for large-scale investments from the private sector.

206 "..."cyclical stimulus-response generators".
"Fixed Action Pattern (FAP) is an instinctive behavioral sequence that is indivisible and runs to completion. Fixed action patterns are invariant and are produced by a neural network known as the innate releasing mechanism in response to an external sensory stimulus known as a sign stimulus or releaser.

A mating dance may be used as an example. Many species of birds engage in a specific series of elaborate movements, usually by a brightly colored male. How well they perform the "dance" is then used by females of the species to judge their fitness as a potential mate. The key stimulus is typically the presence of the female.

Although fixed action patterns are most common in animals with simpler cognitive capabilities, humans also demonstrate fixed action patterns. For example, infants grasp strongly with their hands as a response to tactile stimulus."

207 "...chemical-electrical trigger" mechanism..."
"A taxis (plural taxes) is an innate behavioral response by an organism to a stimulus. A taxis differs from a tropism (turning response, often growth towards or away from a stimulus) in that the organism has motility and demonstrates guided movement towards or away from the stimulus. It also differs from a kinesis, a non-directional change in activity in response to a stimulus that results in the illusion of directed motion due to different rates of activity depending on stimulus intensity.

For example, flagellate protozoans of the genus Euglena move towards a light source. Here the directional stimulus is light, and the orientation movement is towards the light. This reaction or behaviour is a positive one to light and specifically termed "positive phototaxis", since phototaxis is a response to a light stimulus, and the organism is moving towards the stimulus. If the organism moves away from the stimulus, then the taxis is negative.


Many types of taxis have been identified and named using prefices to specify the stimulus that elicits the response. These include anemotaxis (stimulation by wind), barotaxis (pressure), chemotaxis (chemicals), galvanotaxis (electrical current), geotaxis (gravity), hydrotaxis (moisture), phototaxis (light), rheotaxis (fluid flow), thermotaxis (temperature changes) and thigmotaxis (physical contact).

Chemotaxis is a migratory response elicited by chemicals. Unicellular (e.g. protozoa) or multicellular (e.g. worms) organisms are targets of the substances. A concentration gradient of chemicals developed in a fluid phase guides the vectorial movement of responder cells or organisms.
Electrotaxis is directional movement of motile cells in response to a electric field. It has been suggested that by detecting and orientating themselves toward the electric fields.


This notion is based on,

1) the existence of measurable electric fields that naturally occur during wound healing, development and regeneration; and

2) cells in cultures respond to applied electric fields by directional cell."
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208 "... reproductive chemical-electrical impulses stimulated by testosterone or estrogen."
"Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. In mammals, testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females, although small amounts are also secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

The period of the early 1930's to the 1950's has been called "The Golden Age of Steroid Chemistry", and work during this period progressed quickly. Research in this golden age proved that this newly synthesized compound — testosterone — or rather family of compounds (for many derivatives were developed in the 1940's, 50's and 60's), was a potent multiplier of muscle, strength, and wellbeing.

In both men and women, testosterone plays a key role in health and well-being as well as in sexual functioning.

The human hormone testosterone is produced in greater amounts by males, and less by females. The human hormone estrogen is produced in greater amounts by females, and less by males. On average, an adult human male body produces about forty to sixty times more testosterone than an adult female body.

Testosterone causes the appearance of masculine traits (i.e deepening voice, pubic and facial hairs, muscular build, etc.) Like men, women rely on testosterone to maintain libido, bone density and muscle mass throughout their lives."
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209 "The debilitating impact and addiction to the "sexual aesthetic-pain" electronic wave... "
"The term Sexual addiction is used to describe the behavior of a person who has an unusually intense sex drive or obsession with sex. Sexual addiction, also called sexual compulsion is a form of psychological addiction.

The behavior of sex addicts is comparable to behavior of alcoholics and addicts, where sex functions like a drug. A common definition of alcoholism is that a person has a pathological relationship with this mood altering drug. It provides a quick mood change, works every time and the user loses control over their compulsion. Like alcoholics, sex addicts' lives rotate around the constant desire for their "drug" of choice."
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210 " craft of The Domain travel trillions of light-years in a single day..."
Using the Julian Calendar year (not Gregorian) of 365.25 days, or exactly 31,557,600 seconds, gives the light-year an exact value of 9,460,730,472,580,800 meters. ( A meter = 3.281 feet or 39.37 inches.)

The distance to the nearest star from Earth is 4.24 light years!

Distances measured in fractions of a light-year usually involve objects within a star system. Distances measured in light-years include distances between nearby stars, such as those in the same spiral arm or globular cluster.

One kilolight-year, abbreviated "kly", is one thousand light-years, or about 307 parsecs. Kilolight-years are typically used to measure distances between parts of a galaxy.

One megalight-year, abbreviated "Mly", is one million light-years, or about 306,600 parsecs. Megalight-years are typically used to measure distances between neighboring galaxies and galaxy clusters.

One gigalight-year, abbreviation "Gly", is one billion light-years — one of the largest distance measures used. One gigalight-year is about 306.6 million parsecs.
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211 "... a heavy gravity, nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere planet..."
"The Earth s atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earth's gravity. It contains roughly (by molar content/volume) 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, trace amounts of other gases, and a variable amount (average around 1 %) of water vapor. This mixture of gases is commonly known as air. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation and reducing temperature extremes between day and night.

There is no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. It slowly becomes thinner and fades into space. Three quarters of the atmosphere's mass is within 11 km of the planetary surface. In the United States, people who travel above an altitude of 80.5 km (50 statute miles) are designated astronauts. An altitude of 120 km (~75 miles or 400,000 ft) marks the boundary where atmospheric effects become noticeable during re-entry. The Karman line, at 100 km (62 miles or 328,000 ft), is also frequently regarded as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space.

The atmosphere of Mars is relatively thin, and the atmospheric pressure on the surface varies from around 30 Pa (0.03 kPa) on Olympus Mons's peak to over 1155 Pa (1.155 kPa) in the depths of Hellas Planitia, with a mean surface level pressure of 600 Pa (0.6 kPa), compared to Earth's 101.3 kPa. However, the scale height of the atmosphere is about 11 km, somewhat higher than Earth's 6 km.


The atmosphere on Mars consists of 95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen, 1.6% argon, and contains traces of oxygen, water, and methane. The atmosphere is quite dusty, giving the Martian sky a tawny color when seen from the surface; data from the Mars Exploration Rovers indicates the suspended dust particles are roughly 1.5 micrometers across.

The atmosphere of Venus, the second planet from the Sun, is much denser and hotter than that of Earth. The surface temperature and pressure on Venus are 740 K (467°C) and 93 bar, respectively. The Venusian atmosphere supports thick persistent clouds made of sulfuric acid, which make optical observations of the surface impossible. The information about surface features on Venus has been obtained exclusively by radar imaging conducted from the ground and Venera 15-16 and by Magellan space probes. The main atmosphereric gases on Venus are carbon dioxide and nitrogen, which make up 96.5% and 3.5% of all molecules. Other chemical compounds are present only in trace amounts.

The atmosphere of Venus is in state of a vigorous circulation and super-rotation. The whole atmosphere circles the planet in just four days (super-rotation), which is a short time compared with the sideral rotational period of 243 days. The winds supporting super-rotation blow as fast as 100 m/s. Near the poles of Venus anticyclonic structures called polar vortexes are located. In them the air moves downward. Each vortex is double eyed and shows a characteristic S-shaped pattern of clouds.

Only the ionosphere and thin induced magnetosphere separate venusian atmosphere from the space. They shield the atmosphere from the solar wind, which usually does not penetrate deep into it. However they are incapable of preventing the loss of water, which is continuously blown away by the solar wind through the induced magnetotail.

Despite the harsh conditions on the surface, at about a 50 km to 65 km level above the surface of the planet the atmospheric pressure and temperature is nearly the same as that of the Earth, making its upper atmosphere the most Earth-like area in the Solar System, even more so than the surface of Mars. Due to the similarity in pressure, temperature and the fact that breathable air (21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen) is a lifting gas on Venus in the same way that helium is a lifting gas on Earth."
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