The Ummites wear this stamp on their finger, wet it with ink, and press their mark on the sheet. Here is, for example, what was figured on one of the letter I received :
The ideogram representing the planet UMMO.
Here is the general aspect of a Ummite vessel, as described in the documents of 1967, completed by the reports received in 1993.
This landing gear, which would have left the prints photographed in San José de Valdeiras (seen previously).
The Ummite vessel. The passengers get out through a
trap-door, visible on the bottom side.
a appreciable quantity of anti-matter, in electromagnetic levitation state.
Longitudinal cut of the vessel, on the floor.
The Tixiantropic jelly has been pumped out in the space between the toxoid (habitacle) and the rest of the vessel.
During the flight in the atmosphere, the tixiantropic jelly fills the habitacle.
It would maintain the passengers and
would allow to resist to accelerations of 50 g.
During the flight in the air the vessel would produce a strong pulsed magnetic field.
As it could produce some unwished effects on the body of the passengers, a hull made of a superconducting material would screen it perfectly. A superconductive hull is tight to variable magnetic field. All the sensitive components of the vessel would be then protected this way. The vessel would contain no electronic (which would be perturbed by these variable fields).
The information would be transmitted through different way, including optical fibers (described in the texts of 1967). During the whole interstellar cruise, which would take place in the twin-Universe, the passengers would benefit from a artificial gravity created by a slow rotation of their toroidal habitacle.
The effects of the Coriolis force on their inner ear (similar to ours) would be cleared by an implant.
Configuration of the vessel during the cruising in the
The traveling time UMMO-Earth would be in average three months.
But the Ummites said to have traveled once two years long. The life function of the passengers would be then completely managed by some sort of diving suit , ultra sophisticated. The helmet would be fitted with a large screen, on which would be printed some 3-d pictures, with a very high definition (The eye could not see the difference between these pictures and reality ).
would benefit of a whole environment which evokes our modern
concepts of virtual reality. Let me remind you by the way, that all
these texts are from 1967!!
If we believe the Ummites, the extraterrestrial ethnic groups would know more or less each others.
Some would collaborate, some others would avoid each other. The Ummites would have know, in their history, before joining the club themselves, their own UFOs. The reports precise that when the expeditionaries would have visited the Earth, they would have been inspected by a vessel, apparently fitted with a higher technology.
Worried, they would have prefer to escape in the
twin-Universe, flying to a relativistic speed.
The others would be too different and would be immediately detected.
The Ummites, in a report of 1993, gave some details on
this technique, but it would require some quite sophisticated
theoretical physics concepts to explain it here. So, for the way the
vessel is moving and guiding during its voyage in the twin-Universe.
The schemes of the figures 32, 33 and 34 illustrate this concept.
The vessel is present in our Universe.
It falls under its weight MG, M is its mass and g the gravity acceleration.
The vessel disappears in the twin-universe.
It becomes invisible for a terrestrial observer and is pushed away by the planet with a force -Mg.
Same situation seen from the twin-Universe.
The Earth is here invisible, but its repulsive action is still in action
technologies are, on Earth, at a starting point, if one excepts the
micro-informatics components which replaced the classical lamps.
The side of the vessel would constitute a very complex set of
elements which could contain to four thousands components per cubic
millimeters. Its external face would be plastered with all sorts of
captors, which record all sorts of information in a large frequency
This part would be enveloped with a protecting jelly, transported through little channels, and placed automatically.
progresses of robotics are the evident extension of this
The authors of the documents pretend to have completely solved the problem of energy production, by direct synthesis of anti-matter. This "basic energy" would then be stored in production units.
The information would be stored at the atomic level, through the excitation of the electronic layers of the atoms. To such a low temperature, these "excited states" have an infinite life time.
The plans of any machine or device could so be stored is a reduced volume. Let's notice that our storage capacities today would have been not thinkable by the contemporaneous of Gutenberg.
would be assembled atom after atom, molecules per molecules, those
being synthesized through transmutation of any basic material. Let
us think at the way the Ummites have synthesized "in situ" the alloy
for the arches of the refuge. They could copy any object, with a
precision at the level of the atom.
At the end of the operation we obtain a hard copy of the object, in three dimensions.
Realization of a 3D copy.
We also can analyze the geometry of an object with the help of a ultra-sound scanner. Coupling both devices we may realize the copy of an object. But the copy is not identical to the original. It only has the same form, but is made of plastic.
Most of the time these objects would have been archeological objects we would not have discovered yet (the Ummites pretend to be exceptional archeologists).
All that is quite logic and seems to be our
technological future, if we can reach in time our "auto-regulation".
The Ummite History would have been as violent as our, even worse. This species would be hemeralopic (hemeralopia = day blindness; the inability to see clearly or at all in bright day).
The primitive Ummites would have lived in underground galleries, like moles, going out at night and sleeping during the day. Their planet would be, during the day, so windy that is would not have been possible to build real roads. They would have been too often choked with sand.
If we suppose that when arriving on Earth, these hypothetical expeditionaries would have already know the living condition of others neighbor planets, we may be the only diurnal species in the thousands light year around!.
The documents, when they refer to their entry in the
terrestrial atmosphere, said they would have taken our roads an
railways for channels. In other reports they say they never built
real roads. So, how did they travel before being masters of the
intra-atmospheric flight ?
The Ummites "multilegs"
Their technology would have taken since the beginning, they admit, a resolutely zoomorphic direction.
The Ummites would have only stabilized the ground by injecting different components and by covering the surface with and gripping coating, without modifying the geometry of the floor.
All this net of tracks would
progressively disfigure the planet and its inhabitants would have
decided to suppress it by digging a complex net of underground tubes
for raw materials. The ground on UMMO would be today stuffed with
canalizations dealing for the transport of raw materials and end
products. The factories, the field and the orchards would be
underground. This is quite logic if the climate is so hard (windy,
The housing and the
everyday's life on UMMO
Believing the illustrations joined to the documents they would have an ellipsoidal shape, quite flat, fixed on some sort of peduncle. In short their houses look like mushrooms. The buildings would be coded with colors, depending of their function.
Their aerodynamic shape would allow them to resist to wind coming from all directions.
The modern Ummite habitation
The visible cupola of the top part would have a particular function.
This would be a "domestic television", which would produce some 3D color pictures on a semi-spherical screen with very high definition. This habitation would be able to retract itself in a cavity of the floor. The peduncle on which it is fixed looks like our old elevators. The house could also turn on itself. When going into the ground the Ummites would then close their curtains.
This retracting allows also to the habitation to escape to hard weather conditions. The rotation would get the sand off the roof of the house, to evacuate all materials brought by the terrible storms of the planet coming from pressure gradients much more important than on Earth.
The rooms inside would have no doors. The Ummite would be fundamentally gregarious, would absolutely no suffer of promiscuity, not more in his habitation that in its vessels where twelve passengers are pressed like pilchards in a can. In the houses, some anti noise devices, which would create some sonic waves in phase opposition with the origin sound.
This allows to make the silence in some rooms.
In the illustrations one see empty rooms.
The architecture of the
The texts precise that no room has a particular functions and that all may be transformed indifferently into a dining room or into a bedroom. So, at lunch time, some trap-doors in the floor go down, which allows the inhabitants to sit down.
A matter would be pulverized on the floor, transformed into a table. On UMMO, "one would eat on the floor".
A Ummite during lunch time.
We see on this picture a man drinking a liquid food through a pipe connected to a device remaining the oriental narghile.
The foods would be "calculated" on UMMO to bring all the necessary. The Ummites appear more nutritionists than gourmets. About the taste, they say that the Japanese cookery would be very near theirs. One would concentrate before eating, in silence, focusing on the good assimilation of the food. This belongs to the living rules allowing to escape to health problems.
The texts precise that we
underestimate considerably this aspect in the nutritional
No toilets in the houses of the UMMO planet, also not in the nature, as everyone would be equipped with a cannula which transmutes their feces into helium.
Although they precise that they would be able to synthesize all the components necessary to their alimentation, the authors of the documents say that they prefer to eat natural products, meat or fruits. Those would be delivered at home after having been conditioned through canalization, similar to our "pneumatic" pipes.
Between each meals,
one would wash his hands, this means one would change his gloves.
The elegance would really the smallest worry of these people.
These sorts of ponchos would have color codes (flecks and geometrical figures) which would precise the function of each individuals.
The standard clothing.
They would be also synthesized and destroyed, the same for beds: there would be no washing machines in these houses.
When they work or go on a stony floor, the inhabitant of the planet UMMO would pulverized a material on his skin which harden by itself. Semi-permeable, it would allow the transpiration to get through, stopping the rest.
In truth: the mental structure of these men, if they exist, seems so different from ours that this organization would not be perceived as a constraint. The species would be gregarious at a very high level. The Ummite society looks like a huge human hive. Of course, it would have evolved along the time, but this gregariousness seems to be its major essential character.
people would have defined basic psycho-social laws considered as
reliable enough so that the direction of public affairs (and
private) could be left to the computers.
Our planet is unstable because we are very different from each others.
We find strong cultural differences from a region to another and between the individuals. These differences would be practically non-existing on the UMMO planet. Here, the parameters classifying two individuals would be essentially based on their mental and physical capacities, with, by the way, only little differences from an individual to another (less emphasized than on Earth).
One can't speak of a believing as their ideology would be entirely based on scientific pragmatism. They do not seem to be fitted with an extraordinary imagination.
They would then all "believe" to the same thing, and would all have the same mental schema. None would ask questions as their society thinks to have brought definitely coherent answers to the essential problems, birth, the role of the humans on the planets, death, and after-death.
The representation of the Universe presented is based on a scientific analysis. The History would have created no myths, no religions, as we have had on Earth. The inhabitant of this planet would have no metaphysics anxiousness : the problem would have been solved once for all, scientifically (the metaphysical conceptions of the Ummites texts will be the object of another book).
Since the childhood, all would
have learnt a coherent representation of the Universe, through a
very strict education, based on a conditioning, which nears the
hypnopedy proposed by Huxley.
The word "beauty" seems to make no sense to him. For a Ummite, a handsome woman should be good smelling and present a "good infrared signature".
On Earth, if we want to punish someone, we put him in a jail or in a black cabinet. He is so deprived of visual information and confined in a reduced space. On the planet UMMO, that would be the contrary. The Ummite would not fear the obscurity: in the absolute dark, his infrared skin-sensors would give him a certain perception of the surroundings.
On the other side, the
privation of olfative signals (one of his main sense) would cause a
strong stress. Isolated in his glass-cage, out of his social
mole-hill, dazzled by the day light, he would not feel good at all.
This is also the age where he
should leave his family cell, entering some sorts of Universities
where education complements would be given. The rupture would be
real. After having being taken to his parents, he would be at this
time completely taken in charge by the society and would have no
more relationships to his parents.
A she-cat look with care after its young, when they need her. But when they are weaned and can live by themselves, she get disinterested. We don't see cats saluting its kits some years later, after a minimal period of breeding, in the family cell.
These beings would join the general termitary, would integer some sort of
The texts describes beings
which would behave, which would perceive themselves as cells from a
body and not as real individuals. The belonging to a ethnic group
seems to be for them a much stronger feeling than the feelings for
their wife of momentarily for their children.
seem to be before all guinea-pigs. Only the cephalic activity
deserves their attention, and that would be also the case for me.
Even if my correspondents are full of enthusiast for my "exceptional
abstraction ability" they do not mean it with feelings. My brain
interests them, not me. My private life, my worries would leave them
They should observe with a certain stupefaction our phantasmagoric productions and our strange metaphoric language. The authors of the texts call a cat a cat, that's all. The poetry and the sense of humor seem to have no reality for them. You just have to read their writings to be convinced of that.
If, on this hypothetical planet, some being have
the function of psychologists, then they must be people looking to
the encephals with scanners.
Since fifteen years I am puzzling these people. Till now they never got in directly in contact with me, mistrusting scientists like the plague (as they are people susceptible to bring evidences of their existence). As I refused to refrain my interest for this affair, they finally wanted to know more about me. Therefore they transmitted us, through the Spaniards, an invitation to go to Madrid, in 1988.
We accepted this invitation and were housed in the
luxury hotel Sandvy.
In case where we would have been taken in a demonstration and ask about the reason of our staying in the Capital, it would have been difficult to answer:
Lou, the secretary of Farriols were calling us periodically, asking
us for patience.
I could particularly not see what they were doing to my room-companion, Jean-Jacques Pastor. Suddenly, one of them noticed I was conscious. He did a gesture toward one of his companion and I felt again in unconsciousness. As I awoke up in the morning, I had a glance on my friend Jean-Jacques, which was in the other bed of the room.
I had the impression that my urethra has been polished with sand-paper. As for Jean-Jacques, he had a terrible headache.
We spoke about our impressions of the night.
I received, years later, a mail where it was question of an encephalic analysis that would have been performed on my person, that night.
Our brain would have been scanned, probably in order to
understand how we were functioning. According to the Ummite schema,
to understand how works an individuals, whatever he his, one looks
at his brain with a scanner. Then they ask the computer to recognize
the synaptic connections and to draw some conclusions.
There have been several meeting with contactees. Jordan Peña was playing the master of ceremony. At on point we were all gathered in a conference room of the hotel.
There was here there couches, forming a U. A each angle were squared tables, on which people could deposit their glasses.
Jean-Jacques and me in the meeting room of the Sandvy
The Spaniards were talking, as usual with volubility.
Suddenly Jean-Jacques put his hand on his ridiculous grey hat, put on the
table, but without looking at it. His hand gave a small rotation to
the hat. His eyes were vague during this action. Then he returned to
the conversation. I remember that as if it was yesterday.
I told him about his strange behavior, in the hotel lounge, suggesting he could now have a skull implant, which would allow to control all his gestures.
This disturbed him not too much.
One year later some other strange events happened, but we did not paid attention.
One day, as I was in my house, I felt quite asleep
and woke up, several hours later with a nice scarf on the abdomen,
near the belly-button, with a circular hematoma, as if one would
have press my body to stop the flowing of blood.
After having palpated me he said:
The stories of encounters with extraterrestrials are full of such details.
But as I had no catching on this aspect of the story, I decided not to pay attention to it anymore, and in fact, I forgot it quite quickly. There has been a last event, during summer 1990. I was then back to Rafael, near Barcelona. He is owning a huge ranch, on top of a hill, with a thoroughbred horse stall.
On the roof of
his house is fixed a metallic Ummite symbol. He owns a real zoo, with
all sorts of animals, some deers, raptores, desert foxes, lizards,
and a cage with hundreds of tropical birds.
My body was like wood.
I could not move any members and told myself:
Fighting against that would have been vain.
I could anyway make no more gestures, as if my body would have been made of stone. I decided to relax. I felt then that one was putting something under my ear, a stick, may be, and that it was progressing in my head. It was tickling interiorly, from time time to time, but I could not say it was really hurting me. Suddenly, the impression of paralysis disappeared.
The "stick" had been taken away.
The "operation" was
finished. My eyes were closed. The other idiot, with his
slippers was may be still here, standing on the side of the bed. I
said to myself: "if I throw my arm, very rapidly, in a running down
movement, may be I could catch him". But I had no time to begin the
gesture. As I tried that, I felt again paralyzed in a very
unpleasant way, as if I had put my two fingers in the power plug. I
then felt in unconsciousness.
As I told that to my wife, sleeping beside me she said:
But this disappeared rather quickly.
I must admit, if this is the case, it is not disturbing me at all.
Is all this story true? Who can say that? A witnessing in only a
witnessing, even if Jean-Jacques and I we are quite sure about the
drops of paint on my jacket and on his hat. That, we have not
Did the things in Madrid really happen, or were they just dreams? I don't know. I remembered a detail of the second story, the one in the house of Farriols.
The guy who stand by my bed, I tried to grasp unsuccessfully, had very little feet, child's feet, I remember it very well (but the fair haired man I saw in the Sandvy hotel was tall). After reading the books, I remembered old childhood souvenirs, when I was ten. I had strange dreams at this time. Some night a strange creature used to come in my bedroom. It was small sized and had enormous white eyes.
The rest of its body was covered by a black tight suit and looked like a hotel thief, except these strange almond like eyes. In fact I could not see the eyes. It looked to translucent glasses.
This planet would be inhabited with officials. The individuals would occupy positions similar to the one of cells in a living being. There would be no privileges, no slaves. It would be effectively a communism, perfectly achieved, built on the model of an ant-hill. The deep expectation of all the inhabitant of this planet would be to feel totally integrated in the "social" body, and perfectly functional and reasonable.
The technology has permitted to reach a comfortable way of life for all people, this would not be a hard way of life. The human cattle would be maintained constant with a strict control of births, the free procreation being of course out of question.
The human of UMMO would be "optimized" biologically and mentally. From the point of view of social peace, this is interesting, but there is no place left to creation and imagination.
The planet UMMO would have realized a total symbiosis between the living persons and technology.
The artificial mode of selection would let disappear some illnesses, corresponding to our genetic predisposition: cancers, heart weaknesses and all sort of affections. Even if the birth control id extremely strict, the procreation would be obligatory on UMMO. If one wants to avoid it, this attitude would be considered as pathologic.
The individuals would procreate as soon as they reached their sexual maturity (in order to get the best genetic material). This maturity would come at the age of 16.
this law would suffer no delay. The texts say also that this rule
would be considered as a law of nature, which would be general on
all planets they visit. They would have been very surprised on Earth
that so much individuals escape it.
One would then incite the individuals to go in empty
positions, for the interest of the planet. If an individual refused
the way which is indicated, he would be free to do it. But his life
would be harder (all is relative).
This third activity seems to be essential for his stability.
He would connect him to the "planetary collective soul". This aspect of the Ummites social life would need a definition of the "metaphysical structure" of each planet. Some texts of 1988 bring a lot of precision in this domain.
But, as it a too vast subject, we keep us
the right to deal with it in another book. The result is that the
"collective psychism" would be overtake the "individual psychism".
The Ummo formula is fairly different.
The metaphysic world does exist and belong to the today's life of
the inhabitants. Meditation seems to be their most important
activity. When practicing that activity, it seems the inform this
huge planetary brain, as if the behaved like human probes.
Among these two hundred people, four would be retained to constitute the central government, the 116 others would be some sort of parliament. It would take care that none of the tetrarques has no influence on the three others.
Their mandate last four years. If that would be the case, he would be immediately destitute and replaced. The system would not work with elections, but it based on an evaluation system, considered as scientific and stable. The texts precise that during a long period of the History of the planet UMMO, during the last four centuries (in terrestrial time), the emphasis would have been put on social sciences, this means the art of living in society.
Some laws would have been found and introduced in the
central computer which managed the whole economy and social life.
The juridical power would survey, without failure or compromise the good application on the general ruling. The executive power would take the decisions according to the principles of the legislative group (as for instance the decision to send a group of expeditionaries on Earth, and then to establish a contact).
The legislative assembly would make the law evolving according to the evolution of society and of the directive principles. It would play to some extend the role of a "ethical committee". This system is on all point of view copied on the architecture of a living being. In our body, the cells do not divide themselves when they want, weather this phenomenon is called cancer.
The behavior of the
cell population is directed by regulation mechanisms. If a part of
the skin has been damaged, the borders of the scarf grow again, till
the pressure appearing at the contact of both sides appears. The
processes is then stopped. If a loss of blood is registered, the
marrow begins to work and compensates it automatically. Each cell
receives what is necessary to its functioning, in chemical
substances and oxygen. If a set of cell hurts the general interest,
this is interpreted as a malfunction.
The individual preoccupations are completely forgotten in favor of those of the whole animal. This one is immersed in a species, and follows its laws.
There exists a cellular
sociology, as well as a animal sociology.
But the functions of this machine would go far over. Remembering the moral laws coming from a metaphysical model scientifically constructed (defined in the texts), the inhabitants of the planet UMMO would have been progressively discharged of the "moral management" of their ethnic group, relying on their informatics system, intelligent, able to program itself.
This is it, for an example, which controls the demography, optimizes the biological evolution, and makes the prenuptial analysis.
This does not mean that the whole Ummite society is entirely placed under the control of this fantastic machine, as for instance:
But this machine would give, at each instants, a prediction and decision set, that the general government, playing the role of an ethical committee, would only control.
At all levels, when a
decision has to be taken, the Ummite asks the computer. That's in the
By submitting the "intelligence function", their
conceivers would co-evolve with their machine, which would
participate to their social behavior, collective and individual.
They would just have, at the beginning, entered the "moral laws",
which are the basis of all projects and decisions, and would
optimize their evolution.
But the inhabitants of this hypothetical planet UMMO,
integrating so much the machine in their social system, would have
made of him the helper, the host, but also the parasite of their
How to analyze and to model a so complex object as out planet and our mankind, with few persons?
Answer: being helped by a huge intelligent computer, very active and performing. The texts evoke a landing of expeditionaries, in 1950, in the south of France, near the town of Digne. A too short expedition, the year before, would not have allowed to collect enough data. They would have been uncertain that their immune system could face to specific bacteriological aggression.
On the other side, these being, as said in the texts, would now the laws of evolution in function of geographical data, this is something they could have foreseen if they would have collect these precious information. If the things really happened this way, these data certainly have been collected in priority, in the first hour of their settling on our floor.
Recorded automatically by their computer, they would have received a quick answer :
That would have allowed then to walk freely in the atmosphere and to take contact with this young Shepherd, in the few days following their arrival, as described in the texts referring on the first days on Earth.
In 1974, the Ummites network became strangely silent, during four years. A later report, arrived in Spain in 1978 and gave an explanation: The expeditionaries would have discovered that at his period that the probability of a nuclear war was 27%.
have then left the Earth, abandoning it to its destiny. We must not
believe, or not believe, at he presence of extraterrestrial expeditionaries on our floor, either to their fast leaving, or to
the risk of a world war (even if we may think that the situation may
have been possible, given the irresponsibility of governments).
With these basic
information, it would have analyzed, alone, a fast speed, the
linguistic sets of our planet. If the brains of the Ummites would be
better structures as ours, could it conceive all the grammatical and
lexical elements, so quickly?
The children are doing so, by
creating the missing words and "testing" them in the adult world.
Although we remarked the the Ummites texts are full of naive
neologisms. Just a remark.
One of them would deal for the picking up of a huge radio and telephone communication. If the members of the UMMO network follow in real time the activities of numerous individuals on our planet (also mine, as it will be the case later) this is certainly not by listening directly to the conversations, or by analyzing what I am typing now.
Whether on of this member would have to be connected 24 hours a day on my telephone. The analysis of the psychology of men of the Earth could be based on their speeches and their writings, as on the encephalic structure, analyzed neuron after neuron, with a scanner. Generally, the survey of the whole planetary activities, through a numerous number of individuals, or sample-individuals, would be performed by a machine.
The understanding of our social
mechanisms would then not be done through single discussions between
the expeditionaries, who would exchange their impressions. The
information could have been entered in the computer, which would
have built a model of our society, with predictive capabilities.
After some months or some years, the Ummites would have just asked
This would explain by the way the all the psychological failures all along this story which would remain non-understandable.
That, even if a lot of contactees take them as they come, saying (like Lou):
The women would have no hymen, typical element of terreans. The copulation with terreans would be possible, but the texts precise that this union would give non viable monsters, particularly because of the large difference in encephalic structures. Anyway, such an union would be considered as forbidden, against the nature, based on their ethic norms.
The children would receive a very
detailed education before their sexual maturity. During practical
anatomic work they could manipulate as they want some adult
individuals which have momentarily lost their citizen status, after
any fault. We said before that the young would be invited to the
copulation as soon as they reached their sexual maturity, and copulation would be compulsory.
But the authorization would be given only if the analysis shows that the copulation would go in the way of the amelioration of the species.
When two candidates would present themselves, after having discovered their attraction, more olfative and intellectual than visual, if a negative response comes, it would mean: "find another partner, your genotypes would not produce a performing product".
As the couple would be formed, after the authorization of this union, the first copulation and the defloration would be done during a ceremony.
The olfative impregnation would be essential and both partners would be ask not to wash themselves during the thirty hours before the unions. The infrared perceptions seem to play a important role during the act. The texts say that fellatio would be considered on UMMO as a current practice.
The Ummites confess that, by them, the female would have
masochists tendencies, considered also as natural.
The authors of the texts admit humbly that "in matter of sound organization, shapes and colors" the men of the Earth are masters. As to the gardening, on UMMO, the key-word would consist in leaving the nature creating the decors, just by helping a little.
The Ummite would not pay a lot of attention to the architecture of his planet which is essentially functional.
It seems by the way, that he does not really understand what art means when he writes:
This sentence shows a total incomprehension of the mythic functionality of the artistic activities on Earth.
The arts existed before the humans invented the photography (see the wall paintings of the prehistorical men). To create an artistic activity, one must own an unconscious. But the authors of the documents seem not to have any.
Then the author adds:
Mixing of odors would be similar to an accord and the evolution in
time to a melody. On UMMO the "odors concerts" would be the unique
manifestation which could be characterized by the word of culture.