by A.P. Trofimenko
Minsk 1998

from BlackHoles Website

 

Contents

  1. Cosmogony of otons

  2. Black holes in cosmic bodies

  3. Otons of earthly mass spectrum

  4. Black holes in the Earth

  5. Gravimetric registration of terrestrial black holes

  6. Some issues on terrestrial black holes radiation

  7. Oton manifestations near the terrestrial surface

  8. Catastrophes of planetary scale

 

 

 


 

 

 

 



Annotation

The book given is the first monographic research on the problem of black holes (otons) in the Earth.

 

A wide spectrum of phenomena is considered to be connected with the terrestrial otons, starting from the instant human self-ignition up to catastrophic planet explosions. A possibility of predicting natural catastrophes of sea ships, tankers, aircrafts; accidents at the electric power stations, oil and gas pipelines and other technogenic objects is considered.

 

The methods of such cataclysms prevention are discussed. New otonic energy sources and new ways of exploring the giant oil deposits nearby megapolicies are suggested.

 

It is concluded, that by discovering inexhaustible energy sources and infinite riches of underground pantries, the black hole era can be the epoch of unprecedented power and prosperity of humankind both on the Earth and in the Universe.

ISBN 985-6119-04-12
Trofimenko A.P.

1998

 

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Introduction


I.1. The creators of nuclear century were the founders of science of black holes (otons)

If within Special Relativity the nuclear source of energy, which has denominated our century, was discovered, within the framework of General Relativity (GR) the otonic source of energy was predicted. It was happened that the scientists who have made our century nuclear stood at origins of black hole science.
 

Upon creating GR in 1915 more than twenty years has passed till the moment, when J.R.Oppenheimer (the father of American nuclear bomb) with the employees has made a conclusion about the opportunity of formation during the star evolution of objects [Оп00], named later by black holes.

 

J. А. Wheeler, the scientific adviser of American presidents in the nuclear program, has not only introduced in 1967 the very term "black hole" [Wh00], but also has created the American school of "black hole scientists".

 

After Wheeler's and his employees' works the interest to black holes in scientific world has sharply increased. By efforts of Ya.B. Zel'dovich, one of the soviet nuclear bomb creators, the school of "black hole scientists" was founded in Moscow.

 

He is attributed a half-playful phrase, told at the gravitational conference in Minsk:

"Black holes are everywhere, where the opposite has not been proved".

А.D. Sakharov, the winner of the Nobel prize and "the father" of soviet hydrogen bomb, developed interest to black holes as to sources of sub-Plankian particles, which are the test for the validity of Great Unification theories.
 

 


I.2. Astrophysics of black holes

Soon after its creation by А.Einstein, GR has been used for describing the Universe.

 

The model of "the expanding Universe", created on the basis of GR by А.А.Friedman in 1922-1924, was then essentially complemented with the idea of "the hot Universe " by G.Gamov. This prediction within GR of the object ("the expanding hot Universe"), which was new for science, was excellently confirmed by the discovery of relic radiation made by А.A.Penzias and R.W.Wilson in 1965.


Other fundamental objects of GR (black holes) were predicted in works of S.Chandrasekhar, J.R.Oppenheimer and H.Snyder in the first half of ХХth century. Many brilliant theorists were engaged in theoretical investigations of black holes: S.Hawking, R.Penrose, R.Ruffini, M.Rees, А.Salam, K.Thorn, S.Weinberg, J.А.Wheeler and others.


The essentially important event in verifying the astrophysical reality of black holes was the discovery in 1967 of pulsars by A.Hewish with the employees [He00,1], i.e., of rotating neutron stars, which by their parameters are the closest objects to black holes. For the discovery of pulsars Anthony Hewish was awarded in 1974 by the Nobel prize.

 

For the importance of neutron star discovery for science speaks also the fact that for the further researches of pulsars, which have confirmed predictions of GR [Hu00,1; Ta00], the American scientists Joseph Taylor and Russel Hulse were awarded in 1992 by the Nobel prize as well.
 

Neutron stars are important for black hole astrophysics because they are the last stage in stellar matter evolution on its irreversible way to black holes. A conclusion about the black hole existence in nature is so correct, as GR itself is correct.

 

Physics and astrophysics of black holes have received wide recognition in scientific world, so the awarding of the American scientist S.Chandrasekhar for the cycle of works on star evolution leading to formation of black holes by the Nobel prize in 1983 was the reflection of this fact [ Ча01].
 

 


I.3. Single small black holes as relics of the Big Bang

The idea of "lagged cores" suggested in 1964-1965 by I.D.Novikov [Но00,1] and Yu.Ne'eman [Ne00] for constructing the white hole model was the impetus to develop the second way of black hole formation.

 

In 1967 Ya.B.Zel'dovich and I.D.Novikov [Зе01], and then in 1971 S.Hawking [Ha00], have proposed the second way of black hole origin in the result of inhomogeneouties formation at the early stages of cosmological expansion. Such the black holes have been called the primordial (relic) black holes. They can possess different masses, both more, and less the solar one, down to Plankian value (10-5 g).

 

Since in the Hawking's work the idea of small black holes at once was associated with some astrophysical phenomena (for example, deficiency of solar neutrino), it was the work which the wide discussion of this problem begins from.


Attempts have been undertaken to detect experimentally explosions of black holes through optical flares [Po00,1], [Bh00], [Je00], radiobursts [Re00], [Bl20] and gamma-bursts [Po01]. Researches of the micro-black hole radiation spectrum [Pa01,2], [Ma00,1], [Ol00], the А.D.Sakharov's idea on micro-black holes as sources of Plankian particles for verifying theories of Unification [Са20], and on cosmological consequences of black hole evaporation [Ca00,1,2,3] were important in theoretical respect.


The general result of these investigations is that:

if primordial black holes exist, then average density of their substance in the Universe is less than critical one in many orders.

Already only for this reason the presence of primordial black holes in the Earth has been considered as impossible.


The direct gravitational manifestation of single small black holes in their coming through the Earth does not result in significant effects because of their large velocity [Gr00], [Bl10].

 

The only attempt to connect terrestrial phenomena with extraterrestrial black holes was the Jackson and Ryan's work "Was the Tungus event due to a black hole?" [Ja00], which has caused objections too [Be00].


All these difficulties of idea of small black holes are removed in the conception of otonic worlds [Тр00-16], in which black holes are considered not as abstract single objects, but as initial centers of all space bodies formation [Тр00,11]. Within the framework of approach given the question on black hole seizure by space bodies is eliminated, for they initially are in space bodies, being their germs.

 

The conception of intraplanetary, intraterrestrial black holes has resulted in a number of investigative directions [Тр00-16], [Ас00] within otonic geophysics, successfully deciding a number of Earth's physics problems.
 

 


I.4. Geophysics of black holes (geotonology)

A problem of energy sources (as well as a problem of "hidden" mass) stands sharply not only in astrophysics, but also in physics of planets [Hu10] and the Earth [Ас00].

 

Moreover, the problem consists not in amount of energy, but in mechanisms of its localization in comparatively small volumes [Тр07].


The idea of intraterrestrial black holes within the otonic worlds conception has obtained wide development for interpreting geophysical phenomena [Тр00-16], [Tr00-07].

 

For an explanation of volcano's energetics and other geophysical phenomena the model of micro-black holes was suggested to make use [Тр00-11]. In this model the problem of energy localization is easily decided, since the source of energy (micro-black holes) is a dot, i.e., "a hot point".

 

The flow of neutrino from black holes has a unique spectrum (it consists of six neutrino types equipower flows with the same energy) and can be registered by modern equipment.


The energy of catastrophic explosions of volcanoes is noted to coincide by the order of magnitude with the energy of exploding black holes [Тр11]. The question on registration of high energy neutrino from exploding black holes [Tr05] was put.


Short-term variations of gravitational potential derivatives (otonic gravi-impulses), produced by otons moving in the Earth, are described. Expressions for different gravitational potential derivatives, produced by otons [Тр11], [Tr04,6] are given. Experiments on registration of otonic gravi-impulses have been carried out with modern gravimetric devices (gravimeters and variometers) [Tr06,8].


In general case a wide circle of unusual phenomena is connected with terrestrial otons: from instant person's transforming in ash to catastrophic explosion of the planet at all [Тр09,11]. A number of ideas having received development in the given book are voiced, which is the first monographic investigation of the terrestrial black hole problem.


The author expresses special gratitude to I.I. Naumenko-Bondarenko and V.V. Butazov for their help in realization of gravimetric experiments; O.L. Artemenko, V.S. Gurin, V.М. Golub, V.V. Mityanok, А.G. Parkhomov, S.I. San'ko, N.G. Silko for the realizing of joint researches on problems of terrestrial black holes.
 

The author is grateful to А. Penzias, А. Salam, J.А. Wheeler, А. Hewish, C. Rubbia, M. Rees, V.P. Vizgin, А.I. Volgina, А.А. Grib, D.G. Gridnev, V.I. Dokuchayev, I.G. Dymnikova, Ju.N. Efremov, G.M. Idlis, V.М. Mostepanenko, А.А. Starobinski, K.I. Churyumov for interest to the problem of black holes in space bodies; to M.J. Fogg for sending of prints of works about intrastellar black holes [Fo00,1], and J. Gribbin for a benevolent-ironic response [Gr10] on the article [Tr00].

 

The author is grateful to the department of logic and methodology of scientific cognition of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for a creative atmosphere promoting a spelling of the given book.

 

At last, the author expresses gratitude to all participants of a seminar of astronomical section of Minsk department of VAGO for discussions and interest to the given problem.


(The bottom page Bibliography is ordered alphabetically. In references to bibliography four symbols are indicated in the text (in brackets): first two symbols mean first letters of a surname (or a title), two last symbols are numerals (the choice is determined by convenience and correctness of identification with the source from alphabetic list of bibliography; references to bibliography in Russian are marked by italic style). In the book the three-signs numeration of formulas, pictures and tables is taken (the first numeral is a chapter number, the second one is a section number, and the third one is a number inside a section).

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1 - Cosmogony of otons

Before discussing the problem of otons (black holes) in the Earth's physics it is necessary first to provide a definition of the term and answer, at least, two questions.

  • The first: it is a must to find out how otons of small masses can be formed?

  • The second, the question should to be answered: in what ways otons appear in space bodies and in the Earth?

The answer to the first question is given in the first chapter, and the answer to the second one is given in the second chapter.

The term "otons" was discussing introduced in 1971 by Ya.B.Zel'dovich and I.D.Novikov in the book "The Theory of Gravitation and the Evolution of Stars" [Зе10],

"as a generic name uniting all the variety of bodies with the relativistic field of gravitation which are inside the so called "horizon" or asymptotically come close to it".

Black, white, grey holes and other relativistic objects predicted within the General Relativity (GR) are referred to otons. In the book the term "otons" is often used just as a synonym of the term "black holes".
 

 


1.1. Schwarzschild black holes

Equations of the modern relativistic theory of gravitation (General Relativity):

Gim = and (Tim - 1/2gimT) (1.1.1.)

were obtained by Einstein in 1915. And the next year the first exact solution of Einstein equations for the point mass was found by K.Schwarzschild. The Schwarzschild solution is written in the metric form which has served for the basis in constructing models of simplest spherical symmetric otons:

(1.1.2.)

where Rg = 2GMc-2 - gravitational radius, - black hole mass, c - speed of light, G - gravitational constant.

 

A sphere drawn with the gravitational radius is for a Schwarzschild black hole a surface of infinite red shift and the event horizon. For estimating sizes of stellar mass black holes the formula is convenient:

(1.1.3)

where M o - mass of the Sun equal to 2*1033 , Ro - gravitational radius of the Sun equal to 3*105 sm. To small black holes it is possible to refer ones of masses in the bounds of 1020 g < M < Mo and, accordingly, of sizes in the bounds of 10-8 sm < Rg < 3*105 sm. The bottom limit is defined by the value of the order of atomic sizes. For black holes with < 1020 g quantum effects of evaporation become appreciable and such black holes should be referred to micro-black holes. The black hole substance density is estimated by the formula:

r = (M/Mo)-2 ro (1.1.4.)

where ro = 1,85 1016 g.sm-3 is the solar mass black hole substance density. It is evident from (1.1.4.) that the substance density of small and micro-black holes is more in many orders than substance densities of known forms of matter, and black holes themselves with respect to space bodies are with sufficient accuracy gravitational material points described by the Newtonian law of gravitation.

 

Effects of GR, for example, in the micro-black hole case, become appreciable at the scales less than atomic ones. Nevertheless, though micro-black holes are located in atomic volumes they can give effects at the macro-level compared with ones from space bodies.

 

So, at the distance:

h = (MBH/M )1/2 R (1.1.5)

the force of attraction caused by the black hole is equal to the gravitational force at the Earth's surface (M - mass of the Earth, R - radius of the Earth). The black hole with M = 1,47*1020 g will create at the distance of one kilometer the same force of gravitation as the Earth, i.e., it will cause considerable but rather localized gravitational anomalies.

In accordance with the Hawking effect black holes radiate particles like a black body with temperature [Ha01,2]: (1.1.5) during the time t ~ 1010 (M/1015) years. At the last stage of black hole evaporation the explosion happens, in which the energy of 1030 erg is extracted in 0,1 s. This is the insignificant energy in comparison with stellar energetics (luminosity of the Sun is 3,8*1033 erg.s-1), but it is rather considerable amounts for planet energetics (thermal flow from the Earth's interiors is 3,17*1020 erg.s-1).

Small black holes move in substance of space bodies as if in emptiness.

 

Therefore while considering black holes in space bodies it should be involved the idea of otons as universal centers of forming all the space objects [Тр00,9,11]. In addition in space objects there can be not only central germinal black holes, but also others. So, for example, planetesimals, of which falling onto the proto-Earth "germ" is considered to have resulted in formation of the modern Earth, can also contain germinal black holes. In other words, not single black holes, but space bodies containing black holes are grasped.

 

But before discussing the problem of black holes in the Earth it is necessary to find out how are black holes formed in general case, to which next sections of this chapter are devoted.
 

 


1.2. Poststars

During star's evolving the irreversible process of energy loss runs. On exhausting the stellar nuclear energy source the poststar is formed.

 

By the term "poststar" are meant space objects being the final product of stellar evolution (white dwarves, neutron stars, black holes).

As a whole the process of increasing deepening of gravitational potential "holes" is characteristic for the substance of classical astrophysical objects. This is connected with an irreversible nature of energy loss in the radiation form by space objects, which leads to increasing the sum of connection energy of closed space system and body substance.

 

As a result the sum of connection energy of the closed system substance does not decrease. This is a formulation of the closed system substance connection energy non-decreasing principle. Such the formulation can be assimilated to the second principle of thermodynamics.

Due to the principle of connection energy non-decreasing the black hole formation seems to be the natural and inevitable stage of evolution. The conclusion on the black hole existence in nature is so correct, as far as correct GR itself.

 

But the formation of black holes with masses less than mass of the Sun was considered for a long time as problematic.
 

 


1.3. Relics of the Big Bang

The second version of black hole formation is connected with the idea on white holes proposed in 1964-1965 in I.D. Novikov's [Но00,1] and Yu. Neeman [Ne00] works, who have suggested the hypothesis of "lagged cores".

 

According to this idea at the initial stage of Metagalactic expansion the substance expanding was retarded in some regions and the substance has not left the gravitational radius. The so called "lagged cores" have been formed.

For some reasons, the first attempt to understand a nature of white hole formation has appeared unsuccessful, but the idea of "lagged cores" was an incitement to developing the second way of black holes formation.

 

In 1967 Ya.B. Zel'dovich and I.D. Novikov [Зе10], and then in 1971. S. Hawking [Ha00] have proposed the second way of black holes formation as a result of possible inhomogeneities at early stages of cosmological expansion. Such the black holes have received the name of primordial (relic) black holes. They can have various masses, both more, and less the solar mass.

Since in the Hawking work the idea of small black holes at once was connected with some astrophysical phenomena (in particular, with the deficiency of solar neutrino), it is the work with which the wide discussion of the primordial black hole problem begins.

Because of relic otons are formed at the initial stage of the Big Bang under quite certain conditions, namely, under large density and temperatures during very short time, there are restrictions on their number and general mass. If the primordial black holes exist, the average density of their substance in the Universe is in many orders less than the critical one. Just only for this reason the presence of relic black holes with small masses in the Earth is improbable.

 

The difficulties in an explanation of the black and white hole origins have forced resorting to the idea of transmetagalactic oton origin from other worlds.
 

 


1.4. Kerr-Newman space-time and transmetagalactic otons

The Kerr-Newman metric is the theoretical basis of transmetagalactic oton models construction (black and white holes).

 

In the oblate quasi-spheroidal Boyer-Lindquist coordinates it is written in the following form [Ми10] (here the geometrized units are used, c = G = 1):

(1.4.1)

where M is the total mass of oton, Q is its charge, a is the angular momentum of rotation per unit mass.

In a general case for the Kerr-Newman metric there are several mismatched pseudo-singular surfaces. Surfaces of event horizon for the metric (1.4.1) are defined by the expression (here and further in usual units, if it is not stipulated the opposite):

(1.4.2.)

where R+ is the external event horizon, R- is the inner one.

Surfaces of infinite shifts are defined as follows:

(1.4.3.)

The surface determined by r+ is called the infinite red-shift surface, r- does the infinite blue-shift one.

 

The pseudo-singular surfaces make the structure of the extended space-time manifold (ESTM) non-trivial. In the case of a Kerr oton ( 0, and 0, Q = ) the picture qualitatively does not vary. In the case of not rotating oton (a = 0, Q 0, 0) the picture qualitatively changes, since from (1.4.2) and (1.4.3) r + = R +, r _ = R _, i.e., event horizon surfaces coincide with the corresponding infinite shifts surfaces. Thus, the condition a = 0 makes the ESTM structure more poor.

Finally, for a Schwarzschild oton there is one pseudo-singular surface: r+ = R+ = Rg (Rg is the gravitational radius):

(1.4.4)

The second peculiar surface (r- = R- = 0) coincides with the point of true singularity.

The most realistic model of an otonic white hole is associated with the Kerr ESTM, because all known astrophysical objects possess rotation. Let us consider the Penrose diagram for the Kerr ESTM along the symmetry axis [00] (fig. 1.4.1.), that can give the qualitative representation on the global structure of ESTM.

Taking into account results of extended relativity it is possible to designate an arbitrary region of the Kerr ESTM ., which is separated from another by event horizons, by the general symbol [03]:

M (k, P) (1.4.5)

where P = (i)N. N is the number of event horizons separating arbitrary region from on originate (+), - < k < + . Since k is not restricted, there can be the unlimited number of regions by the type of . Each such region can be an independent world, which is similar to our Metagalaxy.

Anticollapsing objects in similar ESTM are formed in the results of relativistic collapse-anticollapse process from black hole matter, which flows (see fig. 1.4.1.) through wormholes from one (0, +), (0, i) ESTM region (otonic world) to another (1, -i), (1, +). The cause of transformation of collapse to anticollapse for the Kerr oton consists in rotation, which at a certain stage of contraction of oton, namely, in the region (0, ' -) at R = R = a2/c2Rb, leads to expansion.

Thus, in white hole concept we should go from the Schwarzschild STM to the Kerr ESTM, which naturally explains the nature of anticollapse and leads to the notion on non-trivial ESTM structure and on worlds variety.

This is the second possible way of the white hole origin and the third way of black hole formation as relics of grey holes, which were proposed in 1973-1978 within the idea of otonic worlds variety in the multi-dimensional Universe (otonic scenario) [00].

On the Penrose diagram of the Kerr STM (see fig. 1.4.1.) there can be the unlimited number of regions by the type of M(+). An independent otonic world corresponds to each such region, which is similar to our Metagalaxy. Though, it is necessary to notice, that any region (+) of STM must be not the asymptotically flat space-time, but the curved Friedman world, possessing "holes".

If the expansion of anticollapsar stops at the event horizon the black hole will be formed. Such the black hole is the grey hole relic, which matter is originated from other regions of extended STM. The time of grey hole manifestation at the stage of anticollapse is extremely small. On stopping anticollapse they become black holes.

 

Such otonic black holes can possess different masses and arise at any stage of Metagalactic expansion.

Fig. 1.4.1. The Penrose diagram for the extended along the symmetry axis Kerr STM. The broken line marks the ring singularity. The stencil picture (++) including regions (++), (-), (i), (' -), (- '), and (-i) is repeated unlimitedly to the both sides. When k we optain the complete Kerr manifold. Curves show possible geodesics (time-like), which correspond to black hole, BH; white hole, WH; grey hole, GH; dark grey hole, DGH; light grey hole, LGH.

The discovering of white (or grey) hole flares would be the confirmation of the idea on worlds variety in the multidimensional Universe. If gamma-bursts are connected with grey hole flares, bursts of gravitational radiation can be predicted to be observed synchronously with gamma-bursts.

White and grey holes from other otonic worlds, causing extreme disturbances of STM and the gravitational field, should lead to powerful short-term bursts of gravitational radiation and electromagnetic waves. Therefore any grandiose processes in this point of the heavenly sphere after the radiation burst should not be expected, since the grey hole relic can be a single black hole.

 

The detection of synchronism of gravitational and gamma-bursts would be decisive argument for the discovery of white and grey hole flares [Tr00].

White holes, unlike grey holes, can manifest themselves after the short-term powerful radiation burst as grandiose space explosions. In this respect it is of interest the Supernovae - 1987, when the large burst of gravitational radiation was registered [Tro1].
 

 


1.5. Other ways of black hole formation

According to otonic worlds concept considered above, in which there are no restrictions on the time of space object existence, black holes in the far future of Metagalaxy can reduce their masses up to any values due to quantum evaporation.

One more way of mini-black hole formation through the condensation of poorly interacting massive particles in neutron stars was offered in the Goldmans and Nassinovs work [Go00]. According to the authors, bosonic poorly interacting massive particles which have masses more than 200 GeV can be condensed on to the neutron star nucleus, forming the configurations being close to the gravitational radius. These configurations collapse forming mini-black holes.

Thus, there are various ways of small black hole formation and now it is necessary to discuss the question, how black holes appear in space bodies, in particular, in the Earth.

 

Black holes in space bodies will be the subject of the following chapter.

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2 - Black holes in space bodies

As . . Lifshits has shown in 1946 [00], in the homogeneous extending world galaxies and their clusters cannot appear due to the gravitational instability. Initial inhomogeneities of density of Metagalactic substance are necessary, which should play a role of germs in various sorts of space object's formation.

 

The difficulties in an explanation of the origin of initial inhomogeneities have forced to appeal to the idea of transmetagalactic origin of otons [00].



2.1. Otons are universal centers ("germs") of formation of space objects

Black holes as relics of grey holes can be effectively used as germs for formation of various space objects.

 

In the otonic worlds conception transmetagalactic black holes represent universal centers of formation of classical astrophysical objects: planets, satellites of planets, comets, planetesimals, stars, galactic nuclei, clusters of galaxies and so on.

Thus, the answer to a question "How black holes have appeared in the Earth?" becomes clear. Black holes initially were in the Earth and other space bodies. Being "germs" of these bodies, black holes precede the formation of usual astrophysical objects.

For a long time the idea of black holes as "germs" of galaxies and clusters of galaxies [Ca03] has received popularity, but the idea of black holes as "germs" of stars [Cl00], [Fo00] is less known. In the framework of otonic scenario otons are considered to be universal "germs" of all space objects down to planets. A logic consequence of this idea is a notion of the existence of otons ensemble in space bodies which are not only situated at the center of objects, but also moving in their gravitational fields.

The following scheme of otons hit in space bodies is possible. In standard cosmogonic scenario planets (in particular, the Earth) are considered to have been formed by due to accretion of planetesimals on to "germs" of planets. But planetesimals themselves, as it follows from the otonic scenario, have been formed as well by due to accretion of substance on to otons, which were "germs" of planetesimals.

Thus, otons are not single, "naked", and they initially are in appropriate gravitational potential "holes" and surrounded with substance. Here are otons, having shells of substance, that can be grasped by space bodies [11]. At last, it is possible simply to postulate the existence of otons in the Earth, not putting a question on their origin.

In the beginning we shall discuss the most characteristic manifestations of black holes in space bodies.

 

The choice of points at issue is obvious:

  • neutron stars (maximal density of a matter)

  • the Sun (the nearest star and the largest object in Solar system)

  • planets, which have brighter manifestations of black holes, than on the Earth



2.2. Black holes in neutron stars and the phenomenon of pulsars

Intrastellar black holes do not influence radically on stars evolution, but they can render a decisive influence on evolution of poststars: white dwarves and neutron stars.

 

Poststars have density of substance significantly higher, than stars have, hence, the rate of substance accretion on to a black hole and the energy separation at accretion should be larger as well. In this respect millisecond pulsars are interesting.

To explain the phenomenon of pulsars and, in particular, of formation of millisecond pulsars, the alternative model of neutron star which contains a small black hole at the center was proposed by the author [Tr01,3]. According to this model, the acceleration of rotation occurs due to the neutron star substance flow (accretion) on to the black hole, that leads to decreasing of angular momentum and, consequently, to increasing of speed of rotation.

From this model, the possibility of existence of the submillisecond pulsars class with Pmin < 0,5 ms was predicted. The submillisecond optical pulsar (P 0.5 ms) in the region of SUPERNEW SN-1987A, discovered since the prediction has been made, is a good confirmation of a fidelity of the given model.

The other consequence of this model is the possibility of acceleration of solitary pulsars rotation, since the reason of this acceleration is the internal structure of a neutron star (the presence of a small black hole in the center).

 

The confirmation of this conclusion is the discovering of the negative derivative of period ( = -2*10-17 /) of the single pulsar PSR 2127 + 11 ( = 110 ms) in globular cluster 15.

The black hole in the center means the presence of point-like mass in the neutron star center, on to which a drain (an accretion) of superconductive neutron liquid occurs. The mass which has appeared in the small black hole ("point"), does not already contribute to the inertia momentum. The decrease of the inertia momentum by due to the law of rotating momentum conservation must be compensated by acceleration of rotation.

It simplifies the task considerably and allows to determine the accretion rate on to a black hole by the derivative of period from the condition of rotating momentum conservation:

J w = L = const. (2.2.1)

The inertia momentum for neutron star is defined by the expression:

J 0,1 MR2 , (2.2.2)

which gives the following estimation of the neutron star inertia momentum: J0 = 1044 g sm2.

 

Taking into account (2.2.2.) from (2.2.1.) it is possible to obtain:

(2.2.3.)

Assuming R = const and differentiating (2.2.3.) with respect to time, we shall get,

(2.2.4)

A substitution of neutron star parameters and parameters of the 110 ms pulsar gives the following estimation of the accretion rate on to the central black hole:

= 2*1017 g*s-1.

Let us put to use the formula for the hydrodynamic spherical accretion [00] to estimate the black hole mass, since superfluid liquid is in the interior of neutron star:

(2.2.5).

The black hole parameters are obtained from (2.2.5.) by substitution of the neutron star parameters:

MBH 1,58*1019g, RBH 2*10-9 sm, r BH 1044 g sm-3.

The sizes by the order are comparable with atomic sizes, and the considerable magnitude of density speaks about the degree of matter compression. These quantities together show the validity of the analogy of matter accretion on to small black hole with tightening of substance in a point.

Let us notice, that estimations given are illustrative rather than quantitative, since the repelling pressure of fermi-system is not taking into account. The problem of accretion of super-dense degenerated substance on to micro-black holes was not yet specially investigated. The Hawking radiation and the fermi-pressure of substance accreted can not only decrease considerably the rate of accretion, but also under certain conditions are capable to stop the accretion.

Since the accretion rate is directly proportional to square of the black hole mass, the acceleration of pulsar rotation is to increase with time, i.e., fast-rotating pulsars must be old objects. On the one hand, the pulsar rotation is decelerated due to the energy loss, and on the other hand, it is accelerated due to the inertia momentum increase. These processes follow simultaneously, but the deceleration of rotation dominates at the beginning due to the energy loss, and after some time the accretion process on to the black hole leads to the acceleration of rotation.

 

The second derivative of the period must increase with the time too.

The accretion rate on to a black hole (2.2.4.) corresponds to considerable amount of energy extraction, which should warm up the neutron star; and since the accretion rate grows with the time, the neutron star cooling process must be exchanged for its heating.

Thus, old pulsars should be not only fast-rotating, but also hot. An observation of hard radiation from single millisecond pulsars, having the negative derivative of period, for example, for PSR 2127 + 11, would be one more confirmation of black hole's presence in neutron stars.

The negative derivative of the single pulsar PSR 2127 + 11 implies the internal cause of the rotation acceleration, that is, it certificates the accretion of the neutron star substance on to small interior black hole. Because of told above it should be expected the discovery of other single pulsars with the negative derivative of the period. These pulsars should have the significant second derivative of the period as well.

The model given explains the very phenomenon of pulsars [Tr01,03]. The substance accretion on to the Kerr black hole is anisotropic, leading to the appearance of specific directions of energy radiation (projectors), which is the feature of pulsars. Such the character of radiation creates "heat dots" at the neutron star surface or sources of pulsing radiation.

But let us pass to discussion of problems concerning with space objects, closer to the Earth: the Sun and other objects of our planetary system.



2.3. The solar neutrino deficiency problem and the central black hole in the model of the Sun

Hawking has suggested that the intrasolar black hole of the mass of 1017 g [Ha00]: "can be the cause, that the flow of neutrino from the Sun does not coincide with that predicted ".

Till now the problem of solar neutrino has not yet found any decision. Standard models of the Sun predict the neutrino flow in the experiment with 371 to be of the order of 7,9 2,6 SNU [Ba00]. While the level observed now is 2,1 0,9 SNU [Ba00].

 

It shows, that there is a significant divergence between the predictions of standard models and the experiments of Davies. All this has resulted in the necessity to consider an alternative energy source of the Sun, namely the central, intrasolar black hole, on to which solar substance accrues.

This idea has received development in works of other scientists and the further accounts have shown, that the hole being in center of the Sun with the mass of the order of 10-5MO can provide the half of solar luminosity due to the accretion [Cl00]. It leads to decrease of solar neutrino flow up to the level corresponding to experimental data.

The model of intrasolar black hole concerned meets a difficulty of the following kind. The central black hole already now gives the contribution 51 % of luminosity of the Sun if MBH = 1,5 10-5 O .

There are no fundamental reasons that the black hole should do not give almost the whole luminosity of the Sun.

However the future of the Sun depends considerably upon the central black hole large luminosity. Since the mass and the luminosity of intrasolar black hole increase exponentially, the Sun should soon (during the time less in comparison with 109 years) leave a main sequence .

This allocates the Sun in an especially rare class of stars having internal black holes.

Besides, it is necessary to recognize, that we observe the Sun during rather special epoch of its evolution, in that moment, when the black hole luminosity is of the same order as the solar one due to burning of hydrogen. The following alternative arises.

It is necessary whether to recognize, that we are near the star of the most rare type in the exclusive moment of its evolution, or to recognize, that the classical model of accretion on to black holes is not applicable to the accretion of super-dense substance on to small black holes, for which the account of quantum effects [11] is necessary.

Moreover, accretion inside stars occurs, the most sooner, on to fermioton, that is, in the certain sense, there is a return to idea on the accretion on to a neutron nucleus as a source of stars energy [La20]. The consideration of the stellar substance accretion on to fermioton should eliminate available difficulties with stars energetics and the problem of solar neutrino deficiency.

At last, we shall note one more idea brought forth in the same work [Cl00], that the intraplanetary black hole is responsible for high luminosity of the planet Jupiter.

 

But, mentioning this question, we pass to subject of the following item.



2.4. Black holes in planets

At last stage of the black hole evaporation the explosion happens, in which in 0,1 s the energy of 1030 erg is extracted.

 

It is rather significant amount for the planets energetics (the thermal flow from internals of the Earth - 3,17*1020 erg.s-1, the thermal flow of the Jupiter - 3*1024 erg.s-1, the luminosity of the Jupiters satellite Io - 3*1019 erg.s-1).

 

Thus, black holes can be involved to explain the planets energetics. It is necessary to note, that the large part of the black hole radiation (gravitational, neutrino and others) freely leaves in outer space.

In the case of small black holes an other mechanism of energy extraction - accretion of environmental substance - is possible too. Also, the possibility of energy extraction in collisions of small black holes is of interest, though the probability of a such kind of events for single otons is extremely small. However since all space bodies are gravitational connected systems, there are no absolutely any reasons to make similar exception for otons. But in this case the probability of small black holes collisions grows sharply.

Black holes can the most distinctive manifest themselves in planets as a point gravitational masses and "hot" points, and as anomaly of different kind: dynamical, gravitational, geothermal, geochemical, magnetic, as abnormal sources of particles and others. Dynamical anomalies in planets rotation are revealed itself in changes of rotation periods and shifts of poles.

Gravitational anomalies on the Earth attain 500 mGal [00], [20,21] and there are difficulties in their understanding. Small black holes are the best candidates for the role of point-like masses".

The more significant gravitational anomalies were discovered on the Moon and Mars [20,21], [30]. So on the Moon in the region of mascons the rate of the gravitational anomalies value to the gravitational field intensity value is more on the order than on the Earth.

The even more expressive gravitational anomaly is discovered on Mars in the region of Tharsis mountains, which is the unique mascon dominating in the gravitational field of Mars. The asymmetry of the gravitational field is those, that the areoid can be presented by the model of a spherical planet with a point mass in the region of Tharsis mountains.

Small bodies of the solar system are possible to possess an even more abnormal gravitational field, that will testify for the existence of black holes.

Planets, especially of the Earth group, in some attitude are chemical anomalies, because of their structure strictly differs from the average chemical structure of space substance, in which hydrogen and helium dominate. Specific mechanisms of elements formation are required for planets to explain available chemical structure.

Special conditions are required for running thermonuclear reactions of syntheses in planets. In particular, the detection of the abnormal light isotope helium-3 amounts speaks about thermonuclear reactions in the Earths interior.

Thus, to two well-known mechanisms of chemical elements formation (the Big Bang and stars) and two mechanisms offered recently (white holes and accretional disks of black holes), it is possible to add the fifth mechanism: the thermonuclear synthesis in substance which is warmed up by the micro-black hole radiation. It will help to eliminate difficulties connected to formation of some heavy elements.

Micro-black holes can simulate both motionless "hot point", and "migrating" center of volcanic activity. Difficulties in an explanation of giant's energetics, and in particular, of the grandiose volcanic activity on Io [Hu10] require the search of new sources of energy, which can be black holes.

In conclusion, let us discuss the question on the possibility of micro-black holes explosions on bodies of the solar system. It is interesting the possibility of solar flares connection with explosions of micro-black holes, but the extraction during an explosion of rather small energy 1030 erg, on the background of the powerful solar energy flow (3,81*1033 ergs-1) requires special analysis.

As far as a micro-black hole explosion is concerned the Jupiter is of interest, which has the power of a thermal flow equal to 3*1024 ergs-1. The black hole having such the power, should explode during the nearest decades, and the power of radiation should grow as PBH ~ t2/3.

If the exploding black hole is in depths of a planet, the thermal flow from explosion will appear at the planet surface much later. The explosion can be detected by the neutrino flare with energy of the order 108 eV and by seismic manifestations.

Rings around the giant planets, the asteroids belt between Mars and Jupiter (rests of a planet Phaeton explosion) and other small bodies of the solar system quite can be relics of black hole explosions and (or) collisions [09,11], [Tr01,09].

In conclusion, we shall mention the original idea of .D. Fogg about making use of black holes in artificial creating of Earth-like Galilean satellites [Fo01].

From the fantastic projects of using black holes by the earthly civilization in the future, let us proceed to ordinary manifestations of terrestrial black holes. We shall first discuss the features of earthly mass spectrum otons.

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3 - Otons of earthly mass spectrum

The opinion that black holes, being in the Earth, must easily manifest themselves dissipates by first rough estimations of effects caused by them. Even if there are billions of small black holes in the Earth their finding is too hard, since their gravitational fields merge with that of the Earth.

The gravitational radius of the Earth is few less than a centimeter. Black holes of smaller masses possess microscopic sizes and they move freely through the Earth. Their manifestations are rather considerable but very localized. For example, a black hole with the mass of large city has the size of an atomic nucleus.

 

If it appears in the centre of ordinary table, the black hole gravitational force at a distance about one centimeter from it will be ten thousands times greater than the earthly gravitation. Outside the table the black hole gravitation will not be almost felt.

Among otons of small masses the so called micro-black holes have been investigated better, though the name of these objects is incorrect by several reasons.

  • The first, these objects are not black, since due to the Hawking effect they shine and "become white-hot".

  • The second, masses (respectively, sizes) of these objects decrease because of the Hawking evaporation, i.e., the black hole is compressed and disappears.

Hence, these objects are not black and in course of time they cease to be holes. Therefore in many cases use is made of the term "otons", which has no such inconsistencies.

Micro-white holes can appear to be stable, because their behavior must be quite opposite to that of evaporating and exploding black holes. Thereby, the less investigated case of micro-white holes, some parameters of which coincide with those of terrestrial black holes, is of interest for geophysics of otons.

 

Let us characterize in short parameters of terrestrial otons.

 

 

Table 3.1.1.
 

 

М BH (g)

 

Rg ( sm )

 

Rg ( sm )

 

М BH (g)

Objects of microworld, comparable by sizes (sm) with black holes.

Earthly bodies and objects, comparable by masses (g) with black holes.

5,97 * 1027

0,887

 

 

 

The Earth

 

7.35*1025

0,011

 

 

thickness of hair

The Moon, internal nucleus of the Earth

1025

1,5 * 10-3

10-3

6,6 * 1024

hutches of supreme

Biosphere (3 * 1024)

 

1024

1,5 * 10-4

10-4

6,6 * 1023

organisms(10-2-10-3)

World Ocean(1,45 * 1024)

1023

1,5 * 10-5

10-5

6,6 * 1022

bacterias (10-5)

Arctic ocean (1,8 * 1023)

 

1022

1,5 * 10-6

10-6

6,6 * 1021

 

Atmosphere (5,15 * 1021)

 

1021

1,5 * 10-7

10-7

6,6 * 1020

viruses (10-6-10-5)

Caspian sea (7,7 * 1019)

 

1020

1,5 * 10-8

10-8

6,6 * 1019

 

Great lakes (2,27 * 1019)

 

1019

1,5 * 10-9

10-9

6,6 * 1018

molecules (10-8-10-5)

Vegetation of land (2,5 * 1018)

 

1018

1,5 * 10-10

10-10

6,6 * 1017

 

Technosphere of a state (1018)

1017

1,5 * 10-11

10-11

6,6 * 1016

atoms (10-8)

Megapolis (1016)

 

1016

1,5 * 10-12

10-12

6,6 * 1015

atomic nucleuses

(10-13-10-12)

City of million of people (1015)

1015

1,5 * 10-13

10-13

6,6 * 1014

 

Humankind (4,2 * 1014)

 

1014

1,5 * 10-14

10-14

6,6 * 1013

 

Town (1013)

 

1013

1,5 * 10-15

10-15

6,6 * 1012

proton, neutron

(10-13)

The Large pyramid (5,84 * 1012)

1012

1,5 * 10-16

10-16

6,6 * 1011

muons, electrons

(10-15)

Gas-mining platform Troll (1,1 * 1012)

 

1011

1,5 * 10-17

10-17

6,6 * 1010

 

International Trade Centre in New-York (5,5*1011)

 

1010

1,5 * 10-18

10-18

6,6 * 109

 

The most heavy railway composition (6,9*1010)

 

109

1,5 * 10-19

10-19

6,6 * 108

 

The Eiffel Tower (6,6*109)airplane А -225 (5*108)

 

 

 

3.1. Parameters of terrestrial black holes

We shall present first sizes of black holes possessing masses of solar system objects (the Earth, the Moon and planets).

 

In this case for determining the gravitational radiuses the following formula is convenient:

Rg (sm) = 1,484 10-28 (g) = 0,887 (M ). (3.1.1.)

As it is evident from (3.1.1.) the mass of all the objects of our planetary system (besides of the Jupiter and the Sun), being concentrated in black holes, would be allocated in one room, and a black hole with the mass of the Earth (M ) in one dove egg would.

Masses and sizes of terrestrial black holes (BH) in comparison with objects of micro-world and terrestrial bodies are submitted in Table 3.1.1. In first two columns the black hole masses, multiple to ten, and the corresponding gravitational radiuses are presented. In the third and fourth columns are the gravitational radiuses, multiple to ten, and the corresponding black hole masses.

A black hole of a mass M has the density:

= (g/sm3), (3.1.2.)

which decrease in inverse proportion to mass square.

A black hole with a mass of the Earth has density 1027 g/sm3, which is in twelve orders more than that of nuclear substance. A black hole with the mass of a person (g) has the radius sm, which is in ten orders less than that of elementary particles, and its density is equal to 1071 g/sm3.

According to the expression (3.1.2.) the less black hole mass, the more density of its substance. If the whole Earth's mass be concentrated not in one, but in N black holes, the total volume of all black holes would be equal to:

VNBH = N-2VBH , (3.1.3.).

where VBH is the volume of the black hole with the mass of the Earth; VNBH is the total volume of N black holes, which the total mass is equal to the mass of the Earth.

 

Linear "sizes" RNBH of this total volume is equal to:

RNBH = N-2/3 RBH , (3.1.4.).

where RBH is the gravitational radius of the Earth. If the whole Earth's mass was concentrated not in one, but in billions of black holes, the total volume would sharply decrease and would equal to the volume of one molecule. The total volume of all the terrestrial black holes is rather even less value.

Already this brightly shows, so far as the task of finding objects, the total volume of which in the Earth does not exceed the molecule volume and is in forty four orders less than the volume of the Earth itself, is difficult. Nevertheless, gravitational fields of terrestrial otons allow the direct gravimetric registration of black holes.

For imagining clearly gravitational manifestations of otons on the Earth it is necessary to determine the gravitational force acceleration (gBH) caused by black holes of different masses (MBH) at different distances (RBH) in comparison with that at the Earth's surface (g).

 

This condition gives:

-2 = MBH RBH -2  (3.1.4.).

For convenience of estimations let us enter the basic values of MBH and RBH: RBH = R1 = 1 sm; М BH = M1 = 1,4731010 g. Taking account of these values the mass of the black hole, which causes the acceleration (gBH = g) at distances, multiple to 1 sm, is easily determined by the formula:

МBH = (RBH/R1)2 M1  (3.1.5.).

For determining distances (RBH), at which black holes with masses multiple to 1010 g cause the acceleration gBH = g, another set of basic values MBH and RBH is convenient: МBH = М0 = 1010 g; RBH = R0 = 0,824 sm, and so is the next expression:

RBH = (MBH/Mo)1/2Ro (3.1.6.).

At last, the formula, defining the distance Rk, at which gBH = kg, when the mass of black hole MBH is given, is useful:

Rk = (k)-1/2 RBH (3.1.7.).

The gravitational force of the black hole with the mass of 1,47*1020 g at the distance 1 km will be equal to that of the Earth, at the distance 1 m it exceeds the later millions times, and so does it thousands billion times at the distance 1 mm.

 

One can imagine, what giant tornado such the black hole would cause, if it appeared near the terrestrial surface. The above testifies the variety of terrestrial black hole manifestations in dependence on their masses.

 

Black hole interaction with matter else more varies black hole manifestations.
 

 


3.2. Problem of accretion onto small black holes and fermi-otons

Not only the quantum evaporation of black holes, but the accretion of matter can be a source of terrestrial black hole energy.

 

Due to some reasons the question on accretion of hard substance of the terrestrial corex onto black hole is problematic. For example, the hard substance being in the connected state, the preliminary work for its destruction is needed. Therefore, in black hole's passing through the terrestrial matter the tracks (cords, through apertures) must be formed.

However, the main problem of the terrestrial black hole existence is connected with the rapid accretional absorption ("devouring") of the space body by the black hole.

 

But objections available concerning accretion does not take account of quantum nature of the region, in which the accretion onto small black holes occurs. In accruing matter onto small black hole a fermi-system must be formed, which plays the role of a source of repulsion. The task of accretion of degenerated fermi-system substance onto small black hole not only was decided, but even seem was not put.

Only those particles of fermi-system will accrue, the velocities of which are less or equal to the rate of black hole seizing. Those are the particles to be "at the bottom of fermi-system particle energy distribution". It means that the particles of fermi-system come away in the black hole not with maximal velocities, but with minimal ones.

 

The situation is quite opposite to ordinary "evaporation" of particles with maximal velocities. The minimal mass (Mmin), which can accrue onto small black hole, is defined by the sum of all the particles possessing velocities.

Neutron stars and white dwarves stabilize the degenerated substance by their own gravitational field, but if the masses are less than some critical value, the gravitational field is turned out too weak for stabilizing the fermi-system. Possessing the considerable intensity of gravitational field small black holes can create large gradients of pressure and form fermi-systems of smaller masses. It means that there happens the stabilizing of fermi-otonic system by the black hole gravitational field resulting in fermi-oton formation.

The bottom limit for masses of such systems is connected with the Hawking effect, and those masses can not be less than 106 kg, because of exploding of those small black holes. Though, it should be noted that the Hawking effect in a substance must be essentially modified, therefore the bottom limit for fermi-oton mass can be lower considerably.

The structure of fermi-otons must be qualitatively similar to the structure of degenerated stars: shells with different material contents and densities decreasing to the surface will lay from the centre to the surface. As far as fermi-otons are concerned the neutrinic shell is of especial interest, since it is transparent for a substance, does not make a "friction" in the Earth and is not teared by the terrestrial matter.

In a case of small black hole exiting from a fermi-system (for example, the retardation of a fermi-oton in a dense environment should lead to appearing the difference between the velocity of oton motion and that of surrounding substance) a fermi-system must decay forming transuranium elements. Thus, deposits of transuranium elements are places of fermi-oton decays.

 

Possessing the strong magnetic field like neutron stars, fermi-otons can cause short-term variations of the terrestrial magnetic field, i.e., the correlations between gravitational potential derivative variations and variations of the magnetic field should take place.

Let us pay attention to nuclearities, i.e., objects, which are nearest by their properties and manifestations to fermi-otons.

 

E.Witten has pointed out the possibility of nuclear substance, which consists of white, black, and strange quarks compounding it, to be less massive than usual nuclear matter with the same number of quarks in proton and neutron compounds. These clots of the strange quark matter can be stable for almost all barionic numbers (A), including those in interval between ordinary nuclei (A 263) and neutron stars (A 1057).

A.De Rujula and S.L. Glashow, having introduced the term "nuclearities" for these objects, described the properties of such quark formations, the probability of their meeeting with the Earth and presumable experiments for detecting such meetings.

 

According to the authors, nuclearities can manifest themselves on the Earth as meteors, as etched routes in mica and mountain breeds, they can create astroblems and cause earthquakes. All these phenomena can be caused by fermi-otons as well, but with one essential clause: one must take account of though localized but very strong gravitational fields of otons.

Summing up it is possible to say, that real terrestrial black holes can not be single and "naked", and the substance, gravitationally connected with them, makes otonic manifestations more various. Models of gravitationally connected fermi-oton systems have more wide heuristic opportunities.
 

 


3.3. Gravitationally connected systems of fermi-otons (grassifotons)

Let us notice, that it is more correct to speak not about systems of "naked' single otons, but about gravitationally connected systems of fermi-otons (GCSFO).

 

It means objects with different states of matter, which has different densities and temperatures, to be in a close neighborhood. It tells not only about real GCSFO description difficulties, but about the large heuristic potential of these objects in physics of the Earth.

 

Different geophysical phenomena can be attributed to an action of GCSFO, which have parameters required. For these objects taking account of their reduced name it is possible to introduce the terms "grassifotons" or " grasfoton systems".

GCSFO can be verious, e.g., multiple systems, systems of planetary type, systems of otonic gas type and others. In this section estimations of characteristic parameters of such systems (system sizes, a velocity and a period of oton-satellites rotation around the attractive centre, parameters of gravitationally connected system motion on circle orbits around the centre of the Earth), which are in the gravitational field of the Earth, as well as in the absence of the external gravitational field, are considered.

The estimations of some GCSFO parameters were given in the joint with O.L. Artemenko work [51]. The analysis of the given estimated results shows, that the meaning for the otons- satellites is insignificant. The analysis of estimation results presented there shows the value of R0* for otons-satellites to be not large.

 

So, in M0* changing from 1011 to 1021 kg R0* is changed from 0,825 to 83516 m.

 

The velocity of oton-satellite motion on circle orbits around the attractive centre is small too, which is conditioned by small (compared with M) masses of attractive otons.

 

For example, the velocity of motion of an oton with the mass M0 = 108 kg (pre-explosive oton) on the circle orbit around the centre with M0* = 1011 kg is equal to 2,85 m/s, while the period of satellite rotation is equal to T0* = 1,82 s.

In free GCSFO, where an external gravitational field does not restrict system sizes, otons-satellites can located both on orbits with radiuses R < R0*, and on those with R > R0*. In the case given the velocity V0* decreases, when the circle orbit radius increase, but the period of rotation T0* grows. For example, in the case of an oton-satellite with the mass of 109 kg the velocity and the period of rotation on the circle orbit with the radius R = 100 R0* around the centre with M0* = 1013 kg will be equal to 0,9 m/s and 918 s (15,3 min) accordingly.

Systems with sizes 100R0* and more (i.e. with R > R1) can not actually exist, since GCSFO in this case turn out to be unstable, and a re-seizure of otons-satellites by internal masses of the Earth is possible.

 

As a whole, a sufficiently large number of otons-satellites, locating on internal orbits with R R1 and moving with small velocities, can rotate around the central oton. Such the system reminds the ordinary planetary system such as the Solar one. The presence of a large number of otons-satellites on internal orbits will lead to periodical changes of their parameters due to mutual satellite's influences upon each other.

As concerned with the possibility of the existence of GCSFO an attention should be payed on the universal empirical fact, that is: all known gravitational objects enter in those or others gravitationally connected systems. The only question is so far these systems are close. It seems obvious due to universality of the low of gravitational attraction. Thereafter, there are no any grounds to make such conclusions in respect of small black holes. Not the existence of GCSFO, but of single black holes, requires the substantiation.

All types of GCSFO regarded (excluding systems with the radius of oton-satellite orbit about 1 km or more, when the action of the centre and that of otons-satellites is separable) will not considerably differ from single otons by their gravitational manifestations. Otons-satellites will contribute additionally in total energetics of the system.

 

An explosion of one oton of the system does not mean the cancellation of system acting as a whole (if, for example, one consider GCSFO supplying the volcanic activity in a certain region), since other otons of the system will go on extracting energy. This example shows the qualitative difference of GCSFO from single otons: an explosion and a termination of existence of a micro-black hole does not mean a termination of energetics manifestations of GCSFO.

Grassifotons of different types can exist in the Earth: from macro-grassifotons up to micro-grassifotons. Macro-grassifotons are characterized by sizes from 10-1 to 106 m and small rates of oton-satellite rotation on circle orbits.

 

Actual sizes of a macro-system in the Earth can be estimated on the basis of the data on all system oton masses and on the radius of the connected system orbit relative to the centre of the Earth. Micro-grassifotons are characterized by sizes from 10-7 to 101 m, rather large velocities (which attain the first cosmic one) and small periods of oton-satellite rotation.

In regarding many tasks it is possible to neglect various properties of grassifotons and regard them as micro-objects with a large gravitational mass (as point masses). So, analyzing grassifoton motions in the Earth they can be regarded in the first approximation as single, and "naked", black holes.

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4 - Black holes in the Earth
 


4.1. "Hidden" mass of the Earth

The density of terrestrial cortex substance g/ sm3 measured and the average density of the Earth g/ sm3 differ considerably.

 

This is by itself a special problem of "hidden" mass of the Earth. For solving this problem the notion on other chemical structure of internal areas of the Earth (i.e., that the increase of pressure in internal regions of the Earth does not lead to essential growth of substance density), in particular, the hypothesis of an iron nucleus, is introduced [Жарк].

But one can assume, that the part of the Earths mass is made by black holes, and the average density of usual substance of the Earth is equal to the density of terrestrial cortex substance really measured.

Taking into account the total thermal flow of the Earth, the maximal number of black holes, limited by these two factors, will be determined as [Тр10]: Nвн = 4,3*109, that corresponds to Мвн = 7*1017 g. Besides of the central (germinal) black hole in all regions of the Earth (nucleus, mantle, cortex) there can be black holes, which have got in the proto-Earth in the compound of planetesimals.

However, it is necessary to take into account that the part of energy is carried away from the black hole by neutrino and gravitons, and the other one transforms into the mass of rest.

 

Finally, the need to consider the Hawking effect not for "naked" black holes, but for fermiotons can change in many orders estimations given, which can be regarded as a bottom limit of the number of terrestrial black holes. The total mass of black holes can be assigned by such the value the model of the hollow Earth to be natural (i.e., the main part of usual substance is in the shell and the central area).

Black holes move freely through the terrestrial internals and in the first approximation it is possible to consider equations of black hole motion in the Earth disregarding interactions with substance.
 

 


4.2. Oton motion in the gravitational field of the Earth

In the gravitational field of the Earth otons move freely as point gravitational masses even in terrestrial internals. Otons can move on elliptic orbits, in one of focuses of which the nucleus of the Earth (central oton) must be.

 

Apocentres of oton orbits can be in depths of the Earth, or close to its surface, or leave far in space near the Earth. The velocity in apocentre is minimal, and the time of the oton presence and action is maximal.

If apocentre is in depth, the geophysical manifestation of the oton on the surface of the Earth is small, and the probability of its registration is not great. If apocentre is far in space near the Earth, the passage through the terrestrial surface and geophysical manifestations of the oton will be short-term. Therefore only those otons, apocentres of which lay near to the surface of the Earth, can cause appreciable geophysical influence.

 

The plane of oton orbit and the axis of rotation of the Earth should keep their spatial position with respect to distant stars.

Due to rotation of the Earth otons will approach every time to various areas of the terrestrial surface. The only insignificant number of otons, which have periods multiple to the period of rotation of the Earth about its axis (they can be multiple to any number of periods), will appear in the fixed places of the terrestrial surface.

The nearest to the terrestrial surface multiple otons have the period multiple to seventeen (k = 17). This period is equal to Т17 = (Тsd/17) = 5068,48 s = 84.47 min. For the large half-axis from (4.2.1) we have R17 = 6476,7 km, that is approximately in 1,5 kilometers less than the equatorial radius. In more details the motion of black holes in the Earth is investigated by means of computer in works [Тр20] [Силк].

For various versions of numerical value of the Earths density at its surface equations of the trajectory were solved and the time of motion was calculated. It being necessary for the hypothesis on the otonic origin of volcanoes energy to take into account otons, which touch the surface of the Earth, it was assumed in the calculative formulas that b = R.

 

On the contrary, the parameter a ran all possible values from 0 to R. It turned out that in all cases the trajectory is the socket, which can be interpreted as precessing ellipse.

From manifold of otons moving through the Earth only few will have parameters required.

 

There can be no more than ten per one million such the otons. Other otons move chaotically and do not lead to systematic energy extraction just in the same point of the Earth. Therefore, the presence of the second coincidence would become the essential point confirming the hypothesis of the otonic origin of volcanoes energy. The more detailed analysis, both qualitative, and quantitative, is the subject of the paper [Мит1].

 

In the works given the oton interaction with a terrestrial substance was not taken into account, though this qualitatively changes the picture of black hole motion in the Earth.
 

 


4.3. Black hole motion in the terrestrial substance

Regarding movement of intraterrestrial otons (moreover, that of fermi-otons and grassiphotons) it is necessary to take account of interaction with substance.

 

In view of the approach developed in the monograph given, admitting the original presence of black holes in space bodies, the time of intraterrestrial motion of otons can be considerable.

Small black holes possess radiuses compared to the sizes of elementary particles, and in many cases their interaction with a terrestrial substance is described better in terms of physics of elementary particles, not of astrophysics. This approach is developed in the Greenstein and Burns paper [Gree].

 

But in their work black holes are considered as external in respect to the Earth objects, which have got accidentally in our planet and with large velocity in very short time slip through the Earth. This initial condition, naturally, results in a conclusion, that the interaction with a terrestrial substance is not practically reflected in black hole motion [Gree]. But all other results received in the paper can be applied to intraterrestrial black holes.

The length of black hole free run is proportional to the fourth degree of its velocity and inversely proportional to its mass and the density of environment.

 

The black hole with mass of 1015 g, which radius is equal to the radius of neutron, moving in terrestrial substance with parabolic velocity, will leave "a tunnel" in radius ~ 10-8 sm with the area of section s = 10-16 sm2, which in ten orders exceeds the section of strong interaction and, as a whole, is comparable to nuclear sections.

 

The width of ionization track is about 10-4 sm. The energy, extracted along the track by the black hole, is equal to Erg/sm. The length of free run in the terrestrial substance is about few light years. Like neutrino, the black hole can pass huge distances through matter, but it interacts with environmental substance very strongly.

In the end of the paper authors make a conclusion, that small black holes moving in the interstellar substance do not practically lose their velocity, hence, they cannot be seized by space bodies. It means, that the concept of small black holes as relics of the Big Bang is hopeless both in theoretical, and in observational relation.

The concept of otonic intraterrestrial small black holes [Тр10-16, Tro1-8] has not similar difficulties: velocities of intraterrestrial black holes, which touch the Earth, can be from zero and more, the time of their presence in the Earth is unlimited and the interaction with substance can be very considerable.

Within this approach the interaction of black holes with substance was considered in Parkhomovs work [Парх], in which interesting results were obtained:

  • black holes having masses > 1013 kg were shown to have already stopped their extraterrestrial motion

  • black holes with masses of 1012 - 1013 kg are intensively absorbed by the Earth at present

  • it was found, that at low enough velocity of black hole motion, which touch the Earth, their "jamming" in the terrestrial substance occurs, including near to its surface

  • the time of black hole motion in the terrestrial internals up to their stopping was shown to be much less than the time of the existence of the Earth

The motion time of black hole with mass of 1020 g is equal to 5 years, of 1018 g is equal to 500 years, of 1015 g is equal to 500 thousands years, of 1012 g is equal to 500 millions years.

 

The factor of velocity, as it is clear from all told above, else more varies manifestations of black holes, and, among others, variations of global parameters of the Earth.
 

 


4.4. Spontaneous variations of global parameters of the Earth

The black hole inside the Earth can leads in its motion to essential redistribution of the pulse momentum.

 

This can explain changes of the period of rotation and displacements of poles. To irregular (jump-like) changes of the period of rotation there should correspond similar motions of black holes (probably, their casual redistribution).

 

So, a daily variation of the rotation period of the Earth cannot be explain by seasonal moving of atmospheric masses.

In difference from variations of global parameters of the Earth, which only mediatedly can testify about intraterrestrial otons, the measurement of local variations of gravitational potential derivatives means a direct gravimetric registration of gravitational fields of terrestrial black holes.

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5 - Gravimetric registration of terrestrial black holes

 

5.1. Short-term variations of gravitational potential derivatives produced by moving otons

Terrestrial otons can be registered immidiatly by their gravitational field: they produce short-term local gravitational anomalies [06‑11], [Tr04‑08].
 

Otons are till noticed to be in principle such objects of physics to have been predicted and discovered on the Earth as, for example, intermediate vector bosons (W+, W-, Z0).

 

Intermediate vector bosons were discovered in famous experiments of C. Rubbia, which complicated and very expensive equipment was specially prepared for. But in the case of oton's registration the situation is quite analogous to which was in discovering of relic radiation, when the available equipment has been used.

 

The modern gravimetric equipment [00], [20,1] registers the first vertical derivatives of the gravitational potential (g, gravimeters) and its second horizontal derivatives (Wxx, variometers). Let us analyze the behavior of the first and the second derivatives of gravitational potential produced by otons.


Analyzing temporal variations of the first ( Dg) and the second ( D Wxx, D Wzz) gravitational potential derivatives forced by moving near the Earth's surface otons we shall take into account only two components of the oton motion.

 

The first, it is a free oton fall in the Earth's gravitational field (the motion along the Z-axis). Degenerated (oscillatory) orbits are considered. The second, it is the oton motion relative to the Earth surface (the motion to the West along the X-axis), arising by due to the rotation of the Earth. These simplifications are quite justified for otons which orbit apocentres are close to the Earth surface.


Under such simplifications the time dependence of gravitational potential derivation variations caused by otons will determined by expressions:

(5.1.1.)

(5.1.2.)

(5.1.3.)

(5.1.4.)

X0, 0 are coordinates of oton orbit apocentre, is an oton mass, V j - linear velocity the earthly surface point movement at breadth of j (at breadth of Obninsk V j == 267 m s-1).

 

Gravitational potential derivatives are connected with each other by the expressions:

(5.1.5.)

(5.1.6.)

(5.1.7.)

Fig. 5.1.1. In the figure the Z-axis is directed vertically, the X-axis is directed along the breadth and it is tangent to a point of the observer (X = 0, Z = 0) being at the surface of the Earth. Different parabolas mean different otonic trajectories inside or near the radius of registration (Rr = 100 km). The specifity of gravitational potentioal variations is followed from allocation features of otonic orbits with respect to the observer. To a various position of parabolas there correspond various combinations of gravitational potential derivatives, both positive, and negative.
 

Coordinates of an oton orbit apocentre influence not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively on the otonic gravi-impulse picture.

 

Trajectories of otons orbits are shown in Fig. 5.1.1., which are in limits (or near) of registration radius with respect to the coordinate system of the observer who is residing on the earthly surface. Already from the character of these orbits, or more precisely, from features of their arrangement with respect to the observer it is obvious, insofar different can be the character of the otonic gravi-impulse.

 

The short-term increase of gravitational force, which is then exchanged by its decrease, is the most simple case. But there can be more complicated variants, when in short time different and even opposite gravitational potential derivatives variations are possible, for example: (+g, +Wzz), (-Wxx), (-g, -Wzz), (+Wxx).


To express the dependence of gravitational potential derivatives upon the time more explicitly, we consider a more simple case (X0 = 0; Zo = 0). This condition results in simplification of expressions (5.1.1.) - (5.1.7.) and gives:

(5.1.8.)

(5.1.9.)

DWxx = 2V j GMo (Vj2 + g2t2/4 )-2t-3  (5.1.10.)

(5.1.11.)

(5.1.12.)

 

(5.1.13.)

The time dependence is different in two cases:

1) t < 2V j /g

2) t > 2V j /g.

The first condition for (5.1.8.) - (5.1.10.) gives the following expressions:

(5.1.14.)

(5.1.15.)

(5.1.16.)

Expressions (5.1.14) - (5.1.16) show that the change of gravitational potential derivatives caused by the oton, which is near of apocenter, is defined by the rate of the Earths rotation. But through about one minute the vertical component of oton velocity becomes significant due to the free fall acceleration in the gravitational field of the Earth.

 

It corresponds to the second condition, which in a limiting case from (5.1.8) - (5.1.10) gives following expressions:

(5.1.17.)

(5.1.18.)

(5.1.19.)

Expressions (5.1.17.) - (5.1.19.) mean, that at the given stage the change of the otonic gravi-impulse is determined by the otons acceleration in the gravitational field of the Earth.

 

Expressions (5.1.14.) - (5.1.19.) clearly show that otons gravitational manifestations have pulsed character. Gravitational anomalies caused by the oton rapidly reach the maximum and so rapidly (in inverse proportion to time in fourth - seventh degree) decrease.


From said above and expressions (5.1.8.) - (5.1.19.) it follows, that for registration of otonic gravi-impulses it is necessary to remove gravimetric data every second and there should not be an averaging on large time intervals. As a result of such the "averaging" the otonic gravi-impulse seems to be erased and the oton manifestation is not fixed by the device.

 

Then, the amplitude of gravi-impulses should be on the order above than the accuracy of the device, in order to be possible to resolve temporary structure of the otonic gravi-impulse.


Otonic gravi-impulses have rather specific structure: the time of about one minute; amplitudes corresponding to gravitational masses in millions and billions of tons; temporary variations of otonic gravi-impulse corresponding to extremely fast motions of supermassive bodies.


Besides it is possible to specify additional, characteristic only for otonic gravi-impulses, features (see Fig. 5.1.1.):

1) negative variations of the gravitational potential vertical derivative (- Dg, - DWzz), which means that cases of the gravitational force inversion must occur

2) short-term variations of the gravitational potential horizontal derivative (+ DWxx, - DWxx)

3) the quick change (within few minutes) of different kinds of gravitational potential derivatives variations (+ Dg, + DWzz, - DWxx, - Dg, - DWzz, + DWxx, + Dg, + DWzz,)

4) arisings of magnetic and other geophysical fields micropulsations, synchronous with gravi-impulses.

Thus, to registrate otons is desirable to realize complex geophysical experiment, in which the registration of geophysical fields should be carried out with high temporary resolution not only by gravimeters, but also by variometers, magnitometers and other geophysical equipment.

 

In any experiment on registration of otons it is necessary to estimate the order of their masses value, to which the following item is devoted.
 

 

 

5.2. Determination of oton mass by physical quantities registered

There are several independent ways to determine the oton mass through observable physical quantities, namely, through direct gravimetric measurements of gravitational potential derivatives variations, produced by otons.


If variations of the gravitational potential vertical derivative are mainly registered ( D Wxx << D Wzz), then using expressions (5.1.1.) - (5.1.4.) it is possible to obtain the value through observable values of the gravitational potential derivatives magnitude and through the time of their registration (tk):

(5.2.1.)

(5.2.2.)

The maximal values of the gravitational potential first and second derivatives magnitude are equal accordingly to: D g (0), D Wzz (0). Registrating horizontal otonic graviimpulses ( D Wxx >> D Wzz), by use of (5.1.5.) - (5.1.6.), the oton mass can be determined through the expression:

(5.2.3.)

D Wxx (0) - maximal value of gravitational potential horizontal derivative. It is possible to determine the oton mass through expressions which do not contain time explicitely. For this simultaneous measurements of various gravitational potential derivatives are necessary, and from (5.1.1.) - (5.1.4.) we have for oton mass:

(5.2.4.)

At D Wxx << D Wzz

(5.2.5.)

Because of modern variometers do not register directly the value of the gravitational force vertical gradient (Wxx), for its determination it is necessary to use two synchronously working gravimeters, carried on height h = D Z. In this case D Wzz = [ D g(2) - D g(1)] h-1.

 

But having two series of synchronously determined values of the otonic graviimpulse first gravitational potential vertical derivative [ D g(1), D g(2)] it is possible to determine the oton mass directly through them:

(5.2.6.)

Registrating simultaneously the gravitational potential second horizontal derivative [ D Wxx (1), D Wxx (2)] by variometers, being at the distance l from each other, the value of the oton mass will be determined through the expression:

(5.2.7.)

Knowing the parameters of gravitational potential derivatives variations it is possible to determine through expressions (5.2.1) - (5.2.7) the mass of the oton, which has caused this variation, i.e., it is possible not only to fix the very fact of the black hole gravimetric registration, but to determine the order of its mass value.

 

 


5.3. Registration of the gravitational potential second derivative minute variations with a variometer

Gravitational potential derivatives minute variations predicted within the framework of the intraterrestrial black holes concept [11], [Tr04] were found out by the author in the experiments have been carried out [13,4], [Tr06,7].

 

As it was already noted, the registration of gravitational potential derivatives minute variations - otonic graviimpulses - GI (see 5.1.) means the discovering of intraterrestrial black holes.


The experiment on registration of the gravitational potential second derivative short-term variations have been carried out by the author with the variometre -60 in the Obninsk geophysical observatory (the Institute of physics of the Earth, the Academy of Sciences of the USSR) in June, 1991.

 

Before proceeding to the discussion of experimental results, let us note that the question on gravitational potential derivatives short-term (minute) variations neither in the theoretical aspect, nor with respect of their experimental registration was not put earlier in gravimetry [00], [20,1], [00,1]. Therefore it was necessary to carry out a preliminary experiment on revealing the reaction of -60 on short-term gravitational influences.


The sensitivity of variometer -60 allows to register at close distances the gravitational mass of the operator: 0 (kg) = 7,5 (R0m)3. A gravitational mass of 60 kgs is registered at distances up to 2 m, 80 kgs -2,2 m, 117 kgs -2,5 m, 200 kgs - 3 m, 1 ton - 5 m. Thus, the operator, coming to the variometer at distances less than 2 2,5 m, causes such changes of the gravitational potential second derivative, which are registered by the variometer.

 

This circumstance has allowed the author to carry out the experiment on revealing of variometre -60 reactions on short-term gravitational influences, which results are provided in Table 5.3.1. The experiment was carried out from 14h 30m (08. 06.1991) to 5h 30m (09. 06. 1991) of the world time.


Two available registerring systems of the variometer (two beams) can react differently depending on the master mass location:

1) indications of both systems can simultaneously increase or decrease

2) indications of registerring systems vary in opposite phase (for one system indications increase, and for another one they decrease and vice versa)

3) the gravitational mass can be registered by only one of the systems, but the other one has practically no response.

The time of gravitational influence recording appears several more times than the time of the gravitational influence itself (Table 5.3.1.). Gravitational influences with a duration of the order of a second are not already detectable by the device.
 

 

Table 5.3.1

 

Duration (in min) of the master gravitational mass influence, ( D tGI ), and duration of registration of a gravitational impulse from the master mass (m 85 kgs) by the -60 variometre, ( D tE-60 ).

Several minute variations of the gravitational potential second derivative were detected from 5h30m UT (09.06.1991) to 5h30m UT (10.06.1991) in the Obninsk geophysical observatory with the -60 variometer, of which three possess enough explicit structure for their identification with GI:

1) t0 = 08h14m (09.06.1991), D tE-60 = 9 min, D tOGI = 2 min

2) t0 = 15h19m (09.06.1991), D tE ‑60 = 7.4 min, D tOGI = 1 min

3) t0 = 05h00m (10.06.1991), D tE-60 = 12.6 min, D tOGI = 6 min

As it is obvious from aforesaid, the duration of the gravitational potential second derivative variations registered coincides in a surprising way with those predicted by the GI theory [11], [Tr04] (see also Table 5.3.2).

 

The identification with GI is also supported by the fact that no gravitational impulses with duration about an hour or more were discovered, i.e., with a duration which would clearly contradict the GI theory.

 

Table 5.3.2

 

k /Z0m

103

104

105

106

0.5

15

46

146

461

10-1

31

97

307

971

10-2

55

172

545

1724

Duration (in s) of variations of the gravitational potential second derivative tOGI for which the amplitude of otonic gravi-impulse (OGI) decreases in k time for different values of oton orbit apocentre coordinates . is approximately equal to for corresponding values of k.

Different estimations of otons masses (see item 5.2. and Tables 5.3.1. 5.3.2.) give values of the order 1017 g and more, i.e., the objects which caused minute variations of the gravitational potential second derivative registered in the experiment are, all of them, otons.
 

 

 

5.4. Discovering of gravitational force short-term variations with the gravimeter
For the justification of OGI registration the realization of experiments on detection of short-term variations of the gravitational potential first derivative (GPFD) would be purposeful.

 

October 29, 1991 the author performed the experiment on registration of GPFD variations in Institute of Geology and Fuel Minerals Exploitation (IGFME, Moscow).


Two independent gravimeters by the type of Scintrex CG-3 (Autograv - Automatic Gravity Meter) were used in the experiment. These two independent gravimeters were located in the same cellar room. Values of GPFD were registered every minute. Three synchronous GPFD variations were detected by two gravimeters, and they have rather significant amplitudes and a number of GPFD with small amplitudes (Fig. 5.4.1)


It is hard to explain these GPFD variations by apparatus errors, since gravitational impulses were registered synchronously by two independent gravimeters. Because of these devices location in the same room it is possible to try to explain these sharp synchronous variations of gravimeters indications by local technogeneous souses of the mechanical, electrical, etc. nature.

 

To eliminate such local influences upon experimental results, it is necessary to separate gravimeters enough far apart.

 

Fig. 5.4.1.
 

There are also a number of GPFD variations with small amplitudes (of the order of 0,05 mGal) which are correlated with one another (Fig. 5.4.1). These correlations (for example, a" and "b"), likely, are not casual, and GPFD variations have the general gravitational nature.

 

The parameters of GPFD variations which were registered by the two gravimeters synchronously correspond to the theory of otonic gravitational impulses.
 

 

 

5.5. Project to synchronous registration of short-term variations of the gravitational potential first and second derivatives

The long-term investigative purpose is the registration of terrestrial small black holes which have different masses and areas of localization in the Earth.

 

Experiments on registration of gravitational potential derivatives variations performed have following lacks: the limitedness of the time of gravimetric data recording, the insufficient degree of temporary resolution, too close arrangement of gravimetric recording systems one to another, the absence of seismic control.
The next experiment is planned to carry out by using at least three independent recording systems: two systems of the -60 variometer and the gravimeter registering tides.

 

The seismic control of the experiment will be provided. The temporary resolution of gravitational signals is expected to be of the order 1s, the duration of registration - 106s. For increasing the cleanliness of the experiment and controlling other geophysical fields is planned making use the magnitometer, the slopmeter, the sensor of air density, etc.


Let us note that gravitational potential derivatives variations in the range of small amplitudes caused by distant otons put a limit on the accuracy of gravimetric measurements and on the determination of the gravitational constant. In other words, the gravitational field of the Earth constantly "trembles", and otonic variations of the gravitational field create the incurable "gravitational noise".


By due to synchronous registration of the gravitational potential first and second derivatives it is possible to increase in this experiment the accuracy of mass spectrum determination in two orders.

 

The even more radical project of terrestrial otons registration should use the influence of terrestrial otons on the technosphere, in particular, on cities.
 

 

 

5.6. Cities as technogeneous indicators of terrestrial black holes

The alternative approach to registration of terrestrial SBH consists in establishing of a gravimetric equipment in cities, instead of far from them.

 

This is because black holes appearing near to the earthly surface can influence considerably upon the nearest objects, but in the distant deserted areas are there no witnesses of black holes manifestations. The situation is radically different in cities.


The density of population in cities in one thousand times more than the average density of population of the Earth, and it means that only one thousandth of the earthly surface has observers of short-term otonic manifestations. In other words, there are more than one thousand unobservable black holes per an observable one. In a city the black hole can be observed in thousands times more often, than in any region of the earthly surface.


This is not yet all. If the tree, pulled out by a black hole, will hardly pay the special attention of the people, the destruction of a multi-storey building (the probability of hit in it is proportional to the cube of the linear size) cannot remain unnoticed in a city.

 

Besides of direct witnesses of such events both inhabitants of a city and of a planet can learn about it through the mass media. If gravimeters and variometers have registered OGI synchronously, the gravitational nature of the building destruction would find the scientific motivation. So, all the technogeneous environment and building of a city can be independent certificates of black holes manifestations.


But of the most interesting is that gravitational potential variations are so considerable, that inversions of the gravitational force frequently occur.

 

Short-term local inversions of the gravitational force were already observed repeatedly and there are numerous evidences of similar phenomena, though till now there was no adequate interpretation of these facts.
 

 

 

5.7. Empirical evidences of short-term local inversions of the gravitational force

It is possible to detect gravitational potential derivatives variations by the direct observation of short-term local inversions of the gravitational force, which have the pulsed nature (see item 5.1.).

 

It is a kind of gravitational pushes directed opposite to the Earth attraction. Further we shall note some phenomena, which testify the noticeable value of otonic gravitational impulses.


The tornadoes manifest themselves as antigravitational whirlwinds which working contrary to the force of gravitation lift upwards various things, animals and people [00], [10].

 

The fall of various objects from the sky (pieces of ice, dead people, stones, metallic things and others) [00] and strange "rains" [10] consisting of fishes, frogs, grains, coins, etc. tell us that these things were in due course lifted highly in the sky notwithstanding to the force of gravitation of the Earth. The only small part of such phenomena is accessible to observations.


There are numerous manifestations of gravitational force inversions at gravi-tectonic building destructions up to evidences about that buildings rose and hanged momentarily in the air [10]. The brightest phenomenon of such kinds was the event in the town Sasovo of the Ryazan region which has occurred in April 12, 1991 . In the result of the Sasovo event the funnel by a diameter of 28 meters and depth up to 4 meters was formed, and the large part of the ground has disappeared from this place without leaving any traces [20].

 

From words of eyewitnesses, at the Spitak earthquake the whole layers of ground, houses, people, buses rose upwards. At the Zaysan earthquake thousands tons of water have risen from the lake [10].


Similar evidences can be continued, but they have common faults: the low degree of reliability of evidences of people who are in an extreme situation, and the impossibility of similar phenomena reproduction. In this respect experiments on the gravimetric equipment favorably differ. Therefore the complex experiment in the megapolicies could connect advantages of these two approaches.


To increase the reliability of otons registration there would be useful other properties of terrestrial black holes. In this respect the quantum radiation of micro-black holes is of importance, which will be a subject of the following chapter.

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6 - Some issues on terrestrial black hole radiation


6.1. Laws of black hole physics and the problem "of thermal death" of the Universe

In investigating black holes their laws were found out to be similar to the principles of thermodynamics.

 

Let us make a small deviation, having looked into the most interesting problem "of thermal death" of the Universe, which is connected with the principles of thermodynamics.


Black holes have one property essentially distinguishing them from classical astrophysical objects: they only absorb radiation and substance. This property of black holes has found a reflection in the so called Hawking theorem, who has proved the area of black holes not to decrease in any classical interactions of them with each other and with the environment.


Due to S.Hawking, J.Beckenstein and other scientists works the laws of black hole physics were formulated, coinciding by the form of mathematical record with the laws of thermodynamics [Be10], [Ha01,3], [01,2,3], [00], [00,1].


Equivalents of thermodynamic quantities, i.e., entropy and temperature, in black hole physics are accordingly the area of surface and the superficial gravitation. Decrease of temperature or increase of entropy of black hole corresponds to increasing of its mass, i.e., not dispersion, but concentration of matter is connected with increase of entropy.


Thus, the laws of black hole physics are connected with the irreversible nature of space substance and radiation concentration. For the first time in science there were predicted and discovered objects which can resist to thermodynamic processes of energy dissipation. In the future stellar objects and space systems must finish their evolution by black hole formation. In the course of time the era of domination of processes of dissipation of radiation and energy must be changed by the era of their concentration.


Mutual transformations of forms of motion and energy in space can be presented as follows [00,8].

 

The energy of radiation, dissipated in initial STM (otonic world) (0, +) (see Fig.1.4.1.) and concentrating in STM of black holes M (0, i), transforms in kinetic energy of motion. Collapse of oton matter in the region (0, -) turns into anticollapse. A sort of oton matter recoil occurs: compression is replaced by repulsion. Then the kinetic energy of matter dissipated by a white hole in regions M (1, -i), M (i, +) transforms into the gravitational potential energy.


The fragmentation of substance dissipated in another otonic world (1, +) leads to the transition of potential energy in thermal. This process, growing, results in formation of star objects, in which thermal form of motion gives life to nuclear one. Steady space thermodynamic potentials are created as the result of nuclear reactions in stars.


That is the possible circulation of forms of motion and energy leading to the restoration of matter thermodynamic activity. But we shall return to terrestrial micro-black holes, which emit various sorts of radiation, in particular, neutrino.

 

 

6.2. Neutrino radiation of small black holes

One of small mass oton features is the Hawking effect. The spectrum of black hole (BH) radiation was first calculated by Page [Pa01,2], which then was elaborated [01].

 

The total power of black hole radiation for various cases can be expressed by the formula:

PBH = (kg + kn + kg + ke + kN) Pc (Mc/MBH)2

kg + kn + kg + ke + kN = 1 (6.2.1.)

where the factors (k) mean parts of black hole radiation power, corresponding to different types of particles: kg (gravitons), k n (neutrino), kg (photons), ke (leptons), kN (barions).


For any masses (M < 1010,5 kgs) and large powers of black hole radiation the outputs of radiation essentially depend on the model of strong interaction at superhigh energies and on the spectrum of masses of elementary particles, but this was investigated insufficiently.

 

Therefore for the spectrum of black hole radiation there are data only for three cases [01,1], [14], which are given in table 6.2.1.

 

Table 6.2.1.
Power and spectrum of radiation of black holes of various masses: PBH = (kg + kn + kg + ke + kN) Pc (Mc/MBH)2

 


In connection with principal opportunity of experimental registration of high energy particle radiation, including neutrino, from terrestrial BHs we shall provide more exact accounts of neutrino radiation flow characteristics, according to joint with V.S.Gurin work [41], [Tr42,3,4].

 

Let us concentrate the attention on the radiation from nonrotating BHs, because integral features of radiation depend a little on the fact of rotation. Besides that, a rapidly rotating, moreover charged, BH inside dense heavenly bodies will quickly lost the moment of rotation and the charge because of interaction with environmental substance.


BHs mass decrease due to radiation of one kind of particles with quantum numbers l, m, p occurs under the law

(6.2.2.)

where is the mass of BH in the moment given, w is the energy of particles (geometrized units G = c = 1 are used ). Taking into account the dominant contribution from modes with I = s = 1/2 for massless neutrino

(6.2.3.)

and for massive particles with mass of rest m and spin 1/2

(6.2.4)

The spectrum of radiation dN/dtd w is determined by the subintegral expression (6.2.2) with the appropriate substitution (6.2.3) or (6.2.4):

dN/dtd w = G w lmp /(exp(8 p M w ) + 1) (6.2.5.)

The results of calculations for parameters of BHs, which presumably could be in the Earths interiors are presented below.


The spectrum of massless neutrino radiation for Schwartzschild BH is almost the symmetric bell-like curve, the position of which maximum is defined by the mass of BH.

 

One can see the energy of radiated particles to depend essentially on this one BH parameter: so, if the main share of neutrino, radiated by a hole with > 1012 g, is in the energy range less than 10 MeV, the main contribution from neutrino with energies more than 1 GeV will be in the case of BH with < 1012 g, and for BH with < 1010 g neutrino with energies more than 1 TeV are radiated.

 

This is of importance for analyzing the problem of registration of neutrino, which appear at the quantum evaporation of micro-BH, since in difference from BH of solar masses, when energy does not exceed 15 MeV, in the case of BH of specified range of masses considerably (in 3-4 orders) more energetic particles should be expected, which can be easier registered because of a greater section of absorption in substance (see below).


The position of maximum in the spectrum defines a rang of neutrino energies, which should be expected from corresponding BH, and it can be determined from the transcendental equation ln (x - 2) = -, where x = 8 p M w max , that gives (in geometrized units):

The complete flow of energy radiated due to process considered as neutrino (or flow of particles) in the whole spectrum or in some spectral interval is obtained by the integration of expressions for dN/d w dt , and it grows strongly with decrease of BH mass.


If one admits the existence of neutrino mass of rest, which is quite probable according the modern data: m( n e ) < 17 eV; m( n m ) < 0,27 MeV; m( n t ) < 35 MeV, it is interesting to analyze features of radiation of these particles due to the Hawking effect, i.e., of particles with the same quantum numbers, but having unzero mass of rest in the formula (6.2.3.).


For neutrino of the fourth generation, for which the estimation of mass is considerably more: m( n 4 ) ~ 45 GeV, the spectrum of radiation can essentially change, but then the emission of n 4 will run together with other heavy particles of spin 1/2: protons, neutrons, muons, etc.

 

All the considerably smaller masses for n e and n m in a case of MBH less than 1014-1015 g do not practically change the spectrum and the total flow of radiated neutrino. In general, the spectrum feature is similar to that for massless particles, and values for complete flow and position of the maximum of spectrum dN/d w dt differ unessentially.

 

The shape of spectra dM = d w dt is similar to that for the number of particles, and its integration gives the rate of BH mass loss, dM/dt, which is turned out to be inverse proportional to 2.


For deciding question on the registration of neutrino flow from BH, presumably located inside planets, we shall consider estimations for sections of neutrino absorption, for example, n e , due to interactions with electrons in the nondegenerated electron gas (interactions with nuclons have smaller sections), which can take place at its detecting.

 

The value of the section in strong degrees depends on energetics and it is defined according to the following formulas [La10]:

(6.2.6.)

(6.2.7.)

where m is the mass of electron.


It can be noted that in both cases the detecting of particles with higher energy, which share is great for BH of a smaller mass, is more probable. Unlike the case of solar neutrino terrestrial BH can radiate neutrino with energies more than 103 MeV, which raises the section of absorption in 2-3 orders.

 

Hence, placing the detector of neutrino at the close distance from the presumable BH localization place (its exit on the surface), detectors of already existing designs should detect the sharp excess of the flow of particles in comparison with background and solar ones, and the directivity of this high flow will indicate the possible localization of its source, i.e., BH.


One of such presumable places on the Earth is acting volcanoes [Tr01,5]. However neutrino detectors existing are located regardless to geological activity, therefore abnormal high flows from localized sources could not be detected, since they rapidly decrease when removing from a source.


The formulas above reflect the contribution to radiation from one sort of particles with spin 1/2, but actually BH will radiate other particles too [Pa01,2], [Ol00], [Ma00,1]. To calculate the radiation of three generation neutrino and antineutrino in the case of their masslessness calculated values of a flow should be multiplied by 6. If neutrinoes have unzero mass of rest, the contribution of each type will differ a little, and in view of the problem of registration each type of neutrino must be considered separately.


Since the fourth possible type of neutrino, if it exists, has much more greater mass of rest than others ( 45 GeV), its contribution to BH radiation will will reveal itself already after nuclons and hyperons for BH with << 1010 g.

 

Black holes should radiate practically all particles down to Plankian ones, that is itself of great scientific importance.
 

 


6.3. Explosions of micro-black holes - Plankian particles - Theories of the Great Unification

Explosions of black holes, most likely, occur in the central region of the Earth, which is a kind of a storehouse of pre-explosive and explosive black holes.

 

The spatial region of the terrestrial nucleus is chosen for gravitational objects. This is the region of the most ancient part of the gravitational potential "hole", in which there should be located the most ancient and short-living black holes. This have given a ground for the project of registration of Plankian particles, which are the test for verifying theories of the Great Unification.


In an approach, developed in the monograph, SBH are considered as "germs" (centers of usual substance condensation) of space bodies, which means that SBH are not seized by space bodies, but are originally in them.

 

Three conclusions of especial importance follow from this approach.

  • First, restrictions on number of SBH, connected with the Hawking radiation, are automatically removed (the Hawking radiation is thermolized in a substance).

  • Secondly, the newest cosmological scenario, in particular, the inflationary cosmology opens new opportunities in solving the problem of SBH formation.

  • Thirdly, SBH in composition of planetesimals and asteroids can be seized by a gravitational field of the Earth.

Previous researches on the registration of black hole explosions carried out in the other direction. First, black holes were looked for not in depths of the Earth, but in depths of Space. Secondly, they were tried to detect not by neutrino radiation, but by electromagnetic one.

 

For detecting neutrino bursts it is possible to use any available neutrino detectors, because all of them are almost equally distanced from the region of black hole location. It is desirable only to lower in one order the value of neutrino energy registered. In available deep-water neutrino detectors this value is equal to 50-100 GeV, and to detect a black hole surely for few years before its explosion it is necessary to register neutrino with the energy of the order of 10 GeV.


The pre-explosive black hole with MBH 109 kg radiates during few years neutrino with the energy of the order of 10 GeV, the flow of which at the surface of the Earth is j 109 m-2s-1. The energy and the neutrino flow will grow with time. Last days before the explosion the black hole will radiate neutrino with energy 100 GeV and j 1010 m-2s-1.

 

The energy and the neutrino flow will begin to grow sharply and last minutes the black hole will radiate neutrino with energy up to 10 TeV, and the flow will be j 1012m-2s-1. The explosion of the black hole is finished by that that in shares of a second the burst of neutrino with the energy more than 100 TeV [11], [Tr05] happens.


Even if there are many pre-explosive black holes, they must explode alone.

 

This is because that with time the difference in masses of black holes influences more strongly upon the processes of their evaporation. For black hole exploding simultaneously, their masses must be equal with high degree of accuracy: so, for black holes with masses of the order of 1011 kg the distinction in the value of masses should not be more than one three-millionth. Thus, black holes come to their finish (explosion) alone and the neutrino radiation from them should start to stand out sharply from the neutrino background formed by pre-explosive black holes.


The research project must develop a practically feasible experiment on registration of terrestrial MBH explosions. First, it concerns the neutrino experiment, since preliminary theoretical developments concerning neutrino radiation bursts from MBH explosions already exist. Secondly, it is possible to put a question on the registration of massive particles (leptons and adrons).

 

This is because that in MBH exploding even at the centre of the Earth it is necessary to expect the increased flow of particles with superhigh energy, since the length of run of ultrarelativistic particles being born turns out to be comparable with the size of the terrestrial radius. The third, the superhard gravitational radiation from exploding MBH requires the analysis of opportunity of its registration.

 

At last, in the MBH exploding there should be seismic waves.


The first task of the project is the determination of neutrino flow through the terrestrial surface and the number of absorption acts near the terrestrial surface from MBH exploding in the centre of the Earth. Then it is necessary to compare these features with the parameters of the available equipment in the registration of superhigh energy neutrino in Dumand and Baykal projects, and with those of other equipment in the registration of superhigh energy particles too.

 

The problem of registration of neutrino flow with quickly varying spectrum requires the analysis: for fractions of a second the value of neutrino energy, from exploding MBH can vary through order. The careful analysis of already available experimental data on registrations of superhigh energy particles will be required both for the reason of revealing neutrino bursts being looked for, and determining possible restrictions on the MBH explosion frequency.


A possibility of massive particle (leptons and adrons) registration is of especial interest, since they are born in enormous number in MBH exploding. This is because the length of run of ultrarelativistic particles being born in the explosion becomes comparable with the radius of the Earth, i.e., the possibility of their registration near the terrestrial surface is opened.

 

Moreover, the registration of neutrino radiation from MBH and the determination of neutrino energy can give the value of the MBH mass. It means, that the time of MBH explosion, i.e., the time of arrival of ultrarelativistic particles at the surface of the Earth, which have superhigh energies down to Plankian values, can be predicted. The previous increase of neutrino energy can be a "sign" of the MBH explosion to come.


Thus, the registration of MBH explosions can open the way of solving the not less important task, i.e., the experimental verification of the united physical theory of all fundamental interactions.

 

Possibilities of technical perfection of colliders for reaching sub-Plankian energies are limited, and the question on natural sources of sub-Plankian energy particles gets up inevitably. Nowadays small black holes are while single objects known in science, which can produce sub-Plankian energy particles. Terrestrial MBH can serve as important elements of a sort of "laboratory" for verifying theories of the Grand Unification or supergravity.


Small as the probability of MBH explosions in the Earth is, the problem of their registration deserves the most careful research, since it is only the way to know anything about maximum large energy physics from the experiment.

 

Moreover, there are geophysical certificates of black hole evaporation and explosions, some of which will be pointed out in short in the following section.
 

 


6.4. Relativistic geological petroleum exploring and thermonuclear reactions in the terrestrial interiors

The existence of otons in the Earth must lead to geological consequences.

 

This is because terrestrial surface regions, close to which black holes are located, should be peculiar in the geological attitude, since oton influences can be accumulated for a long time [11].


Any deposits of useful natural resources mean the certain degree of localization, which can be probably explained by some oton influences. In geology the correlation of the ancient volcanism with any deposits of useful natural resources was noted long ago. Since the volcanism can be connected with the action of otons, and the localization of otonic singularities in the Earth is ordered in certain way, it is possible to predict the localization of deposits at the surface of the Earth.


The Earth, in some sense, is the chemical anomaly, since its structure extremely differs from the average chemical structure of space substance, in which hydrogen and helium dominate.

 

This is explained by that that easy gases (hydrogen and helium) during the evolution have been evaporated from the substance of the Earth. Howerver abnormal amounts of an easy isotope of helium-3 detected in the terrestrial interiors collides with the hypothesis about the evaporation of helium, since helium-3 can be formed only in result of thermonuclear reactions.


To avoid this contradiction it is necessary to assume the terrestrial origin of helium-3 as a result of thermonuclear reactions. It will help to eliminate difficulties connected with the formation of some heavy elements [16]. Therefore, it is not excluded, that in magmatic chambers of volcanoes the element formation occurs, on which the correlation of 3 anomalies with volcanoes shows.


The decay of fermi-otons can lead to the formation of transuranium element deposits. The evaporation and explosions of black holes can reveal the mystery of kimberlite pipes, with which the deposits of diamonds are connected [16].


Otons with appropriate parameters can be sources of energy for the formation of chemical compounds, gaseous and liquid energy carriers (hydrocarbons). Revealing the spatial arrangement of otons in the Earth, relativistic (otonic) geology can predict the localization of huge deposits of petroleum and gas in non-traditional geological regions [15]. In any theory of the hydrocarbon origin (organic or inorganic) the source of energy for their formation is required. Such sources can be otons.


The appearance of otons in the deposit of hydrocarbons should be accompanied by variations of gravitational and electromagnetic fields, that brings essentially new elements in geophysical exploration.

 

Otons can be detected by these especial variations of physical fields. Moreover, the detection of huge deposits of petroleum and gas near converting complexes or megapolicies becomes possible [15]. This will give not only the vast incomes due to the sharp reduction of transport expenses, but also will lead to the reduction of ecological catastrophe danger.


Black hole evaporations and explosions transform matter from its superdense state in usual one, that leads to the grandiose expansion of volume occupied by substance. Since in MBH evaporating (or their colliding) the significant part of energy is carried away in space in the form of radiation - (gravitational, neutrino and others), which weakly interacts with terrestrial substance, it can result in the reduction of the total mass of the Earth. All these properties of terrestrial otons can be involved to explain the mechanism of expansion of the Earth, the idea of which is introduced in one of the theories of geodynamics [00].


According to this geodynamic idea for 200 millions years the Earth should expand on 20 % from its initial volume.

 

Such the expansion can provide the transition of substance from the otonic, superdense state in usual one, which runs with the rate 108 kgs/sec. For providing the such speed of substance receipt from otons, hundred millions evaporating black holes with = 109 kgs must be in the Earth simultaneously [Tr05].

 

Certainly, the mass spectrum of black holes providing the arrival of usual substance in the Earth from otons can be the most different, as well as black hole manifestations near the terrestrial surface can be so different.

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7 - Oton manifestations near the terrestrial surface


7.1. Condition of the terrestrial oton manifestation

How long does it take a black hole to manifest itself in an arbitrary place on the Earth?

 

We shall regard the region to be a sphere of the black hole manifestation, in which the gravitational force of the black hole is equal to that of the Earth or exceeds it (WBH g). Further, we shall regard the total mass of N black holes (for simplicity let us assume their masses to be equal) to be a kth part of the mass of the Earth, and that VBH = V1sp.

 

Having accepted these conditions and equated the volume of the Earth to that covered by the moving black hole during the time tBH, we find the time, during which the black hole will manifest itself in any arbitrary point of the Earth:

tBH = (2/3) k-1N R VBH-1 (7.1.1.)

If one takes account of influences from all N black holes and takes the upper limit on the total mass of otons, the expression (7.1.1) accepts the form:

tBH = (2/3) R VBH-1 (7.1.2.)

It is easy to see from (7.1.2.), that each ten minutes the arbitrary region appears in the sphere of black hole influence.

 

At first sight, it likely speaks about the insignificant number of black holes in the Earth, since the so often influence of black holes, apparently, contradicts our empirical experience. But nevertheless even so often black hole influences are quite possible, because they are rather short-term (for a black hole with the mass MBH = 1015 g the time is about one ten thousands of a second) and negligible in consequences.

Only few black holes, degenerated orbits of which touch the terrestrial surface in apocentre, have sufficiently low velocities for being able to make significant influences upon the nearest to their trajectory objects.

 

Only one thousandth of these manifestations has a chance of their being observable. Nevertheless, there are numerous phenomena, which tell about possible black hole manifestations, since extremely unusual otonic manifestations have sometimes a grandiose character.

 

One of such phenomena is the Tungus "meteorite".



7.2. The Tungus phenomenon

The first (and for a long time single) attempt to explain terrestrial phenomena by the model of black holes has been undertaken in 1973 by the American scientists Jackson and Ryan [Ja00], who have put a question: whether the Tungus accident was caused by a black hole?

 

Within the idea of extraplanetary origin of single "naked" black holes the authors have considered an episodic black hole manifestation, by means of which they tried to explain the Tungus phenomenon.

The black hole not leaving neither a crater, nor remnants of meteorite substance, this explains the basic feature of the Tungus phenomenon: the absence of asteroid remnants. The extraterrestrial origin of a black hole, high velocity, small energy losses in its passing through the Earth - all this leads to that, that the trajectory of a black hole should be very close to the direct line.

 

This implies a prediction of black hole exiting in the antipodal region of the Earth and its similar manifestations in this region. A region with coordinates 40-50 N, 30-40 W is in northern Atlantic. The point of black hole exiting enables to verify the hypothesis as a whole. In this point the other air shock wave, the undersea shock wave and the disturbance of sea surface must be observed.

But the similar phenomenon compared by the power with the Tungus event was not detected. Such explanation of the Tungus accident has caused a doubt [Be00].

 

Intraterrestrial black holes do not require similar antipodal manifestations and quite can be used for explaining not only the Tungus phenomenon, but also many others, in particular, tornadoes.



7.3. Tornadoes as antigravitational swirls

To geophysical effects produced by otons it is possible to refer the phenomena of the kind of a whirlwind (or a tornado), which physical nature till now remains the riddle [10], [00], [00].

The destructive force of a tornado was improbable great for objects having low sailness. Here are only few examples of tornado action. Notwithstanding terrestrial attraction and absence of any significant sailness of stones with the mass more than 100 kg were carried away at hundred meters. A tornado raised and threw various houses and even the large iron bridge.

 

The Catholic church was raised from the ground and transferred at 4 meters. The transporting and elevating force of tornadoes evidently resists to gravitational one: rises and transferences of roofs, large trees, logs, stones, people and animals were observed repeatedly in different terrains.

The behavior of tornadoes corresponds to the feature of small black hole motion near the terrestrial surface [09]. As judged by width of a tornado crater, otons with masses more than 1020 g should correspond to that. If the velocity of a black hole motion relative to the terrestrial surface is minimal, their action turns out to be maximal: gravitational whirlwinds have the time for their developing, and transferences of objects and so on turn out to be possible.

Occurring unexpectedly near to the terrestrial surface and moving in the direction of the Earth rotation approximately with the same velocity, small black holes for a short time, as though, hang over the ground. The orbit of a black hole temporarily becomes quasi-stationary.

The appearance of a tornado is preceded by the rare combination of atmospheric conditions, especial parameters of fermi-otonic system as a force nucleus, the vector of grassiphoton velocity and the plane of the system orbit rotation.

Various combinations of conditions above provide not only the diversity of tornadoes' forms, but also other phenomena. If masses are small or velocities are large, otons are able not to result in tornado formation under the most favorable for this phenomenon atmospheric conditions, but they can make significant influences upon firm bodies near of the oton trajectory.

Gravi -impulsive destructions of buildings in cities are characteristic in this respect.



7.4. Gravi-impulsive destructions of buildings

In cities the black hole has in one thousand times more chances to be noticed, than in an arbitrary part of the terrestrial surface.

 

The destruction of multi-storey building in city by black hole can not remain unnoticed. The probability of hit in a building is proportional to cube of the linear size, and hence, skyscrapers (for example, the Trading Centre in New York, the federal building in Oklahoma-city) are rather good targets for black holes. Besides of direct witnesses of similar events, both inhabitants of city, and inhabitants of the planet through mass media can learn about it.

In cities of the whole world destructions of buildings happen constantly, and a lot of such events are caused by local gravitational blowes. Only in Moscow annually there occur 10-15 local, gravitational "earthquakes", some of which have rather unusual nature and lead to destruction of houses. Let us mention only one distinctive case, about which mass media informed [10].

December 25, 1967, about 21 hours and 30 minutes, in Moscow under the house 77 in Osipenko Street two powerful gravi-pushes have happened one after other, which have destroyed a five-story building. About 200 persons have perished according to some data. Eyewitnesses certify, that some blocks of the house have thrown out on neighbor streets together with tenants, the people hangs on trees, the house has risen in air, has hang on an instant, and only then has destroyed.

 

Some witnesses tell, that during the incident they have been lifted to the ceiling.

In the case given the inversion of the gravitational force caused by the short-term appearance of a black hole is obvious. However, it is necessary to note again, that the action of gravitation from a black hole has impulsive nature, and bodies feel not a constant acceleration, but specific gravitational pushes (see Section 5.1.).

 

And here is, if gravimeters and variometers have synchronously registered OGI, the gravitational nature of building destruction would find the fundamental experimental substantiation. Thus, all the technogeneous environment and citys building can be independent certificates of black hole manifestations .

Explosions of volcanoes and earthquakes are not attributed until to criminals (the whole humankind has not the necessary amount of energy), but one try to attribute accidents of smaller scales to technogeneous or human factors.

In destroying buildings by gravi-impulses there are numerous certificates of gravitational force inversions down to those that buildings rose and hung on an instant in air. But the event in the town Sasovo of Ryazan region was one more bright phenomenon of such kind.



7.5. Geophysical explosion in Sasovo

The strange "explosion", which has happened near the town Sasovo of Ryazan region [20], [01], April, 12, 1991, 1h34m, is of interest. In establishments, houses, schools, hospitals, at many enterprises frames have flown, glasses have dislodged, doors were deformed by the explosion.

 

A large crater (28 meters in the diameter and 4 meters in the depth) remained in the place of event. The crater is surprisingly round with large (3 meters in the diameter) hillock in the middle.

One of the first versions was the explosion of saltpeter, which in amount over thirty tons was on the place of event. However, for exploding saltpeter, which by its power is equal to explosion of 25 tons of TNT, an intermediate detonator of huge power is necessary. Nevertheless, neither traces of explosion, nor traces of saltpeter itself at the place of Sasovo explosion has not appeared. Other versions, i.e., the explosion of "vacuum" bomb, the fall of meteorite and others, also do not hold critique.

Probably, the only physical model, which is able nowadays to explain a variety of unusual physical phenomena observed in Sasovo, is the flight of a small black hole with the mass about thousand billions tons from beneath the Earth. The majority of Sasovo phenomenon riddles can be explained by the features of gravitational field of a black hole, which has flown near Sasovo.

So, a black hole flying from beneath the terrestrial surface in the beginning strengthens locally the gravitational field of the Earth, but then, attracting to itself the substance, it counteracts to Earths gravitation.

 

A black hole force of attraction can be locally in many orders more than the terrestrial one. Moving upwards, the black hole seizes and carries away environmental substance. The crater symmetry is explained by the radial nature of gravitation. A hillock in the middle is a place of exiting of an oton, which pulls out behind itself substance from the terrestrial interiors.

 

A black hole force of attraction, smoothly varying with distance, gradually stops its influence on pulled out pieces of ground, and they fluently land on a surface. Here a kind of antigravitation acts locally in the beginning (which exceeds the force of gravitation from a black hole), but then the black hole force of gravitation smoothly weakens, and the Earths gravitation begins to dominate.

 

A short-term local turn of gravitational force explains the people ejection from beds at a moment of event. At the centre of black hole passage the force of gravitation was so great, that about two thousands tons of substance were carried away.

A relative rarity of events like Sasovos event, probably, speaks about a lunar-terrestrial nature of oton orbit.

 

A possible presence of considerable number of otons (flows, swarms of black holes), having similar trajectories, explains the especial feature of the Moons influence on a person: there is an increased density of otons in this direction.



7.6. Gravitational catastrophes of planes

The probability of black hole influence on subjects is proportional to cube of their linear sizes. Ships and planes in this sense are relatively nonbad targets.

 

Moreover, the direct hit is unnecessary: it is enough for a plane to appear even for a second in a zone of the black hole gravitational force supremacy, and it will be underbid by an otonic graviimpulse (see Section 5.1.). An OGI (otonic gravitational impulse) vector can form any angle with a vector of plane velocity.

 

Therefore, the OGI influence can be different: the plane can be thrown downwards, on the ground, or it can be thrown high upwards, its velocity can vary through inverse or increase considerably. More weak gravi-pushes, not resulting in catastrophic consequences, must be more frequent and ordinary events (for example, the effect of "air pillows" kind).

In a case of strange aircraft catastrophes (-310 in Mezhdurechensk, Tu-154 in Khabarovsk edge, IL-76 on Kamchatka, the aircraft accident, which has resulted in perishing Ju. Gagarin, the first cosmonaut of the Earth) and disappearances of planes [10] terrestrial black holes can be regarded as the possible cause of these tragic events.

Now we shall stop on such like a clear phenomenon, as a collision. For clashing casually the plane with another one, they are necessary to fly simultaneously and continuously during hundred millions years. If one takes into account all the planes, being in air simultaneously, the time before the collision will decrease in few orders, but all the same it will remain large enough.

The time of a plane presence in an air corridor near the airport is in few orders less than the total time of flight, therefore its account should not change the situation fundamentally. For clashing planes, the sniper art and the desire of a team at least of one of the planes are necessary. However, if a force centre (black hole) happened between planes, the planes will go on rapprochement in a direction of common for them attractive centre, i.e., black hole, despite probabilistic estimations and the will of pilots.

 

If OGI is sufficiently large, the clash is inevitable. Having appeared between planes at the distance of hundred meters, the black hole with sizes of an atom for fractions of a second can lead to a catastrophic clash of planes. There is a number of such events in aircraft.

We shall cite only one recent instance: the clash of two planes in 75 kilometers from Delhi on November 12, 1996. This accident is one of the largest in the whole history of aircraft: Saudi "Boeing-747" and Kazakhstan Il-76 have clashed in air [00], [00], [00].

The brief chronicle of the incident is such. Fifteen minutes have passed from the moment of start. "Boeing-747" has taken height quickly and has headed for southwest.

 

In this moment Il-76, which went on landing, has appeared unexpectedly so close to "Boeing" (though a difference of heights of air corridors was more than 250 meters), that it was already impossible to prevent accident. The clash has happened about 19 oclock of the local time on height of about five kilometers. According to words of eyewitnesses, the strong explosion occurred in evening sky, and two planes, instantly having turned in fiery balls, have fallen on the ground at the distance of few kilometers from each other.

Several versions of reasons of this tragic event were put forward. All these reasons and a circuit of casual mistakes in the aggregate could only decline planes from a route.

 

But a snipers hitting of one plane in another due to mistake is just already incredible. It is obvious only that for incomprehensible reasons the planes have appeared not just in one air corridor, but in the same point and in the same time, which is extremely improbable. It is obvious for everybody, who is familiar with difficulties of deciding the task of "meeting" in anti-aircraft artillery.

 

However, it is clear even from a common experience, as far as difficult is hitting the target, especially, if it is object, moving with large velocity.

For example, the clash of the cargo ship "Progress" with the orbital complex "Mir" on June 25, 1997 is but comprehensible: a link-up of the cargo ship means a rapprochement with the orbital complex. Though, it is not everything obvious here: such has not been during 11 years of existence of the orbital complex, that the cargo ship has lost control and clashed with the station.

 

However, crews of planes, naturally, had no desire to make the such "link-up", and it is incomprehensible at all, why it nevertheless has occurred against the will of two crews.

The situation varies cardinally in a case of presence of one attraction centre between planes, i.e., a black hole. According to the law of universal gravitation, planes must inevitably tend towards one attraction centre, and, hence, towards one another. Even a short-term (tenth parts of a second) presence of a black hole with a size about atomic between planes, which are in nearby air corridors, will result in their inevitable clash. Some bodies of perished and splinters of planes could be carried away by a black hole far from a place of accident.

For clashing a cargo ship with the station "Mir" (a distance between them is much smaller) thousandth part of a second is sufficient. In certain conditions terrestrial black holes can influence trajectory of car motion, leading, in particular, to accidents of cars.

 

One cannot exclude, that the fatal for princess Diana declination of the car Mercedes-Benz from its trajectory of motion at night from the 30th to 31st of August 1997 was caused by power effect of a terrestrial black hole.

 

Accidents and clashes in water environment are not less mysterious, than in air.



7.7. Gravitational accidents in the world ocean

History and statistics of ship clashes are much more rich, than those of planes.

 

So, only last three years there were three clashes of the largest tankers transporting crude oil and oil products, [00]. The appearing between ships a common for them attraction force centre, i.e., a black hole, results in that clashes of ships nevertheless occur in defiance of the will and the mind of people, and of insignificant probability.

Let us pay attention to an important circumstance: in cases considered OGI is short-term and it has no time in air (or in water) to create a tornado (or crater). But the significant pulse can be transferred to firm bodies.

A direct clash of a sea vessel with a black hole brings its features in that, which has occurred. Let us consider only one distinctive example of recent time: the tanker "Nakhodka" perishing in 1997. In the night from the 1st to the 2nd of January at 3 o'clock 40 minutes in the Japanese sea this tanker has broken on two parts [00], [00], [20].

 

After a storm wave blow (or after something else) on body of " Nakhodka" its forward part has been broken off. Many experts assert categorically, that the vessel of 170 meters length, and of 20 meters width and setting, cannot be broken even by the most abrupt wave. It is needed a blow of such power, which is equivalent to a rock appearance on a way of a vessel.

The conclusion of the Russian sea register of navigation, which is the supreme arbitrator in a fleet technical estimation states: "It is possible to assert with a large probability, that the break of the vessel body has occurred not because of bad technical conditions of bodys links or lacks of its general durability". The tanker "Nakhodka" was insured by 700 millions dollars (according to other messages, by 500 millions dollars) in the English insurance company "Tomas Miller".

 

This sum definitely testifies the Russian party to be interested in the version of external reasons of accident.

However, despite the partiality of participants of the discussion the question stays the same: why the tanker all the same has been broken? Various experts are interested in it, including scientists, which present different reasons of the tanker "Nakhodka" perishing in the Japanese sea [20].

According to the opinion of V.Petrenko, the laboratory manager of Pacific geography institute, "Nakhodka" has become a victim of a wave-"murderer" [20]. Statistics gives a number of sea accidents caused by blowes of waves- "murderers", which break down vessels asunder. But nature of waves-"murderers" themselves stays unopened.

Terrestrial black holes can both produce local water anomalies (water poles, tornadoes, whirlpools, "waves-murderer" and others), and inflict death blow on sea vessels. A gravitational force of black holes can surpass locally that of the Earth in many orders (see Section 5.1.) and play a role of a suddenly arisen "rock" on a way of the tanker "Nakhodka".

 

The blow from OGI can be directed only on a local site of a sea vessel, resulting, thus, in its breaking off. By means of two such events, knowing coordinates and the time, one can predict further wanderings of a black hole-murderer" and prove the natural character of the accident of the tanker "Nakhodka".

 

But the modern technical civilization has also much larger objects, which can be subject to destructive influences of black holes.



7.8. Technosphere of the Earth as a black hole indicator

If local influences of black holes upon various objects of nature, frequently, can hardly be separated on a background of other natural factors action, their influence upon various objects of technosphere cannot stay unnoticed.

 

An overwhelming part of natural objects is outside any permanent control and supervision by a person. But objects of technosphere are under continuous supervision by a person and (or) by technical means of control. So that any technosphere objects deviation from their normal functioning attracts steadfast attention.

There goes a constant growth, increase of technosphere objects, that is, all greater number of more large power stations, factories, plants, processing complexes is put into effect, the number and the range of water -, gas -, oil-pipelines, etc. grow. Proportionally to the increased technosphere volume a probability of destructive influences from terrestrial black holes grows too.

At the same time the conversance of a society has increased sharply due to developing of electronic mass media and it continues to grow. Thus, not only the number of technical accidents, but also conversance about them grow. Terrestrial black holes, manifesting themselves rather locally and rapidly, could not find out themselves earlier so obviously, as now, in conditions of the developed technical civilization with a high level of mass media development.

As it will be taken notice in the following chapter, in the past of the terrestrial civilization in conditions of mass media absence adequate information on the largest accident in one of centers of the terrestrial civilization in the Mediterranean sea was lost.

 

It was the explosion of Santorini volcano, being equal by power to the explosion of one million nuclear bombs, which have been blown up in Hiroshima. Consequences of this explosion have resulted in decline of the civilization of Crete. Now events, which are in many orders less in a scale, become known practically to the whole humankind.

Therefore only nowadays due to developing mass media more frequent detections of less significant manifestations of terrestrial black holes have become possible. Moreover, traces of terrestrial black holes stay in technosphere, and traces at times rather tragical.

 

The Tschernobyl tragedy is recalled first.

A number of circumstances of failure on the Tshernobyl APS April 26, 1986 is possible to explain by passage of a black hole through it. These are: a specificity of the 3-rd block foundation breakup; a phosphorescence over the APS, having been observed before the explosion; a formation of local cloud over the Tshernobyl region; an underground hum before the explosion; some certificates of gravitational force local inversion and of seismic push.

 

In this case a combined influence of a black hole was possible: gravitational and black hole radiations could initiate the APS explosion.

All more enlarging its volume technosphere is subjected all greater threat from terrestrial black holes. Constant communication is supported with ships and planes, and their movement is traced. Therefore, a fact of their disappearance fixation is usual. Nevertheless, a number of other objects (including objects of technosphere) can vanish without traces, but traces of black holes in technosphere in that or another form remain.

Terrestrial black holes can be a cause of the most various accidents and failures in objects of technosphere (in systems of water supply, electrosupply, gas supply, warm-supply, water drain, communications, in various buildings and constructions, in factories, plants, in various enterprises). Certainly, there is a number of other reasons of all these phenomena, and, most likely, the otonic factor is not the first. But the analysis of all these phenomena, whether they have otonic nature, did not enter into a task of this work. While we shall take notice here only two important circumstances.

The first. The more and more growing gas- and oil-pipelines by their spatial volume become comparable with cities. It means that the probability of black hole hit in them is comparable to that for cities. Therefore, in designing and operating gas- and oil-pipelines it is necessary to take into account such a natural factor, as terrestrial black holes.

The second. Besides unique gravitational manifestations of terrestrial otons it is necessary to take into account a black hole radiation (see Section 1.1 and Chapter 6).

 

As one can see from Table 6.2.1, terrestrial black holes are the source of electrons and positrons, and it can result in various electrical manifestations. In a sense they represent a kind of "power stations", which are possible to serve for the boon of humankind in the future. If otons are centres of condensation of storm clouds, the passage of a black hole can initiate lightnings.

 

The nature of fireballs is possible to be caused by fermiotons.

Terrestrial black holes are microscopic sources of huge energy, and a kind of thermal anomalies. In their moving they transfer heat to an environment. Thus, the warming up can be so considerable, that an ignition of things occurs. Some fires are possible to be initiated by passage of such the black holes. There are numerous certificates of fires in multi-story buildings, when simultaneous ignitions on several floors have being happened.

 

The radiative black hole passage through a building can be a cause of practically simultaneous ignitions on several floors. But there are cases of else more amazing fires: it is self-ignitions of people, which will be a subject of the next Section.

Spontaneous [sp O n'te I n I q s] Human['hju:m q n]Combustion[k q m'b A s C ( q )n] - SHC[es, e I C ,si:]

sudden death - [ " s A dn'de T ]



7.9. Spontaneous people self-ignitions energetics and a sudden death

Cases of people self-ignition are known for a long time [00], [00], [20], [00],[40], [10], [00], but antique sources mentioned them in rather mythological expressions. Till now for official science the phenomenon of people self-ignition is no more, than a myth.

During centuries messages on the mysterious phenomenon of a person self-ignition have being appeared. The alive, healthy person all but instantly transforms to ashes (or coal-like mass), but surround things and even clothe of burned person turned out to be not touched by fire.

Hundred cases of people self-ignition were registered, and rare who has survived. The majority of victims instantly burned under influence of a mysterious, super-power flame, and in quite different conditions: in an armchair, in a bed, in a car, in a forest, in a street and even on a dance pavilion.

The phenomenon of a person self-ignition seemed incomprehensible, since in science for a long time there were no theoretical constructions, capable to explain this phenomenon. The fact is that a human body is not combustible material: it consists in two thirds of water. A human body is impossible to ignite, as straw or kerosene.

 

The process of spontaneous combustion of a person does not lead to energy extraction, but on the contrary, it requires it in vast amounts. As minimum all water should instantly evaporate. Complete combustion of a human body will need few hours and temperature more than 1300 K: such conditions are created specially in crematorium for burning corpses.

 

One can imagine, what the vast amount of energy should instantly appear in a person to transform him to an alive torch.

Only in XVIIIth century rather detailed descriptions of a phenomenon of self-ignition begin to appear with detailed reports of physicians and inspectors [00], [20]. The skeptical attitude of scientists to the very fact of a phenomenon reality is comprehensible: rare events of people self-ignitions occur not in scientific laboratories at the appointed time, but at an arbitrary time.

Herewith the conditions of the such phenomenon one cannot reproduce. Not always there are witnesses of such events, and if they are, certificates of eyewitnesses of the rapid, extreme phenomenon, naturally, turned out far from ideals of scientific report about a realization of beforehand planned experiment.

The event of a person self-ignition, which for the first time has received wide popularity, and was officially registered in press and judicial documents, has happened in 1725 in the French city Reims[00], [00].

Later the description of this event has got in "the Encyclopaedic dictionary", issued in Berlin in 1843, and it has become the first in history a rather authentic certificate of a person self-ignition. Nowadays there are hundred certificates of these instant tragical events.

In the majority of cases a part of body (sometimes a half) stays not touched by fire. Limbs (legs or hands) are often conserved. The self-combustion results in two types of remnants: a body transforms either to ashes, or in caked, coal-like mass. The localization of self-ignition process inside a body is a feature of the phenomenon given.

 

An internal, local fire sometimes embraces only human body and can not touch even clothe or bed, in which a victim sleeps.

During self-ignition process the enormous intensity of a flame develops, in which a body practically instantly transforms into ashes, and bones melt. Even in crematorium such is not observed after many hours. The intensity of the process is so great, that people have no time to make at all any attempts to take refuge (to call the help or to run to the water).

 

Such the intensive process of combustion of a body requires so great amount of energy, which is merely absent in a human body in free, untied form. Obviously, energy required should appear from outside, and the very moment of its arrival is subjectively perceived as "a thermal explosion from inside".

Since Lebich many experts were engaged in this phenomenon, and there are different attempts to explain it[00], [00], [20], [00],[40], [10], [00], though till now messages about this phenomenon seemed much doubtful for many scientists.

 

A reason of low scientific validity of the messages about a phenomenon of people self-ignition consists in the very nature of this phenomenon, i.e., in its rapidity, locality, unpredictability, unreproducability. Moreover, remnants of self-ignitions themselves are short-lived and usually not exposed to any serious scientific examination. From flabbergasted witnesses of these instant tragedies one cannot expect any scientifically authentic certificates.

However, within the scientific research carried out there is no especial necessity for empirical descriptions of the phenomenon given.

 

The fact is that in the idea of terrestrial black holes an oton influence upon a person is predicted [00-16]. In particular, the effect of a person self-ignition is simulated too. Irrespective of all these descriptions the effect of energetic influence of black hole radiation upon terrestrial objects has been predicted (from hardly detectable thermal anomalies and fireballs up to thermonuclear reactions and grandiose volcanic phenomena [00-16]).

Let us consider a terrestrial micro-black hole, which orbit apocentre is above the terrestrial surface. Let us first estimate the value of energy needing for incineration of person (Qm). For complete combustion it is necessary as a minimum to heat instantly and evaporate water, the basic component of a human body.

 

Thus, the value Qm forms from the value Q D T , that is from heat needed for warming water up to the boiling point, and Qo, that is heat needed for evaporating water.

 

The order of value is easily determined from the expression:

Qm = Q D T + Qo = Mm(k D T + q),  (7.9.1.)

where Mm = 5*104 g. Substituting known coefficients, we obtain the order of value Qm ~ 1015 erg. From the expression (6.2.1.) and table (6.2.1.) one can see, that terrestrial black holes can wholly extract practically instantly in rather local regions the amount of energy required.

For black holes in a range of masses 1017 g > > 5*1014 g the formula for total radiation power has the form:

  (7.9.2.)

According to (7.9.2) the value close to Qm = 1015 erg is obtained. However, it is necessary to take into account the following.

Relativistic electrons and positrons, which share of the radiated energy is 45%, carry away energy mainly outside, and the inconsiderable part only can be transferred to a human body.

 

For other particles the power of radiation carried away is distributed as follows: 1% of energy radiated is carried away by gravitons, 45% is by neutrinos, which interact with substance weakly like gravitons, and only 9% of energy radiated is carried away by photons, but they are superhard g -quanta, which energy only partially can be absorbed by a human body. In the condition of a rapid black hole passage ( > 1014 g) through a person the otonic energy extracted during this time ( D t < 10-4 s) can be insufficient for complete combustion. Therefore, a black hole of else smaller mass (PBH ~ MBH-2) is necessary.

For masses in a range 1014 g < < 1013,5 g the power of black hole radiation is estimated by the expression:

(7.9.3.)

The energy ( D BH), which will be extracted in a human body during the time (t) of instant black hole flight, will be defined by the expression D BH = PBH D t.

Let us take notice at once, that though a considerable part of black hole radiation in the form of neutrinos, gravitons and other particles with considerable length of free run will again freely leave in space, but more massive particles, i.e., nucleons (12%), which more effectively are absorbed by a human body, will appear in radiation.

It is enough for an effect of self-ignition, when MBH 1014 g, that energy extracted by a black hole in its passing through a person was absorbed. Thus, micro-black holes explain the energetics of person self-ignitions.

 

Irrespective of a degree of reliability of available certificates of self-ignition phenomenon, this effect is predicted within the idea of terrestrial black holes. Like other phenomena caused by moving terrestrial black holes, a self-ignition differs by rapidity, locality and difficult predictability.

Let us estimate the order of temperature value in the hearth epicenter of self-ignition, i.e., in a black hole.

 

This value is defined by the expression:

T BH = hc3(8 p Gk)-1M-1 ~ 1,2 1026K (M g)-1. (7.9.4.)

A black hole (MBH 1014 g), providing the person combustion, has TBH 1012 , that is over thousand billions degrees. The instant nature of self-ignitions become comprehensible under such grandiose gradient of temperatures. The otonic model of people self-ignition explains other riddles of this phenomenon too.

The instant flight ( D t < 10-4 s) of a black hole (MBH 1014 g) and the injection of energy (Qm ~ 1015 erg) inside human body gives effect "of internal explosion", "of thermal stroke from inside", about what there are direct certificates of participants of these instant tragical events.

This energy, connected with a vast gradient of temperatures, which are more than billions degrees on a centimeter (in the epicenter of internal thermal "explosion" TBH 1012 ), results in a superheat thermal wave, which, being distributed instantly to a body surface, immediately burns all on its way. Certainly, under such temperatures the unusual fire arises, which does not give, at times, even a smoke.

At the same time, energy Qm = 1015 erg suffices only for process of person combustion, because in this process the energy is absorbed, instead of its giving away outside. Therefore, often during a self-ignition process a person (or its part) instantly burns down, but up to surround things and even up to clothes the superfast thermal wave, having given away all the energy to human bodies and fabrics, cannot reach.

In black hole passing in air, which density in few orders is less than that of human body substance, black hole radiation leads to much less energy effect. Therefore, around victim of self-ignition, effects of ignition are either absent, or they are negligible.

A person simply is not capable to react to so fast, rash process of the internal thermal wave distribution, and, therefore, it is not amazing, that the complete person helplessness before its self-ignition is registered practically in all descriptions of this phenomenon. This picture of the process is correct even if the value of energy is of the order D BH ~ Qm = 1015 erg.

If D BH << Qm, only a small part of a human body burns, and that can occur without any external manifestations. The process turns out to be localized deeply inside a person. Consequences for a person in a case of such the black hole passage through him ( D BH << Qm) can be various.

Firstly, they can be lethal. If vital organs or fabrics burn away, a person perishes. A number of sudden deaths of practically healthy people happens in the world, and that resulted in appearance the notion of sudden death" in medicine [00], [30]. Some of them are possible to be caused by black holes.

 

The number of deceased per a year is expressed by the value of the order 5*107, it was equal to 56 millions people in 1975 [00], and 6,2 million of them have died under not quite realized circumstances. Otons as the cause of sudden death are the most suitable candidates, since, striking suddenly a person, they do not leave practically any traces. If this version is correct, otons are the greatest murderers of all times.

Secondly, they can be pathological. If self-ignitions lead to pathological, but not lethal changes in internal organs and fabrics, temporary or constant illnesses can appear (sudden illnesses are usual phenomena). At last, they can be painless. In a case the effect from black hole radiation in its flying through a person is of the same order, as from cosmic, background one, and a person does not feel something especial.

If D BH >> Qm, a human body burns together with all surroundings. From outside it looks as a usual fire. Herewith, nobody are especially surprised by a scorched corpse. Moreover, nobody are surprised by a case, when during self-ignition the only ashes stays from a person, which are lost on a background of whole site of fire.

 

As it was noticed in Section 7.8, there can be fires, when simultaneous ignitions on several floors of a building happen. Apparently, the list of different types of fires, which reason can be black hole radiation, is possible to continue: ignitions of tankers, ships, planes, automobiles, oil and gas depositories, warehouses of an ammunition and other combustible objects, wood fires and others.

Besides of black hole radiation the oton gravitational field itself can influence directly upon a person.

 

Moreover, black holes can be both outside a person, and inside. If a black hole is adown, under large values of attraction force a person can be simply crushed (a person cannot sustain even a short-term overload more than 100 g [10]). There are messages in a seal that not only people, but also houses fall under ground.

If a black hole is overhand, under certain conditions a person ascension upwards ("fall in to the sky") is possible. There are various certificates of "ascensions on heaven", including religious ones.

At last, gravitational (otonic) bullets can suddenly pierce a person. It is possible to estimate gravitational influences of different mass otons during that or another time upon those or other internal organs of a person. For example, it is possible to try to answer a question: what will be, if a black hole in billion tons will appear in human heart? Thus, it is possible to speak about otonic (gravitational) factor of human health.

Let us estimate the time (tBH), in which a micro-black hole having the velocity vBH = vsp, will get a person (i.e., one of Nm people) taken arbitrary, which has cross-section (Sm ~ 10-1 m2). In this time the black hole with the area Sm should cover whole the volume of the Earth (V = (4/3) p R3 ).

 

From these conditions this time will be defined as follows:

tBH = V (vBHSm Nm)-1 (7.9.5.)

Substituting in (7.9.5) known values, we obtain tBH ~ 106 s.

 

It means, that each half-month a black hole can fall into person. Thus, the presence of even one black hole with parameters required is enough to explain available frequency of self-ignitions. Certainly, not tangent hits, but end-to-end intrapersonal trajectories are necessary, which would be maximum long and deep, that these black hole hits result in maximum complete self-ignitions.

 

Such hits, naturally, are less.

In invisible war of black holes against person there are more victims than in global wars. Nothing in the world can protect against black holes, there is no place to be hidden from them. Sudden death from "gravitational killers" waits for everybody. How one can avoid a fatal meeting with a black hole-"murderer"? One can run away from it in places far from the otonic trajectory, having calculated the trajectory of a black hole-"murderer".

The certain number of black holes with the appropriate parameters can explain unexplained fires and strange sudden death. From expression (7.9.5.) it follows, that appearance even one new black hole, which orbit apocentre is close to the terrestrial surface, should be reflected in statistics of appropriate phenomena. Moreover, knowing a chain of the same events, that is, knowing the time and coordinates of black hole appearance near the terrestrial surface (as the minimum it is necessary to know parameters of two such events), one can predict in principle these phenomena in the future, in that or another place in the Earth.

Thus, like the forecast of weather there is a possibility to forecast self-ignitions, fires and accidents caused by otons. It means, that one can counteract these tragedies and be rescued from a fatal meeting with "a black hole-murderer". Moreover, one can prove the natural origin of many technogenic accidents, which were earlier written off onto technical reasons or human factor.

Phenomena of combustion (complete or partial disappearance) of internal human organs and fabrics, both with lethal end, and without it are predicted within the idea of terrestrial black holes.

 

The well-timed and careful investigation of cases of sudden death can confirm this prediction.

Black hole radiation should result in the effect of induced radio-activity in that or another form. This also can be checked up in operative investigation of a place of event in respect of radio-activity.

Radiation of a black hole (7.9.3.) with << 1014 g should contain particles, predicted in the various united theories of Great Unification, hence, the phenomenon of self-ignition (as well as its relics) is of direct interest for physics of elementary particles. Final stages of black hole radiation, i.e., grandiose explosions, in which Plankian particles are born and accidents of planetary scale occur, are of the greatest interest in this respect.

 

It is that we shall discuss in the following chapter.

Back to Contents





8 - Catastrophes of planetary scale


8.1. Localization of energy is the main problem of volcanology

Theoretical objects of General Relativity, i.e., otons, have found wide application in astrophysics for explaining various sorts of space phenomena connected with huge energy extractions.

 

The problem of energy sources stays sharply not only in high energy astrophysics, in physics of planets and the Earth, but even in energetics of people self-ignitions (see Section 7.9.).

So, the idea of black holes has passed from the most distant objects of the Universe up to the person itself: from deepest riddles of space up to deepest secrets of human body. The problem consists not in amount of extracted energy, but in mechanisms of its localization in very small volumes. Grandiose as the distinction in scales of these phenomena is, the universal answer to challenging secrets of the world is single: otons.

 

A wide range of oton masses gives possibility of understanding different-scale phenomena, explaining thus the main for all these phenomena problem, i.e., the question on energy localization.

Black hole energy can actuate plates in the mantle, cause earthquakes, but, in the main, it can be a point-like source ("heat point") of volcano energy. Having connected the energy source of volcano magmatic cells with micro-black holes, one can estimate the neutrino flow at the terrestrial surface, which turns out to be rather considerable.

 

The neutrino flow from black holes is sufficiently unique: it consists of flows of six neutrino types, which have equal powers. Let us estimate the power.

The energy source power can be determined from available estimations of energy, wasted for volcano constructing, and from its age. E.g., for the Cluchevskoy volcano [Ra00] these quantities are equal, respectively:

erg and 5103 years < < 8103 years. For the lower limit of age we have the upper estimation for energy source power: erg s-1. The total power of black hole radiation is summed up from the sum of different particles powers:

PBH = Pg + P n + P g + Pe = (kg + k n + k g + ke)PBH , (8.1.1.)

where kg + k n + k g + ke = 1 ; kg = 0.009; kv =  0.549; k g = 0,076 ; ke = 0.366.

A part of the energy from a black hole is carried away by gravitons and neutrinos.

 

Only the energy of g -radiation, relativistic electrons and positrons can be the volcano energy source. However, in this case only a part of energy is used: in interacting g -rays, relativistic electrons and positrons with substance neutrinos can be formed, which besides carry away energy freely.

 

The account of these effects can increase the upper estimation of black hole power, but it does not influence its lower one, of which we shall take advantage:

Pvol = (k g + ke)PBH , (8.1.2.)

Taking into account (8.1.1) and (8.1.2) the radiation power of each neutrino type will be determined by the expression:

P n = (k n /6) (k g + ke)-1Pvol , (8.1.3.)

If one introduces some master black hole with 0 = 1015 g, the rate of neutrino radiation (Nv) with energy (Ev) will be connected with other black hole parameters by correlations:

(8.1.4).

where 0 = 1015 g, 0 = 2*1011 , 0 = 6,3*1016 ergs-1, = 2,1*10‑5 erg (13 MeV), N 0 = 2,7*1020 s-1 . The neutrino spectrum from a black hole is continuous, and the maximum number of neutrinos has in it energy E0.

Let us estimate black hole parameters required for the Cluchevskoy volcano energetics.

 

From (8.1.2.) we shall determine the power of black hole radiation:

PBH = (k g + ke)-1 Pvol 18,1*1016 erg*s-1. (8.1.5.)

From (8.1.4.) and (8.1.5.) we shall determine a black hole mass:

g , (8.1.6.)

Maximum temperature in the magmatic hearth is , .

Neutrinos with energy

erg (22,5 MeV), (8.1.7.)

will be radiated from such black hole at the rate

s-1, (8.1.8.)

The neutrino energy from the black hole given is close to that of boron neutrino (for boron-8 = 14,06 eV), for which in the Davies chlorine-argon experiment of solar neutrino registration the cross-section of seizer by chlorine (Cl37) is most considerable: 1,35*10-42 sm2 [La10].

 

The estimation of neutrino flow from black holes at the terrestrial surface () and the number of absorption acts () is resulted below . The neutrino flow from the master black hole at the distance R0 = 105 sm is equal to sm-2s-1 , that in three orders surpasses the boron neutrino flow from the Sun.

 

This flow decreases with distance as:

(8.1.9.)

and at R > 107 sm the neutrino flow from a micro-black hole becomes less than the flow of boron neutrino from the Sun, i.e., the neutrino flow is considerable only near volcanoes.

 

Estimations of the magmatic cells location depth of volcanoes give values from several kilometers up to 100 kilometers [10], [21], [Hu10], i.e. the distance from the terrestrial surface up to a micro black hole can be of the such value (R). In these limits of distances from a black hole estimations of neutrino flow and number of absorption acts are given in Table 8.1.1.

The neutrino flow is apparent from (8.1.9) and Table 8.1.1 to be more sensitive to the distance from a black hole (R) than to its power ().

 

Therefore, it is more probable to detect neutrino not from volcanoes, which were observed to have erupted catastrophically with huge energy extraction ( Kracatau erg, Santorini and Tambora, erg ), but from those with superficial (4-5 kms) locations of magmatic cells ( Mauna- at Hawaii islands, Vesuvius, etc. ) [Ma10], [Ra00], at which surfaces the neutrino flow with energy close to 14 MeV can appear in 2-3 orders more than from similar solar neutrinos. The magmatic cell of the Cluchevskoy volcano lies is deep enough.

Values in Table 8.1.1. are rather estimative, and they can be changed essentially in the connection with some circumstances.

 

First, parameters of volcanoes (age, depth of magmatic cell location, energy, wasted for volcano constructing) can be specified. Secondly, the amount of energy of G-rays, electrons and positrons from a black hole, which transforms into volcano energy, must be made more exact.

 

At last, the spectrum of black hole radiation itself can be specified in the connection with discovery of new types of neutrinos and other particles. However, all these specifications do not change the main conclusion on possibility of neutrino detection from micro-black holes in the case of their presence in magmatic cells. These specifications will hardly decrease the magnitude of the neutrino flow in 2-3 orders.

 

Moreover, it is possible, that other neutrino types, emitted by micro-black holes, can appear more sensitive to registration than electron neutrino, which are detected by the chlorine - argon method.
 


Table 8.1.1.


A discovery of even two neutrino types with the same energy and power will exclude an opportunity of alternative interpretations of the origin of these neutrinos, since it is hard to imagine any other sources, which with the equal rate (Ev) would produce different neutrino types with the same energy ().

 

The neutrino flow would become the indicator of the volcano activity: whether it is finally extinct ("heat point" is moved in another region) or it is able to renew its activity.

The consideration above assumed the radiating black hole to be practically motionless in the magmatic cell.

 

However, the consideration of directly opposite variant is possible, i.e., a micro-black hole moving on a multiple orbit with the first space velocity, which injects periodically radiation into magmatic cell. Nowadays apocentres of oton orbits with k = 17 approach close to the surface of the Earth.

 

It means, that each day in the certain time in the same region of the terrestrial cortex the "injection" of energy occurs: in the apocentre the velocity is minimal, hence, the energy extraction per unit of distance is maximum. The energy extracted by the oton in firm substance can be accumulated effectively and it is quite enough even for providing volcano energetics.

Thus, there can be geological singularities in places of multiple otons appearance (k = 17): volcanoes, epicentres of earthquakes, ring structures, deposits of hydrocarbons, thermal anomalies, etc.

A period of the Earth's rotation and that of oton changing with time, some otons can cease to be multiple, but the others will become such. This can result in changing and even terminating a volcanic activity in two cases.

  • First, when apocentres of multiple oton orbits penetrate deep enough in terrestrial interiors, and this makes impossible their geophysical manifestation at a surface.

  • Secondly, when apocentres of multiple oton orbits come out above the terrestrial surface, this makes impossible the energy accumulation.

This explains, that nowadays only small number of planetary bodies, apocentres of multiple oton orbits of which are close to a surface, has active vulcanism.

The Earth rotation around the Sun leads to the fact, that in different seasons a multiple oton will come in the same region in the different time of day. This time will change each day, approximately, in 237 seconds, and it can be determined from the following simple correlation tc = to - t Nc (t 0 is the time of day of initial count down, Nc is a number of days past, = 236, 555 seconds).

Moving micro-black holes still more correspond to the idea of heat points, which are considered to be supported by localized ascending flows of mantle material in plumes. A black hole, moving along its orbit, warms up a substance, creating an ascending plume.

The account of a factor of multiple oton motion leads to changing the estimation of energy and neutrino flow, given above for the Cluchevskoy volcano. From the account of this factor it follows the black hole to be not constantly in the volcano magmatic cell, but to occur there during a day, approximately, for one minute.

 

Hence, the power of black hole radiation should be more appropriate number times, and that gives = 2,6*1013 J*s-1 . The black hole with = 2*1010 kgs can possesses this power of radiation, which radiates neutrino with the energy about 1 GeV at the rate about 1022 s-1.

At last, let us notice, that not single otons exist in the Earth, but very different gravitationally-connected systems of otons (grassifotons). Besides otons can move in the Earth as otonic swarms. Such the models widen considerably heuristic opportunities of otonic geophysics. Thus, the explosion of one of otons, which is included in the otonic system and causing a volcano catastrophic eruption, does not mean the termination of volcanic activity in this region, because other otons of the system will continue to extract energy.

Black hole (fermioton) clashes in grassifotonic systems can result in earthquakes.

 

Grassifotons can be conventionally divided into two types by the dominant mechanism of energy extraction:

1) radiative grassifotons, the main energy source of which are radiative otons

2) gravitational grassifotons, the main energy source of which are oton clashes and the accretion

Radiative grassifotons are connected with magmatic cells of volcanoes, gravitational ones are connected with hypocentres of earthquakes.

 

The clash of otons in a gravitational grassifoton caused earthquakes. Distinctions in geophysical manifestations of grassifotons follow from these distinctions in the dominant mechanism of energy extraction: acting volcanoes are connected with the permanent action of oton radiation, while earthquakes with discrete events are connected with oton clashes in grassifoton, localized in a hypocentre (focus).

At the last stage before black hole clash the power of gravitational radiation rapidly increase, and it is possible to be detected by different biolocators. At the moment of black hole clash about 1% of black hole mass is extracted in the gravitational radiation form, and it can lead to gravitational force inversion at the terrestrial surface.

Within the idea on otonic energy source of volcanoes V.Mityanok [00] carried out the investigation, which has shown, that stationary otonic orbits ensuring the constant energy extraction in the same point near the terrestrial surface could exist.

 

However, on the other hand, as it was pointed out in Section 4.3., the free motion of otons in the Earth has rigid temporary limitations due to the interaction with substance, and finally black holes should stop near the terrestrial surface. Therefore nowadays it is impossible to exclude no one of the models: both moving otons, and motionless.

 

Moreover, as concerned with catastrophic explosions of volcanoes they give similar results.



8.2. Catastrophic explosions of volcanoes - Kracatau, Santorini and Atlantis, Tambora

The problem of energy is sharp especially in a question of catastrophic explosions of such volcanoes, as Santorini, Kracatau, and Tambora [10], [00], [21], [10].

Eruptions of a Kracatau type belong to the number of strongest volcanic accidents on the globe. The most powerful eruptions of those fixed by world statistics are eruptions of volcanoes Santorini and Tambora, which energy 10 times has exceeded that of the Kracatau eruption and reached 1027 erg. This energy by the order of magnitude is equal to that of one million nuclear bombs blown up in Hiroshima.

 

If such explosion happened now in a region of megapolis, it would bring incalculable victims surpassing those of world wars.

At the end of current century even more powerful and till uncontroled forces of nature have opened before the humankind. Destructive earthquakes, catastrophic explosions of volcanoes, which energy reaches that of explosion of one million nuclear bombs are the awesome reminder about them on the Earth. Last century such the events were two: explosions of volcanoes Tambora (1815) and Kracatau (1883).

Whether between explosions of the volcano Santorini and the volcano Tambora was not so powerful volcanic accidents? Let us make two remarks. In spite of the fact that the energy of the volcano Tambora explosion is much more than energy of the volcano Kracatau explosion, the Tambora accident is less known.

 

And the fact is not in their locations (both of them were in Indonesian archipelago), but in the date of these events: one has happened in the beginning of the nineteenth century, while another has in the end. If it has happened in the time of Santorini accident, now we would hardly know about them anything. The distance from centres of the terrestrial civilization, thin population, absence of mass media and communications - all this together would make such events practically unknown.

Santorini is localized at the centre of terrestrial civilization, but only geological investigations of the volcanic island in our century have allowed to discover the lost secret of the largest accident in history. For millennia the information about the Santorini accident was lost for science. One can imagine: how many volcanic accidents could be revealed else, which does not concede the Santorini one.

 

In the nineteenth century two volcanic catastrophes were registered, but in the current century such the event was not still observed. When and where can it occur? It is not just an academic question, since if this accident will happen on the place of Santorini, it would bring incalculable disasters.

The explosion energy of volcanoes Tambora and Santorin was of the order 1027 erg. An analysis of oton motion in the Earth shows, that the energy of catastrophic volcano explosions can be provided by energy of explosive black holes (1030 erg). The distinction between the energy of black hole explosion and maximum energy of volcano explosion is explained as follows.

First, it is necessary to take into account oton motions, and only that already gives the value of volcano explosion energy existing (1027 erg). Secondly, it is necessary to take into account, that not the whole energy of explosive black hole can transform in volcano explosion energy. Thirdly, estimations of volcano explosion energy may be increased.

 

The upper estimate of volcanic explosion energy (1027 erg) is considered as limitative still because the solidity of terrestrial cortex does not allow to concentrate more energy during long time. A short-term supply by large amount of energy ( > 1027 erg) from a black hole followed by the eruption and the discharge of tensions in the cortex has not such restrictions.

 

At last, the account of the Hawking radiation intensity decrease in a substance can diminish the value of micro-black hole explosion energy in such a way, that it will turn out less than that of volcanic accidents. The opposite problem will then rise: finding mechanisms of explosive extraction of far more energy.

 

Moreover, there is the such mechanism in conditions of the Earth: it is fermi-oton clashes in gravitationally-connected systems.



8.3. Planet Phaeton explosion and black hole clashes

There is an asteroid ring in the solar system, the main mass of which is located between orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

 

Asteroid substance of this ring is considered to had compounded earlier a planet, which have given the name "Phaeton". The planet Phaeton have rotated around the Sun between orbits of Mars and Jupiter before the grandiose accident, i.e., the planetary explosion. Splinters, to which this planet has broken up, continued to rotate around the Sun: they clashed with each other, crushed, forming more and more small space bodies.

 

The history of asteroid ring discovery testifies convincingly for the idea of a grandiose planetary explosion too [20], [10]. The fact is that the asteroid ring has been discovered at that place, at which the existence of a planet was predicted.

Else Kepler come to an idea, that the harmony of the Solar system collides with a disproportionately large distance between orbits of Mars and Jupiter. He made a conclusion, that between Mars and Jupiter there must be a planet.

 

Later the law of planetary orbit distances from the Sun, i.e., the Titius-Bode law (or as it is sometimes called, the rule) has been found out:

RN = 0,1 R . (3 2N-2 + 4) (8.3.1.)

where RN is a distance to a planet, which number of remoteness from the Sun is N, R is a distance from the Sun to the Earth (astronomical unit).

 

There is an exception for Mercury, for which N = - . For N = 5 a distance R5 = 2,8R from the Sun is obtained, at which in that time no heavenly bodies were yet found out. The German astronomer J.Bode, being based on the law above (8.3.1.), has predicted existence of a planet at the distance 2,8 R , from the Sun (between Mars and Jupiter), a period of rotation of which is 4,5 years.

Scientists did not pay any especial attention to this fact till 1781, when Herschel discovered Uranus. First Herschel thought, that he has discovered a comet, but thanking to Laplace, Saron, and Lexell a planet was understood to have been discovered. Moreover Uranus was soon determined to be at the distance 19,2R from the Sun.

 

This value is equal to the distance, predicted by the Titius-Bode law for the eighth planet, located behind Saturn (R8 = 0,1R (3 28-2 + 4) = 19,6R ). Such the accuracy was amazing, and it was impossible to attribute this to casual coincidence. The Titius-Bode law has received citizenship in science, and so has the Bode prediction of a planet with R5 = 0,1R . (3 25-2 + 4) = 2,8R ..

Piazzi on the 1 of January 1801 (the first day of the first year of the new century) has found out a weak asterisk in a constellation of Twins with brightness about 7m. Bode, based upon Piazzi observations, has approximately determined the orbit and found out the object to move between Mars and Jupiter at the distance about 2,8 astronomical units from the Sun, i.e., there, where a planet, predicted by him and named Ceres, should move.

 

However, it has turned out to be an unusual planet, much smaller than all other planets.

Olbers on March 28, 1802 not far from Ceres has found out one more minor planet, which has been denominated Pallas. A new planet was discovered at the same distance from the Sun as Ceres. Thus, two minor planets, instead of one large, were found out at the distance predicted by the Titius-Bode law. In 1804 Olbers suggested an idea, that both planets are fragments of a former large planet, which was blown up by some accident.

 

Developing this idea, Olbers has come further and predicted existence of other splinters of the planet. Two minor planets, Juno and Vesta, were soon discovered.

The idea on a grandiose planetary catastrophe has been confirmed by discovering of planetary fragments. Thus, instead of a planet predicted by Bode only its remnants were found out, which (more and more small) are found out till now. A total number of numbered asteroids till the 1 of November 1981 has reached 2474.

 

There are grounds to believe, that the total number of asteroids, which move in a ring between Jupiter and Mars, from the largest Ceres (diameter about 1000 kms) up to fragments having a diameter 1 km, is about one million [10].

Else last century, D.Kirkwood, trying to find out the order in asteroids orbits, has selected the asteroid groups, which members move on similar orbits. The number of such groups (families) is believed nowadays to exceed 100. These families have tens and hundreds known members, and the total number of (known and unknown) members of families is in one-two orders more [10].

 

Discovering of asteroid families testify for correctness of the original version of Olbers idea about a multiplicity of planetary explosions. But now the relationship is distributed not to all asteroids, but to some their groups. All this speaks about recent planetary explosions. Strange disappearances of known asteroids and appearances of unknown ones (more exact, appearances of newborn families) would be a certificate of planetary explosions occurring presently.

If earlier the presence of asteroids near the Earth seemed to be natural, it has become clear after researches of E.Epick, the Irish scientist, that the life-time of near-Earth asteroids, i.e., tens millions years, is small in comparison with the time of planet existence. Such the conclusion meant, that the families of near-Earth asteroids would disappeared long ago, if no constantly working source was, which would create and deliver bodies to the terrestrial orbit. Within the hypothesis of explosions it means a high frequency of planetary bursts. But the fact is not in asteroid production near the Earth.

 

There is a more general problem of small bodies production (down to motes) in the Solar system. Nevertheless, a universal decision of all these problems can appear to consist in explosions of space bodies.

The idea of a planet Phaeton explosion (as well as of other planetary bodies) is confirmed by many facts (by the arrangement, the fragmental form of asteroids, the structure of meteorites). Attempts to explain a catastrophe (by an extremely fast rotation, a sudden change of pressure in its interiors, clashes) collide insuperable difficulties.

Until recent times the physical mechanism capable to blow up a planet was not known. For exploding a planet it is necessary practically instant to enter inside planet the energy equal to by order to gravitational potential energy.

 

Let us determine it for the Earth:

U = (3/5) GM 2 R -1 (8 .3.2. )

Numerically U = 2,257*1039 erg.

 

It is in nine orders more than the energy of black hole explosion, which is obviously insufficient for exploding of a planet. The existence of gravitationally-connected systems of black holes changes the situation radically. Clashes of black holes in close systems provide the planetary explosions power [09,11].

 

Taking into account energy losses of otons during their interaction with terrestrial substance (see Section 4.3.), the estimation of black hole fall time to a central oton of the system turns out to be comparable not only with geological processes, but with technogeneous ones too.

 

The head-on clash of black holes results in energy extraction [02-04] equal to:

D EBH 0,01c2 MBH (8 .3.3. )

From (8.3.1.) and (8.3.2.) we find the minimum value of masses of black holes, which in their clashing can extract energy, sufficient for exploding the Earth:

MBH (3/5) 102 GM 2 R -1 c -2 = 2,5 1020 g (8.3.4.)

There can be millions such the black holes in the Earth.

 

Certainly, it is necessary to take into account, that in clashing of black holes the main part of energy is radiated in the form of gravitational waves, the process of which interaction with terrestrial substance is insufficiently investigated. In other words, only a small part of the energy extracted in clashing of otons is possible to be capable to transform in the energy of explosion. In clashing of fermiotons a significant part of energy can be extracted in the form of electromagnetic waves. This lowers masses of fermiotons, in clashing of which an explosion of the Earth can occur.

However, there is no necessity at all in millions black holes capable to blow up the Earth: one such system of otons is enough, that the opportunity of the planet explosion would become real. A black hole with a mass MBH >> 2,5 1020 g can quite be at the centre of the Earth, being it germ.

 

Besides of this, a density of black holes at the centre is maximum, hence, the probability of oton seizing and clashing is the highest. A time bomb of grandiose power is laid in the terrestrial depths, which is ready any moment to be exploded.

Let us estimate energy to be necessary for asteroid explosions.

 

From (8.3.2.) the value is easily found:

U = ( R / R )5 U (8.3.5.)

As it is seen from (8.3.5.), the value of a planet explosion energy with decrease of its sizes sharply falls, and for exploding asteroids the energy of black hole explosions can be quite enough.

 

However, for large asteroids and usual planets, as before, clashes of black holes with appropriate masses are needed. Different mechanisms of explosion should be reflected in features of asteroid and meteorite fragments: ones of them should have traces of high temperatures and be similar to volcanic breeds, but others should not.

The explosion of Phaeton is not a unique such event in the Solar system. The facts testify the multiplicity of planetary explosions. According to estimations, the explosion of Phaeton should have happened millions years ago, but during billions years of existence of the Solar system not less grandiose explosions could occur, having changed the structure of the planetary system. In other words, the number of large planets in the Solar system could be much more.

Thus, explosions and clashes of black holes can explain not only the asteroids belt, but the existence of all other small bodies in the Solar system.

 

Within the idea of intraplanetary black holes the opportunity of planetary body explosions nowadays is predicted. In particular, a charge of grandiose power is stored in the Earth (it is equivalent to billion billions nuclear bombs), which can at any moment to blow up our planet.

Probably, the harbingers of an accident (gravitational radiation from approaching black holes) will become accessible for detecting, and the humankind will be in time to react on a global cataclysm to come:

either by keeping our space house from a gravitational Apocalypse threat, or by opening its new prospects in some form of a space ark.

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Conclusion

As the research carried out has shown, the problem of energy sources sharply stands not only in high energy astrophysics, but in physics of planets and the Earth, and even in the energetics of people self-ignitions.

 

The idea of black holes has come from the most distant objects of the Universe (quasars) up to the person itself: from the deepest riddles of space up to the deepest secrets of a human body. The wide range of oton masses gives an opportunity of understanding phenomena of a different scale, explaining, thus, the main for all these phenomena problem, i.e., the question of energy localization.

Black holes in physics of the Earth open new opportunities in deciding different problems:

from a formation of planets themselves up to an origin of petroleum and gas.

Terrestrial black holes can differ by their masses in more than fifteen orders.

 

Already this only leads to a wide variety of black hole manifestations:

from instant burning of a person up to a catastrophic explosion of the whole planet.

Otons influence directly the Earths civilization.

 

Thousands years an invisible war of black holes against person goes, and the number of victims surpasses that of injured in world wars. Nothing in the world can protect against black holes, there is no place to hide from them. A sudden death from "gravitational killers" waits for everybody. To avoid the fatal meeting with a black hole-"murderer" one can only by calculating in time an otonic trajectory and remoting from it.

The certain number of black holes with the appropriate parameters can explain many technogeneous accidents, e.g., destructions of buildings, air and sea accidents, fires and strange sudden deaths of people. An appearance even of one new black hole, an apocentre of which orbit is close the terrestrial surface, should be reflected in statistics of appropriate phenomena.

 

Such the sensitivity of technosphere to oton manifestations gives a hope for an opportunity of an otonic accident forecast similar to the weather forecast. Moreover, it means, that on can to counteract these tragedies and save from a fatal meeting with "a black hole-murderer". But it is not the only area of practical application of otonic geophysics (geotonology).

In connection with failures in attempts to obtain controlled thermonuclear synthesis and with close prospects of exhausting of petroleum deposits science turns to search new energy sources.

 

Proceeding from the intrasolar black hole model (which solves a problem of solar neutrino deficiency), one make a conclusion, that investigations in controlled thermonuclear synthesis do not take into account a stabilizing role of a black hole gravitational field in thermonuclear reactions, going in solar interiors. In other words, a stabilizing factor of a a black hole powerful gravitational field can provide stabilization of plasma and controllability of thermonuclear reactions.

Probably, such thermonuclear reactions occur in the terrestrial interiors. An indication on this is a detection of abnormal plenteous of an easy isotope of helium-3 in the terrestrial interiors, which can be formed only in result of thermonuclear reactions.

Otons can also bring radical innovations in the use of traditional energy sources: gaseous and liquid energy carriers (hydrocarbons).

 

By revealing a spatial location of otons in the Earth, relativistic (otonic) geology can predict a location of huge petroleum and gas deposits in untraditional geological regions [Тр 15].

 

Moreover, finding of huge petroleum and gas deposits near processing complexes or megapolicies becomes possible [Тр 16]. These discoveries can give the vast incomes due to sharp decreasing of transport charges and a danger of ecological catastrophes connected with accidents of tankers and pipelines.

The greatest powers of energy extraction in the form of explosions connected with a chemical source were obtained due to the invention of dynamite by the Swedish industrialist А .Nobel. He hoped, that the invention of such the destructive weapon, which is based on energy of dynamite and is capable to destroy large buildings, will hold back the humankind from wars.

 

The Nobels dream was not justified: in XXth century there was a number of wars with use dynamite, including two world wars.

In the middle of XXth century the humankind has possessed an essentially new energy source, i.e., an intra-atomic one, and a nuclear weapon turns out to be even more powerful, capable to destroy whole cities. Awesome consequences of the nuclear weapon application warn the humankind from its use. A nuclear war was not, though its possibility is not still completely excluded.

 

Since the nuclear energy discovery in certain sense Nobels hopes are coming true: the awesome force of the nuclear weapon hold back from nuclear wars.

The beginning of the third millennium can be marked with mastering of a new energy source, i.e., otonic one. The power of oton energy extraction is such, that the destruction of the whole countries, continents and even of the whole planet is possible. If some forecasts of nuclear war still leave to humankind a small chance for survival, an otonic war is not possible in principle, since it is equivalent to suicide.

 

Therefore, mastering otonic energy will not only discover for people practically inexhaustible source of energy, but also exclude a possibility of wars in the future.

However, otons can affect even more radically on the development of the Earths civilization, because they are topological singularities in the structure of near-Earth space-time. It means the multidimensionality of space and time of terrestrial objects, the presence of bridges (tunnels) in parallel worlds merely in the Earth.

 

Moreover, taking into account an opportunity of compactification of terrestrial bodies by means of higher dimensions [Кл 00] (down to Plankian sizes) with conservation of their usual density, one can make a conclusion about an opportunity of penetrating through multidimensional otons in other worlds (Metagalaxies), "starting" directly from the Earth.

 

As to a problem of space civilizations it means a possibility of changing spatial expansion of a civilization in the three-dimensional world by exit of a supercivilization in higher dimensions of the Universe.

The greatest geniuses of humankind stood at origins of black holes science. Grandiose intellectual efforts of many generations of scientists have been required to open a curtain above this exciting secret, which starts a new era in humankind development. In the Earth a new era of black holes come, which many times surpass the nuclear epoch by its scales.

Explosions and clashes of black holes can explain not only the origin of the asteroid belt, but also predict a possibility of planetary bodys explosions nowadays. A charge of grandiose power (which is equivalent to billion of billions nuclear bombs) is stored in the Earth, and it is capable at any moment to blow up our planet and carry away its remnants in the Universe.

Probably, the harbingers of an accident (gravitational radiation of approaching black holes) can in time warn the humankind, and it will have time to react on a global cataclysm to come:

  • either by keeping our space house from a threat of gravitational Apocalypse

  • or by opening the new prospect in any form of space ark

The Earths civilization is at the front of a fatal brink:

forces, opening before it, are capable to destroy all in our world and the Earth itself.

A certificate of similar catastrophes is the sad fate of a planet Phaeton, which remnants are between Mars and Jupiter orbits.

 

But at the same time, by discovering inexhaustible sources of energy and infinite riches of underground pantries, the era of black holes can become the epoch of unprecedented power and prosperity of the humankind on the Earth and in the Universe.

 

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