by A.P. Trofimenko
Cosmogony of otons
Black holes in cosmic bodies
Otons of earthly mass spectrum
Black holes in the Earth
Gravimetric registration of terrestrial black holes
Some issues on terrestrial black holes radiation
Oton manifestations near the terrestrial surface
Catastrophes of planetary scale
The book given is the first monographic research on the problem of
black holes (otons) in the Earth.
A wide spectrum of phenomena is
considered to be connected with the terrestrial otons, starting from
the instant human self-ignition up to catastrophic planet
explosions. A possibility of predicting natural catastrophes of sea
ships, tankers, aircrafts; accidents at the electric power stations,
oil and gas pipelines and other technogenic objects is considered.
The methods of such cataclysms prevention are discussed. New otonic
energy sources and new ways of exploring the giant oil deposits
nearby megapolicies are suggested.
It is concluded, that by
discovering inexhaustible energy sources and infinite riches of
underground pantries, the black hole era can be the epoch of
unprecedented power and prosperity of humankind both on the Earth
and in the Universe.
Back to Contents
I.1. The creators of nuclear century
were the founders of science of black holes (otons)
If within Special Relativity the nuclear
source of energy, which has denominated our century, was discovered,
within the framework of General Relativity (GR) the otonic source of
energy was predicted. It was happened that the scientists who have
made our century nuclear stood at origins of black hole science.
Upon creating GR in 1915 more than twenty years has passed till the
moment, when J.R.Oppenheimer (the father of American nuclear bomb)
with the employees has made a conclusion about the opportunity of
formation during the star evolution of objects [Оп00], named later
by black holes.
J. А. Wheeler, the scientific adviser of American
presidents in the nuclear program, has not only introduced in 1967
the very term "black hole" [Wh00], but also has created the American
school of "black hole scientists".
After Wheeler's and his
employees' works the interest to black holes in scientific world has
By efforts of Ya.B. Zel'dovich, one of the soviet nuclear bomb
creators, the school of "black hole scientists" was founded in
He is attributed a half-playful phrase, told at the
gravitational conference in Minsk:
"Black holes are everywhere,
where the opposite has not been proved".
А.D. Sakharov, the winner
of the Nobel prize and "the father" of soviet hydrogen bomb,
developed interest to black holes as to sources of sub-Plankian
particles, which are the test for the validity of Great Unification
I.2. Astrophysics of black holes
Soon after its creation by А.Einstein,
GR has been used for describing the Universe.
The model of "the
expanding Universe", created on the basis of GR by А.А.Friedman in
1922-1924, was then essentially complemented with the idea of "the
hot Universe " by G.Gamov. This prediction within GR of the object
("the expanding hot Universe"), which was new for science, was
excellently confirmed by the discovery of relic radiation made by
А.A.Penzias and R.W.Wilson in 1965.
Other fundamental objects of GR (black holes) were predicted in
works of S.Chandrasekhar, J.R.Oppenheimer and H.Snyder in the first
half of ХХth century. Many brilliant theorists were engaged in
theoretical investigations of black holes: S.Hawking, R.Penrose,
R.Ruffini, M.Rees, А.Salam, K.Thorn, S.Weinberg, J.А.Wheeler and
The essentially important event in verifying the astrophysical
reality of black holes was the discovery in 1967 of pulsars by
A.Hewish with the employees [He00,1], i.e., of rotating neutron
stars, which by their parameters are the closest objects to black
holes. For the discovery of pulsars Anthony Hewish was awarded in
1974 by the Nobel prize.
For the importance of neutron star
discovery for science speaks also the fact that for the further
researches of pulsars, which have confirmed predictions of GR
[Hu00,1; Ta00], the American scientists Joseph Taylor and Russel
Hulse were awarded in 1992 by the Nobel prize as well.
Neutron stars are important for black hole astrophysics because they
are the last stage in stellar matter evolution on its irreversible
way to black holes. A conclusion about the black hole existence in
nature is so correct, as GR itself is correct.
astrophysics of black holes have received wide recognition in
scientific world, so the awarding of the American scientist S.Chandrasekhar for the cycle of works on star evolution leading to
formation of black holes by the Nobel prize in 1983 was the
reflection of this fact [ Ча01].
I.3. Single small black holes as relics
of the Big Bang
The idea of "lagged cores" suggested in
1964-1965 by I.D.Novikov [Но00,1] and Yu.Ne'eman [Ne00] for
constructing the white hole model was the impetus to develop the
second way of black hole formation.
In 1967 Ya.B.Zel'dovich and
I.D.Novikov [Зе01], and then in 1971 S.Hawking [Ha00], have proposed
the second way of black hole origin in the result of
inhomogeneouties formation at the early stages of cosmological
expansion. Such the black holes have been called the primordial
(relic) black holes. They can possess different masses, both more,
and less the solar one, down to Plankian value (10-5 g).
the Hawking's work the idea of small black holes at once was
associated with some astrophysical phenomena (for example,
deficiency of solar neutrino), it was the work which the wide
discussion of this problem begins from.
Attempts have been undertaken to detect experimentally explosions of
black holes through optical flares [Po00,1], [Bh00], [Je00],
radiobursts [Re00], [Bl20] and gamma-bursts [Po01]. Researches of
the micro-black hole radiation spectrum [Pa01,2], [Ma00,1], [Ol00],
the А.D.Sakharov's idea on micro-black holes as sources of Plankian
particles for verifying theories of Unification [Са20], and on
cosmological consequences of black hole evaporation [Ca00,1,2,3]
were important in theoretical respect.
The general result of these investigations is that:
black holes exist, then average density of their substance in the
Universe is less than critical one in many orders.
Already only for
this reason the presence of primordial black holes in the Earth has
been considered as impossible.
The direct gravitational manifestation of single small black holes
in their coming through the Earth does not result in significant
effects because of their large velocity [Gr00], [Bl10].
attempt to connect terrestrial phenomena with extraterrestrial black
holes was the Jackson and Ryan's work "Was the Tungus event due to a
black hole?" [Ja00], which has caused objections too [Be00].
All these difficulties of idea of small black holes are removed in
the conception of otonic worlds [Тр00-16], in which black holes are
considered not as abstract single objects, but as initial centers of
all space bodies formation [Тр00,11]. Within the framework of
approach given the question on black hole seizure by space bodies is
eliminated, for they initially are in space bodies, being their
The conception of intraplanetary, intraterrestrial black
holes has resulted in a number of investigative directions
[Тр00-16], [Ас00] within otonic geophysics, successfully deciding a
number of Earth's physics problems.
I.4. Geophysics of black holes (geotonology)
A problem of energy sources (as well as
a problem of "hidden" mass) stands sharply not only in astrophysics,
but also in physics of planets [Hu10] and the Earth [Ас00].
Moreover, the problem consists not in amount of energy, but in
mechanisms of its localization in comparatively small volumes
The idea of intraterrestrial black holes within the otonic worlds
conception has obtained wide development for interpreting
geophysical phenomena [Тр00-16], [Tr00-07].
For an explanation of
volcano's energetics and other geophysical phenomena the model of
micro-black holes was suggested to make use [Тр00-11]. In this model
the problem of energy localization is easily decided, since the
source of energy (micro-black holes) is a dot, i.e., "a hot point".
The flow of neutrino from black holes has a unique spectrum (it
consists of six neutrino types equipower flows with the same energy)
and can be registered by modern equipment.
The energy of catastrophic explosions of volcanoes is noted to
coincide by the order of magnitude with the energy of exploding
black holes [Тр11]. The question on registration of high energy
neutrino from exploding black holes [Tr05] was put.
Short-term variations of gravitational potential derivatives (otonic
gravi-impulses), produced by otons moving in the Earth, are
described. Expressions for different gravitational potential
derivatives, produced by otons [Тр11], [Tr04,6] are given.
Experiments on registration of otonic gravi-impulses have been
carried out with modern gravimetric devices (gravimeters and
In general case a wide circle of unusual phenomena is connected with
terrestrial otons: from instant person's transforming in ash to
catastrophic explosion of the planet at all [Тр09,11]. A number of
ideas having received development in the given book are voiced,
which is the first monographic investigation of the terrestrial
black hole problem.
The author expresses special gratitude to I.I. Naumenko-Bondarenko
and V.V. Butazov for their help in realization of gravimetric
experiments; O.L. Artemenko, V.S. Gurin, V.М. Golub, V.V. Mityanok,
А.G. Parkhomov, S.I. San'ko, N.G. Silko for the realizing of joint
researches on problems of terrestrial black holes.
The author is grateful to А. Penzias, А. Salam, J.А. Wheeler, А.
Hewish, C. Rubbia, M. Rees, V.P. Vizgin, А.I. Volgina, А.А. Grib,
D.G. Gridnev, V.I. Dokuchayev, I.G. Dymnikova, Ju.N. Efremov, G.M.
Idlis, V.М. Mostepanenko, А.А. Starobinski, K.I. Churyumov for
interest to the problem of black holes in space bodies; to M.J. Fogg
for sending of prints of works about intrastellar black holes
[Fo00,1], and J. Gribbin for a benevolent-ironic response [Gr10] on
the article [Tr00].
The author is grateful to the department of
logic and methodology of scientific cognition of the National
Academy of Sciences of Belarus for a creative atmosphere promoting a
spelling of the given book.
At last, the author expresses gratitude
to all participants of a seminar of astronomical section of Minsk
department of VAGO for discussions and interest to the given
(The bottom page Bibliography is ordered alphabetically. In references to
bibliography four symbols are indicated in the text (in brackets):
first two symbols mean first letters of a surname (or a title), two
last symbols are numerals (the choice is determined by convenience
and correctness of identification with the source from alphabetic
list of bibliography; references to bibliography in Russian are
marked by italic style). In the book the three-signs numeration of
formulas, pictures and tables is taken (the first numeral is a
chapter number, the second one is a section number, and the third
one is a number inside a section).
Back to Contents
1 - Cosmogony
Before discussing the problem of otons (black
holes) in the Earth's physics it is
necessary first to provide a definition of the term and answer, at
least, two questions.
The first: it is a must to find out how otons
of small masses can be formed?
The second, the question should to be
answered: in what ways otons appear in space bodies and in the
The answer to the first question is given in the first
chapter, and the answer to the second one is given in the second
The term "otons" was discussing introduced in 1971 by
Ya.B.Zel'dovich and I.D.Novikov in the book "The Theory of
Gravitation and the Evolution of Stars" [Зе10],
"as a generic name
uniting all the variety of bodies with the relativistic field of
gravitation which are inside the so called "horizon" or
asymptotically come close to it".
Black, white, grey holes and other
relativistic objects predicted within the General Relativity (GR)
are referred to otons. In the book the term "otons" is often used
just as a synonym of the term "black holes".
1.1. Schwarzschild black holes
Equations of the modern relativistic
theory of gravitation (General Relativity):
Gim = and (Tim - 1/2gimT) (1.1.1.)
were obtained by Einstein in 1915. And the next year the first exact
solution of Einstein equations for the point mass was found by
K.Schwarzschild. The Schwarzschild solution is written in the metric
form which has served for the basis in constructing models of
simplest spherical symmetric otons:
where Rg = 2GMc-2 - gravitational radius, Ì
- black hole mass, c - speed of light, G - gravitational constant.
A sphere drawn with the
gravitational radius is for a Schwarzschild black hole a surface of
infinite red shift and the event horizon. For estimating sizes of
stellar mass black holes the formula is convenient:
where M o - mass of the Sun equal to 2*1033 ã, Ro
radius of the Sun equal to 3*105 sm. To small black holes it is
possible to refer ones of masses in the bounds of 1020 g < Mâí < Mo
and, accordingly, of sizes in the bounds of 10-8 sm < Rg < 3*105 sm.
The bottom limit is defined by the value of the order of atomic
sizes. For black holes with Ì < 1020 g quantum effects of
evaporation become appreciable and such black holes should be
referred to micro-black holes. The black hole substance density is
estimated by the formula:
r = (M/Mo)-2 ro (1.1.4.)
where ro = 1,85 1016 g.sm-3 is the solar mass black hole substance
density. It is evident from (1.1.4.) that the substance density of
small and micro-black holes is more in many orders than substance
densities of known forms of matter, and black holes themselves with
respect to space bodies are with sufficient accuracy gravitational
material points described by the Newtonian law of gravitation.
Effects of GR, for example, in the micro-black hole case, become
appreciable at the scales less than atomic ones. Nevertheless,
though micro-black holes are located in atomic volumes they can give
effects at the macro-level compared with ones from space bodies.
at the distance:
h = (MBH/MÅ )1/2 RÅ (1.1.5)
the force of attraction caused by the black hole is equal to the
gravitational force at the Earth's surface (MÅ - mass of the Earth,
RÅ - radius of the Earth). The black hole with M = 1,47*1020 g will
create at the distance of one kilometer the same force of
gravitation as the Earth, i.e., it will cause considerable but
rather localized gravitational anomalies.
In accordance with the Hawking effect black holes radiate particles
like a black body with temperature [Ha01,2]: (1.1.5) during the time
t ~ 1010 (M/1015) years. At the last stage of black hole evaporation
the explosion happens, in which the energy of 1030 erg is extracted
in 0,1 s. This is the insignificant energy in comparison with
stellar energetics (luminosity of the Sun is 3,8*1033 erg.s-1), but
it is rather considerable amounts for planet energetics (thermal
flow from the Earth's interiors is 3,17*1020 erg.s-1).
Small black holes move in substance of space bodies as if in
Therefore while considering black holes in space bodies it
should be involved the idea of otons as universal centers of forming
all the space objects [Тр00,9,11]. In addition in space objects
there can be not only central germinal black holes, but also others.
So, for example, planetesimals, of which falling onto the
proto-Earth "germ" is considered to have resulted in formation of
the modern Earth, can also contain germinal black holes. In other
words, not single black holes, but space bodies containing black
holes are grasped.
But before discussing the problem of black holes
in the Earth it is necessary to find out how are black holes formed
in general case, to which next sections of this chapter are devoted.
During star's evolving the irreversible
process of energy loss runs. On exhausting the stellar nuclear
energy source the poststar is formed.
By the term "poststar" are
meant space objects being the final product of stellar evolution
(white dwarves, neutron stars, black holes).
As a whole the process of increasing deepening of gravitational
potential "holes" is characteristic for the substance of classical
astrophysical objects. This is connected with an irreversible nature
of energy loss in the radiation form by space objects, which leads
to increasing the sum of connection energy of closed space system
and body substance.
As a result the sum of connection energy of the
closed system substance does not decrease. This is a formulation of
the closed system substance connection energy non-decreasing
principle. Such the formulation can be assimilated to the second
principle of thermodynamics.
Due to the principle of connection energy non-decreasing the black
hole formation seems to be the natural and inevitable stage of
evolution. The conclusion on the black hole existence in nature is
so correct, as far as correct
But the formation of black
holes with masses less than mass of the Sun was considered for a
long time as problematic.
1.3. Relics of the Big Bang
The second version of black hole
formation is connected with the idea on white holes proposed in
1964-1965 in I.D. Novikov's [Но00,1] and Yu. Ne’eman [Ne00] works,
who have suggested the hypothesis of "lagged cores".
this idea at the initial stage of Metagalactic expansion the
substance expanding was retarded in some regions and the substance
has not left the gravitational radius. The so called "lagged cores"
have been formed.
For some reasons, the first attempt to understand a nature of white
hole formation has appeared unsuccessful, but the idea of "lagged
cores" was an incitement to developing the second way of black
In 1967 Ya.B. Zel'dovich and I.D. Novikov [Зе10],
and then in 1971. S. Hawking [Ha00] have proposed the second way of
black hole’s formation as a result of possible inhomogeneities at
early stages of cosmological expansion. Such the black holes have
received the name of primordial (relic) black holes. They can have
various masses, both more, and less the solar mass.
Since in the Hawking work the idea of small black holes at once was
connected with some astrophysical phenomena (in particular, with the
deficiency of solar neutrino), it is the work with which the wide
discussion of the primordial black hole problem begins.
Because of relic otons are formed at the initial stage of the Big
Bang under quite certain conditions, namely, under large density and
temperatures during very short time, there are restrictions on their
number and general mass. If the primordial black holes exist, the
average density of their substance in the Universe is in many orders
less than the critical one. Just only for this reason the presence
of relic black holes with small masses in the Earth is improbable.
The difficulties in an explanation of the black and white hole
origins have forced resorting to the idea of transmetagalactic oton
origin from other worlds.
1.4. Kerr-Newman space-time and
The Kerr-Newman metric is the
theoretical basis of transmetagalactic oton models construction
(black and white holes).
In the oblate quasi-spheroidal
Boyer-Lindquist coordinates it is written in the following form
[Ми10] (here the geometrized units are used, c = G = 1):
where M is the total mass of oton, Q is its charge, a is the angular
momentum of rotation per unit mass.
In a general case for the Kerr-Newman metric there are several
mismatched pseudo-singular surfaces. Surfaces of event horizon for
the metric (1.4.1) are defined by the expression (here and further
in usual units, if it is not stipulated the opposite):
where R+ is the external event horizon, R- is the inner one.
Surfaces of infinite shifts are defined as follows:
The surface determined by r+ is called the infinite red-shift
surface, r- does the infinite blue-shift one.
surfaces make the structure of the extended space-time manifold (ESTM)
non-trivial. In the case of a Kerr oton (Ì 0, and 0, Q = Î) the
picture qualitatively does not vary. In the case of not rotating
oton (a = 0, Q 0, Ì 0) the picture qualitatively changes, since from
(1.4.2) and (1.4.3) r + = R +, r _ = R _, i.e., event horizon
surfaces coincide with the corresponding infinite shifts surfaces.
Thus, the condition a = 0 makes the ESTM structure more poor.
Finally, for a Schwarzschild oton there is one pseudo-singular
surface: r+ = R+ = Rg (Rg is the gravitational radius):
The second peculiar surface (r- = R- = 0) coincides with the point
of true singularity.
The most realistic model of an otonic white hole is associated with
the Kerr ESTM, because all known astrophysical objects possess
rotation. Let us consider the Penrose diagram for the Kerr ESTM
along the symmetry axis [Õî00] (fig. 1.4.1.), that can give the
qualitative representation on the global structure of ESTM.
Taking into account results of extended relativity it is possible to
designate an arbitrary region of the Kerr ESTM Ì., which is
separated from another by event horizons, by the general symbol
M (k, P) (1.4.5)
where P = (i)N. N is the number of event horizons separating
arbitrary region Ì from on originate Ì(+), - < k < + . Since k is
not restricted, there can be the unlimited number of regions by the
type of Ì. Each such region can be an independent world, which is
similar to our Metagalaxy.
Anticollapsing objects in similar ESTM are formed in the results of
relativistic collapse-anticollapse process from black hole matter,
which flows (see fig. 1.4.1.) through wormholes from one Ì (0, +), Ì
(0, i) ESTM region (otonic world) to another Ì (1, -i), Ì (1, +).
The cause of transformation of collapse to anticollapse for the Kerr
oton consists in rotation, which at a certain stage of contraction
of oton, namely, in the region Ì (0, ' -) at R = R = a2/c2Rb, leads
Thus, in white hole concept we should go from the Schwarzschild STM
to the Kerr ESTM, which naturally explains the nature of
anticollapse and leads to the notion on non-trivial ESTM structure
and on worlds variety.
This is the second possible way of the white hole origin and the
third way of black hole formation as relics of grey holes, which
were proposed in 1973-1978 within the idea of otonic worlds variety
in the multi-dimensional Universe (otonic scenario) [Òð00].
On the Penrose diagram of the Kerr STM (see fig. 1.4.1.) there can
be the unlimited number of regions by the type of M(+). An
independent otonic world corresponds to each such region, which is
similar to our Metagalaxy. Though, it is necessary to notice, that
any region Ì(+) of STM must be not the asymptotically flat
space-time, but the curved Friedman world, possessing "holes".
If the expansion of anticollapsar stops at the event horizon the
black hole will be formed. Such the black hole is the grey hole
relic, which matter is originated from other regions of extended STM.
The time of grey hole manifestation at the stage of anticollapse is
extremely small. On stopping anticollapse they become black holes.
Such otonic black holes can possess different masses and arise at
any stage of Metagalactic expansion.
Fig. 1.4.1. The Penrose diagram for the extended along the symmetry
axis Kerr STM. The broken line marks the ring singularity. The
stencil picture Ì(++) including regions Ì(++), Ì (-), Ì(i), Ì (' -),
Ì(- '), and Ì(-i) is repeated unlimitedly to the both sides. When k
® ¥ we optain the complete Kerr manifold. Curves show possible
geodesics (time-like), which correspond to black hole, BH; white
hole, WH; grey hole, GH; dark grey hole, DGH; light grey hole, LGH.
The discovering of white (or grey) hole flares would be the
confirmation of the idea on worlds variety in the multidimensional
Universe. If gamma-bursts are connected with grey hole flares,
bursts of gravitational radiation can be predicted to be observed
synchronously with gamma-bursts.
White and grey holes from other otonic worlds, causing extreme
disturbances of STM and the gravitational field, should lead to
powerful short-term bursts of gravitational radiation and
electromagnetic waves. Therefore any grandiose processes in this
point of the heavenly sphere after the radiation burst should not be
expected, since the grey hole relic can be a single black hole.
detection of synchronism of gravitational and gamma-bursts would be
decisive argument for the discovery of white and grey hole flares
White holes, unlike grey holes, can manifest themselves after the
short-term powerful radiation burst as grandiose space explosions.
In this respect it is of interest the Supernovae - 1987À, when the
large burst of gravitational radiation was registered [Tro1].
1.5. Other ways of black hole formation
According to otonic worlds concept
considered above, in which there are no restrictions on the time of
space object existence, black holes in the far future of Metagalaxy
can reduce their masses up to any values due to quantum evaporation.
One more way of mini-black hole formation through the condensation
of poorly interacting massive particles in neutron stars was
offered in the Goldman’s and Nassinov’s work [Go00]. According to
the authors, bosonic poorly interacting massive particles which have
masses more than 200
GeV can be condensed on to the neutron star
nucleus, forming the configurations being close to the
gravitational radius. These configurations collapse forming
Thus, there are various ways of small black hole formation and now
it is necessary to discuss the question, how black holes appear in
space bodies, in particular, in the Earth.
Black holes in space
bodies will be the subject of the following chapter.
Back to Contents
2 - Black
holes in space bodies
As Å. Ì. Lifshits has shown in 1946 [Ëè00], in the homogeneous
extending world galaxies and their clusters cannot appear due to the
gravitational instability. Initial inhomogeneities of density of
Metagalactic substance are necessary, which should play a role of
germs in various sorts of space object's formation.
in an explanation of the origin of initial inhomogeneities have
forced to appeal to the idea of transmetagalactic origin of otons
2.1. Otons are universal centers
("germs") of formation of space objects
Black holes as relics of grey holes can
be effectively used as germs for formation of various space objects.
In the otonic worlds conception transmetagalactic black holes
represent universal centers of formation of classical astrophysical
objects: planets, satellites of planets, comets, planetesimals,
stars, galactic nuclei, clusters of galaxies and so on.
Thus, the answer to a question "How black holes have appeared in the
Earth?" becomes clear. Black holes initially were in the Earth and
other space bodies. Being "germs" of these bodies, black holes
precede the formation of usual astrophysical objects.
For a long time the idea of black holes as "germs" of galaxies and
clusters of galaxies [Ca03] has received popularity, but the idea of
black holes as "germs" of stars [Cl00], [Fo00] is less known. In the
framework of otonic scenario otons are considered to be universal
"germs" of all space objects down to planets. A logic consequence of
this idea is a notion of the existence of otons ensemble in space
bodies which are not only situated at the center of objects, but
also moving in their gravitational fields.
The following scheme of otons hit in space bodies is possible. In
standard cosmogonic scenario planets (in particular, the Earth) are
considered to have been formed by due to accretion of planetesimals
on to "germs" of planets. But planetesimals themselves, as it
follows from the otonic scenario, have been formed as well by due to
accretion of substance on to otons, which were "germs" of
Thus, otons are not single, "naked", and they initially are in
appropriate gravitational potential "holes" and surrounded with
substance. Here are otons, having shells of substance, that can be
grasped by space bodies [Òð11]. At last, it is possible simply to
postulate the existence of otons in the Earth, not putting a
question on their origin.
In the beginning we shall discuss the most characteristic
manifestations of black holes in space bodies.
The choice of points
at issue is obvious:
neutron stars (maximal density of a matter)
the Sun (the nearest star and the largest object in Solar system)
planets, which have brighter
manifestations of black holes, than on the Earth
2.2. Black holes in neutron stars and
the phenomenon of pulsars
Intrastellar black holes do not
influence radically on stars evolution, but they can render a
decisive influence on evolution of poststars: white dwarves and
Poststars have density of substance significantly
higher, than stars have, hence, the rate of substance accretion on
to a black hole and the energy separation at accretion should be
larger as well. In this respect millisecond pulsars are interesting.
To explain the phenomenon of pulsars and, in particular, of
formation of millisecond pulsars, the alternative model of neutron
star which contains a small black hole at the center was proposed by
the author [Tr01,3]. According to this model, the acceleration of
rotation occurs due to the neutron star substance flow (accretion)
on to the black hole, that leads to decreasing of angular momentum
and, consequently, to increasing of speed of rotation.
From this model, the possibility of existence of the submillisecond
pulsars class with Pmin < 0,5 ms was predicted. The submillisecond
optical pulsar (P 0.5 ms) in the region of
discovered since the prediction has been made, is a good
confirmation of a fidelity of the given model.
The other consequence of this model is the possibility of
acceleration of solitary pulsars rotation, since the reason of this
acceleration is the internal structure of a neutron star (the
presence of a small black hole in the center).
The confirmation of
this conclusion is the discovering of the negative derivative of
period (Ð = -2*10-17 ñ/ñ) of the single pulsar
PSR 2127 + 11 (Ð =
110 ms) in globular cluster Ì15.
The black hole in the center means the presence of point-like mass
in the neutron star center, on to which a drain (an accretion) of
superconductive neutron liquid occurs. The mass which has appeared
in the small black hole ("point"), does not already contribute to
the inertia momentum. The decrease of the inertia momentum by due to
the law of rotating momentum conservation must be compensated by
acceleration of rotation.
It simplifies the task considerably and allows to determine the
accretion rate on to a black hole by the derivative of period from
the condition of rotating momentum conservation:
J w = L = const. (2.2.1)
The inertia momentum for neutron star is defined by the expression:
J » 0,1 MR2 , (2.2.2)
which gives the following estimation of the neutron star inertia
momentum: J0 = 1044 g sm2.
Taking into account (2.2.2.) from
(2.2.1.) it is possible to obtain:
Assuming R = const and differentiating (2.2.3.) with respect to
time, we shall get,
A substitution of neutron star parameters and parameters of the 110
ms pulsar gives the following estimation of the accretion rate on to
the central black hole:
= 2*1017 g*s-1.
Let us put to use the
formula for the hydrodynamic spherical accretion [Øà00] to estimate
the black hole mass, since superfluid liquid is in the interior of
The black hole parameters are obtained from (2.2.5.) by substitution
of the neutron star parameters:
MBH » 1,58*1019g, RBH » 2*10-9 sm, r
BH » 1044 g sm-3.
The sizes by the order are comparable with atomic
sizes, and the considerable magnitude of density speaks about the
degree of matter compression. These quantities together show the
validity of the analogy of matter accretion on to small black hole
with tightening of substance in a point.
Let us notice, that estimations given are illustrative rather than
quantitative, since the repelling pressure of fermi-system is not
taking into account. The problem of accretion of super-dense
degenerated substance on to micro-black holes was not yet specially
investigated. The Hawking radiation and the fermi-pressure of
substance accreted can not only decrease considerably the rate of
accretion, but also under certain conditions are capable to stop the
Since the accretion rate is directly proportional to square of the
black hole mass, the acceleration of pulsar rotation is to increase
with time, i.e., fast-rotating pulsars must be old objects. On the
one hand, the pulsar rotation is decelerated due to the energy loss,
and on the other hand, it is accelerated due to the inertia momentum
increase. These processes follow simultaneously, but the
deceleration of rotation dominates at the beginning due to the
energy loss, and after some time the accretion process on to the
black hole leads to the acceleration of rotation.
derivative of the period must increase with the time too.
The accretion rate on to a black hole (2.2.4.) corresponds to
considerable amount of energy extraction, which should warm up the
neutron star; and since the accretion rate grows with the time, the
neutron star cooling process must be exchanged for its heating.
Thus, old pulsars should be not only fast-rotating, but also hot. An
observation of hard radiation from single millisecond pulsars,
having the negative derivative of period, for example, for PSR 2127
+ 11, would be one more confirmation of black hole's presence in
The negative derivative of the single pulsar PSR 2127 + 11 implies
the internal cause of the rotation acceleration, that is, it
certificates the accretion of the neutron star substance on to small
interior black hole. Because of told above it should be expected the
discovery of other single pulsars with the negative derivative of
the period. These pulsars should have the significant second
derivative of the period as well.
The model given explains the very phenomenon of pulsars [Tr01,03].
The substance accretion on to the
Kerr black hole is anisotropic,
leading to the appearance of specific directions of energy radiation
(projectors), which is the feature of pulsars. Such the character of
radiation creates "heat dots" at the neutron star surface or sources
of pulsing radiation.
But let us pass to discussion of problems concerning with space
objects, closer to the Earth: the Sun and other objects of our
2.3. The solar neutrino deficiency
problem and the central black hole in the model of the Sun
Hawking has suggested that the
intrasolar black hole of the mass of 1017 g [Ha00]: "can be the
cause, that the flow of neutrino from the Sun does not coincide with
that predicted ".
Till now the problem of solar neutrino has not yet found any
decision. Standard models of the Sun predict the neutrino flow in
the experiment with 37Ñ1 to be of the order of 7,9 ± 2,6 SNU [Ba00].
While the level observed now is 2,1 ± 0,9 SNU [Ba00].
It shows, that
there is a significant divergence between the predictions of
standard models and the experiments of Davies. All this has resulted
in the necessity to consider an alternative energy source of the
Sun, namely the central, intrasolar black hole, on to which solar
This idea has received development in works of other scientists and
the further accounts have shown, that the hole being in center of
the Sun with the mass of the order of 10-5MO can provide the half
of solar luminosity due to the accretion [Cl00]. It leads to
decrease of solar neutrino flow up to the level corresponding to
The model of intrasolar black hole concerned meets a difficulty of
the following kind. The central black hole already now gives the
contribution 51 % of luminosity of the Sun if MBH = 1,5 10-5Ì O .
There are no fundamental reasons that the black hole should do not
give almost the whole luminosity of the Sun.
However the future of the Sun depends considerably upon the central
black hole large luminosity. Since the mass and the luminosity of
intrasolar black hole increase exponentially, the Sun should soon
(during the time less in comparison with 109 years) leave a main
This allocates the Sun in an especially rare class of stars having
internal black holes.
Besides, it is necessary to recognize, that we observe the Sun
during rather special epoch of its evolution, in that moment, when
the black hole luminosity is of the same order as the solar one due
to burning of hydrogen. The following alternative arises.
It is necessary whether to recognize, that we are near the star of
the most rare type in the exclusive moment of its evolution, or to
recognize, that the classical model of accretion on to black holes
is not applicable to the accretion of super-dense substance on to
small black holes, for which the account of quantum effects [Òð11]
Moreover, accretion inside stars occurs, the most sooner, on to
fermioton, that is, in the certain sense, there is a return to idea
on the accretion on to a neutron nucleus as a source of star’s
energy [La20]. The consideration of the stellar substance accretion
on to fermioton should eliminate available difficulties with star’s
energetics and the problem of solar neutrino deficiency.
At last, we shall note one more idea brought forth in the same work
[Cl00], that the intraplanetary black hole is responsible for high
luminosity of the planet Jupiter.
But, mentioning this question, we
pass to subject of the following item.
2.4. Black holes in planets
At last stage of the black hole
evaporation the explosion happens, in which in 0,1 s the energy of
1030 erg is extracted.
It is rather significant amount for the
planet’s energetics (the thermal flow from internals of the Earth -
3,17*1020 erg.s-1, the thermal flow of the Jupiter
- 3*1024 erg.s-1,
the luminosity of the
Jupiter’s satellite Io - 3*1019 erg.s-1).
black holes can be involved to explain the planet’s energetics. It
is necessary to note, that the large part of the black hole
radiation (gravitational, neutrino and others) freely leaves in
In the case of small black holes an other mechanism of energy
extraction - accretion of environmental substance - is possible too.
Also, the possibility of energy extraction in collisions of small
black holes is of interest, though the probability of a such kind of
events for single otons is extremely small. However since all space
bodies are gravitational connected systems, there are no absolutely
any reasons to make similar exception for otons. But in this case
the probability of small black holes collisions grows sharply.
Black holes can the most distinctive manifest themselves in planets
as a point gravitational masses and "hot" points, and as anomaly of
different kind: dynamical, gravitational, geothermal, geochemical,
magnetic, as abnormal sources of particles and others. Dynamical
anomalies in planet’s rotation are revealed itself in changes of
rotation periods and shifts of poles.
Gravitational anomalies on the Earth attain 500 mGal [Ãð00],
[Ãð20,21] and there are difficulties in their understanding. Small
black holes are the best candidates for the role of “point-like
The more significant gravitational anomalies were discovered on the
Mars [Ãð20,21], [Ñà30]. So on the Moon in the region of mascons the rate of the gravitational anomalies value to the
gravitational field intensity value is more on the order than on the
The even more expressive gravitational anomaly is discovered on Mars
in the region of Tharsis mountains, which is the unique
dominating in the gravitational field of Mars. The asymmetry of the
gravitational field is those, that the areoid can be presented by
the model of a spherical planet with a point mass in the region of
Small bodies of the solar system are possible to possess an even
more abnormal gravitational field, that will testify for the
existence of black holes.
Planets, especially of the Earth group, in some attitude are
chemical anomalies, because of their structure strictly differs from
the average chemical structure of space substance, in which hydrogen
and helium dominate. Specific mechanisms of element’s formation are
required for planets to explain available chemical structure.
Special conditions are required for running thermonuclear reactions
of syntheses in planets. In particular, the detection of the
abnormal light isotope helium-3 amounts speaks about thermonuclear
reactions in the Earth’s interior.
Thus, to two well-known mechanisms of chemical element’s formation
(the Big Bang and stars) and two mechanisms offered recently (white
holes and accretional disks of black holes), it is possible to add
the fifth mechanism: the thermonuclear synthesis in substance which
is warmed up by the micro-black hole radiation. It will help to
eliminate difficulties connected to formation of some heavy
Micro-black holes can simulate both motionless "hot point", and
"migrating" center of volcanic activity. Difficulties in an
explanation of giant's energetics, and in particular, of the
grandiose volcanic activity on Io [Hu10] require the search of new
sources of energy, which can be black holes.
In conclusion, let us discuss the question on the possibility of
micro-black holes explosions on bodies of the solar system. It is
interesting the possibility of solar flares connection with
explosions of micro-black holes, but the extraction during an
explosion of rather small energy 1030 erg, on the background of the
powerful solar energy flow (3,81*1033 ergs-1) requires special
As far as a micro-black hole explosion is concerned the Jupiter is
of interest, which has the power of a thermal flow equal to 3*1024
ergs-1. The black hole having such the power, should explode during
the nearest decades, and the power of radiation should grow as PBH ~
If the exploding black hole is in depths of a planet, the thermal
flow from explosion will appear at the planet surface much later.
The explosion can be detected by the neutrino flare with energy of
the order 108 ÌeV and by seismic manifestations.
Rings around the giant planets, the asteroids belt between Mars and
Jupiter (rests of a planet Phaeton explosion) and other small bodies
of the solar system quite can be relics of black hole explosions
and (or) collisions [Òð09,11], [Tr01,09].
In conclusion, we shall mention the original idea of Ì.D. Fogg about
making use of black holes in artificial creating of Earth-like
Galilean satellites [Fo01].
From the fantastic projects of using black holes by the earthly
civilization in the future, let us proceed to ordinary
manifestations of terrestrial black holes. We shall first discuss
the features of earthly mass spectrum otons.
Back to Contents
3 - Otons of
earthly mass spectrum
The opinion that black holes, being in the Earth, must easily
manifest themselves dissipates by first rough estimations of effects
caused by them. Even if there are billions of small black holes in
the Earth their finding is too hard, since their gravitational
fields merge with that of the Earth.
The gravitational radius of the Earth is few less than a centimeter.
Black holes of smaller masses possess microscopic sizes and they
move freely through the Earth. Their manifestations are rather
considerable but very localized. For example, a black hole with the
mass of large city has the size of an atomic nucleus.
If it appears
in the centre of ordinary table, the black hole gravitational force
at a distance about one centimeter from it will be ten thousands
times greater than the earthly gravitation. Outside the table the
black hole gravitation will not be almost felt.
Among otons of small masses the so called micro-black holes have
been investigated better, though the name of these objects is
incorrect by several reasons.
The first, these objects are not
black, since due to the Hawking effect they shine and "become
The second, masses (respectively, sizes) of these
objects decrease because of the Hawking evaporation, i.e., the black
hole is compressed and disappears.
Hence, these objects are not
black and in course of time they cease to be holes. Therefore in many
cases use is made of the term "otons", which has no such
Micro-white holes can appear to be stable, because their behavior
must be quite opposite to that of evaporating and exploding black
holes. Thereby, the less investigated case of micro-white holes,
some parameters of which coincide with those of terrestrial black
holes, is of interest for geophysics of otons.
Let us characterize
in short parameters of terrestrial otons.
Objects of microworld, comparable by sizes (sm)
with black holes.
Earthly bodies and objects, comparable by
masses (g) with black holes.
The Moon, internal nucleus of the Earth
land (2,5 *
of a state (1018)
City of million of people (1015)
pyramid (5,84 *
platform “Troll” (1,1
International Trade Centre in New-York (5,5*1011)
The most heavy railway composition (6,9*1010)
3.1. Parameters of terrestrial black
We shall present first sizes of black
holes possessing masses of solar system objects (the Earth, the Moon
In this case for determining the gravitational
radiuses the following formula is convenient:
Rg (sm) = 1,484 10-28 Ì (g) = 0,887Ì (M Å). (3.1.1.)
As it is evident from (3.1.1.) the mass of all the objects of our
planetary system (besides of the Jupiter and the Sun), being
concentrated in black holes, would be allocated in one room, and a
black hole with the mass of the Earth (M Å ) in one dove egg would.
Masses and sizes of terrestrial black holes (BH) in comparison with
objects of micro-world and terrestrial bodies are submitted in Table
3.1.1. In first two columns the black hole masses, multiple to ten,
and the corresponding gravitational radiuses are presented. In the
third and fourth columns are the gravitational radiuses, multiple to
ten, and the corresponding black hole masses.
A black hole of a mass M has the density:
= (g/sm3), (3.1.2.)
which decrease in inverse proportion to mass square.
A black hole with a mass of the Earth has density 1027 g/sm3, which
is in twelve orders more than that of nuclear substance. A black
hole with the mass of a person (g) has the radius sm, which is in
ten orders less than that of elementary particles, and its density
is equal to 1071 g/sm3.
According to the expression (3.1.2.) the less black hole mass, the
more density of its substance. If the whole Earth's mass be
concentrated not in one, but in N black holes, the total volume of
all black holes would be equal to:
VNBH = N-2VBH , (3.1.3.).
where VBH is the volume of the black hole with the mass of the
Earth; VNBH is the total volume of N black holes, which the total
mass is equal to the mass of the Earth.
Linear "sizes" RNBH of this
total volume is equal to:
RNBH = N-2/3 RBH , (3.1.4.).
where RBH is the gravitational radius of the Earth. If the whole
Earth's mass was concentrated not in one, but in billions of black
holes, the total volume would sharply decrease and would equal to
the volume of one molecule. The total volume of all the terrestrial
black holes is rather even less value.
Already this brightly shows, so far as the task of finding objects,
the total volume of which in the Earth does not exceed the molecule
volume and is in forty four orders less than the volume of the
Earth itself, is difficult. Nevertheless, gravitational fields of
terrestrial otons allow the direct gravimetric registration of black
For imagining clearly gravitational manifestations of otons on the
Earth it is necessary to determine the gravitational force
acceleration (gBH) caused by black holes of different masses (MBH)
at different distances (RBH) in comparison with that at the Earth's
This condition gives:
-2 = MBH RBH -2 (3.1.4.).
For convenience of estimations let us enter the basic values of MBH
and RBH: RBH = R1 = 1 sm; М BH = M1 = 1,4731010 g. Taking account of
these values the mass of the black hole, which causes the
acceleration (gBH = g) at distances, multiple to 1 sm, is easily
determined by the formula:
МBH = (RBH/R1)2 M1 (3.1.5.).
For determining distances (RBH), at which black holes with masses
multiple to 1010 g cause the acceleration gBH = g, another set of
basic values MBH and RBH is convenient: МBH = М0 = 1010
g; RBH =
R0 = 0,824 sm, and so is the next expression:
RBH = (MBH/Mo)1/2Ro (3.1.6.).
At last, the formula, defining the distance Rk, at which gBH = kg,
when the mass of black hole MBH is given, is useful:
Rk = (k)-1/2 RBH (3.1.7.).
The gravitational force of the black hole with the mass of 1,47*1020 g at the distance 1 km will be equal to that of the Earth, at
the distance 1 m it exceeds the later millions times, and so does
it thousands billion times at the distance 1 mm.
One can imagine,
what giant tornado such the black hole would cause, if it appeared
near the terrestrial surface. The above testifies the variety of
terrestrial black hole manifestations in dependence on their masses.
Black hole interaction with matter else more varies black hole
3.2. Problem of accretion onto small
black holes and fermi-otons
Not only the quantum evaporation of
black holes, but the accretion of matter can be a source of
terrestrial black hole energy.
Due to some reasons the question on
accretion of hard substance of the terrestrial corex onto black hole
is problematic. For example, the hard substance being in the
connected state, the preliminary work for its destruction is needed.
Therefore, in black hole's passing through the terrestrial matter
the tracks (cords, through apertures) must be formed.
However, the main problem of the terrestrial black hole existence is
connected with the rapid accretional absorption ("devouring") of the
space body by the black hole.
But objections available concerning
accretion does not take account of quantum nature of the region, in
which the accretion onto small black holes occurs. In accruing
matter onto small black hole a fermi-system must be formed, which
plays the role of a source of repulsion. The task of accretion of
degenerated fermi-system substance onto small black hole not only
was decided, but even seem was not put.
Only those particles of fermi-system will accrue, the velocities of
which are less or equal to the rate of black hole seizing. Those are
the particles to be "at the bottom of fermi-system particle energy
distribution". It means that the particles of fermi-system come away
in the black hole not with maximal velocities, but with minimal
The situation is quite opposite to ordinary "evaporation" of
particles with maximal velocities. The minimal mass (Mmin), which
can accrue onto small black hole, is defined by the sum of all the
particles possessing velocities.
Neutron stars and white dwarves stabilize the degenerated substance
by their own gravitational field, but if the masses are less than
some critical value, the gravitational field is turned out too weak
for stabilizing the fermi-system. Possessing the considerable
intensity of gravitational field small black holes can create large
gradients of pressure and form fermi-systems of smaller masses. It
means that there happens the stabilizing of fermi-otonic system by
the black hole gravitational field resulting in fermi-oton
The bottom limit for masses of such systems is connected with the
Hawking effect, and those masses can not be less than 106 kg,
because of exploding of those small black holes. Though, it should
be noted that the Hawking effect in a substance must be essentially
modified, therefore the bottom limit for fermi-oton mass can be
The structure of fermi-otons must be qualitatively similar to the
structure of degenerated stars: shells with different material
contents and densities decreasing to the surface will lay from the
centre to the surface. As far as fermi-otons are concerned the
neutrinic shell is of especial interest, since it is transparent for
a substance, does not make a "friction" in the Earth and is not
teared by the terrestrial matter.
In a case of small black hole exiting from a fermi-system (for
example, the retardation of a fermi-oton in a dense environment
should lead to appearing the difference between the velocity of oton
motion and that of surrounding substance) a fermi-system must decay
forming transuranium elements. Thus, deposits of transuranium
elements are places of fermi-oton decays.
Possessing the strong
magnetic field like neutron stars, fermi-otons can cause short-term
variations of the terrestrial magnetic field, i.e., the correlations
between gravitational potential derivative variations and variations
of the magnetic field should take place.
Let us pay attention to nuclearities, i.e., objects, which are
nearest by their properties and manifestations to fermi-otons.
E.Witten has pointed out the possibility of nuclear substance, which
consists of white, black, and strange quarks compounding it, to be
less massive than usual nuclear matter with the same number of
quarks in proton and neutron compounds. These clots of the strange
quark matter can be stable for almost all barionic numbers (A),
including those in interval between ordinary nuclei (A £ 263) and
neutron stars (A » 1057).
A.De Rujula and S.L. Glashow, having introduced the term "nuclearities"
for these objects, described the properties of such quark
formations, the probability of their meeeting with the Earth and
presumable experiments for detecting such meetings.
According to the
authors, nuclearities can manifest themselves on the Earth as
meteors, as etched routes in mica and mountain breeds, they can
create astroblems and cause earthquakes. All these phenomena can be
caused by fermi-otons as well, but with one essential clause: one
must take account of though localized but very strong gravitational
fields of otons.
Summing up it is possible to say, that real terrestrial black holes
can not be single and "naked", and the substance, gravitationally
connected with them, makes otonic manifestations more various.
Models of gravitationally connected fermi-oton systems have more
wide heuristic opportunities.
3.3. Gravitationally connected systems
of fermi-otons (grassifotons)
Let us notice, that it is more correct
to speak not about systems of "naked' single otons, but about
gravitationally connected systems of fermi-otons (GCSFO).
objects with different states of matter, which has different
densities and temperatures, to be in a close neighborhood. It tells
not only about real GCSFO description difficulties, but about the
large heuristic potential of these objects in physics of the Earth.
Different geophysical phenomena can be attributed to an action of GCSFO, which have parameters required. For these objects taking
account of their reduced name it is possible to introduce the terms
"grassifotons" or " grasfoton systems".
GCSFO can be verious, e.g., multiple systems, systems of planetary
type, systems of otonic gas type and others. In this section
estimations of characteristic parameters of such systems (system
sizes, a velocity and a period of oton-satellites rotation around
the attractive centre, parameters of gravitationally connected
system motion on circle orbits around the centre of the Earth),
which are in the gravitational field of the Earth, as well as in the
absence of the external gravitational field, are considered.
The estimations of some GCSFO parameters were given in the joint
with O.L. Artemenko work [Òð51]. The analysis of the given estimated
results shows, that the meaning for the otons- satellites is
insignificant. The analysis of estimation results presented there
shows the value of R0* for otons-satellites to be not large.
M0* changing from 1011 to 1021 kg R0* is changed from 0,825 to 83516
The velocity of oton-satellite motion on circle orbits around the
attractive centre is small too, which is conditioned by small
(compared with MÅ) masses of attractive otons.
For example, the
velocity of motion of an oton with the mass M0 = 108 kg
(pre-explosive oton) on the circle orbit around the centre with M0*
= 1011 kg is equal to 2,85 m/s, while the period of satellite
rotation is equal to T0* = 1,82 s.
In free GCSFO, where an external gravitational field does not
restrict system sizes, otons-satellites can located both on orbits
with radiuses R < R0*, and on those with R > R0*. In the case given
the velocity V0* decreases, when the circle orbit radius increase,
but the period of rotation T0* grows. For example, in the
case of an oton-satellite with the mass of 109 kg the velocity and the period
of rotation on the circle orbit with the radius R = 100 R0* around
the centre with M0* = 1013 kg will be equal to 0,9 m/s and 918 s
(15,3 min) accordingly.
Systems with sizes 100R0* and more (i.e. with R > R1) can not
actually exist, since GCSFO in this case turn out to be unstable,
and a re-seizure of otons-satellites by internal masses of the Earth
As a whole, a sufficiently large number of otons-satellites,
locating on internal orbits with R £ R1 and moving with small
velocities, can rotate around the central oton. Such the system
reminds the ordinary planetary system such as the Solar one. The
presence of a large number of otons-satellites on internal orbits
will lead to periodical changes of their parameters due to mutual
satellite's influences upon each other.
As concerned with the possibility of the existence of GCSFO an
attention should be payed on the universal empirical fact, that is:
all known gravitational objects enter in those or others
gravitationally connected systems. The only question is so far these
systems are close. It seems obvious due to universality of the low
of gravitational attraction. Thereafter, there are no any grounds to
make such conclusions in respect of small black holes. Not the
existence of GCSFO, but of single black holes, requires the
All types of GCSFO regarded (excluding systems with the radius of
oton-satellite orbit about 1 km or more, when the action of the
centre and that of otons-satellites is separable) will not
considerably differ from single otons by their gravitational
manifestations. Otons-satellites will contribute additionally in
total energetics of the system.
An explosion of one oton of the
system does not mean the cancellation of system acting as a whole
(if, for example, one consider GCSFO supplying the volcanic activity
in a certain region), since other otons of the system will go on
extracting energy. This example shows the qualitative difference of
GCSFO from single otons: an explosion and a termination of existence
of a micro-black hole does not mean a termination of energetics
manifestations of GCSFO.
Grassifotons of different types can exist in the Earth: from macro-grassifotons
up to micro-grassifotons. Macro-grassifotons are characterized by
sizes from 10-1 to 106 m and small rates of oton-satellite rotation
on circle orbits.
Actual sizes of a macro-system in the Earth can be
estimated on the basis of the data on all system oton masses and on
the radius of the connected system orbit relative to the centre of
the Earth. Micro-grassifotons are characterized by sizes from 10-7
to 101 m, rather large velocities (which attain the first cosmic
one) and small periods of oton-satellite rotation.
In regarding many tasks it is possible to neglect various properties
of grassifotons and regard them as micro-objects with a large
gravitational mass (as point masses). So, analyzing grassifoton
motions in the Earth they can be regarded in the first approximation
as single, and "naked", black holes.
Back to Contents
4 - Black
holes in the Earth
4.1. "Hidden" mass of the Earth
The density of terrestrial cortex
substance g/ sm3 measured and the average density of the Earth g/
sm3 differ considerably.
This is by itself a special problem of
"hidden" mass of the Earth. For solving this problem the notion on
other chemical structure of internal areas of the Earth (i.e., that
the increase of pressure in internal regions of the Earth does not
lead to essential growth of substance density), in particular, the
hypothesis of an iron nucleus, is introduced [Жарк].
But one can assume, that the part of the Earth’s mass is made by
black holes, and the average density of usual substance of the Earth
is equal to the density of terrestrial cortex substance really
Taking into account the total thermal flow of the Earth, the maximal
number of black holes, limited by these two factors, will be
determined as [Тр10]: Nвн = 4,3*109, that corresponds to Мвн = 7*1017 g. Besides of the central (germinal) black hole in all regions
of the Earth (nucleus, mantle, cortex) there can be black holes,
which have got in the proto-Earth in the compound of planetesimals.
However, it is necessary to take into account that the part of
energy is carried away from the black hole by neutrino and
gravitons, and the other one transforms into the mass of rest.
Finally, the need to consider the Hawking effect not for "naked"
black holes, but for fermiotons can change in many orders
estimations given, which can be regarded as a bottom limit of the
number of terrestrial black holes. The total mass of black holes can
be assigned by such the value the model of the hollow Earth to be
natural (i.e., the main part of usual substance is in the shell and
the central area).
Black holes move freely through the terrestrial internals and in the
first approximation it is possible to consider equations of black
hole motion in the Earth disregarding interactions with substance.
4.2. Oton motion in the gravitational
field of the Earth
In the gravitational field of the Earth
otons move freely as point gravitational masses even in terrestrial
internals. Otons can move on elliptic orbits, in one of focuses of
which the nucleus of the Earth (central oton) must be.
oton orbits can be in depths of the Earth, or close to its surface,
or leave far in space near the Earth. The velocity in apocentre is
minimal, and the time of the oton presence and action is maximal.
If apocentre is in depth, the geophysical manifestation of the oton
on the surface of the Earth is small, and the probability of its
registration is not great. If apocentre is far in space near the
Earth, the passage through the terrestrial surface and geophysical
manifestations of the oton will be short-term. Therefore only those
otons, apocentres of which lay near to the surface of the Earth, can
cause appreciable geophysical influence.
The plane of oton orbit and
the axis of rotation of the Earth should keep their spatial position
with respect to distant stars.
Due to rotation of the Earth otons will approach every time to
various areas of the terrestrial surface. The only insignificant
number of otons, which have periods multiple to the period of
rotation of the Earth about its axis (they can be multiple to any
number of periods), will appear in the fixed places of the
The nearest to the terrestrial surface multiple otons have the
period multiple to seventeen (k = 17). This period is equal to Т17 =
(Тsd/17) = 5068,48 s = 84.47 min. For the large half-axis from
(4.2.1) we have R17 = 6476,7 km, that is approximately in 1,5
kilometers less than the equatorial radius. In more details the
motion of black holes in the Earth is investigated by means of
computer in works [Тр20] [Силк].
For various versions of numerical value of the Earth’s density at
its surface equations of the trajectory were solved and the time of
motion was calculated. It being necessary for the hypothesis on the
otonic origin of volcanoes energy to take into account otons, which
touch the surface of the Earth, it was assumed in the calculative
formulas that b = R.
On the contrary, the parameter a ran all
possible values from 0 to R. It turned out that in all cases the
trajectory is the socket, which can be interpreted as precessing
From manifold of otons moving through the Earth only few will have
There can be no more than ten per one million
such the otons. Other otons move chaotically and do not lead to
systematic energy extraction just in the same point of the Earth.
Therefore, the presence of the second coincidence would become the
essential point confirming the hypothesis of the otonic origin of
volcanoes energy. The more detailed analysis, both qualitative, and
quantitative, is the subject of the paper [Мит1].
In the works given
the oton interaction with a terrestrial substance was not taken into
account, though this qualitatively changes the picture of black hole
motion in the Earth.
4.3. Black hole motion in the
Regarding movement of intraterrestrial
otons (moreover, that of fermi-otons and grassiphotons) it is
necessary to take account of interaction with substance.
In view of
the approach developed in the monograph given, admitting the
original presence of black holes in space bodies, the time of intraterrestrial motion of otons can be considerable.
Small black holes possess radiuses compared to the sizes of
elementary particles, and in many cases their interaction with a
terrestrial substance is described better in terms of physics of
elementary particles, not of astrophysics. This approach is
developed in the Greenstein and Burns paper [Gree].
But in their
work black holes are considered as external in respect to the Earth
objects, which have got accidentally in our planet and with large
velocity in very short time slip through the Earth. This initial
condition, naturally, results in a conclusion, that the interaction
with a terrestrial substance is not practically reflected in black
hole motion [Gree]. But all other results received in the paper can
be applied to intraterrestrial black holes.
The length of black hole free run is proportional to the fourth
degree of its velocity and inversely proportional to its mass and
the density of environment.
The black hole with mass of 1015 g,
which radius is equal to the radius of neutron, moving in
terrestrial substance with parabolic velocity, will leave "a tunnel"
in radius ~ 10-8 sm with the area of section s = 10-16 sm2, which in
ten orders exceeds the section of strong interaction and, as a
whole, is comparable to nuclear sections.
The width of ionization
track is about 10-4 sm. The energy, extracted along the track by the
black hole, is equal to Erg/sm. The length of free run in the
terrestrial substance is about few light years. Like neutrino, the
black hole can pass huge distances through matter, but it interacts
with environmental substance very strongly.
In the end of the paper authors make a conclusion, that small black
holes moving in the interstellar substance do not practically lose
their velocity, hence, they cannot be seized by space bodies. It
means, that the concept of small black holes as relics of the Big
Bang is hopeless both in theoretical, and in observational relation.
The concept of otonic intraterrestrial small black holes [Тр10-16,
Tro1-8] has not similar difficulties: velocities of intraterrestrial
black holes, which touch the Earth, can be from zero and more, the
time of their presence in the Earth is unlimited and the interaction
with substance can be very considerable.
Within this approach the interaction of black holes with substance
was considered in Parkhomov’s work [Парх], in which interesting
results were obtained:
black holes having masses > 1013 kg were
shown to have already stopped their extraterrestrial motion
holes with masses of 1012 - 1013 kg are intensively absorbed by the
Earth at present
it was found, that at low enough velocity of black
hole motion, which touch the Earth, their "jamming" in the
terrestrial substance occurs, including near to its surface
the time of black hole motion in
the terrestrial internals up to their stopping was shown to
be much less than the time of the existence of the Earth
The motion time of black hole with mass of 1020 g is equal to 5
years, of 1018 g is equal to 500 years, of 1015 g is equal to 500
thousands years, of 1012 g is equal to 500 millions years.
factor of velocity, as it is clear from all told above, else more
varies manifestations of black holes, and, among others, variations
of global parameters of the Earth.
4.4. Spontaneous variations of global
parameters of the Earth
The black hole inside the Earth can
leads in its motion to essential redistribution of the pulse
This can explain changes of the period of rotation and
displacements of poles. To irregular (jump-like) changes of the
period of rotation there should correspond similar motions of black
holes (probably, their casual redistribution).
So, a daily variation
of the rotation period of the Earth cannot be explain by seasonal
moving of atmospheric masses.
In difference from variations of global parameters of the Earth,
which only mediatedly can testify about intraterrestrial otons, the
measurement of local variations of gravitational potential
derivatives means a direct gravimetric registration of gravitational
fields of terrestrial black holes.
Back to Contents
Gravimetric registration of terrestrial black holes
5.1. Short-term variations of gravitational
potential derivatives produced by moving otons
Terrestrial otons can be registered
immidiatly by their gravitational field: they produce short-term
local gravitational anomalies [Òð06‑11], [Tr04‑08].
Otons are till noticed to be in principle such objects of physics to
have been predicted and discovered on the Earth as, for example,
intermediate vector bosons (W+, W-, Z0).
Intermediate vector bosons
were discovered in famous experiments of C. Rubbia, which complicated
and very expensive equipment was specially prepared for. But in the
case of oton's registration the situation is quite analogous to
which was in discovering of relic radiation, when the available
equipment has been used.
The modern gravimetric equipment [Ãð00],
[Ãð20,1] registers the first vertical derivatives of the
gravitational potential (g, gravimeters) and its second horizontal
derivatives (Wxx, variometers). Let us analyze the
behavior of the
first and the second derivatives of gravitational potential produced
Analyzing temporal variations of the first ( Dg) and the second ( D Wxx, D Wzz) gravitational potential derivatives forced by moving
near the Earth's surface otons we shall take into account only two
components of the oton motion.
The first, it is a free oton fall in
the Earth's gravitational field (the motion along the Z-axis).
Degenerated (oscillatory) orbits are considered. The second, it is
the oton motion relative to the Earth surface (the motion to the
West along the X-axis), arising by due to the rotation of the Earth.
These simplifications are quite justified for otons which orbit
apocentres are close to the Earth surface.
Under such simplifications the time dependence of gravitational
potential derivation variations caused by otons will determined by
X0, Ó0 are coordinates of oton orbit
apocentre, Ìî is an oton mass,
V j - linear velocity the earthly surface point movement at breadth
of j (at breadth of Obninsk V j == 267 m s-1).
potential derivatives are connected with each other by the
Fig. 5.1.1. In the figure the Z-axis is directed vertically, the
X-axis is directed along the breadth and it is tangent to a point of
the observer (X = 0, Z = 0) being at the surface of the Earth.
Different parabolas mean different otonic trajectories inside or
near the radius of registration (Rr = 100 km). The specifity of
gravitational potentioal variations is followed from allocation
features of otonic orbits with respect to the observer. To a various
position of parabolas there correspond various combinations of
gravitational potential derivatives, both positive, and negative.
Coordinates of an oton orbit apocentre influence not only
quantitatively, but also qualitatively on the otonic gravi-impulse
Trajectories of oton’s orbits are shown in Fig. 5.1.1.,
which are in limits (or near) of registration radius with respect to
the coordinate system of the observer who is residing on the earthly
surface. Already from the character of these orbits, or more
precisely, from features of their arrangement with respect to the
observer it is obvious, insofar different can be the character of
the otonic gravi-impulse.
The short-term increase of gravitational
force, which is then exchanged by its decrease, is the most simple
case. But there can be more complicated variants, when in short time
different and even opposite gravitational potential derivatives
variations are possible, for example: (+g, +Wzz), (-Wxx), (-g, -Wzz),
To express the dependence of gravitational potential derivatives
upon the time more explicitly, we consider a more simple case (X0 =
0; Zo = 0). This condition results in simplification of expressions
(5.1.1.) - (5.1.7.) and gives:
DWxx = 2V j GMo (Vj2 + g2t2/4 )-2t-3 (5.1.10.)
The time dependence is different in two cases:
1) t < 2V j /g
2) t > 2V j /g.
The first condition for (5.1.8.)
- (5.1.10.) gives the following expressions:
Expressions (5.1.14) - (5.1.16) show that the change of
gravitational potential derivatives caused by the oton, which is
near of apocenter, is defined by the rate of the Earth’s rotation.
But through about one minute the vertical component of oton velocity
becomes significant due to the free fall acceleration in the
gravitational field of the Earth.
It corresponds to the second
condition, which in a limiting case from (5.1.8) - (5.1.10) gives
Expressions (5.1.17.) - (5.1.19.) mean, that at the given stage the
change of the otonic gravi-impulse is determined by the oton’s
acceleration in the gravitational field of the Earth.
(5.1.14.) - (5.1.19.) clearly show that oton’s gravitational
manifestations have pulsed character. Gravitational anomalies caused
by the oton rapidly reach the maximum and so rapidly (in inverse
proportion to time in fourth - seventh degree) decrease.
From said above and expressions (5.1.8.) - (5.1.19.) it follows,
that for registration of otonic gravi-impulses it is necessary to
remove gravimetric data every second and there should not be an
averaging on large time intervals. As a result of such the
"averaging" the otonic gravi-impulse seems to be “erased” and the
oton manifestation is not fixed by the device.
Then, the amplitude
of gravi-impulses should be on the order above than the accuracy of
the device, in order to be possible to resolve temporary structure
of the otonic gravi-impulse.
Otonic gravi-impulses have rather specific structure: the time of
about one minute; amplitudes corresponding to gravitational masses
in millions and billions of tons; temporary variations of otonic
gravi-impulse corresponding to extremely fast motions of supermassive
Besides it is possible to specify additional, characteristic only
for otonic gravi-impulses, features (see Fig. 5.1.1.):
variations of the gravitational potential vertical derivative (- Dg, - DWzz), which means that cases of the gravitational force
inversion must occur
2) short-term variations of the gravitational
potential horizontal derivative (+ DWxx, - DWxx)
3) the quick
change (within few minutes) of different kinds of gravitational
potential derivatives variations (+ Dg, + DWzz, - DWxx, - Dg, -
DWzz, + DWxx, + Dg, + DWzz,)
4) arisings of magnetic and other
geophysical fields micropulsations, synchronous with gravi-impulses.
Thus, to registrate otons is desirable to realize complex
geophysical experiment, in which the registration of geophysical
fields should be carried out with high temporary resolution not only
by gravimeters, but also by variometers, magnitometers and other
In any experiment on registration of otons it
is necessary to estimate the order of their masses value, to which
the following item is devoted.
5.2. Determination of oton mass by physical
There are several independent ways to
determine the oton mass through observable physical quantities,
namely, through direct gravimetric measurements of gravitational
potential derivatives variations, produced by otons.
If variations of the gravitational potential vertical derivative are
mainly registered ( D Wxx << D Wzz), then using expressions (5.1.1.)
- (5.1.4.) it is possible to obtain the value Ìî through observable
values of the gravitational potential derivatives magnitude and
through the time of their registration (tk):
The maximal values of the gravitational potential first and second
derivatives magnitude are equal accordingly to: D g (0), D Wzz (0).
Registrating horizontal otonic graviimpulses ( D Wxx >> D Wzz), by
use of (5.1.5.) - (5.1.6.), the oton mass can be determined through
D Wxx (0) - maximal value of gravitational potential horizontal
derivative. It is possible to determine the oton mass through
expressions which do not contain time explicitely. For this
simultaneous measurements of various gravitational potential
derivatives are necessary, and from (5.1.1.) - (5.1.4.) we have for
At D Wxx << D Wzz
Because of modern variometers do not register directly the value of
the gravitational force vertical gradient (Wxx), for its
determination it is necessary to use two synchronously working
gravimeters, carried on height h = D Z. In this case D Wzz = [ D
g(2) - D g(1)] h-1.
But having two series of synchronously
determined values of the otonic graviimpulse first gravitational
potential vertical derivative [ D g(1), D g(2)] it is possible to
determine the oton mass directly through them:
Registrating simultaneously the gravitational potential second
horizontal derivative [ D Wxx (1), D Wxx (2)] by variometers, being
at the distance l from each other, the value of the oton mass will
be determined through the expression:
Knowing the parameters of gravitational potential derivative’s
variations it is possible to determine through expressions (5.2.1) -
(5.2.7) the mass of the oton, which has caused this variation, i.e.,
it is possible not only to fix the very fact of the black hole
gravimetric registration, but to determine the order of its mass
5.3. Registration of the gravitational
potential second derivative minute variations with a variometer
Gravitational potential derivatives
minute variations predicted within the framework of the
intraterrestrial black holes concept [Òð11], [Tr04] were found out
by the author in the experiments have been carried out [Òð13,4],
As it was already noted, the registration of gravitational
potential derivatives minute variations - otonic graviimpulses - ÎGI
(see 5.1.) means the discovering of intraterrestrial black holes.
The experiment on registration of the gravitational potential second
derivative short-term variations have been carried out by the author
with the variometre Å-60 in the Obninsk geophysical observatory (the
Institute of physics of the Earth, the Academy of Sciences of the
USSR) in June, 1991.
Before proceeding to the discussion of
experimental results, let us note that the question on gravitational
potential derivatives short-term (minute) variations neither in the
theoretical aspect, nor with respect of their experimental
registration was not put earlier in gravimetry [Ãð00], [Ãð20,1],
[Ïî00,1]. Therefore it was necessary to carry out a preliminary
experiment on revealing the reaction of Å-60 on short-term
The sensitivity of variometer Å-60 allows to register at close
distances the gravitational mass of the operator: Ì0 (kg) = 7,5
(R0m)3. A gravitational mass of 60 kgs is registered at distances up
to 2 m, 80 kgs -2,2 m, 117 kgs -2,5 m, 200 kgs - 3 m, 1 ton - 5 m.
Thus, the operator, coming to the variometer at distances less than
2 – 2,5 m, causes such changes of the gravitational potential second
derivative, which are registered by the variometer.
circumstance has allowed the author to carry out the experiment on
revealing of variometre Å-60 reactions on short-term gravitational
influences, which results are provided in Table 5.3.1. The
experiment was carried out from 14h 30m (08. 06.1991) to 5h 30m (09.
06. 1991) of the world time.
Two available registerring systems of the variometer (two beams) can
react differently depending on the master mass location:
indications of both systems can simultaneously increase or decrease
2) indications of registerring systems vary in opposite phase (for
one system indications increase, and for another one they decrease
and vice versa)
3) the gravitational mass can be registered by only
one of the systems, but the other one has practically no response.
The time of gravitational influence recording appears several more
times than the time of the gravitational influence itself (Table
5.3.1.). Gravitational influences with a duration of the order of a
second are not already detectable by the device.
Duration (in min) of the master gravitational mass influence, ( D
tGI ), and duration of registration of a gravitational impulse from
the master mass (Ìm 85 kgs) by the Å-60 variometre, ( D tE-60 ).
Several minute variations of the gravitational potential second
derivative were detected from 5h30m UT (09.06.1991) to 5h30m UT
(10.06.1991) in the Obninsk geophysical observatory with the Å-60
variometer, of which three possess enough explicit structure for
their identification with ÎGI:
1) t0 = 08h14m (09.06.1991), D tE-60
= 9 min, D tOGI = 2 min
2) t0 = 15h19m (09.06.1991), D tE ‑60 = 7.4
min, D tOGI = 1 min
3) t0 = 05h00m (10.06.1991), D tE-60 = 12.6
min, D tOGI = 6 min
As it is obvious from aforesaid, the duration of
the gravitational potential second derivative variations registered
coincides in a surprising way with those predicted by the ÎGI theory
[Òð11], [Tr04] (see also Table 5.3.2).
The identification with ÎGI
is also supported by the fact that no gravitational impulses with
duration about an hour or more were discovered, i.e., with a
duration which would clearly contradict the ÎGI theory.
Duration (in s) of variations of the gravitational potential second
derivative tOGI for which the amplitude of otonic gravi-impulse (OGI)
decreases in k time for different values of oton orbit apocentre
coordinates . is approximately equal to for corresponding values of
Different estimations of oton’s masses (see item 5.2. and Tables
5.3.1.– 5.3.2.) give values of the order 1017 g and more, i.e., the
objects which caused minute variations of the gravitational
potential second derivative registered in the experiment are, all of
5.4. Discovering of gravitational force
short-term variations with the gravimeter
For the justification of OGI
registration the realization of experiments on detection of
short-term variations of the gravitational potential first
derivative (GPFD) would be purposeful.
October 29, 1991 the author
performed the experiment on registration of GPFD variations in
Institute of Geology and Fuel Minerals Exploitation (IGFME, Moscow).
Two independent gravimeters by the type of Scintrex CG-3 (Autograv -
Automatic Gravity Meter) were used in the experiment. These two
independent gravimeters were located in the same cellar room. Values
of GPFD were registered every minute. Three synchronous GPFD
variations were detected by two gravimeters, and they have rather
significant amplitudes and a number of GPFD with small amplitudes
It is hard to explain these GPFD variations by apparatus errors,
since gravitational impulses were registered synchronously by two
independent gravimeters. Because of these devices location in the
same room it is possible to try to explain these sharp synchronous
variations of gravimeter’s indications by local technogeneous souses
of the mechanical, electrical, etc. nature.
To eliminate such local
influences upon experimental results, it is necessary to separate
gravimeters enough far apart.
There are also a number of GPFD variations with small amplitudes (of
the order of 0,05 mGal) which are correlated with one another (Fig.
5.4.1). These correlations (for example, “a" and "b"), likely, are
not casual, and GPFD variations have the general gravitational
The parameters of GPFD variations which were registered by
the two gravimeters synchronously correspond to the theory of otonic
5.5. Project to synchronous registration of
short-term variations of the gravitational potential first and
The long-term investigative purpose is
the registration of terrestrial small black holes which have
different masses and areas of localization in the Earth.
Experiments on registration of gravitational potential derivative’s
variations performed have following lacks: the limitedness of the
time of gravimetric data recording, the insufficient degree of
temporary resolution, too close arrangement of gravimetric recording
systems one to another, the absence of seismic control.
The next experiment is planned to carry out by using at least three
independent recording systems: two systems of the Å-60 variometer
and the gravimeter registering tides.
The seismic control of the
experiment will be provided. The temporary resolution of
gravitational signals is expected to be of the order 1s, the
duration of registration - 106s. For increasing the cleanliness of
the experiment and controlling other geophysical fields is planned
making use the magnitometer, the slopmeter, the sensor of air
Let us note that gravitational potential derivative’s variations in
the range of small amplitudes caused by distant otons put a limit on
the accuracy of gravimetric measurements and on the determination of
the gravitational constant. In other words, the gravitational field
of the Earth constantly "trembles", and otonic variations of the
gravitational field create the incurable "gravitational noise".
By due to synchronous registration of the gravitational potential
first and second derivatives it is possible to increase in this
experiment the accuracy of mass spectrum determination in two
The even more radical project of terrestrial oton’s
registration should use the influence of terrestrial otons on the
technosphere, in particular, on cities.
5.6. Cities as technogeneous indicators of
terrestrial black holes
The alternative approach to registration
of terrestrial SBH consists in establishing of a gravimetric
equipment in cities, instead of far from them.
This is because black
holes appearing near to the earthly surface can influence
considerably upon the nearest objects, but in the distant deserted
areas are there no witnesses of black holes manifestations. The
situation is radically different in cities.
The density of population in cities in one thousand times more than
the average density of population of the Earth, and it means that
only one thousandth of the earthly surface has observers of
short-term otonic manifestations. In other words, there are more
than one thousand unobservable black holes per an observable one. In
a city the black hole can be observed in thousands times more often,
than in any region of the earthly surface.
This is not yet all. If the tree, pulled out by a black hole, will
hardly pay the special attention of the people, the destruction of a
multi-storey building (the probability of hit in it is proportional
to the cube of the linear size) cannot remain unnoticed in a city.
Besides of direct witnesses of such events both inhabitants of a
city and of a planet can learn about it through the mass media. If
gravimeters and variometers have registered OGI synchronously, the
gravitational nature of the building destruction would find the
scientific motivation. So, all the technogeneous environment and
building of a city can be independent certificates of black hole’s
But of the most interesting is that gravitational potential
variations are so considerable, that inversions of the gravitational
force frequently occur.
Short-term local inversions of the
gravitational force were already observed repeatedly and there are
numerous evidences of similar phenomena, though till now there was
no adequate interpretation of these facts.
5.7. Empirical evidences of short-term local
inversions of the gravitational force
It is possible to detect gravitational
potential derivative’s variations by the direct observation of
short-term local inversions of the gravitational force, which have
the pulsed nature (see item 5.1.).
It is a kind of gravitational
pushes directed opposite to the Earth attraction. Further we shall
note some phenomena, which testify the noticeable value of otonic
The tornadoes manifest themselves as antigravitational whirlwinds
which working contrary to the force of gravitation lift upwards
various things, animals and people [Õå00], [Êà10].
The fall of
various objects from the sky (pieces of ice, dead people, stones,
metallic things and others) [ÕÕ00] and strange "rains" [Ëà10]
consisting of fishes, frogs, grains, coins, etc. tell us that these
things were in due course lifted highly in the sky notwithstanding
to the force of gravitation of the Earth. The only small part of
such phenomena is accessible to observations.
There are numerous manifestations of gravitational force inversions
at gravi-tectonic building destructions up to evidences about that
buildings rose and hanged momentarily in the air [Áà10]. The
brightest phenomenon of such kinds was the event in the town Sasovo
of the Ryazan region which has occurred in April 12, 1991 . In the
result of the Sasovo event the funnel by a diameter of 28 meters and
depth up to 4 meters was formed, and the large part of the ground
has disappeared from this place without leaving any traces [×å20].
From words of eyewitnesses, at the Spitak earthquake the whole
layers of ground, houses, people, buses rose upwards. At the Zaysan
earthquake thousands tons of water have risen from the lake [Áà10].
Similar evidences can be continued, but they have common faults: the
low degree of reliability of evidences of people who are in an
extreme situation, and the impossibility of similar phenomena
reproduction. In this respect experiments on the gravimetric
equipment favorably differ. Therefore the complex experiment in the
megapolicies could connect advantages of these two approaches.
To increase the reliability of oton’s registration there would be
useful other properties of terrestrial black holes. In this respect
the quantum radiation of micro-black holes is of importance, which
will be a subject of the following chapter.
Back to Contents
6 - Some
issues on terrestrial black hole radiation
6.1. Laws of black hole physics and the
problem "of thermal death" of the Universe
In investigating black holes their laws
were found out to be similar to the principles of thermodynamics.
Let us make a small deviation, having looked into the most
interesting problem "of thermal death" of the Universe, which is
connected with the principles of thermodynamics.
Black holes have one property essentially distinguishing them from
classical astrophysical objects: they only absorb radiation and
substance. This property of black holes has found a reflection in
the so called Hawking theorem, who has proved the area of black
holes not to decrease in any classical interactions of them with
each other and with the environment.
Due to S.Hawking, J.Beckenstein and other scientists works the laws
of black hole physics were formulated, coinciding by the form of
mathematical record with the laws of thermodynamics [Be10],
[Ha01,3], [Õî01,2,3], [Øÿ00], [Ôð00,1].
Equivalents of thermodynamic quantities, i.e., entropy and
temperature, in black hole physics are accordingly the area of
surface and the superficial gravitation. Decrease of temperature or
increase of entropy of black hole corresponds to increasing of its
mass, i.e., not dispersion, but concentration of matter is connected
with increase of entropy.
Thus, the laws of black hole physics are connected with the
irreversible nature of space substance and radiation concentration.
For the first time in science there were predicted and discovered
objects which can resist to thermodynamic processes of energy
dissipation. In the future stellar objects and space systems must
finish their evolution by black hole formation. In the course of
time the era of domination of processes of dissipation of radiation
and energy must be changed by the era of their concentration.
Mutual transformations of forms of motion and energy in space can be
presented as follows [Òð00,8].
The energy of radiation, dissipated
in initial STM (otonic world) Ì (0, +) (see Fig.1.4.1.) and
concentrating in STM of black holes M (0, i), transforms in kinetic
energy of motion. Collapse of oton matter in the region Ì (0, · -)
turns into anticollapse. A sort of oton matter recoil occurs:
compression is replaced by repulsion. Then the kinetic energy of
matter dissipated by a white hole in regions M (1, -i), M (i, +)
transforms into the gravitational potential energy.
The fragmentation of substance dissipated in another otonic world Ì
(1, +) leads to the transition of potential energy in thermal. This
process, growing, results in formation of star objects, in which
thermal form of motion gives life to nuclear one. Steady space
thermodynamic potentials are created as the result of nuclear
reactions in stars.
That is the possible circulation of forms of motion and energy
leading to the restoration of matter thermodynamic activity. But we
shall return to terrestrial micro-black holes, which emit various
sorts of radiation, in particular, neutrino.
6.2. Neutrino radiation of small black holes
One of small mass oton features is the
Hawking effect. The spectrum of black hole (BH) radiation was first
calculated by Page [Pa01,2], which then was elaborated [×å01].
total power of black hole radiation for various cases can be
expressed by the formula:
PBH = (kg + kn
+ kg + ke + kN) Pc (Mc/MBH)2
kg + kn + kg + ke + kN = 1 (6.2.1.)
where the factors (k) mean parts of black hole radiation power,
corresponding to different types of particles: kg (gravitons), k n
(neutrino), kg (photons), ke (leptons), kN (barions).
For any masses (Mâí < 1010,5 kgs) and large powers of black hole
radiation the outputs of radiation essentially depend on the model
of strong interaction at superhigh energies and on the spectrum of
masses of elementary particles, but this was investigated
Therefore for the spectrum of black hole radiation
there are data only for three cases [Ôð01,1], [Íî14], which are
given in table 6.2.1.
Power and spectrum of radiation of black holes of various masses:
PBH = (kg + kn + kg + ke + kN) Pc (Mc/MBH)2
In connection with principal opportunity of experimental
registration of high energy particle radiation, including neutrino,
from terrestrial BHs we shall provide more exact accounts of
neutrino radiation flow characteristics, according to joint with
V.S.Gurin work [Òð41], [Tr42,3,4].
Let us concentrate the attention
on the radiation from nonrotating BHs, because integral features of
radiation depend a little on the fact of rotation. Besides that, a
rapidly rotating, moreover charged, BH inside dense heavenly bodies
will quickly lost the moment of rotation and the charge because of
interaction with environmental substance.
BH’s mass decrease due to radiation of one kind of particles with
quantum numbers l, m, p occurs under the law
where Ì is the mass of BH in the moment given, w is the energy of
particles (geometrized units G = c = 1 are used ). Taking into
account the dominant contribution from modes with I = s = 1/2 for
and for massive particles with mass of rest m and spin 1/2
The spectrum of radiation dN/dtd w is determined by the subintegral
expression (6.2.2) with the appropriate substitution (6.2.3) or
dN/dtd w = G w lmp /(exp(8 p M w ) + 1) (6.2.5.)
The results of calculations for parameters of BHs, which presumably
could be in the Earth’s interiors are presented below.
The spectrum of massless neutrino radiation for Schwartzschild BH is
almost the symmetric bell-like curve, the position of which maximum
is defined by the mass of BH.
One can see the energy of radiated
particles to depend essentially on this one BH parameter: so, if the
main share of neutrino, radiated by a hole with Ì > 1012 g, is in
the energy range less than 10 MeV, the main contribution from
neutrino with energies more than 1 GeV will be in the case of BH
with Ì < 1012 g, and for BH with Ì < 1010 g neutrino with energies
more than 1 TeV are radiated.
This is of importance for analyzing
the problem of registration of neutrino, which appear at the quantum
evaporation of micro-BH, since in difference from BH of solar
masses, when energy does not exceed 15 MeV, in the case of BH of
specified range of masses considerably (in 3-4 orders) more
energetic particles should be expected, which can be easier
registered because of a greater section of absorption in substance
The position of maximum in the spectrum defines a rang of neutrino
energies, which should be expected from corresponding BH, and it can
be determined from the transcendental equation ln (x - 2) = -õ,
where x = 8 p M w max , that gives (in geometrized units):
The complete flow of energy radiated due to process considered as
neutrino (or flow of particles) in the whole spectrum or in some
spectral interval is obtained by the integration of expressions for
dN/d w dt , and it grows strongly with decrease of BH mass.
If one admits the existence of neutrino mass of rest, which is quite
probable according the modern data: m( n e ) < 17 eV; m( n m ) <
0,27 MeV; m( n t ) < 35 MeV, it is interesting to analyze features
of radiation of these particles due to the Hawking effect, i.e., of
particles with the same quantum numbers, but having unzero mass of
rest in the formula (6.2.3.).
For neutrino of the fourth generation, for which the estimation of
mass is considerably more: m( n 4 ) ~ 45 GeV, the spectrum of
radiation can essentially change, but then the emission of n 4 will
run together with other heavy particles of spin 1/2: protons,
neutrons, muons, etc.
All the considerably smaller masses for n e
and n m in a case of MBH less than 1014-1015 g do not practically
change the spectrum and the total flow of radiated neutrino. In
general, the spectrum feature is similar to that for massless
particles, and values for complete flow and position of the maximum
of spectrum dN/d w dt differ unessentially.
The shape of spectra dM
= d w dt is similar to that for the number of particles, and its
integration gives the rate of BH mass loss, dM/dt, which is turned
out to be inverse proportional to Ì2.
For deciding question on the registration of neutrino flow from BH,
presumably located inside planets, we shall consider estimations for
sections of neutrino absorption, for example, n e , due to
interactions with electrons in the nondegenerated electron gas
(interactions with nuclons have smaller sections), which can take
place at its detecting.
The value of the section in strong degrees
depends on energetics and it is defined according to the following
where m is the mass of electron.
It can be noted that in both cases the detecting of particles with
higher energy, which share is great for BH of a smaller mass, is
more probable. Unlike the case of solar neutrino terrestrial BH can
radiate neutrino with energies more than 103 MeV, which raises the
section of absorption in 2-3 orders.
Hence, placing the detector of
neutrino at the close distance from the presumable BH localization
place (its exit on the surface), detectors of already existing
designs should detect the sharp excess of the flow of particles in
comparison with background and solar ones, and the directivity of
this high flow will indicate the possible localization of its
source, i.e., BH.
One of such presumable places on the Earth is acting volcanoes
[Tr01,5]. However neutrino detectors existing are located regardless
to geological activity, therefore abnormal high flows from localized
sources could not be detected, since they rapidly decrease when
removing from a source.
The formulas above reflect the contribution to radiation from one
sort of particles with spin 1/2, but actually BH will radiate other
particles too [Pa01,2], [Ol00], [Ma00,1]. To calculate the radiation
of three generation neutrino and antineutrino in the case of their
masslessness calculated values of a flow should be multiplied by 6.
If neutrinoes have unzero mass of rest, the contribution of each
type will differ a little, and in view of the problem of
registration each type of neutrino must be considered separately.
Since the fourth possible type of neutrino, if it exists, has much
more greater mass of rest than others ( ³ 45 GeV), its contribution
to BH radiation will will reveal itself already after nuclons and
hyperons for BH with Ì << 1010 g.
Black holes should radiate
practically all particles down to Plankian ones, that is itself of
great scientific importance.
6.3. Explosions of micro-black holes -
Plankian particles - Theories of the Great Unification
Explosions of black holes, most likely,
occur in the central region of the Earth, which is a kind of a
storehouse of pre-explosive and explosive black holes.
region of the terrestrial nucleus is chosen for gravitational
objects. This is the region of the most ancient part of the
gravitational potential "hole", in which there should be located the
most ancient and short-living black holes. This have given a ground
for the project of registration of Plankian particles, which are the
test for verifying theories of the Great Unification.
In an approach, developed in the monograph, SBH are considered as
"germs" (centers of usual substance condensation) of space bodies,
which means that SBH are not seized by space bodies, but are
originally in them.
Three conclusions of especial importance follow
from this approach.
First, restrictions on number of SBH, connected
with the Hawking radiation, are automatically removed (the Hawking
radiation is thermolized in a substance).
Secondly, the newest
cosmological scenario, in particular, the inflationary cosmology
opens new opportunities in solving the problem of SBH formation.
Thirdly, SBH in composition of planetesimals and asteroids can be
seized by a gravitational field of the Earth.
Previous researches on the registration of black hole explosions
carried out in the other direction. First, black holes were looked
for not in depths of the Earth, but in depths of Space. Secondly,
they were tried to detect not by neutrino radiation, but by
For detecting neutrino bursts it is possible to
use any available neutrino detectors, because all of them are almost
equally distanced from the region of black hole location. It is
desirable only to lower in one order the value of neutrino energy
registered. In available deep-water neutrino detectors this value is
equal to 50-100 GeV, and to detect a black hole surely for few years
before its explosion it is necessary to register neutrino with the
energy of the order of 10 GeV.
The pre-explosive black hole with MBH » 109 kg radiates during few
years neutrino with the energy of the order of 10 GeV, the flow of
which at the surface of the Earth is jÅ » 109 m-2s-1. The energy
and the neutrino flow will grow with time. Last days before the
explosion the black hole will radiate neutrino with energy 100 GeV
and jÅ » 1010 m-2s-1.
The energy and the neutrino flow will begin to
grow sharply and last minutes the black hole will radiate neutrino
with energy up to 10 TeV, and the flow will be j Å » 1012m-2s-1. The
explosion of the black hole is finished by that that in shares of a
second the burst of neutrino with the energy more than 100 TeV
[Òð11], [Tr05] happens.
Even if there are many pre-explosive black holes, they must explode
This is because that with time the difference in masses of
black holes influences more strongly upon the processes of their
evaporation. For black hole exploding simultaneously, their masses
must be equal with high degree of accuracy: so, for black holes with
masses of the order of 1011 kg the distinction in the value of
masses should not be more than one three-millionth. Thus, black
holes come to their finish (explosion) alone and the neutrino
radiation from them should start to stand out sharply from the
neutrino background formed by pre-explosive black holes.
The research project must develop a practically feasible experiment
on registration of terrestrial MBH explosions. First, it concerns
the neutrino experiment, since preliminary theoretical developments
concerning neutrino radiation bursts from MBH explosions already
exist. Secondly, it is possible to put a question on the
registration of massive particles (leptons and adrons).
because that in MBH exploding even at the centre of the Earth it is
necessary to expect the increased flow of particles with superhigh
energy, since the length of run of ultrarelativistic particles being
born turns out to be comparable with the size of the terrestrial
radius. The third, the superhard gravitational radiation from
exploding MBH requires the analysis of opportunity of its
At last, in the MBH exploding there should be seismic
The first task of the project is the determination of neutrino flow
through the terrestrial surface and the number of absorption acts
near the terrestrial surface from MBH exploding in the centre of the
Earth. Then it is necessary to compare these features with the
parameters of the available equipment in the registration of
superhigh energy neutrino in Dumand and Baykal projects, and with
those of other equipment in the registration of superhigh energy
The problem of registration of neutrino flow with
quickly varying spectrum requires the analysis: for fractions of a
second the value of neutrino energy, from exploding MBH can vary
through order. The careful analysis of already available
experimental data on registrations of superhigh energy particles
will be required both for the reason of revealing neutrino bursts
being looked for, and determining possible restrictions on the MBH
A possibility of massive particle (leptons and adrons) registration
is of especial interest, since they are born in enormous number in
MBH exploding. This is because the length of run of
ultrarelativistic particles being born in the explosion becomes
comparable with the radius of the Earth, i.e., the possibility of
their registration near the terrestrial surface is opened.
the registration of neutrino radiation from MBH and the
determination of neutrino energy can give the value of the MBH mass.
It means, that the time of MBH explosion, i.e., the time of arrival
of ultrarelativistic particles at the surface of the Earth, which
have superhigh energies down to Plankian values, can be predicted.
The previous increase of neutrino energy can be a "sign" of the MBH
explosion to come.
Thus, the registration of MBH explosions can open the way of solving
the not less important task, i.e., the experimental verification of
the united physical theory of all fundamental interactions.
Possibilities of technical perfection of colliders for reaching sub-Plankian
energies are limited, and the question on natural sources of sub-Plankian
energy particles gets up inevitably. Nowadays small black holes are
while single objects known in science, which can produce sub-Plankian
energy particles. Terrestrial MBH can serve as important elements of
a sort of "laboratory" for verifying theories of the Grand
Unification or supergravity.
Small as the probability of MBH explosions in the Earth is, the
problem of their registration deserves the most careful research,
since it is only the way to know anything about maximum large energy
physics from the experiment.
Moreover, there are geophysical
certificates of black hole evaporation and explosions, some of which
will be pointed out in short in the following section.
6.4. Relativistic geological petroleum
exploring and thermonuclear reactions in the terrestrial interiors
The existence of otons in the Earth must
lead to geological consequences.
This is because terrestrial surface
regions, close to which black holes are located, should be peculiar
in the geological attitude, since oton influences can be accumulated
for a long time [Òð11].
Any deposits of useful natural resources mean the certain degree of
localization, which can be probably explained by some oton
influences. In geology the correlation of the ancient volcanism with
any deposits of useful natural resources was noted long ago. Since
the volcanism can be connected with the action of otons, and the
localization of otonic singularities in the Earth is ordered in
certain way, it is possible to predict the localization of deposits
at the surface of the Earth.
The Earth, in some sense, is the chemical anomaly, since its
structure extremely differs from the average chemical structure of
space substance, in which hydrogen and helium dominate.
explained by that that easy gases (hydrogen and helium) during the
evolution have been evaporated from the substance of the Earth. Howerver abnormal amounts of an easy isotope of helium-3 detected in
the terrestrial interiors collides with the hypothesis about the
evaporation of helium, since helium-3 can be formed only in result
of thermonuclear reactions.
To avoid this contradiction it is necessary to assume the
terrestrial origin of helium-3 as a result of thermonuclear
reactions. It will help to eliminate difficulties connected with the
formation of some heavy elements [Òð16]. Therefore, it is not
excluded, that in magmatic chambers of volcanoes the element
formation occurs, on which the correlation of 3Íå anomalies with
The decay of fermi-otons can lead to the formation of transuranium
element deposits. The evaporation and explosions of black holes can
reveal the mystery of kimberlite pipes, with which the deposits of
diamonds are connected [Òð16].
Otons with appropriate parameters can be sources of energy for the
formation of chemical compounds, gaseous and liquid energy carriers
(hydrocarbons). Revealing the spatial arrangement of otons in the
Earth, relativistic (otonic) geology can predict the localization of
huge deposits of petroleum and gas in non-traditional geological
regions [Òð15]. In any theory of the hydrocarbon origin (organic or
inorganic) the source of energy for their formation is required.
Such sources can be otons.
The appearance of otons in the deposit of hydrocarbons should be
accompanied by variations of gravitational and electromagnetic
fields, that brings essentially new elements in geophysical
Otons can be detected by these especial variations of
physical fields. Moreover, the detection of huge deposits of
petroleum and gas near converting complexes or megapolicies becomes
possible [Òð15]. This will give not only the vast incomes due to the
sharp reduction of transport expenses, but also will lead to the
reduction of ecological catastrophe danger.
Black hole evaporations and explosions transform matter from its
superdense state in usual one, that leads to the grandiose expansion
of volume occupied by substance. Since in MBH evaporating (or their
colliding) the significant part of energy is carried away in space
in the form of radiation - (gravitational, neutrino and others),
which weakly interacts with terrestrial substance, it can result in
the reduction of the total mass of the Earth. All these properties
of terrestrial otons can be involved to explain the mechanism of
expansion of the Earth, the idea of which is introduced in one of
the theories of geodynamics [Êý00].
According to this geodynamic idea for 200 millions years the Earth
should expand on 20 % from its initial volume.
Such the expansion
can provide the transition of substance from the otonic, superdense
state in usual one, which runs with the rate 108 kgs/sec. For
providing the such speed of substance receipt from otons, hundred
millions evaporating black holes with Ìî = 109 kgs must be in the
Earth simultaneously [Tr05].
Certainly, the mass spectrum of black
holes providing the arrival of usual substance in the Earth from otons can be the most different, as well as black hole
manifestations near the terrestrial surface can be so different.
Back to Contents
7 - Oton
manifestations near the terrestrial surface
7.1. Condition of the terrestrial oton
How long does it take a black hole to
manifest itself in an arbitrary place on the Earth?
We shall regard
the region to be a sphere of the black hole manifestation, in which
the gravitational force of the black hole is equal to that of the
Earth or exceeds it (WBH ³ g). Further, we shall regard the total
mass of N black holes (for simplicity let us assume their masses to
be equal) to be a kth part of the mass of the Earth, and that VBH =
Having accepted these conditions and equated the volume of the
Earth to that covered by the moving black hole during the time tBH,
we find the time, during which the black hole will manifest itself
in any arbitrary point of the Earth:
tBH = (2/3) × k-1N × RÅ × VBH-1 (7.1.1.)
If one takes account of influences from all N black holes and takes
the upper limit on the total mass of otons, the expression (7.1.1)
accepts the form:
tBH = (2/3) × RÅ × VBH-1 (7.1.2.)
It is easy to see from (7.1.2.), that each ten minutes the arbitrary
region appears in the sphere of black hole influence.
sight, it likely speaks about the insignificant number of black
holes in the Earth, since the so often influence of black holes,
apparently, contradicts our empirical experience. But nevertheless
even so often black hole influences are quite possible, because they
are rather short-term (for a black hole with the mass MBH = 1015 g
the time is about one ten thousands of a second) and negligible in
Only few black holes, degenerated orbits of which touch the
terrestrial surface in apocentre, have sufficiently low velocities
for being able to make significant influences upon the nearest to
their trajectory objects.
Only one thousandth of these
manifestations has a chance of their being observable. Nevertheless,
there are numerous phenomena, which tell about possible black hole
manifestations, since extremely unusual otonic manifestations have
sometimes a grandiose character.
One of such phenomena is the Tungus
7.2. The Tungus phenomenon
The first (and for a long time single)
attempt to explain terrestrial phenomena by the model of black holes
has been undertaken in 1973 by the American scientists Jackson and
Ryan [Ja00], who have put a question: whether
the Tungus accident
was caused by a black hole?
Within the idea of extraplanetary origin
of single "naked" black holes the authors have considered an
episodic black hole manifestation, by means of which they tried to
explain the Tungus phenomenon.
The black hole not leaving neither a crater, nor remnants of
meteorite substance, this explains the basic feature of the Tungus
phenomenon: the absence of asteroid remnants. The extraterrestrial
origin of a black hole, high velocity, small energy losses in its
passing through the Earth - all this leads to that, that the
trajectory of a black hole should be very close to the direct line.
This implies a prediction of black hole exiting in the antipodal
region of the Earth and its similar manifestations in this region. A
region with coordinates 40°-50° N, 30°-40° W is in northern Atlantic.
The point of black hole exiting enables to verify the hypothesis as
a whole. In this point the other air shock wave, the undersea shock
wave and the disturbance of sea surface must be observed.
But the similar phenomenon compared by the power with the Tungus
event was not detected. Such explanation of the Tungus accident has
caused a doubt [Be00].
Intraterrestrial black holes do not require
similar antipodal manifestations and quite can be used for
explaining not only the Tungus phenomenon, but also many others, in
7.3. Tornadoes as antigravitational
To geophysical effects produced by otons
it is possible to refer the phenomena of the kind of a whirlwind (or
a tornado), which physical nature till now remains the riddle
[Êà10], [Êî00], [Õå00].
The destructive force of a tornado was improbable great for objects
having low sailness. Here are only few examples of tornado action.
Notwithstanding terrestrial attraction and absence of any
significant sailness of stones with the mass more than 100 kg were
carried away at hundred meters. A tornado raised and threw various
houses and even the large iron bridge.
The Catholic church was
raised from the ground and transferred at 4 meters. The transporting
and elevating force of tornadoes evidently resists to gravitational
one: rises and transferences of roofs, large trees, logs, stones,
people and animals were observed repeatedly in different terrains.
The behavior of tornadoes corresponds to the feature of small black
hole motion near the terrestrial surface [Òð09]. As judged by width
of a tornado crater, otons with masses more than 1020 g should
correspond to that. If the velocity of a black hole motion relative
to the terrestrial surface is minimal, their action turns out to be
maximal: gravitational whirlwinds have the time for their
developing, and transferences of objects and so on turn out to be
Occurring unexpectedly near to the terrestrial surface and moving in
the direction of the Earth rotation approximately with the same
velocity, small black holes for a short time, as though, hang over
the ground. The orbit of a black hole temporarily becomes
The appearance of a tornado is preceded by the rare combination of
atmospheric conditions, especial parameters of fermi-otonic system
as a force nucleus, the vector of grassiphoton velocity and the
plane of the system orbit rotation.
Various combinations of conditions above provide not only the
diversity of tornadoes' forms, but also other phenomena. If masses
are small or velocities are large, otons are able not to result in
tornado formation under the most favorable for this phenomenon
atmospheric conditions, but they can make significant influences
upon firm bodies near of the oton trajectory.
Gravi -impulsive destructions of buildings in cities are
characteristic in this respect.
7.4. Gravi-impulsive destructions of
In cities the black hole has in one
thousand times more chances to be noticed, than in an arbitrary part
of the terrestrial surface.
The destruction of multi-storey building
in city by black hole can not remain unnoticed. The probability of
hit in a building is proportional to cube of the linear size, and
hence, skyscrapers (for example, the Trading Centre in New York, the
federal building in Oklahoma-city) are rather good targets for black
holes. Besides of direct witnesses of similar events, both
inhabitants of city, and inhabitants of the planet through mass
media can learn about it.
In cities of the whole world destructions of buildings happen
constantly, and a lot of such events are caused by local
gravitational blowes. Only in Moscow annually there occur 10-15
local, gravitational "earthquakes", some of which have rather
unusual nature and lead to destruction of houses. Let us mention
only one distinctive case, about which mass media informed [Áà10].
December 25, 1967, about 21 hours and 30 minutes, in Moscow under
the house ¹ 77 in Osipenko Street two powerful gravi-pushes have
happened one after other, which have destroyed a five-story
building. About 200 persons have perished according to some data.
Eyewitnesses certify, that some blocks of the house have thrown out
on neighbor streets together with tenants, the people hangs on
trees, the house has risen in air, has hang on an instant, and only
then has destroyed.
Some witnesses tell, that during the incident
they have been lifted to the ceiling.
In the case given the inversion of the gravitational force caused by
the short-term appearance of a black hole is obvious. However, it is
necessary to note again, that the action of gravitation from a black
hole has impulsive nature, and bodies feel not a constant
acceleration, but specific gravitational pushes (see Section 5.1.).
And here is, if gravimeters and variometers have synchronously
registered OGI, the gravitational nature of building destruction
would find the fundamental experimental substantiation. Thus, all
the technogeneous environment and city’s building can be independent
certificates of black hole manifestations .
Explosions of volcanoes and earthquakes are not attributed until to
criminals (the whole humankind has not the necessary amount of
energy), but one try to attribute accidents of smaller scales to
technogeneous or human factors.
In destroying buildings by gravi-impulses there are numerous
certificates of gravitational force inversions down to those that
buildings rose and hung on an instant in air. But the event in the
town Sasovo of Ryazan region was one more bright phenomenon of such
7.5. Geophysical explosion in Sasovo
The strange "explosion", which has
happened near the town Sasovo of Ryazan region [×å20], [ÕÕ01],
April, 12, 1991, 1h34m, is of interest. In establishments, houses,
schools, hospitals, at many enterprises frames have flown, glasses
have dislodged, doors were deformed by the explosion.
A large crater
(28 meters in the diameter and 4 meters in the depth) remained in
the place of event. The crater is surprisingly round with large (3
meters in the diameter) hillock in the middle.
One of the first versions was the explosion of saltpeter, which in
amount over thirty tons was on the place of event. However, for
exploding saltpeter, which by its power is equal to explosion of 25
tons of TNT, an intermediate detonator of huge power is necessary.
Nevertheless, neither traces of explosion, nor traces of saltpeter
itself at the place of Sasovo explosion has not appeared. Other
versions, i.e., the explosion of "vacuum" bomb, the fall of
meteorite and others, also do not hold critique.
Probably, the only physical model, which is able nowadays to explain
a variety of unusual physical phenomena observed in Sasovo, is the
flight of a small black hole with the mass about thousand billions
tons from beneath the Earth. The majority of Sasovo phenomenon
riddles can be explained by the features of gravitational field of a
black hole, which has flown near Sasovo.
So, a black hole flying from beneath the terrestrial surface in the
beginning strengthens locally the gravitational field of the Earth,
but then, attracting to itself the substance, it counteracts to
A black hole force of attraction can be locally
in many orders more than the terrestrial one. Moving upwards, the
black hole seizes and carries away environmental substance. The
crater symmetry is explained by the radial nature of gravitation. A
hillock in the middle is a place of exiting of an oton, which pulls
out behind itself substance from the terrestrial interiors.
hole force of attraction, smoothly varying with distance, gradually
stops its influence on pulled out pieces of ground, and they
fluently land on a surface. Here a kind of antigravitation acts
locally in the beginning (which exceeds the force of gravitation
from a black hole), but then the black hole force of gravitation
smoothly weakens, and the Earth’s gravitation begins to dominate.
short-term local turn of gravitational force explains the people
ejection from beds at a moment of event. At the centre of black hole
passage the force of gravitation was so great, that about two
thousands tons of substance were carried away.
A relative rarity of events like Sasovo’s event, probably, speaks
about a lunar-terrestrial nature of oton orbit.
A possible presence
of considerable number of otons (flows, swarms of black holes),
having similar trajectories, explains the especial feature of the
Moon’s influence on a person: there is an increased density of otons
in this direction.
7.6. Gravitational catastrophes of
The probability of black hole influence
on subjects is proportional to cube of their linear sizes. Ships and
planes in this sense are relatively nonbad targets.
direct hit is unnecessary: it is enough for a plane to appear even
for a second in a zone of the black hole gravitational force
supremacy, and it will be underbid by an otonic graviimpulse (see
Section 5.1.). An OGI (otonic gravitational impulse) vector can form
any angle with a vector of plane velocity.
Therefore, the OGI
influence can be different: the plane can be thrown downwards, on
the ground, or it can be thrown high upwards, its velocity can vary
through inverse or increase considerably. More weak gravi-pushes,
not resulting in catastrophic consequences, must be more frequent
and ordinary events (for example, the effect of "air pillows" kind).
In a case of strange aircraft catastrophes (À-310 in Mezhdurechensk,
Tu-154 in Khabarovsk edge, IL-76 on Kamchatka, the aircraft
accident, which has resulted in perishing Ju. Gagarin, the first
cosmonaut of the Earth) and disappearances of planes [Êó10]
terrestrial black holes can be regarded as the possible cause of
these tragic events.
Now we shall stop on such like a clear phenomenon, as a collision.
For clashing casually the plane with another one, they are necessary
to fly simultaneously and continuously during hundred millions
years. If one takes into account all the planes, being in air
simultaneously, the time before the collision will decrease in few
orders, but all the same it will remain large enough.
The time of a plane presence in an air corridor near the airport is
in few orders less than the total time of flight, therefore its
account should not change the situation fundamentally. For clashing
planes, the sniper art and the desire of a team at least of one of
the planes are necessary. However, if a force centre (black hole)
happened between planes, the planes will go on rapprochement in a
direction of common for them attractive centre, i.e., black hole,
despite probabilistic estimations and the will of pilots.
If OGI is
sufficiently large, the clash is inevitable. Having appeared between
planes at the distance of hundred meters, the black hole with sizes
of an atom for fractions of a second can lead to a catastrophic
clash of planes. There is a number of such events in aircraft.
We shall cite only one recent instance: the clash of two planes in
75 kilometers from Delhi on November 12, 1996. This accident is one
of the largest in the whole history of aircraft: Saudi "Boeing-747"
and Kazakhstan Il-76 have clashed in air [Îð00], [Ñå00], [Áå00].
The brief chronicle of the incident is such. Fifteen minutes have
passed from the moment of start. "Boeing-747" has taken height
quickly and has headed for southwest.
In this moment Il-76, which
went on landing, has appeared unexpectedly so close to "Boeing"
(though a difference of heights of air corridors was more than 250
meters), that it was already impossible to prevent accident. The
clash has happened about 19 o’clock of the local time on height of
about five kilometers. According to words of eyewitnesses, the
strong explosion occurred in evening sky, and two planes, instantly
having turned in fiery balls, have fallen on the ground at the
distance of few kilometers from each other.
Several versions of reasons of this tragic event were put forward.
All these reasons and a circuit of casual mistakes in the aggregate
could only decline planes from a route.
But a sniper’s hitting of
one plane in another due to mistake is just already incredible. It
is obvious only that for incomprehensible reasons the planes have
appeared not just in one air corridor, but in the same point and in
the same time, which is extremely improbable. It is obvious for
everybody, who is familiar with difficulties of deciding the task of
"meeting" in anti-aircraft artillery.
However, it is clear even from
a common experience, as far as difficult is hitting the target,
especially, if it is object, moving with large velocity.
For example, the clash of the cargo ship "Progress" with the orbital
complex "Mir" on June 25, 1997 is but comprehensible: a link-up of
the cargo ship means a rapprochement with the orbital complex.
Though, it is not everything obvious here: such has not been during
11 years of existence of the orbital complex, that the cargo ship
has lost control and clashed with the station.
However, crews of
planes, naturally, had no desire to make the such "link-up", and it
is incomprehensible at all, why it nevertheless has occurred against
the will of two crews.
The situation varies cardinally in a case of presence of one
attraction centre between planes, i.e., a black hole. According to
the law of universal gravitation, planes must inevitably tend
towards one attraction centre, and, hence, towards one another. Even
a short-term (tenth parts of a second) presence of a black hole with
a size about atomic between planes, which are in nearby air
corridors, will result in their inevitable clash. Some bodies of
perished and splinters of planes could be carried away by a black
hole far from a place of accident.
For clashing a cargo ship with the station "Mir" (a distance between
them is much smaller) thousandth part of a second is sufficient. In
certain conditions terrestrial black holes can influence trajectory
of car motion, leading, in particular, to accidents of cars.
cannot exclude, that the fatal for princess Diana declination of the
car Mercedes-Benz from its trajectory of motion at night from the
30th to 31st of August 1997 was caused by power effect of a
terrestrial black hole.
Accidents and clashes in water environment
are not less mysterious, than in air.
7.7. Gravitational accidents in the
History and statistics of ship clashes
are much more rich, than those of planes.
So, only last three years
there were three clashes of the largest tankers transporting crude
oil and oil products, [Êí00]. The appearing between ships a common
for them attraction force centre, i.e., a black hole, results in
that clashes of ships nevertheless occur in defiance of the will and
the mind of people, and of insignificant probability.
Let us pay attention to an important circumstance: in cases
considered OGI is short-term and it has no time in air (or in water)
to create a tornado (or crater). But the significant pulse can be
transferred to firm bodies.
A direct clash of a sea vessel with a black hole brings its features
in that, which has occurred. Let us consider only one distinctive
example of recent time: the tanker "Nakhodka" perishing in 1997. In
the night from the 1st to the 2nd of January at 3 o'clock 40 minutes
in the Japanese sea this tanker has broken on two parts [Îñ00],
After a storm wave blow (or after something else) on
body of " Nakhodka" its forward part has been broken off. Many
experts assert categorically, that the vessel of 170 meters length,
and of 20 meters width and setting, cannot be broken even by the
most abrupt wave. It is needed a blow of such power, which is
equivalent to a rock appearance on a way of a vessel.
The conclusion of the Russian sea register of navigation, which is
the supreme arbitrator in a fleet technical estimation states: "It
is possible to assert with a large probability, that the break of
the vessel body has occurred not because of bad technical conditions
of body’s links or lacks of its general durability". The tanker "Nakhodka"
was insured by 700 millions dollars (according to other messages, by
500 millions dollars) in the English insurance company "Tomas
This sum definitely testifies the Russian party to be
interested in the version of external reasons of accident.
However, despite the partiality of participants of the discussion
the question stays the same: why the tanker all the same has been
broken? Various experts are interested in it, including scientists,
which present different reasons of the tanker "Nakhodka" perishing
in the Japanese sea [Ôð20].
According to the opinion of V.Petrenko, the laboratory manager of
Pacific geography institute, "Nakhodka" has become a victim of a
wave-"murderer" [Ôð20]. Statistics gives a number of sea accidents
caused by blowes of waves- "murderers", which break down vessels
asunder. But nature of waves-"murderers" themselves stays unopened.
Terrestrial black holes can both produce local water anomalies
(water poles, tornadoes, whirlpools, "waves-murderer" and others),
and inflict death blow on sea vessels. A gravitational force of
black holes can surpass locally that of the Earth in many orders
(see Section 5.1.) and play a role of a suddenly arisen "rock" on a
way of the tanker "Nakhodka".
The blow from OGI can be directed only
on a local site of a sea vessel, resulting, thus, in its breaking
off. By means of two such events, knowing coordinates and the time,
one can predict further wanderings of “a black hole-murderer" and
prove the natural character of the accident of the tanker "Nakhodka".
But the modern technical civilization has also much larger objects,
which can be subject to destructive influences of black holes.
7.8. Technosphere of the Earth as a
black hole indicator
If local influences of black holes upon
various objects of nature, frequently, can hardly be separated on a
background of other natural factors action, their influence upon
various objects of technosphere cannot stay unnoticed.
overwhelming part of natural objects is outside any permanent
control and supervision by a person. But objects of technosphere are
under continuous supervision by a person and (or) by technical means
of control. So that any technosphere objects deviation from their
normal functioning attracts steadfast attention.
There goes a constant growth, increase of technosphere objects, that
is, all greater number of more large power stations, factories,
plants, processing complexes is put into effect, the number and the
range of water -, gas -, oil-pipelines, etc. grow. Proportionally to
the increased technosphere volume a probability of destructive
influences from terrestrial black holes grows too.
At the same time the conversance of a society has increased sharply
due to developing of electronic mass media and it continues to grow.
Thus, not only the number of technical accidents, but also
conversance about them grow. Terrestrial black holes, manifesting
themselves rather locally and rapidly, could not find out themselves
earlier so obviously, as now, in conditions of the developed
technical civilization with a high level of mass media development.
As it will be taken notice in the following chapter, in the past of
the terrestrial civilization in conditions of mass media absence
adequate information on the largest accident in one of centers of
the terrestrial civilization in the Mediterranean sea was lost.
was the explosion of Santorini volcano, being equal by power to the
explosion of one million nuclear bombs, which have been blown up in
Hiroshima. Consequences of this explosion have resulted in decline
of the civilization of Crete. Now events, which are in many orders
less in a scale, become known practically to the whole humankind.
Therefore only nowadays due to developing mass media more frequent
detections of less significant manifestations of terrestrial black
holes have become possible. Moreover, traces of terrestrial black
holes stay in technosphere, and traces at times rather tragical.
The Tschernobyl tragedy is recalled first.
A number of circumstances of failure on the Tshernobyl APS April 26,
1986 is possible to explain by passage of a black hole through it.
These are: a specificity of the 3-rd block foundation breakup; a
phosphorescence over the APS, having been observed before the
explosion; a formation of local cloud over the Tshernobyl region; an
underground hum before the explosion; some certificates of
gravitational force local inversion and of seismic push.
case a combined influence of a black hole was possible:
gravitational and black hole radiations could initiate the APS
All more enlarging its volume technosphere is subjected all greater
threat from terrestrial black holes. Constant communication is
supported with ships and planes, and their movement is traced.
Therefore, a fact of their disappearance fixation is usual.
Nevertheless, a number of other objects (including objects of
technosphere) can vanish without traces, but traces of black holes
in technosphere in that or another form remain.
Terrestrial black holes can be a cause of the most various accidents
and failures in objects of technosphere (in systems of water supply,
electrosupply, gas supply, warm-supply, water drain, communications,
in various buildings and constructions, in factories, plants, in
various enterprises). Certainly, there is a number of other reasons
of all these phenomena, and, most likely, the otonic factor is not
the first. But the analysis of all these phenomena, whether they
have otonic nature, did not enter into a task of this work. While we
shall take notice here only two important circumstances.
The first. The more and more growing gas- and oil-pipelines by their
spatial volume become comparable with cities. It means that the
probability of black hole hit in them is comparable to that for
cities. Therefore, in designing and operating gas- and oil-pipelines
it is necessary to take into account such a natural factor, as
terrestrial black holes.
The second. Besides unique gravitational manifestations of
terrestrial otons it is necessary to take into account a black hole
radiation (see Section 1.1 and Chapter 6).
As one can see from Table
6.2.1, terrestrial black holes are the source of electrons and
positrons, and it can result in various electrical manifestations.
In a sense they represent a kind of "power stations", which are
possible to serve for the boon of humankind in the future. If otons
are centres of condensation of storm clouds, the passage of a black
hole can initiate lightnings.
The nature of fireballs is possible to
be caused by fermiotons.
Terrestrial black holes are microscopic sources of huge energy, and
a kind of thermal anomalies. In their moving they transfer heat to
an environment. Thus, the warming up can be so considerable, that an
ignition of things occurs. Some fires are possible to be initiated
by passage of such the black holes. There are numerous certificates
of fires in multi-story buildings, when simultaneous ignitions on
several floors have being happened.
The radiative black hole passage
through a building can be a cause of practically simultaneous
ignitions on several floors. But there are cases of else more
amazing fires: it is self-ignitions of people, which will be a
subject of the next Section.
Spontaneous [sp O n'te I n I q s] Human['hju:m q n]Combustion[k q m'b
A s C ( q )n] - SHC[es, e I C ,si:]
sudden death - [ " s A dn'de T ]
7.9. Spontaneous people self-ignitions
energetics and a sudden death
Cases of people self-ignition are known
for a long time [Ãî00], [Êà00], [Ëå20], [ÎÍ00],[Ñà40], [Ëà10],
[ÕÕ00], but antique sources mentioned them in rather mythological
expressions. Till now for official science the phenomenon of people
self-ignition is no more, than a myth.
During centuries messages on the mysterious phenomenon of a person
self-ignition have being appeared. The alive, healthy person all but
instantly transforms to ashes (or coal-like mass), but surround
things and even clothe of burned person turned out to be not touched
Hundred cases of people self-ignition were registered, and rare who
has survived. The majority of victims instantly burned under
influence of a mysterious, super-power flame, and in quite different
conditions: in an armchair, in a bed, in a car, in a forest, in a
street and even on a dance pavilion.
The phenomenon of a person self-ignition seemed incomprehensible,
since in science for a long time there were no theoretical
constructions, capable to explain this phenomenon. The fact is that
a human body is not combustible material: it consists in two thirds
of water. A human body is impossible to ignite, as straw or
The process of spontaneous combustion of a person does not
lead to energy extraction, but on the contrary, it requires it in
vast amounts. As minimum all water should instantly evaporate.
Complete combustion of a human body will need few hours and
temperature more than 1300 K°: such conditions are created specially
in crematorium for burning corpses.
One can imagine, what the vast
amount of energy should instantly appear in a person to transform
him to an alive torch.
Only in XVIIIth century rather detailed descriptions of a phenomenon
of self-ignition begin to appear with detailed reports of physicians
and inspectors [Êà00], [Ëå20]. The skeptical attitude of scientists
to the very fact of a phenomenon reality is comprehensible: rare
events of people self-ignitions occur not in scientific laboratories
at the appointed time, but at an arbitrary time.
Herewith the conditions of the such phenomenon one cannot reproduce.
Not always there are witnesses of such events, and if they are,
certificates of eyewitnesses of the rapid, extreme phenomenon,
naturally, turned out far from ideals of scientific report about a
realization of beforehand planned experiment.
The event of a person self-ignition, which for the first time has
received wide popularity, and was officially registered in press and
judicial documents, has happened in 1725 in the French city
Later the description of this event has got in "the Encyclopaedic
dictionary", issued in Berlin in 1843, and it has become the first
in history a rather authentic certificate of a person self-ignition.
Nowadays there are hundred certificates of these instant tragical
In the majority of cases a part of body (sometimes a half) stays not
touched by fire. Limbs (legs or hands) are often conserved. The
self-combustion results in two types of remnants: a body transforms
either to ashes, or in caked, coal-like mass. The localization of
self-ignition process inside a body is a feature of the phenomenon
An internal, local fire sometimes embraces only human body
and can not touch even clothe or bed, in which a victim sleeps.
During self-ignition process the enormous intensity of a flame
develops, in which a body practically instantly transforms into
ashes, and bones melt. Even in crematorium such is not observed
after many hours. The intensity of the process is so great, that
people have no time to make at all any attempts to take refuge (to
call the help or to run to the water).
Such the intensive process of
combustion of a body requires so great amount of energy, which is
merely absent in a human body in free, untied form. Obviously,
energy required should appear from outside, and the very moment of
its arrival is subjectively perceived as "a thermal explosion from
Since Lebich many experts were engaged in this phenomenon, and there
are different attempts to explain it[Ãî00], [Êà00], [Ëå20],
[ÎÍ00],[Ñà40], [Ëà10], [ÕÕ00], though till now messages about this
phenomenon seemed much doubtful for many scientists.
A reason of low
scientific validity of the messages about a phenomenon of people
self-ignition consists in the very nature of this phenomenon, i.e.,
in its rapidity, locality, unpredictability, unreproducability.
Moreover, remnants of self-ignitions themselves are short-lived and
usually not exposed to any serious scientific examination. From
flabbergasted witnesses of these instant tragedies one cannot expect
any scientifically authentic certificates.
However, within the scientific research carried out there is no
especial necessity for empirical descriptions of the phenomenon
The fact is that in the idea of terrestrial black holes an oton influence upon a person is predicted [Òð00-16]. In particular,
the effect of a person self-ignition is simulated too. Irrespective
of all these descriptions the effect of energetic influence of black
hole radiation upon terrestrial objects has been predicted (from
hardly detectable thermal anomalies and fireballs up to
thermonuclear reactions and grandiose volcanic phenomena [Òð00-16]).
Let us consider a terrestrial micro-black hole, which orbit
apocentre is above the terrestrial surface. Let us first estimate
the value of energy needing for incineration of person (Qm). For
complete combustion it is necessary as a minimum to heat instantly
and evaporate water, the basic component of a human body.
value Qm forms from the value Q D T° , that is from heat needed for
warming water up to the boiling point, and Qo, that is heat needed
for evaporating water.
The order of value is easily determined from
Qm = Q D T ° + Qo = Mm(k D T ° + q), (7.9.1.)
where Mm = 5*104 g. Substituting known coefficients, we obtain the
order of value Qm ~ 1015 erg. From the expression (6.2.1.) and table
(6.2.1.) one can see, that terrestrial black holes can wholly
extract practically instantly in rather local regions the amount of
For black holes in a range of masses 1017 g > Ì > 5*1014 g the
formula for total radiation power has the form:
According to (7.9.2) the value close to Qm = 1015
erg is obtained.
However, it is necessary to take into account the following.
Relativistic electrons and positrons, which share of the radiated
energy is 45%, carry away energy mainly outside, and the
inconsiderable part only can be transferred to a human body.
other particles the power of radiation carried away is distributed
as follows: 1% of energy radiated is carried away by gravitons, 45%
is by neutrinos, which interact with substance weakly like
gravitons, and only 9% of energy radiated is carried away by
photons, but they are superhard g -quanta, which energy only
partially can be absorbed by a human body. In the condition of a
rapid black hole passage (Ì > 1014 g) through a person the otonic
energy extracted during this time ( D t < 10-4 s) can be
insufficient for complete combustion. Therefore, a black hole of
else smaller mass (PBH ~ MBH-2) is necessary.
For masses in a range 1014 g < Ì < 1013,5 g the power of black hole
radiation is estimated by the expression:
The energy ( D ÅBH), which will be extracted in a human body during
the time (t) of instant black hole flight, will be defined by the
expression D ÅBH = PBH · D t.
Let us take notice at once, that though a considerable part of black
hole radiation in the form of neutrinos, gravitons and other
particles with considerable length of free run will again freely
leave in space, but more massive particles, i.e., nucleons (12%),
which more effectively are absorbed by a human body, will appear in
It is enough for an effect of self-ignition, when MBH £ 1014
energy extracted by a black hole in its passing through a person was
absorbed. Thus, micro-black holes explain the energetics of person
Irrespective of a degree of reliability of available
certificates of self-ignition phenomenon, this effect is predicted
within the idea of terrestrial black holes. Like other phenomena
caused by moving terrestrial black holes, a self-ignition differs by
rapidity, locality and difficult predictability.
Let us estimate the order of temperature value in the hearth
epicenter of self-ignition, i.e., in a black hole.
This value is
defined by the expression:
T ° BH = hc3(8 p Gk)-1M-1 ~ 1,2 × 1026K ° (M g)-1. (7.9.4.)
A black hole (MBH £ 1014 g), providing the person combustion, has T°BH ³ 1012 Ê ° , that is over thousand billions degrees. The
instant nature of self-ignitions become comprehensible under such
grandiose gradient of temperatures. The otonic model of people
self-ignition explains other riddles of this phenomenon too.
The instant flight ( D t < 10-4 s) of a black hole (MBH £ 1014 g)
and the injection of energy (Qm ~ 1015 erg) inside human body gives
effect "of internal explosion", "of thermal stroke from inside",
about what there are direct certificates of participants of these
instant tragical events.
This energy, connected with a vast gradient of temperatures, which
are more than billions degrees on a centimeter (in the epicenter of
internal thermal "explosion" T°BH ³ 1012 Ê ° ), results in a
superheat thermal wave, which, being distributed instantly to a body
surface, immediately burns all on its way. Certainly, under such
temperatures the unusual fire arises, which does not give, at times,
even a smoke.
At the same time, energy Qm = 1015 erg suffices only for process of
person combustion, because in this process the energy is absorbed,
instead of its giving away outside. Therefore, often during a
self-ignition process a person (or its part) instantly burns down,
but up to surround things and even up to clothes the superfast
thermal wave, having given away all the energy to human bodies and
fabrics, cannot reach.
In black hole passing in air, which density in few orders is less
than that of human body substance, black hole radiation leads to
much less energy effect. Therefore, around victim of self-ignition,
effects of ignition are either absent, or they are negligible.
A person simply is not capable to react to so fast, rash process of
the internal thermal wave distribution, and, therefore, it is not
amazing, that the complete person helplessness before its
self-ignition is registered practically in all descriptions of this
phenomenon. This picture of the process is correct even if the value
of energy is of the order D ÅBH ~ Qm = 1015 erg.
If D ÅBH << Qm, only a small part of a human body burns, and that
can occur without any external manifestations. The process turns out
to be localized deeply inside a person. Consequences for a person in
a case of such the black hole passage through him ( D ÅBH << Qm) can
Firstly, they can be lethal. If vital organs or fabrics burn away, a
person perishes. A number of sudden deaths of practically healthy
people happens in the world, and that resulted in appearance the
notion of “sudden death" in medicine [Âí00], [Âî30]. Some of them
are possible to be caused by black holes.
The number of deceased per
a year is expressed by the value of the order 5*107, it was equal to
56 millions people in 1975 [Óð00], and 6,2 million of them have died
under not quite realized circumstances. Otons as the cause of sudden
death are the most suitable candidates, since, striking suddenly a
person, they do not leave practically any traces. If this version is
correct, otons are the greatest murderers of all times.
Secondly, they can be pathological. If self-ignitions lead to
pathological, but not lethal changes in internal organs and fabrics,
temporary or constant illnesses can appear (sudden illnesses are
usual phenomena). At last, they can be painless. In a case the
effect from black hole radiation in its flying through a person is
of the same order, as from cosmic, background one, and a person does
not feel something especial.
If D ÅBH >> Qm, a human body burns together with all surroundings.
From outside it looks as a usual fire. Herewith, nobody are
especially surprised by a scorched corpse. Moreover, nobody are
surprised by a case, when during self-ignition the only ashes stays
from a person, which are lost on a background of whole site of fire.
As it was noticed in Section 7.8, there can be fires, when
simultaneous ignitions on several floors of a building happen.
Apparently, the list of different types of fires, which reason can
be black hole radiation, is possible to continue: ignitions of
tankers, ships, planes, automobiles, oil and gas depositories,
warehouses of an ammunition and other combustible objects, wood
fires and others.
Besides of black hole radiation the oton gravitational field itself
can influence directly upon a person.
Moreover, black holes can be
both outside a person, and inside. If a black hole is adown, under
large values of attraction force a person can be simply crushed (a
person cannot sustain even a short-term overload more than 100 g
[Êí10]). There are messages in a seal that not only people, but also
houses fall under ground.
If a black hole is overhand, under certain conditions a person
ascension upwards ("fall in to the sky") is possible. There are
various certificates of "ascensions on heaven", including religious
At last, gravitational (otonic) bullets can suddenly pierce a
person. It is possible to estimate gravitational influences of
different mass otons during that or another time upon those or other
internal organs of a person. For example, it is possible to try to
answer a question: what will be, if a black hole in billion tons
will appear in human heart? Thus, it is possible to speak about
otonic (gravitational) factor of human health.
Let us estimate the time (tBH), in which a micro-black hole having
the velocity vBH = vsp, will get a person (i.e., one of Nm people)
taken arbitrary, which has cross-section (Sm ~ 10-1 m2). In this
time the black hole with the area Sm should cover whole the volume
of the Earth (VÅ = (4/3) × p R3Å ).
From these conditions this
time will be defined as follows:
tBH = V Å (vBHSm Nm)-1 (7.9.5.)
Substituting in (7.9.5) known values, we obtain tBH ~ 106 s.
means, that each half-month a black hole can fall into person. Thus,
the presence of even one black hole with parameters required is
enough to explain available frequency of self-ignitions. Certainly,
not tangent hits, but end-to-end intrapersonal trajectories are
necessary, which would be maximum long and deep, that these black
hole hits result in maximum complete self-ignitions.
naturally, are less.
In invisible war of black holes against person there are more
victims than in global wars. Nothing in the world can protect
against black holes, there is no place to be hidden from them.
Sudden death from "gravitational killers" waits for everybody. How
one can avoid a fatal meeting with a black hole-"murderer"? One can
run away from it in places far from the otonic trajectory, having
calculated the trajectory of a black hole-"murderer".
The certain number of black holes with the appropriate parameters
can explain unexplained fires and strange sudden death. From
expression (7.9.5.) it follows, that appearance even one new black
hole, which orbit apocentre is close to the terrestrial surface,
should be reflected in statistics of appropriate phenomena.
Moreover, knowing a chain of the same events, that is, knowing the
time and coordinates of black hole appearance near the terrestrial
surface (as the minimum it is necessary to know parameters of two
such events), one can predict in principle these phenomena in the
future, in that or another place in the Earth.
Thus, like the forecast of weather there is a possibility to
forecast self-ignitions, fires and accidents caused by otons. It
means, that one can counteract these tragedies and be rescued from a
fatal meeting with "a black hole-murderer". Moreover, one can prove
the natural origin of many technogenic accidents, which were earlier
written off onto technical reasons or human factor.
Phenomena of combustion (complete or partial disappearance) of
internal human organs and fabrics, both with lethal end, and without
it are predicted within the idea of terrestrial black holes.
well-timed and careful investigation of cases of sudden death can
confirm this prediction.
Black hole radiation should result in the effect of induced
radio-activity in that or another form. This also can be checked up
in operative investigation of a place of event in respect of
Radiation of a black hole (7.9.3.) with Ì << 1014 g should contain
particles, predicted in the various united theories of Great
Unification, hence, the phenomenon of self-ignition (as well as its
relics) is of direct interest for physics of elementary particles.
Final stages of black hole radiation, i.e., grandiose explosions, in
which Plankian particles are born and accidents of planetary scale
occur, are of the greatest interest in this respect.
It is that we
shall discuss in the following chapter.
Back to Contents
Catastrophes of planetary scale
8.1. Localization of energy is the main
problem of volcanology
Theoretical objects of General
Relativity, i.e., otons, have found wide application in astrophysics
for explaining various sorts of space phenomena connected with huge
The problem of energy sources stays sharply not
only in high energy astrophysics, in physics of planets and the
Earth, but even in energetics of people self-ignitions (see Section
So, the idea of black holes has passed from the most distant objects
of the Universe up to the person itself: from deepest riddles of
space up to deepest secrets of human body. The problem consists not
in amount of extracted energy, but in mechanisms of its localization
in very small volumes. Grandiose as the distinction in scales of
these phenomena is, the universal answer to challenging secrets of
the world is single: otons.
A wide range of oton masses gives
possibility of understanding different-scale phenomena, explaining
thus the main for all these phenomena problem, i.e., the question on
Black hole energy can actuate plates in the mantle, cause
earthquakes, but, in the main, it can be a point-like source ("heat
point") of volcano energy. Having connected the energy source of
volcano magmatic cells with micro-black holes, one can estimate the
neutrino flow at the terrestrial surface, which turns out to be
The neutrino flow from black holes is
sufficiently unique: it consists of flows of six neutrino types,
which have equal powers. Let us estimate the power.
The energy source power can be determined from available estimations
of energy, wasted for volcano constructing, and from its age. E.g.,
for the Cluchevskoy volcano [Ra00] these quantities are equal,
erg and 5103 years < < 8103 years. For the lower limit of age we
have the upper estimation for energy source power: erg s-1. The
total power of black hole radiation is summed up from the sum of
different particles powers:
PBH = Pg + P n + P g + Pe = (kg + k n + k g + ke)PBH , (8.1.1.)
where kg + k n + k g + ke = 1 ;
kg = 0.009; kv = 0.549; k g = 0,076 ;
ke = 0.366.
A part of the energy from a black hole is carried away by gravitons
Only the energy of g -radiation, relativistic
electrons and positrons can be the volcano energy source. However,
in this case only a part of energy is used: in interacting g -rays,
relativistic electrons and positrons with substance neutrinos can be
formed, which besides carry away energy freely.
The account of these
effects can increase the upper estimation of black hole power, but
it does not influence its lower one, of which we shall take advantage:
Pvol = (k g + ke)PBH , (8.1.2.)
Taking into account (8.1.1) and (8.1.2) the radiation power of each
neutrino type will be determined by the expression:
P n = (k n /6) (k g + ke)-1Pvol , (8.1.3.)
If one introduces some master black hole with Ì0 = 1015 g, the rate
of neutrino radiation (Nv) with energy (Ev) will be connected with other
black hole parameters by correlations:
where Ì0 = 1015 g, Ò0 = 2*1011 Êî, Ð0 = 6,3*1016 ergs-1, Åî= 2,1*10‑5
erg (13 MeV), N 0 = 2,7*1020 s-1 . The neutrino spectrum from a black
hole is continuous, and the maximum number of neutrinos has in it
Let us estimate black hole parameters required for the Cluchevskoy
From (8.1.2.) we shall determine the power of
black hole radiation:
PBH = (k g + ke)-1 Pvol » 18,1*1016 erg*s-1. (8.1.5.)
From (8.1.4.) and (8.1.5.) we shall determine a black hole mass:
g , (8.1.6.)
Maximum temperature in the magmatic hearth is ,
Neutrinos with energy
erg (22,5 MeV), (8.1.7.)
will be radiated from such black hole at the rate
The neutrino energy from the black hole given is close to that of
boron neutrino (for boron-8 Å = 14,06 ÌeV), for which in the Davies
chlorine-argon experiment of solar neutrino registration the
cross-section of seizer by chlorine (Cl37) is most considerable:
1,35*10-42 sm2 [La10].
The estimation of neutrino flow from black
holes at the terrestrial surface () and the number of absorption
acts () is resulted below . The neutrino flow from the master black
hole at the distance R0 = 105 sm is equal to
sm-2s-1 , that in three
orders surpasses the boron neutrino flow from the Sun.
decreases with distance as:
and at R > 107 sm the neutrino flow from a micro-black hole becomes
less than the flow of boron neutrino from the Sun, i.e., the
neutrino flow is considerable only near volcanoes.
the magmatic cells location depth of volcanoes give values from
several kilometers up to 100 kilometers [Ãó10], [Ìè21], [Hu10], i.e.
the distance from the terrestrial surface up to a micro black hole
can be of the such value (R). In these limits of distances from a
black hole estimations of neutrino flow and number of absorption
acts are given in Table 8.1.1.
The neutrino flow is apparent from (8.1.9) and Table 8.1.1 to be
more sensitive to the distance from a black hole (R) than to its
Therefore, it is more probable to detect neutrino not
from volcanoes, which were observed to have erupted catastrophically
with huge energy extraction ( Kracatau
erg, Santorini and Tambora,
erg ), but from those with superficial (4-5 kms) locations of
magmatic cells ( Mauna-Êåà at Hawaii islands, Vesuvius, etc. )
[Ma10], [Ra00], at which surfaces the neutrino flow with energy
close to 14 MeV can appear in 2-3 orders more than from similar
solar neutrinos. The magmatic cell of the Cluchevskoy volcano lies
is deep enough.
Values in Table 8.1.1. are rather estimative, and they can be
changed essentially in the connection with some circumstances.
First, parameters of volcanoes (age, depth of magmatic cell
location, energy, wasted for volcano constructing) can be specified.
Secondly, the amount of energy of G-rays, electrons and positrons
from a black hole, which transforms into volcano energy, must be
made more exact.
At last, the spectrum of black hole radiation
itself can be specified in the connection with discovery of new
types of neutrinos and other particles. However, all these
specifications do not change the main conclusion on possibility of
neutrino detection from micro-black holes in the case of their
presence in magmatic cells. These specifications will hardly
decrease the magnitude of the neutrino flow in 2-3 orders.
it is possible, that other neutrino types, emitted by micro-black
holes, can appear more sensitive to registration than electron
neutrino, which are detected by the chlorine - argon method.
A discovery of even two neutrino types with the same energy and
power will exclude an opportunity of alternative interpretations of
the origin of these neutrinos, since it is hard to imagine any other
sources, which with the equal rate (Ev) would produce different
neutrino types with the same energy ().
The neutrino flow would
become the indicator of the volcano activity: whether it is finally
extinct ("heat point" is moved in another region) or it is able to
renew its activity.
The consideration above assumed the radiating black hole to be
practically motionless in the magmatic cell.
consideration of directly opposite variant is possible, i.e., a
micro-black hole moving on a multiple orbit with the first space
velocity, which injects periodically radiation into magmatic cell.
Nowadays apocentres of oton orbits with k = 17 approach close to the
surface of the Earth.
It means, that each day in the certain time in
the same region of the terrestrial cortex the "injection" of energy
occurs: in the apocentre the velocity is minimal, hence, the energy
extraction per unit of distance is maximum. The energy extracted by
the oton in firm substance can be accumulated effectively and it is
quite enough even for providing volcano energetics.
Thus, there can be geological singularities in places of multiple
otons appearance (k = 17): volcanoes, epicentres of earthquakes,
ring structures, deposits of hydrocarbons, thermal anomalies, etc.
A period of the Earth's rotation and that of oton changing with
time, some otons can cease to be multiple, but the others will
become such. This can result in changing and even terminating a
volcanic activity in two cases.
First, when apocentres of multiple
oton orbits penetrate deep enough in terrestrial interiors, and this
makes impossible their geophysical manifestation at a surface.
Secondly, when apocentres of multiple oton orbits come out above the
terrestrial surface, this makes impossible the energy accumulation.
This explains, that nowadays only small number of planetary bodies, apocentres of multiple oton orbits of which are close to a surface,
has active vulcanism.
The Earth rotation around the Sun leads to the fact, that in
different seasons a multiple oton will come in the same region in
the different time of day. This time will change each day,
approximately, in 237 seconds, and it can be determined from the
following simple correlation tc = to -
t Nc (t 0 is the time of day
of initial count down, Nc is a number of days past,
= 236, 555
Moving micro-black holes still more correspond to the idea of heat
points, which are considered to be supported by localized ascending
flows of mantle material in plumes. A black hole, moving along its
orbit, warms up a substance, creating an ascending plume.
The account of a factor of multiple oton motion leads to changing
the estimation of energy and neutrino flow, given above for the
Cluchevskoy volcano. From the account of this factor it follows the
black hole to be not constantly in the volcano magmatic cell, but to
occur there during a day, approximately, for one minute.
power of black hole radiation should be more appropriate number
times, and that gives Ðâí= 2,6*1013 J*s-1 . The black hole with Ìâí=
2*1010 kgs can possesses this power of radiation, which radiates
neutrino with the energy about 1 GeV at the rate about 1022 s-1.
At last, let us notice, that not single otons exist in the Earth,
but very different gravitationally-connected systems of otons (grassifotons).
Besides otons can move in the Earth as otonic swarms. Such the
models widen considerably heuristic opportunities of otonic
geophysics. Thus, the explosion of one of otons, which is included
in the otonic system and causing a volcano catastrophic eruption,
does not mean the termination of volcanic activity in this region,
because other otons of the system will continue to extract energy.
Black hole (fermioton) clashes in grassifotonic systems can result
Grassifotons can be conventionally divided into two
types by the dominant mechanism of energy extraction:
grassifotons, the main energy source of which are radiative otons
2) gravitational grassifotons, the main energy source of which are
oton clashes and the accretion
Radiative grassifotons are connected
with magmatic cells of volcanoes, gravitational ones are connected
with hypocentres of earthquakes.
The clash of otons in a
gravitational grassifoton caused earthquakes. Distinctions in
geophysical manifestations of grassifotons follow from these
distinctions in the dominant mechanism of energy extraction: acting
volcanoes are connected with the permanent action of oton radiation,
while earthquakes with discrete events are connected with oton
clashes in grassifoton, localized in a hypocentre (focus).
At the last stage before black hole clash the power of gravitational
radiation rapidly increase, and it is possible to be detected by
different biolocators. At the moment of black hole clash about 1% of
black hole mass is extracted in the gravitational radiation form,
and it can lead to gravitational force inversion at the terrestrial
Within the idea on otonic energy source of volcanoes V.Mityanok
[Ìè00] carried out the investigation, which has shown, that
stationary otonic orbits ensuring the constant energy extraction in
the same point near the terrestrial surface could exist.
the other hand, as it was pointed out in Section 4.3., the free
motion of otons in the Earth has rigid temporary limitations due to
the interaction with substance, and finally black holes should stop
near the terrestrial surface. Therefore nowadays it is impossible to
exclude no one of the models: both moving otons, and motionless.
Moreover, as concerned with catastrophic explosions of volcanoes
they give similar results.
8.2. Catastrophic explosions of
volcanoes - Kracatau, Santorini and Atlantis, Tambora
The problem of energy is sharp
especially in a question of catastrophic explosions of such
volcanoes, as Santorini, Kracatau, and Tambora [Ãó10], [Êó00],
Eruptions of a Kracatau type belong to the number of strongest
volcanic accidents on the globe. The most powerful eruptions of
those fixed by world statistics are eruptions of volcanoes Santorini
and Tambora, which energy 10 times has exceeded that of the Kracatau
eruption and reached 1027 erg. This energy by the order of magnitude
is equal to that of one million nuclear bombs blown up in Hiroshima.
If such explosion happened now in a region of megapolis, it would
bring incalculable victims surpassing those of world wars.
At the end of current century even more powerful and till
uncontroled forces of nature have opened before the humankind.
Destructive earthquakes, catastrophic explosions of volcanoes, which
energy reaches that of explosion of one million nuclear bombs are
the awesome reminder about them on the Earth. Last century such the
events were two: explosions of volcanoes Tambora (1815) and Kracatau
Whether between explosions of the volcano Santorini and the volcano
Tambora was not so powerful volcanic accidents? Let us make two
remarks. In spite of the fact that the energy of the volcano Tambora
explosion is much more than energy of the volcano Kracatau
explosion, the Tambora accident is less known.
And the fact is not
in their locations (both of them were in Indonesian archipelago),
but in the date of these events: one has happened in the beginning
of the nineteenth century, while another has in the end. If it has
happened in the time of Santorini accident, now we would hardly know
about them anything. The distance from centres of the terrestrial
civilization, thin population, absence of mass media and
communications - all this together would make such events
Santorini is localized at the centre of terrestrial civilization,
but only geological investigations of the volcanic island in our
century have allowed to discover the lost secret of the largest
accident in history. For millennia the information about the
Santorini accident was lost for science. One can imagine: how many
volcanic accidents could be revealed else, which does not concede
the Santorini one.
In the nineteenth century two volcanic
catastrophes were registered, but in the current century such the
event was not still observed. When and where can it occur? It is not
just an academic question, since if this accident will happen on the
place of Santorini, it would bring incalculable disasters.
The explosion energy of volcanoes Tambora and Santorin was of the
order 1027 erg. An analysis of oton motion in the Earth shows, that
the energy of catastrophic volcano explosions can be provided by
energy of explosive black holes (1030 erg). The distinction between
the energy of black hole explosion and maximum energy of volcano
explosion is explained as follows.
First, it is necessary to take into account oton motions, and only
that already gives the value of volcano explosion energy existing
(1027 erg). Secondly, it is necessary to take into account, that not
the whole energy of explosive black hole can transform in volcano
explosion energy. Thirdly, estimations of volcano explosion energy
may be increased.
The upper estimate of volcanic explosion energy
(1027 erg) is considered as limitative still because the solidity of
terrestrial cortex does not allow to concentrate more energy during
long time. A short-term supply by large amount of energy (Å > 1027
erg) from a black hole followed by the eruption and the discharge of
tensions in the cortex has not such restrictions.
At last, the
account of the Hawking radiation intensity decrease in a substance
can diminish the value of micro-black hole explosion energy in such
a way, that it will turn out less than that of volcanic accidents.
The opposite problem will then rise: finding mechanisms of explosive
extraction of far more energy.
Moreover, there is the such mechanism
in conditions of the Earth: it is fermi-oton clashes in
8.3. Planet Phaeton explosion and black
There is an asteroid ring in the solar
system, the main mass of which is located between orbits of Mars and
Asteroid substance of this ring is considered to had
compounded earlier a planet, which have given the name "Phaeton".
The planet Phaeton have rotated around the Sun between orbits of
Mars and Jupiter before the grandiose accident, i.e., the planetary
explosion. Splinters, to which this planet has broken up, continued
to rotate around the Sun: they clashed with each other, crushed,
forming more and more small space bodies.
The history of asteroid
ring discovery testifies convincingly for the idea of a grandiose
planetary explosion too [Âî20], [Ñè10]. The fact is that the
asteroid ring has been discovered at that place, at which the
existence of a planet was predicted.
Else Kepler come to an idea, that the harmony of the Solar system
collides with a disproportionately large distance between orbits of
Mars and Jupiter. He made a conclusion, that between Mars and
Jupiter there must be a planet.
Later the law of planetary orbit
distances from the Sun, i.e., the Titius-Bode law (or as it is
sometimes called, the rule) has been found out:
RN = 0,1 × R Å . × (3 × 2N-2 + 4) (8.3.1.)
where RN is a distance to a planet, which number of remoteness from
the Sun is N, R Å is a distance from the Sun to the Earth
There is an exception for Mercury, for which N
= - ¥ . For N = 5 a distance R5 = 2,8R Å from the Sun is obtained,
at which in that time no heavenly bodies were yet found out. The
German astronomer J.Bode, being based on the law above (8.3.1.), has
predicted existence of a planet at the distance 2,8 R Å , from the
Sun (between Mars and Jupiter), a period of rotation of which is 4,5
Scientists did not pay any especial attention to this fact till
1781, when Herschel discovered Uranus. First Herschel thought, that
he has discovered a comet, but thanking to Laplace, Saron, and
Lexell a planet was understood to have been discovered. Moreover
Uranus was soon determined to be at the distance 19,2R Å from the
This value is equal to the distance, predicted by the Titius-Bode
law for the eighth planet, located behind Saturn (R8 = 0,1R Å × (3 ×
28-2 + 4) = 19,6R Å ). Such the accuracy was amazing, and it was
impossible to attribute this to casual coincidence. The Titius-Bode
law has received citizenship in science, and so has the Bode
prediction of a planet with R5 = 0,1R Å . (3 × 25-2 + 4) = 2,8R Å ..
Piazzi on the 1 of January 1801 (the first day of the first year of
the new century) has found out a weak asterisk in a constellation of
Twins with brightness about 7m. Bode, based upon Piazzi
observations, has approximately determined the orbit and found out
the object to move between Mars and Jupiter at the distance about
2,8 astronomical units from the Sun, i.e., there, where a planet,
predicted by him and named Ceres, should move.
However, it has
turned out to be an unusual planet, much smaller than all other
Olbers on March 28, 1802 not far from Ceres has found out one more
minor planet, which has been denominated Pallas. A new planet was
discovered at the same distance from the Sun as Ceres. Thus, two
minor planets, instead of one large, were found out at the distance
predicted by the Titius-Bode law. In 1804 Olbers suggested an idea,
that both planets are fragments “of a former large planet, which was
blown up by some accident”.
Developing this idea, Olbers has come
further and predicted existence of other splinters of the planet.
Two minor planets, Juno and Vesta, were soon discovered.
The idea on a grandiose planetary catastrophe has been confirmed by
discovering of planetary fragments. Thus, instead of a planet
predicted by Bode only its remnants were found out, which (more and
more small) are found out till now. A total number of numbered
asteroids till the 1 of November 1981 has reached 2474.
grounds to believe, that the total number of asteroids, which move
in a ring between Jupiter and Mars, from the largest Ceres (diameter
about 1000 kms) up to fragments having a diameter 1 km, is about one
Else last century, D.Kirkwood, trying to find out the order in
asteroid’s orbits, has selected the asteroid groups, which members
move on similar orbits. The number of such groups (families) is
believed nowadays to exceed 100. These families have tens and
hundreds known members, and the total number of (known and unknown)
members of families is in one-two orders more [Ñè10].
of asteroid families testify for correctness of the original version
of Olbers idea about a multiplicity of planetary explosions. But now
the relationship is distributed not to all asteroids, but to some
their groups. All this speaks about recent planetary explosions.
Strange disappearances of known asteroids and appearances of unknown
ones (more exact, appearances of “newborn” families) would be a
certificate of planetary explosions occurring presently.
If earlier the presence of asteroids near the Earth seemed to be
natural, it has become clear after researches of E.Epick, the Irish
scientist, that the life-time of near-Earth asteroids, i.e., tens
millions years, is small in comparison with the time of planet
existence. Such the conclusion meant, that the families of
near-Earth asteroids would disappeared long ago, if no constantly
working source was, which would create and deliver bodies to the
terrestrial orbit. Within the hypothesis of explosions it means a
high frequency of planetary bursts. But the fact is not in asteroid
production near the Earth.
There is a more general problem of small
bodies production (down to motes) in the Solar system. Nevertheless,
a universal decision of all these problems can appear to consist in
explosions of space bodies.
The idea of a planet Phaeton explosion (as well as of other
planetary bodies) is confirmed by many facts (by the arrangement,
the fragmental form of asteroids, the structure of meteorites).
Attempts to explain a catastrophe (by an extremely fast rotation, a
sudden change of pressure in its interiors, clashes) collide
Until recent times the physical mechanism capable to blow up a
planet was not known. For exploding a planet it is necessary
practically instant to enter inside planet the energy equal to by
order to gravitational potential energy.
Let us determine it for the
U Å = (3/5) × GM Å 2 R Å
-1 (8 .3.2. )
Numerically UÅ = 2,257*1039 erg.
It is in nine orders more than
the energy of black hole explosion, which is obviously insufficient
for exploding of a planet. The existence of
gravitationally-connected systems of black holes changes the
situation radically. Clashes of black holes in close systems provide
the planetary explosions power [Òð09,11].
Taking into account energy
losses of otons during their interaction with terrestrial substance
(see Section 4.3.), the estimation of black hole fall time to a
central oton of the system turns out to be comparable not only with
geological processes, but with technogeneous ones too.
clash of black holes results in energy extraction [Íî02-04] equal
D EBH » 0,01c2 MBH (8 .3.3. )
From (8.3.1.) and (8.3.2.) we find the minimum value of masses of
black holes, which in their clashing can extract energy, sufficient
for exploding the Earth:
MBH ³ (3/5) 102 GM Å 2 R Å -1 c -2 = 2,5 × 1020 g (8.3.4.)
There can be millions such the black holes in the Earth.
it is necessary to take into account, that in clashing of black
holes the main part of energy is radiated in the form of
gravitational waves, the process of which interaction with
terrestrial substance is insufficiently investigated. In other
words, only a small part of the energy extracted in clashing of otons is possible to be capable to transform in the energy of
explosion. In clashing of fermiotons a significant part of energy
can be extracted in the form of electromagnetic waves. This lowers
masses of fermiotons, in clashing of which an explosion of the Earth
However, there is no necessity at all in millions black holes
capable to blow up the Earth: one such system of otons is enough,
that the opportunity of the planet explosion would become real. A
black hole with a mass MBH >> 2,5 × 1020 g can quite be at the
centre of the Earth, being it germ.
Besides of this, a density of
black holes at the centre is maximum, hence, the probability of oton
seizing and clashing is the highest. A time bomb of grandiose power
is laid in the terrestrial depths, which is ready any moment to be
Let us estimate energy to be necessary for asteroid explosions.
(8.3.2.) the value is easily found:
U àñò = ( R àñò / R Å )5 U Å (8.3.5.)
As it is seen from (8.3.5.), the value of a planet explosion energy
with decrease of its sizes sharply falls, and for exploding
asteroids the energy of black hole explosions can be quite enough.
However, for large asteroids and usual planets, as before, clashes
of black holes with appropriate masses are needed. Different
mechanisms of explosion should be reflected in features of asteroid
and meteorite fragments: ones of them should have traces of high
temperatures and be similar to volcanic breeds, but others should
The explosion of Phaeton is not a unique such event in the Solar
system. The facts testify the multiplicity of planetary explosions.
According to estimations, the explosion of Phaeton should have
happened millions years ago, but during billions years of existence
of the Solar system not less grandiose explosions could occur,
having changed the structure of the planetary system. In other
words, the number of large planets in the Solar system could be much
Thus, explosions and clashes of black holes can explain not only the
asteroid’s belt, but the existence of all other small bodies in the
Within the idea of intraplanetary black holes the
opportunity of planetary body explosions nowadays is predicted. In
particular, a charge of grandiose power is stored in the Earth (it
is equivalent to billion billions nuclear bombs), which can at any
moment to blow up our planet.
Probably, the harbingers of an accident (gravitational radiation
from approaching black holes) will become accessible for detecting,
and the humankind will be in time to react on a global cataclysm to
either by keeping our space house from a gravitational
Apocalypse threat, or by opening its new prospects in some form of a
Back to Contents
As the research carried out has shown, the problem of energy sources
sharply stands not only in high energy astrophysics, but in physics
of planets and the Earth, and even in the energetics of people
The idea of black holes has come from the most
distant objects of the Universe (quasars) up to the person itself:
from the deepest riddles of space up to the deepest secrets of a
human body. The wide range of oton masses gives an opportunity of
understanding phenomena of a different scale, explaining, thus, the
main for all these phenomena problem, i.e., the question of energy
Black holes in physics of the Earth open new opportunities in
deciding different problems:
from a formation of planets themselves
up to an origin of petroleum and gas.
Terrestrial black holes can
differ by their masses in more than fifteen orders.
only leads to a wide variety of black hole manifestations:
instant burning of a person up to a catastrophic explosion of the
Otons influence directly the Earth’s civilization.
an invisible war of black holes against person goes, and the number
of victims surpasses that of injured in world wars. Nothing in the
world can protect against black holes, there is no place to hide
from them. A sudden death from "gravitational killers" waits for
everybody. To avoid the fatal meeting with a black hole-"murderer"
one can only by calculating in time an otonic trajectory and
remoting from it.
The certain number of black holes with the appropriate parameters
can explain many technogeneous accidents, e.g., destructions of
buildings, air and sea accidents, fires and strange sudden deaths of
people. An appearance even of one new black hole, an
which orbit is close the terrestrial surface, should be reflected in
statistics of appropriate phenomena.
Such the sensitivity of technosphere to oton manifestations gives a hope for an opportunity
of an otonic accident forecast similar to the weather forecast.
Moreover, it means, that on can to counteract these tragedies and
save from a fatal meeting with "a black hole-murderer". But it is
not the only area of practical application of otonic geophysics (geotonology).
In connection with failures in attempts to obtain controlled
thermonuclear synthesis and with close prospects of exhausting of
petroleum deposits science turns to search new energy sources.
Proceeding from the intrasolar black hole model (which solves a
problem of solar neutrino deficiency), one make a conclusion,
that investigations in controlled thermonuclear synthesis do not
take into account a stabilizing role of a black hole gravitational
field in thermonuclear reactions, going in solar interiors. In other
words, a stabilizing factor of a a black hole powerful gravitational
field can provide stabilization of plasma and controllability of
Probably, such thermonuclear reactions occur in the terrestrial
interiors. An indication on this is a detection of abnormal
plenteous of an easy isotope of helium-3 in the terrestrial
interiors, which can be formed only in result of thermonuclear
Otons can also bring radical innovations in the use of traditional
energy sources: gaseous and liquid energy carriers (hydrocarbons).
By revealing a spatial location of otons in the Earth, relativistic
(otonic) geology can predict a location of huge petroleum and gas
deposits in untraditional geological regions [Тр 15].
finding of huge petroleum and gas deposits near processing complexes
or megapolicies becomes possible [Тр 16]. These discoveries can
give the vast incomes due to sharp decreasing of transport charges
and a danger of ecological catastrophes connected with accidents of
tankers and pipelines.
The greatest powers of energy extraction in the form of explosions
connected with a chemical source were obtained due to the invention
of dynamite by the Swedish industrialist А .Nobel. He hoped, that
the invention of such the destructive weapon, which is based on
energy of dynamite and is capable to destroy large buildings, will
hold back the humankind from wars.
The Nobel’s dream was not
justified: in XXth century there was a number of wars with use
dynamite, including two world wars.
In the middle of XXth century the humankind has possessed an
essentially new energy source, i.e., an intra-atomic one, and a
nuclear weapon turns out to be even more powerful, capable to
destroy whole cities. Awesome consequences of the nuclear weapon
application warn the humankind from its use. A nuclear war was not,
though its possibility is not still completely excluded.
nuclear energy discovery in certain sense Nobel’s hopes are coming
true: the awesome force of the nuclear weapon hold back from nuclear
The beginning of the third millennium can be marked with mastering
of a new energy source, i.e., otonic one. The power of oton energy
extraction is such, that the destruction of the whole countries,
continents and even of the whole planet is possible. If some
forecasts of nuclear war still leave to humankind a small chance for
survival, an otonic war is not possible in principle, since it is
equivalent to suicide.
Therefore, mastering otonic energy will not
only discover for people practically inexhaustible source of energy,
but also exclude a possibility of wars in the future.
However, otons can affect even more radically on the development of
the Earth’s civilization, because they are topological singularities
in the structure of near-Earth space-time. It means the
multidimensionality of space and time of terrestrial objects, the
presence of bridges (tunnels) in parallel worlds merely in the
Moreover, taking into account an opportunity of compactification of terrestrial bodies by means of higher dimensions
[Кл 00] (down to Plankian sizes) with conservation of their usual
density, one can make a conclusion about an opportunity of
penetrating through multidimensional otons in other worlds (Metagalaxies),
"starting" directly from the Earth.
As to a problem of
civilizations it means a possibility of changing spatial expansion
of a civilization in the three-dimensional world by exit of a supercivilization in
higher dimensions of the Universe.
The greatest geniuses of humankind stood at origins of black holes
science. Grandiose intellectual efforts of many generations of
scientists have been required to open a curtain above this exciting
secret, which starts a new era in humankind development. In the
Earth a new era of black holes come, which many times surpass the
nuclear epoch by its scales.
Explosions and clashes of black holes can explain not only the
origin of the asteroid belt, but also predict a possibility of
planetary body’s explosions nowadays. A charge of grandiose power
(which is equivalent to billion of billions nuclear bombs) is stored
in the Earth, and it is capable at any moment to blow up our planet
and carry away its remnants in the Universe.
Probably, the harbingers of an accident (gravitational radiation of
approaching black holes) can in time warn the humankind, and it will
have time to react on a global cataclysm to come:
The Earth’s civilization is at the front of a fatal brink:
opening before it, are capable to destroy all in our world and the
A certificate of similar catastrophes is the sad fate
of a planet
Phaeton, which remnants are between Mars and Jupiter
But at the same time, by discovering inexhaustible sources
of energy and infinite riches of underground pantries, the era of
black holes can become the epoch of unprecedented power and
prosperity of the humankind on the Earth and in the Universe.
Back to Contents
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