Reality Check

from TheLunaticFringe Website


It is inauspicious to begin an article with an oxymoron such as "cycle of human evolution." You know things wonít improve.

The term human evolution refers only to phylogeny (Stirling failed to consult a dictionary). Perhaps what he really wants to say is cultural development.

"Almost 6000 years ago" (4000 BCE) falls within the Chalcolithic (or Eneolithic) in Mesopotamia, which is currently the countries of Iraq and northeastern Syria. Notice itís Mesopotamia, because Sumerian was a language and Sumer was a culture. Sumerian disappeared as an official language during the Agadian (Akkadian) period (2371-2230 BCE).

"Almost 6000 years ago" coincides with the building of a very simple temple at Tepe Gawra (Notice to archaeology wonks: Iím using the Middle Chronology). Ubaid culture evolved into the Warka (Uruk) culture; Warka culture provided the earliest sample of writing in Mesopotamia.

About 5500 years ago (3500 BCE) Sumerian-speaking people came out of the hills, settled along the Euphrates River, and built a large temple of mud brick at Eridu. Almost 5000 years ago (about 3000 BCE) Sumerian-speaking people added to existing structures to create monumental architecture (such as the White Temple in Kullaba and the temple at Eanna). They also began establishing city-states and urban areas.

The boundary of the cultures of Sumer and Agade, according to the Sumerian king-list, consisted of the area south of Baghdad defined by the Tigris, the Euphrates, and the Persian Gulf. Influence of these cultures extended to Ebla in the west, Nineveh in the north, and Susa (in Elam) in the east.

Unu (what Agadians called Uruk) was the largest of the urban areas in Mesopotamia around 3000 BCE, a total of 5.5 km2. Zecharia Sitchin has done a good job researching the Sumerian records. One might start by reading that first.