Produce Genetically Engineered Calves
The following story was reported by Associated Press in June 1990:
“ Scientists have produced a calf
with a human hormone gene and three others with extra cattle
genes, in research that could lead to leaner beef and cows that
give more milk. The three bulls and one heifer were given the
extra genes while still embryos as part of a continuing project
at the Diamond G Ranch in southeast Texas. In addition, 60 to 70
cows at the ranch are pregnant with genetically altered embryos.
“I’m not willing to say any of the animals we have produced or
those we’re about to produce will have commercial value,” said
Ken Bondioli, a senior scientist at Granada Biosciences of
Houston. “This is research in its infancy. There’s a lot of
potential there. We don’t think we have all the answers."
The human gene is carried by the eldest
of Granada’s experimental cattle, a 15-month-old bull, researchers
said. The animal has not grown as large as anticipated, but they
still hope the gene altering could lead to strong, healthy cattle
without the use of steroids. Steroids have been linked to heart
disease and impotence.
“The purpose of these kinds of
things is to prevent disease, make animals more immune to
particular kinds of diseases,” said David Eller, Granada’s
chairman. “In the broad analysis, it’s to make food-producing
animals more economical for producers to grow and more healthy
for the diet-conscious, health-conscious consumers of today.”
Researchers have experimented
successfully with gene altering in chickens, pigs, sheep, and
laboratory animals. Human genes have also previously been inserted
into farm animals.
Development of the AIDS Virus
The development of the AIDS virus was funded in 1969 (three years
before the request for development by the World Health Organization)
through funds obtained by the United States Defense Department. The
Defense Department requested and received $10 million via House Bill
15090, which was reviewed in Hearings before the Subcommittee of the
Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives during the
Ninety-First Congress in review of the Defense Appropriations for
Part Five of H.B. 15090 was entitled RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, TEST,
AND EVALUATION, sponsored by the Department of the Army, the
Advanced Research Project Agency (now DARPA), and Defense Research
The Feasibility program and laboratories were to have been completed
by 1974-1975 and the virus between 1974-1979. The WHO started to
inject AIDS-laced smallpox vaccine (Vaccina) into over 100 million
Africans in 1977. Over 2000 young white male homosexuals (Operation
Trojan Horse) were injected with laced Hepatitis B vaccine in 1978
through the Centers for Disease Control and the New York Blood
The development of the virus apparently
had a dual purpose:
(1) as a political/ethnic weapon
to be used against black individuals and
(2) one of the programmed
The session of the Subcommittee that
took place on July 1, 1969, involved discussions about Synthetic
Biological Agents. Part of the Congressional narrative (from HB
15090) is detailed below:
“There are two things about the
biological agent field I would like to mention. One is the
possibility of technological surprise. Molecular biology is a
field that is advancing very rapidly and many eminent biologists
believe that within a period of 5 to 10 years it would be
possible to produce a synthetic biological agent, an agent that
does not naturally exist and for which no natural immunity could
have been acquired.”
Mr Sikes: Are we doing any work in that field?
Dr.MacArthur: We are not.
Mr. Sikes: Why not? Lack of money or lack of interest?
Dr.MacArthur: Certainly not lack of interest.
Mr. Sikes: Would you provide for our records information on what
would be required, what the advantages of such a program would
be, the time and the cost involved?
Dr.MacArthur: We will be very happy to. The dramatic progress
being made in the field of molecular biology led us to
investigate the relevance of this field of science to biological
warfare. A small group of experts considered this matter and
provided the following observations:
All biological agents up to the
present time are representatives of naturally occurring
disease, and are thus known by scientists throughout the
world. They are easily available to qualified scientists for
research, either for offensive or defensive purposes.
Within the next 5 to 10 years, it would probably be possible
to make a new infective microorganism which could differ in
certain important aspects from any known disease-causing
organisms. Most important of these is that it might be
refractory to the immunological and therapeutic processes
upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from
A research program to explore the feasibility of this could
be completed in approximately 5 years at a cost of $10
It would be very difficult to establish such a program. The
science of molecular biology is a relatively new science.
There are not many highly competent scientists in the field.
Almost all are in university laboratories and they are
generally adequately supported from sources other than DOD.
However, it was considered possible to initiate an adequate
program through the National Academy of Sciences National
Research Council (NAS-NRC). The matter was discussed with
NAS-NRC and tentative plans were made to initiate the
However, decreasing funds in CB,
growing criticism of the CB program, and our reluctance to
involved the NAS-NRC in such a controversial endeavor have
led us to postpone it for the past 2 years. It is a highly
controversial issue and there are many who believe such
research should not be undertaken lest it lead to yet
another method of massive killing of large populations.
On the other hand, without the
sure scientific knowledge that such a weapon is possible,
and an understanding of the ways it could be done, there is
little that can be done to devise defensive measures. Should
an enemy develop it there is little doubt that this an
important area of potential military technological
inferiority in which there is no adequate research program.
Actual creation of the virus was done
through the Department of the Army at Fort George Meade and through
the Department of the Navy. The name of the individual who was head
of the Naval development program is known but will not be released
at this time.