Appendix 1


Social Biology and Population Improvement

The following document, which appeared in Nature, September 16, 1939, was a joint statement issued by America’s and Britain’s most prominent biologists (some of them Nobel Prize laureates), and was widely referred to as the “Eugenics Manifesto.” The Second World War had already begun, and the authors explicitly decried antagonism between races and theories according to which certain good or bad genes are the monopoly of certain peoples. The document is published here in its entirety.

In response to a request from Science Service, of Washington, D.C., for a reply to the question “How could the world’s population be improved most effectively genetically?”, addressed to a number of scientific workers, the subjoined statement was prepared, and signed by those whose names appear at the end.

The question “How could the world’s population be improved most effectively genetically?” raises far broader problems than the purely biological ones, problems which the biologist unavoidably encounters as soon as he tries to get the principles of his own special field put into practice. For the effective genetic improvement of mankind is dependent upon major changes in social conditions, and correlative changes in human attitudes. In the first place, there can be no valid basis for estimating and comparing the intrinsic worth of different individuals, without economic and social conditions which provide approximately equal opportunities for all members of society instead of stratifying them from birth into classes with widely different privileges.

The second major hindrance to genetic improvement lies in the economic and political conditions which foster antagonism between different peoples, nations and ‘races’. The removal of race prejudices and of the unscientific doctrine that Appendix 1 113 good or bad genes are the monopoly of particular peoples or of persons with features of a given kind will not be possible, however, before the conditions which make for war and economic exploitation have been eliminated. This requires some effective sort of federation of the whole world, based on the common interests of all its peoples.

Thirdly, it cannot be expected that the raising of children will be influenced actively by considerations of the worth of future generations unless parents in general have a very considerable economic security and unless they are extended such adequate economic, medical, education and other aids in the bearing and rearing of each additional child that the having of more children does not overburden either of them. As the woman is more especially affected by childbearing and rearing, she must be given special protection to ensure that her reproductive duties do not interfere too greatly with her opportunities to participate in the life and work of the community at large. These objects cannot be achieved unless there is an organization of production primarily for the benefit of consumer and worker, unless the conditions of employment are adapted to the needs of parents and especially of mothers, and unless dwellings, towns and community services generally are reshaped with the good of children as one of their main objectives.

A fourth prerequisite for effective genetic improvement is the legalization, the universal dissemination, and the further development through scientific investigation, of ever more efficacious means of birth control, both negative and positive, that can be put into effect at all states of the reproductive process –as by voluntary temporary or permanent sterilization, contraception, abortion (as a third line of defence), control of fertility and of the sexual cycle, artificial insemination, etc. Along with all this the development of social consciousness and responsibility in regard to the production of children is required, and this cannot be expected to be operative unless the above-mentioned economic and social conditions for its fulfillment are present, and unless the superstitious attitude towards sex and reproduction now prevalent has been replaced by a scientific and social attitude. This will result in its being regarded as an honour and a privilege, if not a duty, for a mother, married or unmarried, for a couple, to have the best children possible, both in respect of their upbringing and of their genetic endowment, even where the latter would mean an artificial –though always voluntary –control over the process of parenthood.

Before people in general, or the State which is supposed to represent them, can be relied upon to adopt rational policies for the guidance of their reproduction, there will have to be, fifthly, a far wider spread of knowledge of biological principles and of recognition of the truth that both environment and heredity constitute dominating and inescapable complementary factors in human wellbeing, but factors both of which are under the potential control of man and admit of unlimited but interdependent progress. Betterment of environmental conditions enhances the opportunities for genetic betterment in the ways above indicated. But it must be also understood that the effect of the bettered environment is not a direct one on the germ cells and that the Lamarckian doctrine is fallacious, according to which the children of parents who have had better opportunities for physical and mental development inherit these improvements biologically, and according to which, in consequence, the dominant classes and people would have become genetically superior to the underprivileged ones.


The intrinsic (genetic) characteristics of any generation can be better than those of the preceding generation only as a result of some kind of selection, that is, by those persons of the preceding generation who had a better genetic equipment have produced more offspring, on the whole, than the rest, either through conscious choice, or as an automatic result of the way in which they lived. Under modern civilized conditions such selection is far less likely to be automatic than under primitive conditions, hence some kind of conscious guidance of selection is called for to make this possible, however, the population must first appreciate the force of the above principles, and the social value which a wisely guided selection would have.

Sixthly, conscious selection requires, in addition, an agreed direction or directions for selection to take, and these directions cannot be social ones, that is, for the good of mankind at large, unless social motives predominate in society. This in turn implies its socialized organization. The most important genetic objectives, from a social point of view, are the improvement of those genetic characteristics which make (a) for health, (b) for the complex called intelligence, and (c) for those temperamental qualities which favour fellow-feeling and social behaviour rather than those (to-day most esteemed by many) which make for personal ‘success’, as success is usually understood at present.

A more widespread understanding of biological principles will bring with it the realization that much more than the prevention of genetic deterioration is to be sought for, and that the raising of the level of the average of the population nearly to that of the highest now existing in isolated individuals, in regard to physical wellbeing, intelligence and temperamental qualities, is an achievement that would –so far as purely genetic considerations are concerned –be physically possible with a comparatively small number of generations. Thus everyone might look upon ‘genius,’ combined of course with stability, as his birthright. As the course of evolution shows, this would represent no final stage at all, but only an earnest of still further progress in the future. The effectiveness of such progress, however, would demand increasingly extensive and intensive research in human genetics and in the numerous fields of investigation correlated therewith.


This would involve the co-operation of specialists in various branches of medicine, psychology, chemistry and, not least, the social sciences, with the improvement of the inner constitution of man himself as their central theme. The organization of the human body is marvelously intricate, and the study of its genetics is beset with special difficulties which require the prosecution of research in this field to be on a much vaster scale, as well as more exact and analytical, than hitherto contemplated. This can, however, come about when men’s minds are turned from war and hate and the struggle for the elementary means of subsistence to larger aims, pursued in common.

The day when economic reconstruction will reach the stage where such human forces will be released is not yet, but it is the task of his generation to prepare for it, and all steps along the way will represent a gain, not only for the possibilities of the ultimate genetic improvement of man, to a degree seldom dreamed of hitherto, but at the same time, more directly, for human mastery over those more immediate evils which are so threatening our modern civilization.



  • F. A. E. Crew,

  • C. D. Darlington,

  • J. B. S. Haldane,

  • S. C. Harland,

  • L. T. Hogben,

  • J. S. Huxley,

  • H. J. Muller,

  • J. Needham,

  • G. P. Child,

  • P. R. David,

  • G. Dahlberg,

  • Th. Dobzhansky,

  • R. A. Emerson,

  • C. Gordon,

  • J. Hammond,

  • C. L. Huskins,

  • P. C. Koller,

  • W. Landauer,

  • H. H. Plough,

  • B. Price,

  • J. Schultz, ..

  • G. Steinberg,

  • C. H. Waddington.160







Appendix 2


100 Books Dealing with German History

...during the Weimar Period and under National Socialism


Books with no references to eugenics in index

1. Abel, Theodore. 1938, 1966. The Nazi Movement. Atherton Press.

2. Abel, Theodore. 1938. Why Hitler Came into Power.Prentice-Hall.

3. Arendt, Hannah. 1965. Eichmann in Jerusalem:
A Report on the Banality of Evil. Viking Press.

4. Baird, Jay W. 1990. To Die for Germany: Heroes in the Nazi Pantheon. Indiana University Press.

5. Barnouw, DagMarch 1988. Weimar Intellectuals and the Threat of Modernity. Indiana University Press.

6. Berg-Schlosser, Dirk; Rytlewski, Ralf (eds). 1993. Political Culture in Germany. St. Martin’s Press.

7. Brecht, Arnold. 1944. Prelude to Silence: The End of the German Republic. Oxford University Press, New York.

8. Bullock, Alan. 1962. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. Harper & Row.

9. Carsten, Francis L. 1965. Reichswehr und Politik 1918-1933. Kiepenheuer & Witsch. Reissued in English in 1966 by Oxford at the Clarendon Press.

10. Cecil, Robert. 197. The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology. Dodd Mead & Company.

11. Childs, David. 1991. Germany In the Twentieth Century. HarperCollins Publishers.
12. Compton, James V. 1967. The Swastika and the Eagle: Hitler, the United States, and the Origins of World War II. Houghton Mifflin Company.

13. Goldensohn, Leon. 2004. Nuremburg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist’s Conversations with Defendants and Witnesses, Knopf.

14. Davidson, Eugene. 1996. The Unmaking of Adolf Hitler. University of Missouri Press.

15. Diehl, James M. 1977. Paramilitary Politics in Weimar Germany. Indiana University Press.

16. Dobkowski, Michael N.; Wallimann, Isidor. 1989. Radical Perspectives on the Rise of Fascism in Germany 1919-1945. Monthly Review Press.

17. Eksteins, Modris. 1975. The Limits of Reason: The German Democratic Press and the Collapse of Weimar Democracy. Oxford University Press.

18. Eschenburg, Theodor; Fraenkel, Ernst; Sontheimer, Kurt; Matthis, Erich; Morsey, Rudolph; Flechtheim, Ossip K.; Bracher, Karl Dietrich; Krausnick, Helmut; Rothfels, Hans; Kogon, Eugen. 1966. The Path to Dictatorship 1918-1933: Ten Essays. Frederick A. Praeger.

19. Eyck, Erich. 196. A History of the Weimar Republic. Harvard.

20. Farago, Ladislas. 1974. Aftermath: Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich. Simon Schuster.

21. Feuchtwanger, E. J. 1995. From Weimar to Hitler: Germany 1918-1933. St. Martin’s Press.

22. Fraser, Lindley. 1945. Germany Between Two Wars: A Study of Propaganda and War-Guilt.Oxford University Press.

23. Frazer, David. 1993. Knight’s Cross: A Life of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. HarperCollins.

24. Fried, Hans Ernest. 1943. The Guilt of the German Army. The Macmillan Company.

25. Fritsche, Peter. 1998. Germans Into Nazis. Harvard University Press.

26. Fritzsche, Peter. 1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. Oxford University Press.

27. Fulbrook, Mary. 1992. The Divided Nation: a History of Germany 1918-1990. Oxford University Press.

28. Guérin, Daniel. 1994. The Brown Plague: Travels in late Weimar & Early Nazi Germany. Duke University Press.

29. Halperin, S. William. 1965. Germany Tried Democracy: A Political History of the Reich from 1918 to 1933. Norton.

30. Hamann, Brigitte. 1999. Hitler’s Vienna: A Dictator’s Apprenticeship. Oxford University Press.

31. Hanser, Richard. 1970. Putsch! How Hitler Made Revolution. Peter H. Wyden, Inc.
32. Heiber, Helmut. 1972. Goebbels. Hawthorn Books.

33. Heiber, Helmut. 1974. Die Republik von WeiMarch Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. Reissued in English in 1993 by Blackwell.

34. Heiden, Konrad. 1944. The Führer. Carroll & Graf Publishers.

35. Herzstein, Robert Edwin. 1974. Adolf Hitler and the German Trauma 1913-1945. Capricorn Books.

36. Heydecker, Joe J.; Leeb, Johannes. 1962. The Nuremberg Trial: A History of Nazi Germany As Revealed Through the Testimony at Nuremberg. Greenwood Press.

37. Hiden, J. W. 1974. The Weimar Republic. Longman.

38. Hilger, Gustav; Meyer, Alfred G. Meyer. 1953. The Incompatible Allies: A Appendix 2 119 Memoir-History of German-Soviet Relations 1918-1941. Macmillan.

39. Hitler, Adolf. 1942. The Speeches of Adolf Hitler April 1922 –August 1939. Oxford University Press.

40. Hitler, Adolf. 1971. Mein Kampf, Houghton Mifflin Company.

41. Homer, F. X. J.; Wilcox, Larry, D. 1986. Germany and Europe in the Era of the Two Word Wars, University Press of Virginia.

42. Housden, Martyn. 2000. Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.

43. de Hoyos, Ladislas. 1985. Klaus Barbie. W. H. Allen.

44. Hughes, John Graven. 1987. Getting Hitler into Heaven. Corgi Books.

45. Jablonsky, David. 1989. The Nazi Party in Dissolution: Hitler and the Verbotzeit 1923-1925. Frank Cass.

46. Shirer, William L. 1990. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, Touchstone Books.

47. Jasper, Gotthard. 1968. Von Weimar zu Hitler 1930-1933. Kiepenheuer & Witsch. Jetzinger, Franz. 1958, 1976. Hitler’s Youth. Greenwood Press.

48. Jones, J. Sydney. 1983. Hitler in Vienna 1907-1913. Stein and Day Publishers.

49. Jones, Nigel H. 1987. Hitler’s Heralds: The Study of the Freikorps 1918-1923, John Murray.

50. Kastning, Alfred. 1970. Die deutsche Sozialdemokratie zwischen Koalition und Opposition. Ferdinand Schöningh.

51. Kersten, Felis (ed.: Herma Briffault). 1947. The Memoirs of Doctor Felix Kersten. Doubleday & Co.

52. Kilzer, Louis. 2000. Hitler’s Traitor:Martin Bormann and the Defeat of the Reich. Presidio.

53. Klemperer (von), Klemens. 1957, 1968. Germany’s New Conservatism: Its History and Dilemma in the Twentieth Century, Princeton University Press.

54. Kochan, Lionel. 1963. The Struggle for Germany 1914-1945. Edinburgh at the University Press.

55. Koch-Weser, Erich. 1930. Germany in the Post-War World. Dorrance & Co.

56. Koenisberg, Richard A. 1975. Hitler’s Ideology: A Study in Psychoanalytic Sociology. The Library of Social Science.

57. Könneman, Erwin; Krusch, Hans-Joachim. 1972. Aktionseinheit contra Kapp-Putsch. Dietz Verlag.

58. Kosok, Paul. 1933. Modern Germany: A Study of Conflicting Loyalties. University of Chicago Press.

59. Langer, Walter C. The Mind of Adolf Hitler: The Secret Wartime Report. Basic Books.

60. Lee, Marshall M.; Michalka, Wolfgang. 1987. German Foreign Policy 1917-1933. Berg.

61. Linklater, Magnus; Hilton, Isabel; Ascherson, Neal. 1985. The Nazi Legacy: Klaus Barbie and the International Fascist Connection. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

62. Ludecke, Kurt G. W. 1937. I Knew Hitler. Charles Scribners.

63. Manvell, Roger; Fraenkl, Heinrich. 1969. The Canaris Conspiracy: The Secret Resistance to Hitler in the German Army. David McKay Company.

64. McKenzie, John R. P. 1971. Weimar Germany 1918-1933. Rowman and Littlefield.

65. Merker, Paul. Vol. 1, 1944, Vol. 2, 1945. Deutschland: Sein oder nicht sein? El Libro Libre, Mexico City.

66. Messenger, Charles. 1991. The Last Prussian: A Biography of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt 1875-1953. Brassey’s.

67. Mitcham, Samuel W. 1996. Why Hitler? The Genesis of the Nazi Reich, Praeger.

68. Mommsen, Hans. 1991. From Weimar to Auschwitz. Princeton University Press.

69. Morgan, J. H. 1945. Assize of Arms: Being the Story of the Disarmament of Germany and Her Rearmament 1919-1939. Methuen & Co.

70. Murphy, David Thomas. 1997. The Heroic Earth: Geopolotical Thought in Weimar Germany 1918-1933. Kent State University Press.

71. Nicholls, A. J. 1991. Weimar and the Rise of Hitler. St. Martin’s Press.

72. Nicholls, Anthony; Matthias, Erich (eds.). 1971. German Democracy and the Triumph of Hitler. George Allen and Unwin.

73. Pachter, Henry. 1982. Weimar Studies. Columbia University Press.

74. Paris, Erna. 1986. Unhealed Wounds: France and the Klaus Barbie Affair. Grove Press.

75. Patch, William L. 1998. Heinrich Brüning and the Dissolution of the Weimar Republic. Cambridge University Press.

76. Payne, Robert. 1973. The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. Praeger.

77. Peterson, Edward N. 1969. The Limits of Hitler’s Power. Princeton University Press.

78. Pool, James. 1997. Hitler and His Secret Partners: Contributions, Loot and Rewards 1933-1945. Pocket Books.

79. Price, G. Ward. 1938. I Know These Dictators.
Henry Holt and Company.

80. Price, Morgan Philips. 1999. Dispatches from the Weimar Republic: Versailles and German Fascism. Pluto Press.

81. Robinson, Jacob. 1965. And the Crooked Shall Be Made Straight: The Eichmann Trial, the Jewish Catastrophe, and Hannah Arendt’s NarraAppendix 2 121 tive. Macmillan.

82. Roll, Erich. 1933. Spotlight on Germany: A Survey of Her Economic and Political Problems. Faber & Faber Limited.

83. Russell (Lord) of Liverpool. 1963. The Record:
The Trial of Adolf Eichmann for His Crimes Against the Jewish People and Against Humanity. Alfred A. Knopf.

84. Schacht, Hjalmar Horace Greeley. 1974. Confessions of “The Old Wizard”: Autobiography. Greenwood Press.

85. Scheele, Godfrey. 1946. The Weimar Republic: Overture to the Third Reich. Faber and Faber Limited.

86. Schellenberg, Walter. 1956. The Labyrinth: Memoirs. Harper and Brothers Publishers.
87. Schultz, Sigrid. 1944. Germany Will Try It Again. Reynal & Hitchcock.

88. Stachura, Peter D. 1983. The Nazi Machtergreifung. George Allen & Unwin.

89. Stachura, Peter D. 1993. Political Leaders in Weimar Germany: A Biographical Study. Simon & Schuster.

90. Taylor, Simon. 1983. The Rise of Hitler: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany 1918-1933. Universe Books.

91. Dederke, Karlheinz. 1984. Reich und Republik Deutschland 1917-1933. Klett-Cotta.

92. Villard, Oswald Garrison. 1933. The German Phoenix: The Story of the Republic. Harrison Asmith & Robert Haas.

93. Waite, Robert G. L. 1952. Vanguard of Nazism: The Free Corps Movement in Post-War Germany. Harvard.

94. Watkins, Frederick Mundell. 1939. The Failure of constitutional emergency Powers under the German Republic. Harvard University Press.

95. Welch, David. 1983. Nazi Propaganda: The Power and The Limitations. Croom Helm & Barnes & Noble Books.

96. Wheeler-Bennett, John W. 1967. The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics 1918-1945. Viking Press.


Books with references to eugenics in index

97. Benderesky, Joseph W. 1956. A History of Nazi Germany. Burnham Inc. According to the index, eugenics is mentioned on mentioned on 10 pages, but several of these actually refer to euthanasia rather than eugenics, and the others are limited to Hitler’s belief in “Aryan” racial superiority.

98. Bramwell, Anna. 1985. Blood and Soil: Richard Walther Darré and Hitler’s “Green Party,” Kensal Press, 7 mentions.

99. Hiden, John. 1996. Republican and Fascist Germany: Themes and Variations in the History of Weimar and the Third Reich 1918-1945, Longman, 2 mentions.

100. Peukert, Detlev J. K.1991. The Weimar Republic: The Crisis of Classical Modernity, Hill and Wang, 2 mentions.





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2 Pichot, 2000, 12-13.
3 Balter, 2001.
4 Itzkoff, 2000, 265.
5 Campbell.
6 Neel, 1983.
7 Examination Alpha, Test 8, Forms 8 and 9, quoted by Paul, 1995, pg. 66, from Robert M. Yerkes, ed. Psychological Examining in the United States Army, Vol. 15 of Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1921.
8 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 345.
9 Flynn, 1984.
10 Hernstein/Murray, 1994, 401.
11 Lerner, 1980, 121.
12 Snyderman/Rothman, 1986, 83.
13 Finkelstein, 2000, 36-37.
14 Tucker, 1994, 219; Cited by B. S. Bloom, “Testing Cognitive Ability and Achievement,” Handbook of Research on Testing, ed. N.c. Gage, 1963, 384.
15 Hewlett, 2002.
16 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 351.
17 Henshaw/O’Reilley, 1983, 10.
18 Weyl and Possona, 1963; Weyl, 1967.
19 Glad, 1998.
20 Trafford, 2002, F8.
21 Encyclopedia Britannica, “Genetic disease, human.”
22 Ridley, 2001.
23 Hersh, 1966, 568.
24 Mann, Fritz, “Eugénique et éthique commune dans la société pluraliste,” Missa/Susanne, 1999, 140.
Endnotes 139
25 Lévinas, E., Totalité et infini: Essai sur l’extériorité, Coll. Biblio Essais, No. 4120, 1971, pg. 310; quoted in Missa/Susanne, 97.
26 Pembre, M., “Prenatal diagnosis and its ethical implication,” A Report to the European Commission Group of Advisors on the Ethical Implication of Biotechnology, October 1994, 3-4; quoted in Missa/Susanne, 38-39.
27 Brock et al.
28 Traubmann, 2004.
29 Elliman, 2001.
30 Elliman, 2001.
31 Stone, 2000.
32 “Disability Rights Advocates.”
33 Smith, 2002.
34 Henderson, 1999.
35  36 Eugenics –Euthenics –Euphenics.
37 Lo Duca, 1969.
38 Bearden/Fuquay, 2000, 2.
39 Wright, 1997, 25.
40 Wright, 1997, 147-148.
41 Borkenau et al, 2001.
42 Wright, 1997, 61.
43 Wright, 1997, 61.
44 Wright, 1997, 63.
45 Bearden/Fuquay, 2000, 151.
46 Laris, 2002.
47 Weiss, Rick, 2002, A10.
48 Mooney, 2001.
49 Kristol, 2002.
50 Stolberg.
51 Bravin/Regalado.
52 Wade, 2004.
53 Paul, 1998, 12-13.
54 Population Reference Bureau, 2003 World Population Data Sheet.
Endnote140 s
55 Hardin, 1977.
56 Singer, 1999, 42.
57 Gallup Organization, February 14, 2001.
58 Fletcher, 1983, 519.
59 McConaughy, 1933, 1, 7.
60 Timberg, 2003.
61 Traub, 2002.
62 Gallup, March 22, 2000.
63 National Assessment of Education Progress.
64 Gallup, July 6, 1999.
65 Rajeswary, 1985.
66 Harper, 2004.
67 Vedantam, 2004.
68 See: Pomerantz, 1973, for a sensitive discussion.
69 Bajema, 1976, 257.
70 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 197.
71 David Lykken, quoted in Wright, 1997, 131. See also Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 191-201.
72 Guttmacher, 1964.
73 Vining, 1983.
74 Yax, 2000.
75 Price, 2001.
76 Wright, 1997, 64.
77 Wright, 1997, 60.
78 Holden, 2001.
79 Haller, 1963, 17.
80 Wright, 1997, 123.
81 Lunden, 1964, 86.
82 Hirschi/Hindelang, 1977, 573-574.
83 Hirschi/Hindelang, 1977, 573-574.
84 Hirschi/Hindelang, 1977, 581.
85 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 235, 242, 735.
86 See: McNeill, 1984, for a discussion.
87 Herrnstein/Murray, 1994, 359.
88 “Speaking in Fewer Tongues.”
89 Haller, 1963, 4.
90 Haller, 1963, 19.
Endnotes 141
91 Haller, 1963, 129.
92 Haller, 1963, 132.
93 Haller, 1963, 137, 141.
94 Ascencion Cambron, “Approche juridique de la stérilisation des handicapés mentaux en Espagne,” article in Missa/Susanne, 1999, 121.
95 Drouard, 1999, 7.
96 Alexander Tille, Das aristokratische Prinzip der Natur, 1893; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 1.
97 Otto Ammon, Natürliche Auslese und Ständbildung, 1893; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 2-3.
98 Leitsätze der “Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene,” zur Geburtenfrage angenommen in der Delegiertenversammlung zu Jena am 6. und 7. June 1914; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 14-15.
99 Leitsätze der “Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene (Eugenik),” 1931/32; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 62-64. 100 Statististisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden, Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft 1872-1972, Stuttgart/Mainz, 1972, 102: quoted in: Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 130-131. 101 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 141-142, 382, 536-537, 539, 542, 597-601.
102 Missa/Susanne, 19.
103 Adolf Hitler, Völkisches Menschenrecht und sogenannte humane Gründe (1925/27), Munich, 1932, 444r, 444, Mein Kampf; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 119-120. 104 Verschuer, 1943, 1.
105 Verschuer, 1943, 3.
106 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 1998, 298. 107 Das “Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses” vom 14. Juli 1933; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 126. 108 Missa/Susanne, 1999, 18-19 ;Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 470.
109 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 469.
110 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 22, 174, 263-265, 283, 294.
111 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 300.
Endnote142 s
112 Karl H. Bauer, Rassenhygiene: Ihre biologischen Grundlagen, Leipzig, 1926, 207; Hans Luxenburger, „Möglichkeiten und Notwendigkeiten für die psychiatrischeugenische Praxis,” Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1931, 78: 753-758, 753; Lothar Loeffler, “Ist die gesetzliche Freigabe der eugenischen Indikation zur Schwangerschaftsunterbrechung rassenhygienisch notwendig?” Deutsches Ärzteblatt, 1933, 63: 368-369, 369. All quoted inWeingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 524, 526.
113 Aktion “T4” / “Wilde Euthanasie” (1939-1945); Aussage des “T4”-Leiters Viktor Brack: “Nutzlose Esser” 1946);
Aus: DOC-NO426, in GSTA, Rep. 335, Fall 1, Nr. 202, Bl.
11; quoted in Kaiser et al, 1992, 250.
114 David Irving, Hitler’s War, Viking Press, 1977; quoted in Saetz, 1985.
115 English Translation: “Human Heredity, NY, 1931.
116 Lenin, 1914.
117 Schwartz, 1995.
118 Max Levien, “Stimmen aus dem teutschen Urwalde,” Under dem Banner des Marxismus, 1928, 4:150-195, 162; quoted in Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 112. 119 Paul, 1994, 20; quoting H.J. Muller’s “Out of the Night,” 114-115.
120 J. B. S., Haldane, Daily Worker, November 14, 1949; quoted in Paul, 1998, 13.
121 Quoted in Paul, 1998, 13.
122 Singer, 1999, 9, 23. Income figures from Barnet, R. J. & Cavanagh. J. Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order, 1994; World Bank Development Indicators, 1997.
123 Paul, 1998, 29.
124 Wright, 1997, 10.
125 M.-T. Nisot’s 1927-29 La Question eugénique dans les divers pays, two volumes, Brussels; quoted in Drouard, 1999, 19.
126 Huntington, 31.
127 Schwartz, 1995, 16, 33.
Endnotes 143
128 Information provided by Benoit Massin to Peter Weingart; quoted in Weingart, 2000, 208-209. Also from WWW site of Kröner/Toellner/Weisemann, 1990.
129 Weingart/Kroll/Bayertz, 1988, 251.
130 Holmes, 1933, 122-123.
131 Y. Meir and A. Rivkai, The Mother and the Child, 1934, Tel Aviv: Kupat Holim, 63-64, quoted in Stohler-Lis, 2003, 110.
132 Traubmann, 2004.
133 Traubmann, 2004.
134 Weiss, Meira, 2002, 2.
135 Weiss, Meira, 2002, 32.
136 Kahn, 197.
137 Kahn, 140.
138 Kahn, 74.
139 Kahn, 106.
140 Revel, 2003.
141 Zohar, 1998, 584-585.
142 Graham, 1977.
143 Pearson, 1997, 10-11; quoting presidential address of Sandra Scarr at the annual meeting of the Behavior Genetics Association, Behavior Genetics, 12;3, 1987. 144 Grobstein/Flower, 1984, 13.
145 Pearson, 1997, 38; quoting Philippe Rushton: 52, “Science and Racism,” 52.
146 Finkelstein, 2000, 11.
147 Cooperman, 2002.
148 Zoll, 2002.
149 Tucker, 1994, 279-295.
150 Glad, 2001.
151 Gershon, Elliot S. 1983, 3.
152 Wade, 2002.
153 Lynn, 1996, 35; quoting Coleman & Salt, 1992.
154 “Gun Deaths…” 2001.
155 Fletcher, 1974.
156 Brock, et al, 2000.
157 Campbell, John, 1995.