THE END OF DAYS
Mankind’s recollection of landmark events in its past—“legends” or
“myths” to most historians—includes tales deemed “universal” in that
they have been part of the cultural or religious heritage of peoples
all over the Earth. Tales of a First Human Couple, of a Deluge, or
of gods who came from the heavens, belong to that category. So do
tales of the gods’ departure back to the heavens.
Of particular interest to us are such collective memories by the
peoples and in the lands where the departures had actually taken
place. We have already covered the evidence from the ancient Near
East; it also comes from the Americas, and it embraces both Enlilite
and Enki’ite gods.
In South America, the dominant deity was called Viracocha (“Creator
The Aymara natives of the Andes told of him that his abode
Tiwanaku, and that he gave the first two brother-sister
couples a golden wand with which to find the right place to
establish Cuzco (the eventual Inca capital), the site for the
Machu Picchu, and other sacred sites. And then,
having done all that, he left. The grand layout, which simulated a
square ziggurat with its corners oriented to the cardinal points,
then marked the direction of his eventual departure (Fig. 118).
have identified the god of Tiwanaku as Teshub/Adad of the
Hittite/Sumerian pantheon, Enlil’s youngest son.
In Mesoamerica, the giver of civilization was the “Winged Serpent”
Quetzalcoatl. We have identified him as Enki’s son
Thoth of the
Egyptian pantheon (Ningishzidda to the Sumerians) and as the one
who, in 3113 b.c.e., brought over his African followers to establish
civilization in Mesoamerica.
the time of his departure was not specified, it had to coincide with
the demise of his African protégés,
the Olmecs, and the simultaneous
rise of the native Mayas—circa 600/500 b.c.e. The dominant legend in
Mesoamerica was his promise, when he departed, to return—on the
anniversary of his Secret Number 52.
And so it was, by the middle of the first millennium b.c.e., in one
part of the world after another, that Mankind found itself without
its long-worshipped gods; and before long, the question (which has
been asked by my readers) began to preoccupy Mankind: Will they
Like a family suddenly abandoned by its father, Mankind grasped for
the hope of a Return; then, like an orphan needing help, Mankind
cast about for a Savior. The Prophets promised it will surely
happen—at the End of Days.
At the peak of their presence, the Anunnaki numbered 600 on Earth
plus another 300 Igigi based on Mars. Their number was falling after
the Deluge and especially after Anu’s visit circa 4000 b.c.e. Of the
gods named in the early Sumerian texts and in long God Lists, few
remained as the millennia followed each other. Most returned to
their home planet; some—in spite of their wonted “immortality”—died
on Earth. We can mention the defeated Zu and Seth, the dismembered
Osiris, the drowned Dumuzi, the nuclear-afflicted Bau. The
departures of the Anunnaki gods as Nibiru’s return loomed were the
The awesome times when the gods resided in sacred precincts in the
people’s cities, when a Pharaoh claimed that a god was riding along
in his chariot, when an Assyrian king boasted of help from the
skies, were over and gone. Already in the days of the Prophet
Jeremiah (626–586 b.c.e.), the nations surrounding Judea were mocked
for worshipping not a “living god” but idols made by craftsmen of
stone, wood, and metal—gods who needed to be carried, for they could
With the final departure taking place, who of the great Anunnaki
gods remained on Earth?
To judge by who was mentioned in the texts
and inscriptions from the ensuing period, we can be certain only of,
Marduk and Nabu of the Enki’ites
of the Enlilites, Nannar/Sin,
his spouse Ningal/Nikkal and his aide Nusku, and probably also
On each side of the great religious divide there was now
just one sole Great God of Heaven and Earth: Marduk for the
Enki’ites, Nannar/Sin for the Enlilites.
The story of Babylonia’s last king reflected the new circumstances.
He was chosen by Sin in his cult-center Harran— but he required the
consent and blessing of Marduk in Babylon, and the celestial
confirmation by the appearance of Marduk’s planet; and he bore the
name Nabu-Na’id. This divine co-regnum might have been an attempt at
Dual Monotheism (to coin an expression); but its unintended
consequence was to plant the seeds of Islam.
The historical record indicates that neither gods nor people were
happy with these arrangements. Sin, whose temple in Harran was
restored, demanded that his great ziggurat temple in Ur should also
be rebuilt and become the center of worship; and in Babylon, the
priests of Marduk were up in arms.
A tablet now in the British Museum is inscribed with a text that
scholars have titled Nabunaid and the Clergy of Babylon. It contains
a list of accusations by the Babylonian priests against Nabunaid.
The charges ran from civil matters (“law and order are not
promulgated by him”), through neglect of the economy (“the farmers
are corrupted,” “the traders’ roads are blocked”), and lack of
public safety (“nobles are killed”), to the most serious charges:
He made an image of a god which nobody had seen
before in the land.
He placed it in the temple, raised it upon a pedestal,
He called it by the name of Nannar, with lapis lazuli
he adorned it,
Crowned it with a tiara in the shape of an
Made for its hand the gesture of a demon.
It was, the accusations continued, a strange statue of a deity,
never seen before, “with hair reaching down to the pedestal.”
so unusual and unseemly, the priests wrote, that even Enki and
Ninmah (who ended up with strange chimera creatures when they
attempted to fashion Man) “could not have conceived it”; it was so
strange that “not even the learned Adapa”—an icon of utmost human
knowledge—“could have named it.”
To make matters worse, two unusual
beasts were sculpted as its guardians:
one a “Deluge demon”
other a wild bull
Then the king took this abomination and placed it
in Marduk’s Esagil temple. Even more offending was Nabunaid’s
announcement that henceforth the Akitu festival, during which the
near-death, resurrection, exile, and final triumph of Marduk were
reenacted, would no longer be celebrated.
Declaring that Nabunaid’s “protective god became hostile to him” and
that “the former favorite of the gods was now fated to misfortune,”
the Babylonian priests forced Nabunaid to leave Babylon and go into
exile “in a distant region.” It is a historical fact that Nabunaid
indeed left Babylon and named his son Bel-Shar-Uzur—the Belshazzar
of the biblical Book of Daniel—as regent.
The “distant region” to which Nabunaid went in self-exile was
As various inscriptions attest, his entourage included Jews
from among the Judean exiles in the Harran region. His principal
base was at a place called Teima, a caravan center in what is now
northwestern Saudi Arabia that is mentioned several times in the
Bible. (Recent excavations there have uncovered cuneiform tablets
attesting to Nabunaid’s stay.) He established six other settlements
for his followers; five of the towns were listed—a thousand years
later—by Arabian writers as Jewish towns.
One of them was Medina,
the town where Muhammed founded Islam.
The “Jewish angle” in the Nabunaid tale has been reinforced by the
fact that a fragment of the
Dead Sea scrolls, found at Qumran on the
shores of the Dead Sea, mentions Nabunaid and asserts that he was
suffering in Teima from an “unpleasant skin disease” that was cured
only after “a Jew told him to give honor to the God Most High.”
that has led to speculation that Nabunaid was contemplating
Monotheism; but to him the God Most High was not the Judeans’
Yahweh, but his benefactor Nannar/Sin, the Moon god,
symbol has been adopted by Islam; and there is little doubt that its
roots can be traced back to Nabunaid’s stay in Arabia.
Sin’s whereabouts fade out of Mesopotamian records after the time of
Nabunaid. Texts discovered at Ugarit, a “Canaanite” site on the
Mediterranean coast in Syria now called Ras Shamra, describe the
Moon god as retired, with his spouse, to an oasis at the confluence
of two bodies of water, “near the cleft of the two seas.” Ever
wondering why the Sinai peninsula was named in honor of Sin and its
main central crossroads in honor of his spouse Nikkal (the place is
still called, in Arabic, Nakhl), I surmised that the aged couple
retired to somewhere on the shores of the Red Sea and the Gulf of
The Ugaritic texts called the Moon god EL—simply, “God,”
forerunner of Islam’s Allah; and his moon-crescent symbol crowns
every Moslem mosque. And as tradition demands, the mosques are
flanked, to this day, by minarets that simulate multistage rocketships ready to be launched (Fig. 119).
The last chapter in the Nabunaid saga was linked to the emergence on
the scene of the ancient world of the Persians—a name given to a
medley of peoples and states on the Iranian plateau that included
the olden Sumerian Anshan and Elam and the land of the later Medes
(who had a hand in the demise of Assyria).
It was in the sixth century b.c.e. that a tribe called Achaemeans by
Greek historians who recorded their deeds emerged from the northern
outskirts of those territories, seized control, and unified them all
to become a mighty new empire.
Though deemed to racially be
“Indo-Europeans,” their tribal name stemmed from that of their
ancestor Hakham-Anish, which meant “Wise Man” in Semitic Hebrew—a
fact that some attribute to the influence of Jewish exiles from the
Ten Tribes who had been relocated to that region by the Assyrians.
Religiously, the Achaemean Persians
apparently adopted a Sumerian-Akkadian pantheon akin to its
Hurrian-Mitannian version, which was a step to the Indo-Aryan one of
the Sanskrit Vedas—a mixture that is conveniently simplified by just
stating that they believed in a God Most High whom they called
Ahura-Mazda (“Truth and Light”).
In 560 b.c.e. the Achaemean king died and his son Kurash succeeded
him on the throne and made his mark on subsequent historic events.
We call him Cyrus; the Bible called him
Koresh and considered him
Yahweh’s emissary for conquering Babylon, overthrowing its king, and
rebuilding the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem.
“Though you knowest Me
not, I, Yahweh, the God of Israel, am thy caller who hath called you
by name... who will help you though you don’t recognize me,” the
biblical God stated through the prophet Isaiah.
(44: 28 to 45: 1–4)
That end of Babylonian kingship was most dramatically foretold in
the Book of Daniel.
One of the Judean exiles taken to Babylon,
Daniel was serving in the Babylonian court of Belshazzar when,
during a royal banquet, a floating hand appeared and wrote on the
wall MENE MENE TEKEL UPHARSIN.
Astounded and mystified, the king
called his wizards and seers to decipher the inscription, but none
could. As a last resort, the exiled Daniel was called in, and he
told the king the inscription’s meaning: God has weighed Babylon and
its king and, finding them wanting, numbered their days; they will
meet their end by the hand of the Persians.
In 539 b.c.e. Cyrus crossed the Tigris River into Babylonian
territory, advanced on Sippar where he intercepted a rushing-back
Nabunaid, and then—claiming that Marduk himself had invited
him—entered Babylon without a fight. Welcomed by the priests who
considered him a savior from the heretic Nabunaid and his disliked
son, Cyrus “grasped the hands of Marduk” as a sign of homage to the
But he also, in one of his very first proclamations, rescinded
the exile of the Judeans, permitted the rebuilding of the Temple in
Jerusalem, and ordered the return of all the Temple’s ritual objects
that were looted by Nebuchadnezzar.
The returning exiles, under the leadership of Ezra and Nehemiah,
completed the rebuilding of the Temple—henceforth known as the
Second Temple—in 516 b.c.e.—exactly, as was prophesied by Jeremiah,
seventy years after the First Temple was destroyed. The Bible
considered Cyrus an instrument of God’s plans, an “anointed of
Yahweh”; historians believe that Cyrus proclaimed a general
religious amnesty that allowed each people to worship as they
pleased. As to what Cyrus himself might have believed, to judge by
the monument he had erected for himself, he appears to have
envisioned himself as a winged Cherub (Fig. 120).
Cyrus—some historians attach the epithet “the great” to his
name—consolidated into a vast Persian empire all the lands that had
once been Sumer & Akkad, Mari and Mittani, Hatti and Elam, Babylonia
and Assyria; it was left to his son Cambyses (530–522 b.c.e.) to
extend the empire to Egypt.
Egypt was just recovering from a period
of disarray that some consider a Third Intermediate Period, during
which it was disunited, changed capitals several times, was ruled by
invaders from Nubia, or had no central authority at all.
was also in disarray religiously, its priests uncertain who to
worship, so much so that the leading cult was that of the dead
Osiris, the leading deity the female Neith whose title was Mother of
God, and the principal “cult object” a bull, the sacred Apis Bull,
for whom elaborate funerals were held.
Cambyses, too, like his
father, was no religious zealot, and let people worship as they
pleased; he even (according to an inscribed stela now in the Vatican
museum) learnt the secrets of the worship of Neith and participated
in a ceremonial funeral of an Apis bull.
These religious laissez-faire policies bought the Persians peace in
their empire, but not forever. Unrest, uprisings, and rebellions
kept breaking out almost everywhere. Especially troublesome were
growing commercial, cultural, and religious ties between Egypt and
Greece. (Much information about that comes from the Greek historian
Herodotus, who wrote extensively about Egypt after his visit there
circa 460 b.c.e., coinciding with the beginning of Greece’s “golden
The Persians could not be pleased with those ties, above all
because Greek mercenaries were participating in the local uprisings.
Of particular concern were also the provinces in Asia Minor
(present-day Turkey), at the western tip of which Asia and the
Persians faced Europe and the Greeks. There, Greek settlers were
reviving and reinforcing olden settlements; the Persians, on their
part, sought to ward off the troublesome Europeans by seizing nearby
The growing tensions broke into open warfare when the Persians
invaded the Greek mainland and were beaten at Marathon in 490
b.c.e.. A Persian invasion by sea was beaten off by the Greeks in
the straits of Salamis a decade later, but the skirmishes and
battles for control of Asia Minor continued for another century,
even as in Persia king followed king and in Greece Athenians,
Spartans, and Macedonians fought one another for supremacy.
In those double struggles—one among the mainland Greeks, the other
with the Persians—the support of the Greek settlers of Asia Minor
was very important. No sooner did the Macedonians win the upper hand
on the mainland than their king, Philip II, sent an armed corps over
the Straits of Hellespont (today’s Dardanelles) to secure the
loyalty of the Greek settlements. In 334 b.c.e. his successor,
Alexander (“the Great”), heading an army 15,000 strong, crossed into
Asia at the same place and launched a major war against the
Alexander’s astounding victories and the resulting subjugation of
the Ancient East to Western (Greek) domination have been told and
retold by historians—starting with some who had accompanied
Alexander—and need no repetition here. What does need to be
described are the personal reasons for Alexander’s foray into Asia
For, apart from all geopolitical or economic reasons for
the Greek-Persian great war, there was Alexander’s own personal
quest: there had been persistent rumors in the Macedonian court that
not King Philip but a god—an Egyptian god—was Alexander’s true
father, having come to the queen, Olympias, disguised as a man.
a Greek pantheon that derived from across the Mediterranean Sea and
headed (like the Sumerian twelve) by twelve Olympians, and with
tales of the gods (“myths”) that emulated the Near Eastern tales of
the gods, the appearance of one such god in the Macedonian court was
not deemed an impossibility. With court shenanigans that involved a
young Egyptian mistress of the king and marital strife that included
divorce and murders, the “rumors” were believed—first and foremost
by Alexander himself.
A visit by Alexander to the oracle in Delphi to find out whether he
was indeed the son of a god and therefore immortal only intensified
the mystery; he was advised to seek an answer at an Egyptian sacred
site. It was thus that as soon as the Persians were beaten in the
first battle, Alexander, rather than pursuing them, left his main
army and rushed to the oasis of Siwa in Egypt. There the priests
assured him that he indeed was a demigod, the son of the ram-god
In celebration, Alexander issued silver coins showing him with
ram’s horns (Fig. 121).
But what about the immortality?
While the course of the resumed warfare
and Alexander’s conquests have been
documented by his campaign historian Callisthenes and other
historians, his personal quest for Immortality is mostly known from
sources deemed to be pseudo-Callisthenes, or “Alexander Romances”
that embellished fact with legend. As detailed in
The Stairway to
Heaven, the Egyptian priests directed Alexander from Siwa to Thebes.
There, on the Nile River’s western shore, he could see in the
funerary temple built by Hatshepsut the inscription attesting to her
being fathered by the god Amon when he came to her mother disguised
as the royal husband—exactly like the tale of Alexander’s demigod
conception. In the great temple of Ra-Amon in Thebes, in the Holy of
Holies, Alexander was crowned as a Pharaoh.
Then, following the
directions given in Siwa, he entered subterranean tunnels in the
Sinai peninsula, and finally he went to where Amon-Ra, alias
was—to Babylon. Resuming the battles with the Persians, Alexander
reached Babylon in 331 b.c.e., and entered the city riding in his
In the sacred precinct he rushed to the Esagil ziggurat temple to
grasp the hands of Marduk as conquerors before him had done.
great god was dead.
Esagil ziggurat temple
According to the pseudo-sources, Alexander saw the god lying in a
golden coffin, his body immersed (or preserved) in special oils.
True or not, the facts are that Marduk was no longer alive, and that
his Esagil ziggurat was, without exception, described as his tomb by
subsequent established historians.
According to Diodorus of Sicily (first century b.c.e.),
whose Bibliothca historica is known to have been compiled from
verified reliable sources,
“scholars called Chaldaeans, who have
gained a great reputation in astrology and who are accustomed to
predict future events by a method based on age-old observations,”
warned Alexander that he would die in Babylon, but “could escape the
danger if he re-erected the tomb of Belus which had been demolished
by the Persians”
(Book XVII, 112.1)
Entering the city anyway,
Alexander had neither the time nor the manpower to do the repairs,
and indeed died in Babylon in 323 b.c.e.
The first century b.c.e. historian-geographer Strabo, who was born
in a Greek town in Asia Minor, described Babylon in his famed
Geography—its great size, the “hanging garden” that was one of the
Seven Wonders of the World, its high buildings constructed of baked
bricks, and so on, and said this in section 16.I.5 (emphasis added):
Here too is the tomb of Belus, now in ruins,
having been demolished by Xerxes, as it is said.
It was a quadrangular pyramid of baked bricks,
not only being a stadium in height,
but also having sides a stadium in length.
Alexander intended to repair this pyramid;
but it would have been a large task
and would have required a long time,
so that he could not finish what he had attempted.
According to this source, the tomb of Bel/Marduk was destroyed by
Xerxes, who was the Persian king (and ruler of Babylon) from 486 to
Strabo, in Book 5, had earlier stated that
lying in a coffin when Xerxes decided to destroy the temple, in 482 b.c.e. Accordingly, Marduk died not long before (Germany’s leading
Assyriologists, meeting at the University of Jena in 1922, concluded
that Marduk was already in his tomb in 484 b.c.e.).
Nabu also vanished from the pages of history about the same time.
And thus came to an end, an almost human end, the saga of the gods
who shaped history on planet Earth.
That the end came as the Age of the Ram was waning was probably no
With the death of Marduk and the fading away of Nabu, all the great
Anunnaki gods who had once dominated Earth were gone; with the death
of Alexander, the real or pretended demigods who linked Mankind to
the gods were also gone. For the first time since Adam was
fashioned, Man was without his creators.
In those despondent times for Mankind, hope came forth from
Amazingly, the story of Marduk and his ultimate fate in Babylon had
been correctly foretold in biblical prophecies. We have already
noted that Jeremiah, while forecasting a crushing end for Babylon,
made the distinction that its god Bel/Marduk was only doomed to
“wither”—to remain, but to grow old and confused, to shrivel and
die. We should not be surprised that it was a prophecy that came
But as Jeremiah correctly predicted the final downfall of Assyria,
Egypt, and Babylon, he accompanied those predictions with prophecies
of a reestablished Zion, of a rebuilt temple, and of a “happy end”
for all nations at the End of Days.
It would be, he said, a future
that God had planned “in his heart” all along, a secret that shall
be revealed to Mankind (23: 20) at a predetermined future time:
the End of Days you shall perceive it” (30: 24), and “at that time,
they shall call Jerusalem Yahweh’s Throne, and all nations shall
assemble there” (3: 17).
Isaiah, in his second set of prophecies (sometimes called the Second
Isaiah), identifying Babylon’s god as the “Hiding god”—which is what
“Amon” meant—foresaw the future in those words:
Bel is bowed down, Nebo is cowered,
their images are loads for beasts and cattle . . .
Together they stoopeth, they bowed down,
unable to save themselves from capture.
These prophecies, as did Jeremiah’s, also contained the promise that
Mankind will be offered a new beginning, new hope; that a Messianic
Time will come when “the wolf shall dwell with the lamb.”
“it shall come to pass at the End of Days that the
Mount of Yahweh’s Temple shall be established as foremost of all
mountains, exalted above all hills; and all the nations shall throng
unto it”; it will be then that the nations “shall beat their swords
into plough-shares and their spears into pruning hooks, nation shall
not lift up sword against nation, and they shall no longer teach
(Isaiah 2: 1–4)
The assertion that after troubles and tribulations, after people and
nations shall be judged for their sins and transgressions, a time of
peace and justice shall come was also made by the early Prophets
even as they predicted the Day of the Lord as judgment day.
them were Hosea, who foresaw the return of the kingdom of God
through the House of David at the End of Days, and Micha, who—using
words identical to those of Isaiah—declared that “at the End of Days
it shall come to pass.” Significantly, Micha too considered the
restoration of God’s Temple in Jerusalem and Yahweh’s universal
reign through a descendant of David as a prerequisite, a “must”
destined from the very beginning, “emanating from ancient times,
from everlasting days.”
There was thus a combination of two basic elements in those End of
Days predictions: one, that the Day of the Lord, a day of judgment
upon Earth and the nations, will be followed by Restoration,
Renewal, and a benevolent era centered on Jerusalem.
The other is,
that it has all been preordained, that the End was already planned
by God at the Beginning. Indeed, the concept of an End of Epoch, a
time when the course of events shall come to a halt—a precursor, one
may say, of the current idea of the “End of History”— and a new
epoch (one is almost tempted to say, a New Age), a new (and
predicted!) cycle shall begin, can already be found in the earliest
The Hebrew term Acharit Hayamim (sometimes translated “last days,”
“latter days,” but more accurately “end of days”) was already used
in the Bible in Genesis (Chapter 49), when the dying Jacob summoned
his sons and said: “Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you
that which shall befall you at the End of Days.” It is a statement
(followed by detailed predictions that many associate with the
twelve houses of the zodiac) that presupposes prophecy by being
based on advance knowledge of the future.
And again, in Deuteronomy
(Chapter 4), when Moses, before dying, reviewing Israel’s divine
legacy and its future, counseled the people thus:
“When you in
tribulations shall be and such things shall befall you, in the End
of Days to Yahweh thy God return and hearken to His voice.”
The repeated stress on the role of Jerusalem, on the essentiality of
its Temple Mount as the beacon to which all nations shall come
streaming, had more than a theological-moral reason.
practical reason is cited: the need to have the site ready for the
return of Yahweh’s Kavod—the very term used in Exodus and then by
Ezekiel to describe God’s celestial vehicle!
The Kavod that will be
enshrined in the rebuilt Temple,
“from which I shall grant peace,
shall be greater than the one in the First Temple,” the Prophet
Haggai was told.
Significantly, the Kavod’s coming to Jerusalem was
repeatedly linked in Isaiah to the other space-related site—in
It is from there that God’s Kavod shall arrive in
Jerusalem, verses 35: 2 and 60: 13 stated.
One cannot avoid the conclusion that a
divine Return was expected at
the End of Days; but when was the End of Days due?
The question—one to which we shall offer our own answer—is not new,
for it has already been asked in antiquity, even by the very
Prophets who had spoken of the End of Days.
Isaiah’s prophecy about the time “when a great trumpet shall be
blown” and the nations shall gather and “bow down to
Yahweh on the
Holy Mount in Jerusalem” was accompanied by his admission that
without details and timing the people could not understand the
“Precept is upon precept, precept is within precept, line
is upon line, line is with line, a little here, somewhat there” was
how Isaiah (28: 10) complained to God.
Whatever answer he was given,
he was ordered to seal and hide the document; no less than three
times, Isaiah changed the word for “letters” of a script— Otioth—to
Ototh, which meant “oracular signs,” hinting at the existence of a
kind of secret “Bible Code” due to which the divine plan could not
be comprehended until the right time. Its secret code might have
been hinted at when the Prophet asked God—identified as “Creator of
the letters”— to “tell us the letters backward” (41: 23).
The prophet Zephaniah—whose very name meant “By Yahweh
encoded”—relayed a message from God that it will be at the time of
the nations’ gathering that he “will speak in a clear language.”
that said no more than saying,
“You’ll know when it will be time to
No wonder, then, that in its final prophetic book, the Bible dealt
almost exclusively with the question of WHEN—when will the End of
It is the Book of Daniel, the very Daniel who deciphered
(correctly) for Belshazzar the Writing on the Wall. It was after
that that Daniel himself began to have omen-dreams and to see
apocalyptic visions of the future in which the “Ancient of Days” and
his archangels played key roles.
Perplexed, Daniel asked the angels
for explanations; the answers consisted of predictions of future
events, taking place at, or leading to, the End of Time. And when
will that be? Daniel asked; the answers, which on the face of it
seemed precise, only piled up enigmas upon puzzles.
In one instance an angel answered that a phase in future events, a
time when “an unholy king shall try to change the times and the
laws,” will last “a time, times and a half time”; only after that
will the promised Messianic Time, when,
“the kingdom of heaven will
be given to the people by the Holy Ones of the Most High,” come
Another time the responding angel said:
“Seventy sevens and
seventy sixties of years have been decreed for your people and your
city until the measure of transgression is filled and prophetic
vision is ratified”; and yet another time that “after the seventies
and sixties and two of years, the Messiah will be cut off, a leader
will come who will destroy the city, and the end will come through a
Seeking a clearer answer, Daniel then asked a divine messenger to
“How long until the end of these awful things?”
response, he again received the enigmatic answer that the End will
come after “a time, times and a half time.”
But what did “time,
times and a half time” mean, what did “seventy weeks of years” mean?
“I heard and did not understand,” Daniel stated in his book.
said: My lord, what will be the outcome of these things?”
speaking in codes, the angel answered:
“from the time the regular
offering is abolished and an appalling abomination is set up, it
will be a thousand and two hundred and ninety days; happy is the one
who waits and reaches one thousand three hundred and thirty five.”
And having given Daniel that information, the angel—who had called
him before “Son of Man”—told him:
“Now, go on to thy end, and arise
for your destiny at the End of Days.”
Like Daniel, generations of biblical scholars, savants and
theologians, astrologers and even astronomers—the famed Sir Isaac
Newton among the latter—also said “we heard, but did not
The enigma is not just the meaning of “time, time and a
half ” and so on, but from when does (or did) the count begin?
uncertainty stems from the fact that the symbolic visions seen by
Daniel (such as a goat attacking a ram, or two horns multiplying to
four and then dividing) were explained to him by the angels as
events that were to take place well beyond Babylon of Daniel’s time,
beyond its predicted fall, even beyond the prophesied rebuilding of
the Temple after seventy years.
The rise and demise of the Persian
empire, the coming of the Greeks under Alexander’s leadership, even
the division of his conquered empire among his successors—all are
foretold with such accuracy that many scholars believe that the
Daniel prophecies are of the “post-event” genre—that the book’s
prophetic part was actually written circa 250 b.c.e. but pretended
to have been written three centuries earlier.
The clinching argument is the reference, in one of the angelic
encounters, to the start of the count “from the time that regular
offering [in the temple] is abolished and an appalling abomination
is set up.” That could only refer to the events that took place in
Jerusalem on the 25th day of the Hebrew month Kislev in 167 b.c.e.
The date is precisely recorded, for it was then that “the
abomination of desolation” was placed in the Temple, marking—many
then believed—the start of the End of Days.15
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