WHO TO HEAVEN ASCENDED
Divine Encounters, as even Humankindís earliest experiences have
shown, can take many forms. Whether in the form of direct contact,
through emissaries, by only hearing the Godís voice, in dreams or
visions, there is one aspect common to all the experiences thus far
described: they all take place on Earth.
Yet there was one more form of Divine Encounter, the utmost, and
thus reserved for only a handful of chosen mortals: To be taken
aloft to join the Gods in Heaven.
In much later times, Egyptian Pharaohs were subjected to elaborate
mortuary rituals so that they might enjoy an Afterlife journey to
the Divine Abode. But in the days before the Deluge, selected
individuals ascended to Heaven and lived to tell about it. One
ascent is recorded in Genesis; two are related in Sumerian texts.
All three require accepting as truthful the Sumerian assertion that
there had been a developed civilization before the Deluge, one that
was wiped out and buried under millions of tons of mud by the
avalanche of water that engulfed Mesopotamia. This Sumerian
assertion was not doubted by later generations. An Assyrian king (Ashurbanipal)
boasted that he could "understand the enigmatic words in the stone
carvings from the days before the Flood," and Assyrian and
Babylonian texts often spoke of other knowledge and knowing
individuals, of events and urban settlements, long ago before the
The Bible, too, describes an advanced civilization
with cities, crafts, and arts in respect to the line of Cain. Though
no such details are provided in respect to the line of Seth, the
very tale of Noah and the construction of the ark implies a state of
affairs where people could already build seagoing vessels.
That such a civilization expressed itself in urban centers in
Mesopotamia (the core of such advances) but in only magnificent
artistry among the European branch of Cro-Magnons is quite possible.
As a matter of fact, some of the images painted or drawn by the cave
artists depict inexplicable structures or objects (Fig. 15).
become meaningful if one accepts the possibility that Cro-Magnons
had seen (or perhaps even traveled by) masted seagoing vessels - a
possibility that could explain how Man crossed the two oceans 20,000
or even 30,000 years ago to reach America from the Old World.
(Native American legends of prehistoric arrivals by sea across the
Pacific include the
tale of Naymlap, the leader of a small armada of
balsamwood boats, who carried in his lead boat a green stone through
which he could hear the divine instructions for navigation and the
point of landfall).
Indeed, the Sumerian tales of the two chosen individuals who
ascended to Heaven pertain to the origins of human civilization and
explain how it came about (before the Deluge). The first one is the
tale recounted in what scholars call
The Legend of Adapa. An
intriguing aspect of the tale is that, prior to the heavenly ascent,
Adapa was involved in an involuntary sea crossing to an unknown land
because his boat was blown off course - an episode that is perhaps
reflected in the recollections of early Americans and in the
Cro-Magnon cave depictions.
Adapa, according to the ancient text, was a protťgť of Enki. Allowed
to live in Enkiís city Eridu (the very first settlement of the
Anunnaki on Earth), "daily he attended the sanctuary of Eridu."
Choosing him to become "as a model of men," Enki (in this text
called by his initial epithet-name, E.A) "gave him wisdom, but did
not give him eternal life." It is not just the similarity between
the names Adapa and Adam, but also this statement, that led various
scholars to see in the ancient tale of Adapa the forerunner (or
inspiration for) the tale of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, who
were allowed to eat of the Tree of Knowing but not of the Tree of
The text then describes Adapa as a busybody, in charge of the
services for which the Primitive Workers were brought over to the
Edin: he supervises the bakers, assures water supplies, oversees the
fishing for Eridu, and as an "ointment priest, clean of hands,"
tends to the offerings and prescribed rites.
One day "at the holy quay, the Quay of the New Moon" (the Moon was
then the celestial body associated with Ea/Enki) "he boarded the
sailboat," perhaps intending to just sail to catch fish. But then
Then a wind blew thither,
and without a rudder his boat drifted.
With the oar he steered his boat;
[he drifted] into the broad sea.
The following lines in the clay tablet were damaged, so that we are
missing some details of what happened once Adapa had found himself
adrift in the "broad sea" (the Persian Gulf). As the lines become
legible again we read that a major storm, the South Wind, began to
blow. It apparently unexpectedly changed direction, and instead of
blowing from the sea toward land it blew toward the open ocean.
seven days the storm blew, carrying Adapa to an unknown distant
region. There, stranded, "at the place which is the home of the
fishes, he took up a residence." We are not told how long he was
stranded at that southern location, nor how he was finally rescued.
In his heavenly abode, according to the tale, Anu wondered
why the South Wind "has not blown toward the land for seven days."
His vizier Ilabrat answered him that it was because "Adapa,
offspring of Ea, had broken the wing of the South Wind." Perplexed,
Anu ("rising from his throne") said, "Let them fetch him hither!"
"At that, Ea, he who knows what pertains to Heaven," took charge of
the preparations for the celestial journey. "He made Adapa wear his
hair unkempt, and clothed him in mourning garb."
He then gave Adapa
the following advice:
You are about to go before Anu, the king;
The road to heaven you
will be taking.
When you approach the gate of Anu
the Gods Dumuzi
at the gate of Anu will be standing.
When they see you,
they will ask you:
"Man, on account of whom do you look thus,
whom so you wear mourning garb?"
To this question, Ea instructed
Adapa, you must give the following
answer: "Two Gods have vanished from our land, that is why I am
thus." When they question you who the two Gods were, Ea continued,
you must say, "Dumuzi and Gizzida they are." And, since the two Gods
whose names you tell as being the vanished Gods for whom you mourn
will be the very same two who guard the gate of Anu, Ea explained,
"They will glance at each other, and laugh a lot, and will speak to
Anu a good word about you."
This strategy, Ea explained, will get Adapa past the gate and "cause
Anu to show you his benign face." But once inside, Ea warned,
Adapaís true test will come:
As you stand before Anu,
they will offer you bread;
it is Death, do
They will offer you water;
it is Death, do not drink!
will offer you a garment;
put it on.
They will offer you oil;
anoint yourself with it!
"You must not neglect these instructions,"
Ea cautioned Adapa;
that which I have spoken, hold fast!"
Soon thereafter the emissary of Anu arrived. Anu, he said, gave the
following instructions: "Adapa, he who broke the South Windís
wing - bring him to me!"
And so speaking,
He made Adapa take the way to heaven, and to heaven he ascended.
"When he came to Heaven," the text continued, "and approached the
gate of Anu," Dumuzi and Gizzida were standing there, as Ea had
predicted. They questioned Adapa also as predicted, and Adapa
answered as instructed, and the two Gods brought him "before the
presence of Anu." Seeing him approach, Anu shouted, "Come closer,
Adapa; Why did you break the South Windís wing?" In reply, Adapa
related the story of his sea voyage, making sure that Anu realized
it was all in the service of Ea. Hearing that, Anuís anger to Adapa
subsided, but grew instead at Ea. "It was he who did it!"
A nagging aspect of the tale thus far is the lack of clarity
regarding the true circumstances of the sea voyage. Was the arrival
in a distant land the result of an accidental blowing off course, or
somehow deliberate? The damaged lines that deal with that portion of
the events make a determination impossible; but a feeling that the
whole excuse of a "broken wing" of the South Wind was a cover for
some deliberate plan by Ea comes to us as we read and reread the
Evidently Anu had such suspicions right men and there,
for having heard Adapaís tale he was puzzled, and asked:
Why did Ea to an unworthy human
disclose the ways of heaven and the
plans of Earth -
rendering him distinguished, making a Shem/or him?
And, continuing such rhetorical questions, Anu asked:
"As for us,
what shall we do about him?"
Since Adapa was not to blame for the whole incident, Anu wished to
reward him. He ordered that bread, "the Bread of Life," be offered
to Adapa; but Adapa, having been told by Ea that it will be the
Bread of Death, refused to eat of it. They brought to him water,
"the Water of Life"; but Adapa, forewarned by Ea that it would be
the Water of Death, refused to drink.
But when they brought a
garment he put it on, and when they brought oil he anointed himself.
Adapaís peculiar behavior amazed Anu.
"Anu looked at him, and
laughed at him."
"Come now, Adapa," Anu said,
"why did you not eat,
why did you not drink?"
To which Adapa responded,
"Ea, my master,
Ďyou shall not eat, you shall not drink.í "
"When Anu heard this, wrath filled his heart."
He dispatched an
"one who knows the thoughts of the great Anunnaki,"
discuss the matter with the Lord Ea.
The emissary, the partly
damaged tablet relates, repeated the events in Heaven word for word.
The tablet then becomes too damaged and illegible, so that we do not
know Eaís explanation for his odd instructions (that were,
obviously, intended to sustain his decision to give Adapa knowledge
but not immortality).
No matter how the discussion ended, Anu decided to send Adapa back
to Earth; and since Adapa did use the oil to anoint himself, Anu
decreed that back in Eridu Adapaís destiny will be to start a line
of priests who will be adept at curing diseases.
On the way back
Adapa, from the horizon of heaven
to the zenith of heaven cast a
and he saw its awesomeness.
The interesting question, what was the mode of transportation by
which Adapa had made the round-trip, seeing in the process the
awesome expanse of the heavens, is answered by the ancient text only
indirectly, when Anu wonders out loud why did Ea "make a Shem" for
Adapa. This Akkadian word is usually translated "name."
But as we
have elaborated in
The 12th Planet, the term (MU in Sumerian) obtained this meaning
from the shape of the stones erected to "commemorate the name" of a
king - a shape that emulated the pointed skychambers of the Anunnaki.
What Anu wondered, then, was, Why did Ea provide a skyrocket for Adapa?
Mesopotamian depictions show "Eaglemen" - Anunnaki astronauts in their
dress uniforms - flanking and saluting a rocketlike Shem (Fig. 16a).
Another depiction shows two such "Eaglemen" guarding the gateway of
Anu (illustrating perhaps the Gods Dumuzi and Gizzida of the Adapa
tale). The gateís lintel (Fig. 16b) is decorated with the emblem of
the Winged Disc, the celestial symbol of Nibiru, which establishes
where the gateway was.
The celestial symbol of Enlil (the seven dots
that stood for Earth as the seventh planet, counting from outside
inward) and the celestial symbol of Enki, the Moonís crescent,
together with the depiction of the whole solar system (a central
deity surrounded by a family of eleven planets) complete the
Figures 16a, 16b, and 16c
also find the winged "Eaglemen," whose depictions undoubtedly
inspired later notions of winged angels, flanking a Tree of Life;
significantly, it often evoked the double helix of DNA (Fig. 16c), a
reminder of the Garden of Eden tale.
Mesopotamian kings, boasting of their great knowledge, claimed that
they were "scions of the wise Adapa." Such claims reflected the
tradition that Adapa was granted not just priestly status, but was
also taught scientific knowledge that in antiquity was associated
with the priesthood, passed from one generation of priests to
another in the sacred precincts.
Tablets that cataloged literary
works kept on shelves in the library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh
mention, in their undamaged portions, at least two "books" relating
to Adapaís knowledge. One, whose title is damaged at its start, was
on a shelf next to a text of "Writings from Before the Flood," and
its second line reads "... which Adapa wrote at his dictation."
suggestion that Adapa had written down knowledge dictated to him by
a deity is enhanced by the title of another work attributed to Adapa
by Sumerian sources. It was titled U.SAR Dingir ANUM Dingir
ENLILA - "Writings Regarding Time, [from] Divine Anu and Divine
Enlil" - and confirms the traditions that Adapa was tutored not only
by Ea/Enki but also by Anu and Enlil, and that his knowledge ranged
from that of curing diseases to astronomy, timekeeping, and the
One other book (i.e. a set of tablets) by Adapa that was listed on
the shelves of the library of Nineveh was titled "Celestialship
which to the Sage of Anu, Adapa [was given]." The
Legend of Adapa
texts repeatedly refer to the fact that Adapa was shown "the ways of
heaven," enabling him to travel from Earth to the heavenly abode of
The implication that Adapa was shown a celestial route map
ought to be taken as based on fact, for - incredibly - at least one such
route map has been found. It is depicted on a clay disc, undoubtedly
a copy of an earlier artifact, that was also discovered in the ruins
of the royal library of Nineveh and that is now kept in the British
Museum in London.
Divided into eight segments, it depicted (as
evident from the undamaged portions. Fig. 17a) precise geometric
shapes (some, such as an ellipse, unknown from other ancient
and accompanying notations in Akkadian that referred to various
planets, stars, and constellations. Of particular interest is an
almost-intact segment (Fig. 17b) whose notations (translated here
into English) of space flight instructions identify it as the Route
of Enlil from a mountainous planet (Nibiru) to Earth.
Figures 17a and 17b
skies (the "Way of Enlil") lie four celestial bodies (which other
texts identify as Sun, Moon, Mercury, and Venus). In between, the
flight passes by seven planets.
The count of seven planets is significant. We consider Earth to be
the third planet, counting from the Sun outward: Mercury, Venus,
Earth. But for someone arriving from the outer limits of the solar
system, the count would be Pluto as the first, Neptune as the
second, Uranus as the third, Saturn and Jupiter as the fourth and
fifth, Mars as the sixth, and Earth would be the seventh. In fact.
Earth was so depicted (by the symbol of seven dots) on cylinder
seals and monuments, oftentimes with Mars (the sixth) as a
six-pointed "star" and Venus (the eighth) as an eight-pointed one.
Significant, too, though in other respects, is the fact that the
route passes between the planets named in Sumerian DIL-GAN (Jupiter)
and APIN (Mars). Mesopotamian astronomical texts referred to Mars as
the planet "where the right course is set," where a turn is made as
the drawing on the segment indicates. In
Genesis Revisited we have
presented considerable ancient and modern evidence in support of a
conclusion that an ancient space base had existed on Mars.
The missing texts or the damaged portions of the Adapa Legend might
have shed light on a puzzling aspect of the tale: If Ea foresaw all
that would happen at the heavenly abode, what was the purpose of
scheming to send Adapa aloft if, in the end, he was to be deprived
of Eternal Life?
Tales from post-Diluvial times (such as that of Gilgamesh) indicate
that offspring of a human and a God (or Goddess) deemed themselves
worthy of Immortality, and went to great lengths to join the Gods to
attain that. Was Adapa such a "demigod," and did he nag Ea to endow
him with Immortality? The reference to Adapa as "offspring of Ea"
is translated by some literally as "son of Ea," born to Enki by a
human female. This would explain Eaís scheme to pretend that Adapaís
wish is being granted, while in fact he maneuvered for the opposite
Adapa, without doubt, also bore the title "Son of Eridu" (Enkiís
center). It was an honorific title that signified intelligence and
education by schooling in Eriduís renowned academies. In Sumerian
times the "Sages of Eridu" were a class unto themselves, ancient
savants of blessed memory. Their names and specialties were listed
and recorded with great respect and reverence in countless texts.
According to those sources, the Sages of Eridu were seven in number.
In her study of Assyrian sources, Rykle Borger ("Die Beschwerungsserie Bit Meshri und the Himmelfahrt Henochs" in the
Journal of Near Eastern Studies) was intrigued by the fact that in
respect to the seventh one, the text stated (in addition to the name
and main call on fame, as for all those listed) that it was he "who
to heaven ascended."
The Assyrian text calls him Utu-Abzu; Professor
Borger concluded that he was the Assyrian "Enoch," because
to the biblical record, it was the seventh pre-Diluvial Patriarch,
whom the Bible calls Enoch, who was taken by God to the heavenly
While the biblical narrative lists for the pre-Diluvial Patriarchs
who had preceded Enoch and for those who followed him their names,
age when their firstborn son was begotten, and the age at which they
died, it states in respect to Enoch, the seventh Patriarch, thus (we
quote from the common English translation):
And Enoch lived sixty and five years
and begot Methuselah.
walked with God
after he had begotten Methuselah three hundred
and begot sons and daughters.
And all the days of Enoch were
three hundred sixty five years,
for Enoch walked with God and was
gone, for God had taken him.
Even this short biblical report has more to it than meets the eye in
translation because in the original Hebrew it is stated that "Enoch
walked with the Elohim," and was taken aloft "by Elohim." The Hebrew
term, as we have shown, stood for DIN.GIR in the Sumerian sources of
Genesis. Thus it was the Anunnaki with whom Enoch "walked" and by
whom he was taken aloft.
This gloss, as well as scientific data that
could come only from the Sumerian sexagesimal system of mathematics
and the Sumerian calendar that had originated in Nippur, are clues
to the ancient sources of compositions thanks to which we know much
more about Enoch than the laconic biblical sentence.
The first of these compositions is the Book of Jubilees that we have
already mentioned. Filling in the details lacking in the biblical
account of the ten pre-Diluvial Patriarchs, it asserts that Enochís
"walking with the Elohim" was his "being with the angels of God six
jubilees of years, and they showed him everything which is on Earth
and in the heavens:"
He was the first among men that are born on Earth who learnt writing
and knowledge and wisdom, and who wrote down the signs of heaven
according to the order of their months in a book . . .
And he was
the first to write a testimony, and he attested to the sons of Adam
by the generations on Earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees
and made known the days of the years;
And set in order the months
and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as the angels made known to
And also what he saw in a vision of his sleep, what was and
what will be as it will happen to the children of men throughout
According to this version of Enochís Divine Encounters, "he was
taken from amongst the children of men" by the angels, who
"conducted him into the Garden of Eden in majesty and honor." There,
according to the Book of Jubilees, Enoch spent his time by "writing
down the condemnations and judgments of the world," on account of
which "God brought the waters of the Flood upon all the land of
Even greater detail is provided by the
Pseudepigraphic Book of
Enoch, in which the tale of Enoch is not part of the
tale but the principal subject of a major work. Composed in the
centuries immediately preceding the Christian era, and based on
ancient Mesopotamian sources as well as the biblical ones, it
embellishes the old material with an angelology common in the
The Hebrew original of the Book of Enoch is lost, but had surely
existed because fragments thereof, mixed in with an Aramaic dialect
(Aramaic having become by then the language of common daily usage),
have been found among the Dead Sea scrolls. Widely quoted and
translated into Greek and Latin, it was considered as holy scripture
by nearly all the writers of the New Testament. With all that, the
composition has survived mainly owing to much later translations
into Ethiopic (known as "1 Enoch") and Slavonic ("2 Enoch,"
sometimes called The Book of the Secrets of Enoch).
The Book of Enoch describes in detail not one but two celestial
journeys: the first one to learn the heavenly secrets,
return, and impart the acquired knowledge to his sons. The second
journey was one way only: Enoch did not return from it, and thus the
biblical statement that Enoch was gone, for the Elohim had taken
him. In the Book of Enoch it is a cadre of angels that perform the
divinely ordained tasks.
The Bible states that Enoch "walked with the Elohim" well before he
was taken aloft; the Book of Enoch enlarges on that pre-ascent
period. It describes Enoch as a scribe with prophetic powers.
"Before these things Enoch was hidden, and no one of the Children of
Adam knew where he was hidden, and where he abode ... his days were
with the Holy Ones."
His Divine Encounters began with dreams and
visions. "I saw in my sleep what I will now say with my tongue of
flesh," he said of the start of his involvement with the Divine
It was more than a dream, it was a vision:
And the vision was shown to me thus:
In the vision, clouds invited me
and a mist summoned me;
the course of the stars and lightnings
sped and hastened me;
the winds in the vision caused me to fly
and lifted me upwards,
and bore me unto heaven.
Arriving in Heaven, he reached a wall "which is built of crystals
and surrounded by tongues of fire." He braved the fire and came upon
a house built of crystals whose ceiling emulated the starry sky and
showed the paths of the stars. In his vision he then saw a second
house, larger and more magnificent than the first.
fires that enflamed it, he saw inside a throne of crystal resting
upon streams of fire; "its appearance was crystal and the wheels
thereof as a shining sun." Seated on the throne was the Great
Glory, but not even the angels could approach and behold His face
because of the brilliance and magnificence of His glory. Enoch
prostrated himself, hiding his face and trembling. But then "the
Lord called me with His own mouth, and said, ĎCome hither, Enoch,
and hear my words.'" Then an angel brought him closer, and he heard
the Lord tell him that because he was a
scribe and righteous, he will become an interceder for men and will
be taught heavenly secrets.
It was after that dream-vision that Enochís journeys actually took
place. They started one night, ninety days before his 365th
birthday. As Enoch told it later to his sons,
I was alone in the house. I was in great trouble, weeping with my
eyes, and was resting, and fell asleep in my couch.
And there appeared to me two men, exceedingly big, such as I have
never seen on Earth.
Their faces shone like the Sun, their eyes were
like a burning light, and fire was coming out of their mouths.
clothing, purple in appearance, was different from each other; and
their arms were like golden wings.
They stood at the head of my
couch, and called upon me by my name.
Thus awakened from his sleep, Enoch continued, "I saw clearly those
two men standing in front of me." Unlike the first dream-vision,
this was more than just a dreamlike vision; this time it was for
"I stood up beside my couch, and bowed down to them," Enoch went on,
"and was seized with fear, and covered my face from terror."
the two emissaries spoke up, saying, "Have courage, Enoch, do not
fear, for the Eternal Lord hath sent us to thee. Behold, today thou shalt go up with us to the heavens."
They instructed Enoch to prepare himself for the celestial journey
by telling his sons and servants all that they should do in the
house while he was gone, and that no one should seek him, "until the
Lord return thee to them." Summoning his two oldest sons, Metushelah
and Regim, Enoch told them, "I know not whither I go nor what will
Therefore, he instructed them to be righteous and just
and keep the faith of one Almighty God. He was still speaking to his
sons when "the two angels took him on their wings and bore him up
unto the First Heaven." It was a cloudy place, and he saw mere "a
very great sea, greater than the earthly sea."
In that first stop
Enoch was shown the secrets of meteorology,
after which he was "carried up" to,
the Second Heaven, where he saw
prisoners tormented, their sin having been "not obeying the Lordís
In the Third Heaven, whence the two angels then took him,
he saw Paradise with the Tree of Life.
The Fourth Heaven was the
place of the longest stop, where Enoch was shown the secrets of the
Sun and Moon, of stars and zodiacal constellations, and of the
The Fifth Heaven was the "end of Heaven and Earth" and the
banishment place of "the angels who have connected themselves with
women." It was a "chaotic and horrible place," from which "seven
stars of heaven" could be seen "bound together." It was there that
the first part of the celestial journey was completed.
On the second leg of the journey Enoch encountered the various
classes of angels in an ascending order: Cherubim and Seraphim and
great Archangels, seven ranks of angels in all.
Passing through the
Sixth Heaven and the Seventh Heaven, Enoch reached the Eighth
Heaven; there the stars that make up the constellations could
already be seen; and as Enoch ascended yet higher, he could see from
the Ninth Heaven "the heavenly homes of the twelve signs of the
Finally he reached the Tenth Heaven, where he was "brought
before the Lordís face," a sight too awesome, Enoch later said, to
Terrified, Enoch "fell prone and bowed down to the Lord." And then
he heard the Lord say, "arise Enoch, have no fear, arise and stand
before my face and gain eternity." And the Lord commanded the
archangel Michael to change Enochís earthly garments, clothe him in
divine garments, and anoint him. Then the Lord told the archangel
Pravuel to "bring out the books from the holy storehouse, and a reed
for quick-writing, and give it to Enoch so that he would write down
all that the archangel will read to him, all the commandments and
For thirty days and thirty nights Pravuel was dictating
and Enoch was writing down all the secrets of,
"the works of heaven,
earth and sea, and all the elements, their passages and goings, and
the thunderings of the thunder; and the Sun and Moon, the goings and
changes of the stars, the seasons, years, days and hours" and "all
human things, the tongue of every human song... and all things
fitting to learn."
The writings filled up 360 books.
Then the Lord himself, letting Enoch sit on His left beside the
archangel Gabriel, told Enoch how Heaven and Earth and all upon it
were created. Then the Lord told Enoch that he would be returned to
Earth so that he could relate all that he had learned to his sons,
and give them the handwritten books, to pass the books from
generation to generation. But his stay on Earth would be for a term
of thirty days only, "and after thirty days I shall send my angel
for thee, and he will take thee from Earth and from thy sons, to
And so it was, at the end of the celestial stay, that the two angels
returned Enoch to his home, bringing him back to his couch at night.
Summoning his sons and all in his household, Enoch related to them
his experiences and described to them the contents of the books: the
measurements and descriptions of the stars, the length of the Sunís
circle, the changes of the seasons due to the solstices and
equinoxes, and other secrets regarding the calendar.
instructed his sons to be patient and gentle, to give alms to the
poor, to be righteous and faithful, and to keep all of the Lordís
Enoch kept talking and instructing until the last moment, by which
time word of his celestial visit and teachings had spread in town
and a crowd of two thousand people had assembled to hear him. So the
Lord sent a darkness upon the Earth, and the darkness engulfed the
crowd and all who were near Enoch.
In the darkness, the angels
swiftly lifted Enoch and carried him off "to the highest heaven."
And all the people saw,
but could not understand,
how Enoch had been taken.
And they went back to their homes,
those who had seen such a thing,
and glorified God.
And Metushelah and his brethren,
all the sons of Enoch, made haste
and erected an altar at the place
whence and where Enoch
had been taken up to heaven.
The second and final ascent of Enoch to Heaven, the scribe of the
Book of Enoch stated at the bookís conclusion, took place exactly on
the day and hour he was born, at age 365.
Was this tale of Enochís heavenly ascent(s) the equivalent of, or
inspired by, the Sumerian tale of Adapa?
Certain details that are included in both tales point in that
direction. Two angels, paralleling the Gods Dumuzi and
the Adapa legend, bring the Earthling "before the face of the Lord."
The visitorís garments are changed from earthly ones to divine ones.
He is anointed. And finally, he is given great knowledge that he
writes down in "books." In both instances, the visitor writes what
is being dictated to him. These details appear within a framework
that without doubt establishes the Sumerian origins of the Enoch
We have already pointed out that by ascribing Enochís Divine
Encounters to "the Elohim" the biblical narrative divulged its
Sumerian source. The Sumerian sexagesimal system reveals itself by
some key numbers in the Enoch tale, such as in the sixty days of the
first heavenly sojourn and the 360 "books" (tablets) dictated to
Enoch. Most intriguing, however, is the assertion that the Divine
Abode, site of the supreme Divine Encounter, was the Tenth Heaven.
This goes against all the notions of seven divine heavens, with the
seventh most supreme, a notion based on the assumption that the
ancient peoples knew only of seven celestial bodies (Sun, Moon,
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) that could be observed in the
skies surrounding the Earth.
The Sumerians, so much earlier than the
Greeks or Romans, knew, however, of the complete makeup of the Solar
System, a family they said of twelve members: Sun and Moon; Mercury,
Venus, EARTH, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto (we are
using the modem names); and a tenth planet, Nibiru, the planet that
was the abode of Anu, the "king" or "lord" of all the Anunnaki
(It is noteworthy that in Jewish medieval mysticism known as the Kaballah, the abode of God the Almighty is in the tenth Sefira, a
"brilliance" or heavenly place, a Tenth Heaven. The Sefirot (plural)
were usually depicted as concentric circles, often superimposed on the image of Kadmon ("The
Ancient One") (Fig. 18) the center of which is called Yesod
("Foundation"), the tenth Ketter ("Crown" of God the Most High).
Beyond it stretches the Ein Soff - infinity, infinite space.)
These are all definite links to the Sumerian sources. But whether it
was the tale of Adapa that is reflected in the Enoch record is
uncertain, for one can find more similarities between Enoch and a
second pre-Diluvial Sumerian individual, EN.ME.DUR.ANNA ("Master of
the Divine Tables of the Heavenly Bond"), also known as
EN.ME.DUR.AN.KI ("Master of the Divine Tablets of the Bond
Like the biblical reign-list of ten pre-Diluvian Patriarchs, so does
the earlier Sumerian King List name ten pre-Diluvial rulers. In the
biblical list, Enoch was the seventh. In the Sumerian list, Enmeduranki was the seventh. And, as in the case of Enoch,
Enmeduranki was taken by two divine chaperons heavenward, to be
taught a variety of sciences.
Whereas in the case of Adapa the
possibility (mentioned above) that he was a seventh (sage) is not
absolute (some Mesopotamian sources list him as the first of Eriduís seven sages), the seventh position of Enmeduranki is
certain; hence the scholarly opinion that it was he who was the
Sumerian equivalent of the biblical Enoch. He came from Sippar,
where in pre-Diluvial times the Spaceport of the Anunnaki was
located, with Utu ("Shamash" in later times), a grandson of Enlil,
as its commander.
The Sumerian King Lists record a "reign" of 21,600 years (six Sars)
for Enmeduranki in Sippar - a detail of much significance. First, it
reveals that at a certain point in time the Anunnaki deemed selected
humans qualified to act as the EN - "Chief" - of one of the pre-Diluvial
settlements (in this case, Sippar) - an aspect of the phenomenon of
Secondly, in line with our suggestion for reconciling the
Sumerian and biblical pre-Diluvial patriarchal life spans, it ought
to be noted that 21,600 reduced by a factor of 60 results in 360.
Although the Bible assigns to Enoch an earthly presence of 365
years, the Book of Enoch gives 360 as the number of books written by
Enoch in which he recorded the knowledge given him. These details
not only highlight the similarities between Enoch and Enmeduranki,
but also support our solution for the Sumerian/biblical treatment
of pre-Diluvial time spans.
The text detailing the ascent and training of Enmeduranki was pieced
together from fragments of tablets, mostly from the royal library in
Nineveh, then collated and published in an edited version by W.G.
Lambert ("Enmeduranki and Related Material" in the Journal of
Cuneiform Studies). The basic source is the record of pre-Diluvial
events inscribed on clay tablets by a Babylonian king in support of
his claim to the throne because he was a "distant scion of kingship,
seed preserved from before the Flood, offspring of Enmeduranki who
ruled in Sippar."
Having thus asserted his impressive ancestral link
to a pre-Diluvial ruler, the Babylonian king went on to tell the
story of Enmeduranki:
Enmeduranki was a prince in Sippar, beloved of Anu, Enlil and Ea.
Shamash in the Bright Temple appointed him as priest. Shamash and
Adad [took him] to the assembly [of the Gods].
Shamash, as mentioned, was a grandson of
Enlil and commander of the
Spaceport in Sippar in pre-Diluvial times and of the one of the
Sinai peninsula thereafter. Sippar, rebuilt after the Deluge but no
longer a Spaceport, was nevertheless
revered as the link with the celestial justice of the DIN.GIR ("The
Righteous/Just Ones of the Rocketships") and was the location of
Sumerís supreme court. Adad (Ishkur in Sumerian) was the youngest
son of Enlil, and was granted Asia Minor as his domain. The texts
described him as close to his niece Ishtar and his nephew Shamash.
It was the two, Adad and Shamash, who chaperoned Enmeduranki to the
place where the Gods were assembled, presumably for evaluation and
Shamash and Adad [clothed? purified?] him,
Shamash and Adad set him on
a large throne of gold.
They showed him how to observe
oil on water -
a secret of Anu, Enlil and Ea.
They gave him a Divine Tablet,
The Kibdu, a secret of Heaven and Earth.
They put in his hand a cedar instrument,
a favorite of the great Gods . . .
They taught him how to make
calculations with numbers.
Having been taught the "secrets of Heaven and Earth," specifically
including medicine and mathematics, Enmeduranki was returned to
Sippar with instructions to reveal to the populace his Divine
Encounter and to make the knowledge available to Humankind by
passing the secrets from one priestly generation to another, father
The learned savant,
who guards the secrets of the great Gods,
will bind his favored son with an oath
before Shamash and Adad.
By the Divine Tablets, with a stylus,
he will instruct him
in the secrets of the Gods.
The tablet with this text, now kept in the British Museum in London,
has a postscript:
The Three Who to Heaven Ascended 69
Thus was the line of priests created,
those who are allowed
to approach Shamash and Adad.
According to this rendition of the
heavenly ascent of Enmeduranki,
his abode was in Sippar (the post-Diluvial "cult center" of
Shamash), and it is there that he used the Divine Tablets to teach
secret knowledge to his successor priests. This detail forges a link
with the events of the Deluge, because according to Mesopotamian
sources as also reported by Berossus (a Babylonian priest who in the
second century B.C. compiled a "world history" in Greek), the
tablets containing the knowledge revealed to Mankind by the Anunnaki
before the Deluge were buried for safekeeping in Sippar.
In fact, the two tales - of the Sumerian Enmeduranki and of the
biblical Enoch - contain even stronger links than that one to the
Deluge. For, as we shall examine the story-behind-the-story, we
shall come upon a sequence of events whose principal motivation was
Divine Sex and whose culmination was a deliberate plan to eradicate
Before Copernicus and NASA
Until the publication by Nicolaus Copernicus of his astronomical
work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543 (and for many years
thereafter), the established wisdom was that the Sun, Moon and other
known planets orbit the Earth. The Catholic Church, which condemned
Copernicus for that heresy, officially acknowledged its mistake only
450 years later, in 1993.
The first new celestial objects discovered after the invention of
telescopes were the four large moons of Jupiter - by Galileo, in 1610.
Uranus, the planet beyond Saturn, which cannot be seen with the
naked eye from Earth, was discovered with the aid of improved
telescopes in 1781. Neptune was discovered beyond Uranus in 1846.
And Pluto, the outermost known planet, was found only in 1930.
Yet the Sumerians, millennia ago, had already depicted (see Fig. 13
and the detail, "A", opposite) a complete Solar System, with the
Sun - not Earth - in the center; a Solar System that includes Uranus,
Neptune, and Pluto, and one more large planet ("Nibiru") as it
passes between Jupiter and Mars.
It was only in the 1970s that NASA satellites gave us close-up views
of our neighboring planets, and only in 1986 and 1989 that Voyager-2
flew by Uranus and Neptune. Yet Sumerian texts (quoted by us in
12th Planet) had already described those outer planets exactly as
NASA found them to be.
The first ring surrounding Saturn was not discovered until 1659 (by
Christian Huygens). Yet the imprint of an Assyrian cylinder seal on
a clay envelope encasing a tablet, that shows in the celestial
background the Sun, the Moon (its crescent), and Venus
(eight-pointed "star"), also depicts a small planet - Mars - separated
from a larger one (Jupiter) (by a straw representing the Asteroid
Belt?) followed by a large ringed planet - Saturn!. ("B" opposite).