by Michael Arbuthnot

1997

from TeamAtlantis Website

 

 

I. Prologue

 

STAR NAME:

CITY NAME:

Betelgeuse

Zawyat Al Aryan

Rigel

Abu Ruwash

Bellatrix

No city, Army/The Gesh

Saiph

Birak Al Khiyam

M42

No City, Agricultural Fields

M43

No City, Agricultural Fields

Meissa

No City, In the Desert

Leporis

Ausim, Letopolis, Khem

Sirius

Heliopolis

Alnitak

Giza, Nazlet Al Samman

Alnilam

Giza, Nazlet Al Samman

Mintaka

Giza, Nazlet Al Samman

 

The philosopher H. Butterfield once wrote:

"But the supreme paradox of the scientific revolution is in the fact that things in which we find it easy to instill into the boys in school... things which would strike us as the ordinary natural way of looking at the universe... defeated the greatest intellects for centuries."
(The Origin of Modern Science, 1949)
 

 

II. INTRODUCTION


I have been in contact with Eric Wilson (* "Eric Wilson" is a pseudonym to protect the identity of Arbuthnot's co-researcher) since meeting him at a presentation in July of 1996.

 

As an independent Egyptologist in Los Angeles Eric Wilson is an ex-naval navigator with experience in naval intelligence. He has been diligently studying Egypt and her mysteries for over eighteen years. It has only been in the last two years, however, that Wilson has begun to receive his rightful recognition as a pioneering researcher and independent Egyptologist.

 

He has recently accepted the title of Associate Field Researcher for The American Anthropological Research Foundation (AARF). In addition, Wilson has also been lecturing in the west and southwest portions of the United States. This has earned him several guest appearances on Art Bell's Coast to Coast (the largest nationally syndicated late-night radio-talk show).

Nurturing a new-found curiosity for Egyptology, I became increasingly interested in Wilson's extensive knowledge and, more specifically, in his technique of archaeoastronomy.

Archaeoastronomy is a division of Anthropology that looks to artifacts and ancient architectures for their connections to celestial movements and/or bodies. In this way it searches for answers concerning the origins of calendars, astronomical practices, celestial lore, religions, and worldviews.

Although non-traditional in his approach to archaeoastronomy, Wilson's methodology was startlingly pragmatic. Wilson has labeled his unique brand of research "astro-geo-archaeology."

 

It was last December that I had a chance to join him in the field and see it at work first-hand.
 



III. THE ORION PYRAMID THEORY


Before proceeding, it is important to clarify that Eric Wilson did not personally hypothesize the theory unto which we shall soon focus.

 

The theory was originally presented by Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert in The Orion Mystery. Subsequently, the hypothesis has been espoused on several television specials and documentaries.

Robert Bauval discovered what Egyptologists have overlooked for centuries.

 

He simply superimposed the constellation of Orion (which Dynastic Egypt considered the celestial counterpart of their god Osiris) onto the terra of Giza and surrounding regions. The idea was that the three belt stars of Orion: Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka, coincide precisely via angular alignments to the three pyramids at Giza: Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.

 

If this correlation were correct, then one would expect that other structures might coincide with the other stars in the constellation. Indeed, Bauval claimed to have located two such structures. (For reference, all pyramids correlating to the Orion constellation shall be referred to as "Orion Pyramids". Those include the 3 pyramids at Giza as well as the pyramids at Abu Ruwash and Zawyat Al Aryan).

According to Bauval, the remains of a pyramid north of Giza at Abu Ruwash and similar remains south of Giza at Zawyat Al Aryan seemed to correlate to the stars Saiph and Bellatrix. Saiph is the star considered to be Orion's right knee and Bellatrix is Orion's left shoulder (using Orion's perspective rather than Earth's).

Wilson was intrigued by Bauval's original proposal, but apparently found an incongruity. It appeared that Bauval had incorrectly placed the superimposition of Orion onto the topography of Giza. Wilson found that based upon the precise relationship of angulation between the three pyramids at Giza and the stars in Orion's belt, the terrestrial coordinates for Saiph and Bellatrix would not place them at Abu Ruwash and Zawyat Al Aryan, but elsewhere.

 

Even more intriguing, Wilson discovered that the pyramids present at Abu Ruwash and Zawyat Al Aryan aligned perfectly to the right ascension and declination (celestial latitude and longitude) of the stars Rigel (Orion's left knee) and Betelgeuse (Orion's right shoulder).

 

In other words, Wilson discovered that by swiveling the constellation so that the star Rigel lay over the pyramid at Abu Ruwash, and the star Betelgeuse lay over the pyramid at Zawyat Al Aryan, the angulation became exact!

Using the Global Positioning Satellite System (Wilson was able to enter his knowns - i.e. the positions of the pyramids at Giza), and calculate the longitudinal and latitudinal positions of Orion's stars relative to their right ascensions and declinations. Then it was simply a matter of letting the United States' 24 orbiting satellites show the way, as they did for us in December, 1996.

Not only did the GPS confirm Abu Ruwash and Zawyat Al Aryan as the stars Rigel and Betelgeuse, but it predicted the true locations for Saiph and Bellatrix. Wilson succeeded in locating these positions and found evidence that subterranean remains still exist, and/or structures one existed, at both sites.

However, Wilson calculated the terrestrial positions for the stars that make up Orion's head (Meissa) and dagger (M42/M43). Additionally, Wilson located the terrestrial position for the star Leporis in the constellation of Lepus (adjacent to Orion).

 

All three of these sites exhibit curious evidence in support of The Orion Pyramid Theory.

 


IV. ZAWYAT AL ARYAN and BETELGEUSE


It is important to know that one unique aspect of the pyramids at Giza are their block characteristics.

 

The core blocks are limestone and white in color, chalky and granular. Some of the stones possess artificial, parallel grooves and/or distinctive fossilized numlites. Numlites are a prehistoric foraminifera (a shelled sea-creature). These particular examples date to roughly 125,000,000 ybp.

These limestone blocks are said to have been quarried in Tura and ushered across the Nile. Regardless of their origin, it can generally be stated that any limestone block in the greater Giza area with such distinctive features indicates it was artificially placed.

On December 5th, 1996, Eric Wilson, myself, and three members of our support team approached the remains at Zawyat Al Aryan.

 

The Zawyet Al Aryan pyramid was once a glorious step-pyramid and is known to Egyptologists as the "Layer Pyramid."

 

3-D reconstruction drawing of the Step Pyramid.

The substructure is also indicated on this drawing.
Source: Lehner, Complete Pyramids, p. 95.

 

It is believed to have been built during the 3rd Dynasty by Pharaoh Kha`ba; thus pre-dating the Giza pyramids.

 

A vessel inscribed with the name Kha`ba found nearby is the sole basis for this dynastic assignment. (Atlas of Ancient Egypt, by John Baines & Jaromir Malek, 1993)

We located the Zawyat Al Aryan pyramid via Wilson's astro-geo-archaeological technique. As the exact topographical representation of the star Betelgeuse, the Zawyat Al Aryan pyramid's mere location implies that it was part of a master plan to replicate the Orion constellation in and around Giza. Therefore, one must naturally assume its original construction date would be in the vicinity of the other celestial representatives; give or take a few hundred years.

Yet, the pyramid at Zawyat Al Aryan is constructed in a step-fashion and is composed of very manageable, brick-like building stones. This construction technique and average block size is quite different from the other Orion Pyramids, which consist of megalithic blocks in the standard pyramidal form. However, since a coincidental celestial-terrestrial correlation is highly unlikely, why then is a step-pyramid located upon one of the Orion sites?

Surrounding the Zawyat Al Aryan remains are rolling sand dunes. Within these dunes, and likely beneath the present structure, one finds heavily-weathered, megalithic building stones. Although almost indistinguishable from the natural landscape, these severely deteriorated block still exhibit their original divisions and dimensions. Unlike the dark brown blocks of the Zawyat Al Aryan step-pyramid, these gigantic blocks are a white limestone.

 

They bare an uncanny resemblance to the core stones used at Giza and Abu Ruwash: the Orion Pyramids to the north. We have yet to find a text with a description and/or date for these enigmatic stones. The heavily-eroded state of these megalithic blocks is an indication of their ancient placement. In contrasts to the less-eroded stones of the step-pyramid, it is clear the blocks have far greater antiquity.

In addition to their relative erosion, the block dimensions and composition also make it apparent their constructive industry is different from that of the present pyramid. A different constructive industry is a telltale sign of different constructive periods.

 

The industry they do resemble, however, is that of the other Orion Pyramids. In this light, the megalithic blocks appear to mark the vestiges of a much larger, and much more ancient compound. This compound being contemporaneous with the other Orion pyramids.

This conclusion, however, is problematic if one believes the Orion Pyramids (including those at Giza and Abu Ruwash) were built during the 4th Dynasty. In other words, how can a pyramid assigned to the 3rd Dynasty (earlier) lie atop remains which resemble the 4th Dynasty's (later) constructive industry? Relative dating deems this impossible. Either the step-pyramid at Zawyat Al Aryan was built after the 4th Dynasty, or the ancient blocks of the Orion Pyramids are older than orthodox Egyptology currently believes.

Why is a step-pyramid built upon an Orion site? Perhaps the builders of the step-pyramid used the ancient ruins for a utilitarian purpose. The remains may have provided a strong building foundation or a strategic vantage point.

Or perhaps they used the remains for symbolic reasons. The ruins may have been significant to their belief system and/or history. It is also possible that the sand-covered remains may have made a sacred mound or hill. These distinct possibilities are not mutually exclusive.

It is undeniable that the Zawyat Al Aryan pyramid sits on the exact topographical location for the star Betelgeuse.

 

This fact, supported by the Giza Pyramids' precise connection to the stars Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka (Orion's belt stars), make The Orion Pyramid Theory begin to sparkle with life.

 


V. ABU RUWASH and RIGEL


Wilson and I were blasted by the desert winds as we crested the red rock-strewn mesa.

 

This was the place called Abu Ruwash and the site of the pyramidal representation of the star Rigel. It was December 4th, 1996, and we were approaching the ruins of an ancient structure, lonely and desolate on a wind-swept hill.

The pyramid at Abu Ruwash is believed to be a 4th Dynasty construction built by the Pharaoh Ra`djedef. Although Ra`djedef was the son and successor of the famed Pharaoh Khufu, his reign lasted but 8 short years (2528 BC - 2520 BC). It was Khafre, Khufu's other son who became the prominent Pharaoh that is recognized as the builder of the second largest pyramid at Giza.

Ra'djedef was given credit for the partial construction of Abu Ruwash based on two pieces of relatively weak evidence. First, a large but damaged granite bust of the pharaoh was found just north of the pyramid. Second, the megalithic limestone blocks used within the pyramid are generally associated with those used during the 4th Dynasty.

 

Since Ra`djedef was a 4th Dynasty pharaoh, and a broken sculpture in his image was found near the pyramid site, the case was closed. The historical lack of excavation at Abu Ruwash however, deems any absolute dynastic designation somewhat premature.

According to orthodox Egyptology, the pyramid at Abu Ruwash was never completed. This explains why Ra`djedef's pyramid lies in ruin, while his brother's pyramid at Giza stands hardly scathed in comparison. This does not explain, however, why the powerful Pharaoh Khafre, at the height of Egyptian civilization, would allow his brother's pyramid to remain unfinished. The completion of this relatively small pyramid would have been easy in comparison to the grandiose structure built on the Giza plateau.

It is also interesting to note that in the early 1900's, several 1st Dynasty artifacts were uncovered at Abu Ruwash. Several of these objects were inscribed with the names Aha and Den; both of whom were 1st Dynasty Pharaohs.

 

As a result of this and other finds, orthodox Egyptologists believe that the Abu Ruwash site had been an administration center from pre-dynastic times forward. (Atlas of Ancient Egypt, by John Baines & Jaromir Malek, 1993)

Once again, we are faced with the amazing celestial-terrestrial corollary coincidence. Could the construction of an administration center atop an isolated hill just coincidentally fall on the topographical location for the star Rigel? It is highly unlikely. The coincidence would be statistically inconceivable. Therefore, it is our belief that form must follow function. Whoever first constructed on the Abu Ruwash site knew of its celestial connection.

Could the ancient pyramid have already been at Abu Ruwash during the 1st Dynasty? We established that the original builders at this location likely knew of its celestial connection. Additionally, a reoccurring theme at all the visible Orion sites are structures or remains built of the unique megalithic limestone blocks. It would make sense that the original builders, knowing well of the Orion connection, built at Abu Ruwash with these distinctive blocks.

 

This might explain why the pre-dynastic Egyptians selected this particular location for their administration center. There was already a structure in place!

Speculation? Yes, but remember, blocks of an identical industry at Zawyat Al Aryan apparently predate the 3rd Dynasty. This fact, coupled with the weak evidence used to credit Ra`djedef with the pyramid's construction, make the possibility tantalizingly real - perhaps even statistically more likely than a placement theory relying on pure coincidence alone.

The far more threatening implications of such a possibility fall upon the Orion Pyramids at Giza. If there is ample evidence to indicate that the Orion Pyramids at Zawyat Al Aryan and Abu Ruwash presage the 3rd Dynasty, then what about the Giza Pyramids? Could they as well?

Although the pyramids at Giza are the core Orion Pyramids (Orion's belt stars), orthodox Egyptology is adamant about their 4th Dynasty construction.

 

However, would those who designed the Orion complex have started with the outlying pyramids, and then have moved in to complete the center of the constellation at a later date? During the 4th Dynasty?

This sequence seems counter-intuitive. One would imagine that the ancient architects would have started with the center of the constellation at Giza, and subsequently moved outwards. Following this logical progression, one is immediately forced to question the 4th Dynasty assignment of the Giza Pyramids.

Interestingly enough, the only carbon-dating as yet done to the Giza pyramids is in support of a pre-4th Dynasty construction date. This issue is briefly detailed later. Although this is not the time to delve into such matters of ambiguity, this question should be addressed by orthodox Egyptologists.

What is to be addressed now, is the Abu Ruwash pyramid's connection to the star Rigel. Again, like the pyramids at Zawyat Al Aryan and Giza, the structure at Abu Ruwash sits on the exact topographical location for a star in the Orion constellation. Coincidence? Not likely.

The Orion Pyramid Theory is now sizzling with legitimacy.

 


VI. THE GESH and BELLATRIX


December 6th took us into the desert southwest of the pyramids.

 

With the GPS as our guide and horses as transportation, we went in search of the structure that would truly represent the star Bellatrix. After no more than two hours, the GPS began to sound. Like clockwork, the predicted coordinates were precise.

We were just within the boundaries of an Egyptian military compound when we found a pile of the familiar yet distinctive rocks; isolated and standing out from the surrounding desert stones. Approximately 13 meters in diameter and scattered across the desert floor were hundreds of pyramidal stones. These rocks were unquestionably of the same material as the Giza pyramids as they displayed the distinctive numlites and were white in color. It was far too great a coincidence that these particular stones be located in this desolate region.

 

The celestial-terrestrial connection was once again affirmed. But where was the structure?

Local Egyptians had used pyramid stones to construct Cairo and other buildings in the area. It was remotely possible they had used all the rocks in the "Gesh" (meaning "Military" in Arabic and Wilson's name for the area containing the ruins of Bellatrix) for construction purposes. Yet this seems unlikely when one considers the remoteness of the Gesh site.

 

It would make little sense for the Egyptians to have completely dismantled this pyramid, while leaving other more accessible pyramids, like Abu Ruwash, partially intact. In addition, if it had been dismantled, one would expect to find a larger scattering of rocks, perhaps an exposed entrance or chamber (as are commonly found), and/or evidence of human tampering, but none of these were apparent.

It seems likely that whatever remains at the Gesh is subterranean. One likely explanation for its burial are the high desert winds. The desert sands are notorious for burying buildings in a single storm (It is common knowledge that the Sphinx's enclosure has been cleared of sand many times in recent history). However, the only way to verify whether or not such a subterranean structure exists is with ground-penetrating radar; which has yet to be done.

Additional evidence for the pyramid's underground presence comes from an Egyptian named Ahmed Abdel Romain Shire. Ahmed lives in the village of Nazlet Al Samman and was an antiquities watchman at Giza for over thirty-five years. He says that he accompanied an Egyptian archaeologist to the Gesh site some twenty years ago. The doctor, he says, was looking for an entrance to the north side of a buried pyramid.

Despite the fact that no obvious structure was apparent at the Gesh site, the isolated presence of the limestone deposit, on the exact terrestrial location for the star Bellatrix, was too uncanny for coincidence.

 

Additionally, the testimony of Ahmed Abdel Romain Shire further supports the possibility of subterranean remains at the Gesh site. These factors strongly indicate the validity of the Orion connection.

 

Concrete confirmation is only as far away as the nearest set of ground-penetrating radar equipment.

 


VII. BIRAK AL KHIYAM and SAIPH


December 7th took us to the village of Birak Al Khiyam, which is located to the northeast of Giza. Birak Al Khiyam is a small farming village and the terrestrial location for the star Saiph.

As in the Gesh, there was not an obvious structure present, but a plethora of evidence was found. A sewage canal had been dredged a few years earlier and had exposed the same large, white limestone as found at Giza. As we walked up and down the canal, there were hundreds of these distinctive rocks seemingly out of place. A local told us the canal had been dredged roughly 15 meters down and had exposed the limestone.

The GPS directed us into the middle of a cabbage field just a few meters from the canal. Here stood an old cattle shed. The foundation of this building consisted of the limestone detritus with more modern-looking stones beginning half-way and continuing to the roof. An elderly Egyptian farmer said that the shed, in its present state, had been there for at least 500 years.

 

 The man's construction date likely marked the renovation of an existing structure or foundation, which would suggest that its limestone foundation predates his 500 year estimation. This, in turn, demonstrates that local Egyptians have been using the limestone debris for well over 500 years.

As we returned to our taxi, Wilson called my attention to a large stone wall that encircled a timeworn house. The wall's plaster casing had begun to crumble and dislodge itself in certain places, thus revealing glimpses of its core. Not surprisingly, the core stones were the same familiar white limestone blocks.

Wilson then turned my attention to the old house. The house revealed the same phenomenon. The blocks were present around the house's foundation where the plaster had chipped off.

The residents were kind enough to let us tour the inside of their home, where we observed the same thing. In several places where the plaster had crumbled, the limestone was apparent. It was common practice, according to one Egyptian local, for builders to collect rocks from the fields and surrounding areas to use in their constructions.

It is this kind of evidence that leads us to believe that there are more than cabbage fields in and around Birak Al Khiyam. Yet, to truly determine whether or not the remnants of a structure exists somewhere beneath its soil, ground penetrating radar is necessary.

 

However, the presence of the distinctive stones within the canal and in several localized structures was intriguing - again lending credence to the Orion connection.

 


VIII. M42 and M43


A similar experience was had when Wilson and I went to locate the structures associated with M42 and M43. These are the stars that make up Orion's dagger or sheath. Once again the GPS led the way, however this time our horses had been replaced by a motorcycle.

The satellites led us to the western edge of Cairo, across an irrigation canal, and into a cabbage field. As we zig-zagged between the agricultural fields, an entourage of curious Egyptian farmers began to follow.

Again the distinctive, out-of-place stones were present, suggesting the remains of an ancient artificial structure, possibly still somewhere below. Suggesting also, that such a structure was likely of the Orion Pyramids' construction industry.

Similar to the Birak Al Khiyam region, there were several structures in which the limestone blocks had been incorporated. A helpful farmer said that the local buildings had been constructed of stones they had found while tilling the fields. The stones, he said, were scattered about the whole area - again, providing additional confirmation that a structure of some sort happened to have fallen on the terrestrial equivalent to a celestial body.

It is worthy of note that within 200 meters of the GPS focal point was a mosque. We were near sacred ground. However, any connection between the mosque and ancient ruins was not apparent.

Not yet, anyway.

 


IX. THE DESERT and MEISSA


More recently (June, 1997), and in my unfortunate absence, Wilson and a colleague returned to Egypt.

 

On this expedition, Wilson not only located the terrestrial counterpart to Orion's head (Meissa), but also pinpointed the terrestrial location for the star Leporis; not-so-coincidentally falling next to a mosque where the ancient city of Letopolis one stood.

Wilson and his companion took a motorcycle several miles south of Giza into the Egyptian desert. In no time they found themselves at Meissa's topographical cousin. Wilson claims the experience was, in many ways, similar to what we had experienced at the Gesh site, yet still very different in several important aspects.

When the GPS signaled their arrival, Wilson and his companion stood roughly 6 km south and slightly west of the southern axis of the Great Pyramid. The rolling desert lay barren and lifeless about them.

 

Thirteen kilometers to the north, the mesa upon which the Abu Ruwash Pyramid rests was just visible through the mid-morning mist. From this slightly elevated vantage point, all the major Orion sites were visible, with the exception of the Zawyat Al Aryan ruins to the east, which were blocked by an erupting dune.

The distinctive limestone remnants scattered about the Gesh site had weighed up to 30 pounds.

 

However, the limestone remains at the Meissa site were considerably larger by comparison. In the same fashion as the Gesh site, these blocks were concentrated in one particular region of an otherwise vacuous wasteland. This particular location, playing host to such ancient remains, again lends powerful support to The Orion Pyramid Theory; thus leaving the coincidental correlation for such a position almost as remote as the site itself.

Another important difference between the Meissa site and the Gesh site was evidence of human tampering. It was unclear to Wilson whether it had been archaeologists or grave-robbers (more likely the later, according to Wilson), but someone had dug several large holes in Meissa's immediate vicinity - evidently searching for something.

As Wilson kicked aside the sand and uncovered the tops of several very large limestone blocks, he wondered who had been so interested in this remote part of the desert. Did someone else know of the celestial-terrestrial connection? Did someone else suspect a subterranean ruin? The predictable pattern of ancient remains via astro-geo-archaeology would be an invaluable formula for the determined grave-robber, he thought. Perhaps too valuable to publicly reveal.

Had the Meissa site been host to a pyramid? It had been host to something, but once again, such questions can only be answered by ground-penetrating radar and/or excavations. Thus far, such confirmations have evaded us.

What has not evaded us, however, is that a terrestrial representation to the star Meissa once resided in this portion of the ancient Egyptian desert.

The Orion Pyramid Theory stands strong.

 


X. LETOPOLIS and LEPORIS


Approximately 15.75 km north of Giza lies the ancient city of Khem or Letopolis, which is known today as Ausim.

 

In ancient times, this was the sacred city of Horus. It was in Letopolis that an ancient temple, far older than the pyramids themselves (supposedly), was cited.

Letopolis was also an important point in the Osiris funerary procession. Once the procession had crossed the Nile from Heliopolis to the east, it turned south in Letopolis and headed for Giza. However, Letopolis is significant for another important reason as well. It happens to be the terrestrial location for the star Leporis.

Knowing well of Letopolis' rich Egyptian heritage and the implicit celestial connection made by Robert Bauval in The Orion Mystery, Hunter plotted the coordinates for the star Leporis. When they arrived at their calculated position, the celestial-terrestrial connection again seemed to be confirmed. This time, however, the connection extended beyond Orion's mighty grasp and into star-pattern of Lepus.

Hunter and his comrade arrived in Letopolis, situated on the western outskirts of Cairo, to find a sacred mound crowned by a mosque. Hunter was informed by a local Egyptian that the whole area, encompassing roughly a quarter of a kilometer in diameter, rested upon a sacred hill. The GPS directed Hunter towards the top of the knoll and to within a few hundred meters of an aged mosque. The hand-held GPS monitor then buzzed and a new position was acquired; bearing due north of the Great Pyramid.

Intrigued by this nexus, Hunter circled the mosque looking for evidence of the distinctive limestone blocks and/or any other telltale signs of an ancient structure which may have once been present. However, Hunter's investigation was cut short when he and his comrade were accosted by a group of suspicious Muslims. Buttons were ripped from shirts and bodies pushed. Hunter was soon forced from the area. Were the Muslims hiding something or just wary of curious foreigners? Time will tell.

Nonetheless, Hunter's brief stint in Letopolis did reveal some curious correlations: A sacred mound on the site of the star Leporis. An ancient mosque just meters from Leporis' focal point and adamantly protected by its congregation.

His experience also raises a number of questions: Why was this mound sacred? Is something concealed beneath the centuries of soil and sand? Is the mound a buried and/or deteriorated pyramid? Ground-penetrating radar is necessary for verification.

Another curiosity the Letopolis mound raises is the possible connection between Orion sites and sacred Egyptian ground. In two of the Orion sites that do not host pyramidal structures (M42/M43 region and Letopolis), mosques happen to be closely aligned (within a few hundred meters) to the GPS target location.

Indeed, mosques are prevalent throughout Cairo, but were the correlations mere coincidence? One might well-speculate that the mosque at the M42/M43 region is constructed atop sacred ground as well. Sacred archaic sites have long been ideal temple locations.

Could the long-forgotten legacies of these sacred regions find their roots in the Orion and Lepus constellations? The mosques' mere locations would imply so.

In addition, their locations continue to support the celestial-terrestrial connection presented in this analysis of The Orion Pyramid Theory.

 


XI. THE CONTROVERSY


The most controversial issue concerning The Orion Pyramid Theory is the severe and tragic implications it has to dynastic assignments and canonized dating.

 

Along with the sequential ambiguities, the Orion connection also presents a number of questions concerning construction motivations and Egyptian technologies. Under the premises of The Orion Pyramid Theory, the ancient Egyptians had far greater astronomical and geodetic knowledge than we give them credit.

Despite such controversial claims, dogmatic dating cannot refute The Orion Pyramid Theory. When the theory is eventually verified by academic Egyptology, it will be the element of precedence. Dating will have to conform to its repercussions.

Skeptics might find it interesting that the only absolute dating analysis that has been applied to the Giza pyramids was done by Dr. Mark Lehner. Lehner is a professor at Chicago University's Oriental Institute and one of today's top Egyptological authorities. Working under the auspices of the Edgar Cayce Foundation at the time, Lehner found traces of burnt wood and ash within the gypsum mortar mixture used to seal the core stones of the Great Pyramid. It was Lehner's belief that this was material residue from campfires built by the pyramid's masons.

In 1986 Lehner conducted a series of carbon-tests on this organic material. Surprisingly enough, the tests revealed dates that ran from 3809 BC to 2869 BC; averaging 400 to 450 years older than orthodox Egyptologists expected. In the PBS Nova special (1997), Lehner admitted the testing averaged 374 years earlier than the 4th Dynasty (www.pbs.org).

 

Even this conservative estimate places the construction of the Giza necropolis roughly 225 years after Menes unified upper and lower Egypt (which would have been an extraordinary accomplishment for such a young civilization). Point being, a definite 4th Dynasty assignment for the Giza pyramids seems presumptuous in this context.

The dates Lehner arrived at, however, do not contradict any of the assertions made in this explication.

 

In fact, the Orion Pyramid Theory is assisted by these absolute dates. If the Giza pyramids can be shown to have been built prior to the 3rd Dynasty, the sequential ambiguities at Zawyat Al Aryan are solved. If the Giza pyramids can be shown to have been built during, or prior to, the 1st Dynasty, the sequential ambiguities at both Zawyat Al Aryan and Abu Ruwash are solved.

One must ask, why do Lehner's absolute dates continue to be ignored in favor of less-substantial and circumstantial evidence? It seems the flaws of competitive Egyptology are lurking once again.

 

The scientific process is being stifled.

 


XII. CONCLUSION


The chance celestial-terrestrial correlations of Zawyat Al Aryan, Abu Ruwash, and the Giza pyramids are statistically near impossible.

 

Due to these pyramids' topographical locations and constructive industries, it makes much sense to conclude there was a specific intention in mind - that being a terrestrial representation of the Orion constellation.

Additionally, there is evidence that strongly indicates the connection extends to the Meissa and Bellatrix (The Gesh) sites. Both of these locations exhibit the remains of ancient structures which have either been dismantled, eroded, or buried. Again, the chances of such remains being coincidentally located in these remote, but precise locations, is inconceivable. The evidence begs for continued research.

Although lacking the near concrete connection of the aforementioned sites, the M42/M43, Birak Al Khiyam, and Letopolis sites also pose some interesting linkages. As these sites are in the midst of modern civilization, finding solid evidence of ancient structures has proven to be somewhat difficult. However, the presence of the signature limestone is encouraging. A concentrated, thorough, and well-financed expedition would surely turn positive results.

Despite the many problematic issues raised by The Orion Pyramid Theory concerning dynastic assignments, the connection cannot be ignored. Now that the The Orion Pyramid Theory has been made public, these enigmas must be examined in detail.

For as eternal as the stars in the night's sky, the Orion celestial-terrestrial connection is not going away anytime soon.

 


XIII. RESOLUTION


To truly determine whether or not such subterranean structures exist at the Gesh, Birak Al Khiyam, M42/M43, Meissa, and Letopolis sites, ground-penetrating radar and/or excavations are necessary.

 

If subterranean structures can be verified, as we confidently think they will be, it would shed a conclusive light on the pyramid builders' original plans, as well as force academic Egyptology to reconsider its canonized dating and dogma.

Such verification would open up a new chapter of Egyptology into the next millennium, as well as establish astro-geo-archaeology as a legitimate methodology.

However, The Orion Pyramid Theory may have far greater ramifications still hidden below the horizon of Egyptology's future. Such ramifications have been suggested by the location of Leporis in Letopolis - extending the celestial-terrestrial connection outside the constellation of Orion and into Lepus.

For surely a plan of the Orion Pyramids' grandeur does not stand alone.

There is work to be done.