by Richard C. Hoagland

from EnterpriseMission Website


Part I

On April 14th 1998, at approximately 7:02 AM PDT, Mars Global Surveyor imaged the Cydonia region for the second time.


The targeted area was the so-called "City Square" at approximately 40.9 degrees N. by 9.8 degrees W. Inexplicably, after hitting the Face dead on on the previous pass, MGS managed to miss it's target by nearly 2 miles. ("click" on images to enlarge)


What was imaged was a narrow strip of probably the least interesting portion of the "City" itself. It contains a few of the less remarkable polyhedral structures and two of the geometrically positioned mounds originally noted by Hoagland.


What was remarkable was that the navigation team at NASA was able to place the MGS orbiter almost directly over the "City" at a very significant time. As the image was taken, Leo - the stellar depiction of the Sphinx in the religions of Pharaonic Egypt - was placed over the City with one star on the horizon and another at the tetrahedral latitude 19.5


The idea that an agency capable of such an exquisite expression of an ancient tradition could miss it's mark by nearly 2 miles is laughable.

It is also accountably impossible. In his extensive report, Dr. Stanley McDaniel outlines the problems inherent with orbital mechanics and the narrow strip high resolution camera. He summarizes the two major considerations, Downtrack error and Crosstrack error.


"Downtrack" is the path back along the spacecraft orbit, represented by the black arrow. "Crosstrack" is the lateral scanning normal to the spacecraft along the vertical axis (represented by the green). Of the two, crosstrack is by far the most difficult to account for because of uncertainties in the mapping grid developed by the Rand Corporation.

However, even in a worse case scenario, the crosstrack error is about 0.15 miles, or one thirty eighth of the width of the City itself. In McDaniel's own words, hitting a target in the city is "About as difficult ... as hitting a door with a baseball from a distance of about 1 foot".

In other words, they got exactly what they wanted to get.
Before we even get to the image itself, there is yet another problem. This new image has been reduced from the expected 2048 x 19200 resolution to 1024 x 9600 - or only half the data it should posses - just as the Face image was.


MSSS has insisted that the resolution was reduced to correct possible downtrack error and assure hitting the target. But as I have already pointed out, it's the crosstrack that is of concern, and it is so easily accounted for that it presents no major challenge at all. In short, there is no justification for either missing the targeted "City Square" or reducing the image quality.


"click" on photos to enlarge

Now why would Malin want - which he obviously must have - to miss the "City Square"? One probable answer lies in the "Giza Scale" mounds placed gracefully about the Cydonia complex

An extensive analysis of these mounds and their arrangements has been published by Dr. Horace Crater and Stanley McDaniel on the McDaniel Report Web site. Two of them are captured in the new MGS image, and what they show is extraordinary.


Our first close-up look at mound "P", a corner of a perfectly equidistant triangle, reveals stunning geometry. A perfect hexagon on a raised knoll marks the location, surrounded by a "moat" of sorts. The walls are raised and uniform, and show no signs of the effects of an ocean in the area, which is the supposed explanation for much of what was observed near the Face.

The wedge shaped adjacent mound (which is what was observed from Viking), is starkly polyhedral and recessed into the surrounding terrain, as if it was placed on top. There is an extensive rectilinear pattern all over the object and in the debris field in the upper left. This area shows no signs of volcanic action or water erosion to account for the shape, and in any event these processes could not explain the parallel features in the debris field.

The overall external and internal geometry are consistent with an eroded artificial structure rather than a conventional "natural" object. The placement in relationship and context to the other mounds makes it even less likely that an exotic natural process could explain it.


This sort of redundant geometric and "Hyperdimensional" message, observed on the macro scale in the placement of the mounds in tetrahedral configurations and on the microscale in the hexagonal marker adjacent to the mound, is exactly what Carl Sagan was looking for in his treatise's on extraterrestrial life. In other words, from a distance the message is "Artificiality" and "Hyperdimensional Physics". Up close, it's "Artificiality" and "Hyperdimensional Physics".

You may be wondering how tetrahedrons and hexagons are connected, other than their basic geometric forms. In the works of Maxwell, recovered by Hoagland more than a century later, he postulated about the physical properties of multi-spatial dimensions and their interactions in our familiar "3D world" of energy and matter. The numbers predicted that the behavior of a spinning sphere, such as a planet, would "outwell" higher dimensional energies at a key "Tetrahedral" latitude - the now ubiquitous "19.5 degree" connection.


A lesser known aspect of this model was the prediction that there would be inwelling points in the system as well, and that they would be hexagonal.

Recent images and data from the polar regions of the Sun and Saturn confirm that such inwelling points do exist, and imply that the entire Solar system is working on a scale and to a set of rules that we are just beginning to understand.

So the "Message of the Mounds" is a striking confirmation of Hoagland's earlier work. ("click" on photo to enlarge)


Now, if this is typical of the mounds in the region, then avoiding imaging an arrangement of 5 similar mounds in the "City Square" would be high on Malin's agenda. It is hard to imagine a stronger confirmation of artificiality if this mound is any example.


An examination of the second mound "Mound O", is more problematic. The poor lighting and high noise content make this image much more difficult to work with.


However, the same underlying hexagonal layout is visible and noted in the mark-up on the right. Beyond that observation, there isn't much to add.

There may be a faceted structure in the center, but the lack of contrast and reduced data level mean it is not likely to be brought out conclusively.

In the southern portion of the image below the black band is yet another hexagonal structure, somewhat larger but comparably scaled to the other two. Just adjacent to the area Richard Hoagland has referred to as "Leavittown", this hexagon rests on an elevated mound and seems to have intact walls and a central courtyard. The lower wall has indications of tiered horizontal stripping on it.

Other than as markers or symbolic hints at Hyperdimensional physics, it is unclear what purpose these obvious structures must have had. Given their locations next to other anomalous areas, they may have served as temples or gathering places.

But what else is there? Surely a massive complex such as the "City", even if it is millions of years old and highly eroded, must posses more than just a few regularly spaced mounds to cite the presence of its magnificent builders upon the Martian sands?  It does.



Part II


The Pyramid Complex

Beyond the incredible pattern of hexagons distributed about the City image, the most striking portion of the area photographed is the southern base of the so-called "West Pyramid" of the City. Vaguely observed in the perspective corrected Viking data, this megalithic adjacent pyramid is at least four times the scale of the Giza monuments. Note the various "courtyards", walled areas and series of obvious walkways connecting the upper sections with the flatlands below.

Portion of the City containing the "West Pyramid"

Sectional enlargement of a portion of the "City" from MGS

Markup of layout of complex and polyhedral objects

This intricate, highly ordered, multi-tiered complex is an astonishing set of geometric structures with a clear purpose of design. Towering over the nearly enclosed "courtyard" of the west Pyramid is the "Giza" Pyramid, comparable in layout to the actual Giza complex in Egypt. Both are raised above the local topography and have an obvious walkway leading to an enclosure or structure. In the Egyptian ruins, it is the Sphinx enclosure, at Cydonia, it is the stunning "Castle of Barsoom".

Comparison of Giza complex layout. ("click" to enlarge)


We again see the familiar terraces - here on the microscale - that we saw in the expansive wide angle view of the overall "West Pyramid" system. There are numerous locally vertical supports or struts, and at the top of the structure are six uniform bright segments bracing a hexagonal "cap". Below this are several wider spaced struts, as if the whole set of objects was a gigantic tiered layer cake.

This is indicative of a reinforcing stressed architecture and entirely at odds with erosion by water or dust blasting. To have such a geometric and organized set of objects at the apex of a tower or overlook is remarkable and highly supportive of a conclusion of artificial origin.

The "Castle of Barsoom"   Hoagland 1998

Marked up to emphasize structural components

The position of this stacked "Castle" is perfect to serve as a guard tower or citadel at the entrance of the main courtyard.




Located on the main body of the "West Pyramid" and overlooking the main Courtyard, this walled, eroded geometric structure compares favorably to it's namesake.


Note the blocky, consistent nature of it's walls and their general 90 degree orientation to each other.


The raised outline of the walls corresponds perfectly to crest of the hill it overlooks and are exclusive from any process of natural erosion such as as a hill-slide or sandblasting.


The entire area has deep furrows running at right angles to each other and are not aligned with the scan lines of the image.


In short, only modified hills have at walls at the top and right angle geometry inside. [Enhancements 1998 Hoagland]



The Upper Courtyard


The upper Courtyard is an odd shaped semi-circle with two symmetrical straight edges and an arc at the top. The shallow depression and lack of an ejecta blanket are not indicative of an impact origin. The grooved region above the circular portion is more akin to sliding or collapse, and there is a faint box like structure at the 2 o'clock position



The "Arrow" is surrounded by inner and outer walls which are offset parallel to each other and aligned at right angles. It has a wedge shape and a raised contour with a cylindrical projection out the back which runs parallel to the side walls of the enclosure.

Additional Views

Inverted. Note what looks like a doorway at the back edge of the "Arrowhead".

The "Giza" Pyramid

This massive edifice is conspicuous by its overall four sided symmetry and the general enormity of its scale. This colossus has four distinct corners and walls, a proper apex at the top numerous architectural features. The walkway from the upper courtyard passes underneath a second northeast Corner Pyramid, and there is evidence of an exit as the path resumes along the north side of the "Giza" structure. ("click" on photos to enlarge)


The northern side also appears to have experienced a minor collapse. Note also that despite claims that the north side is just a shadow edge, there is a defined intersection between the flat plain and sloped side that is independent of the shallow shadows.

Two areas of concern are the southern and western faces, which are oddly obscured by a fuzzy fog. This "fog" cannot be that since the MGS camera goes well into the infrared and should effectively cut any local haze. Instead, they seem to be areas of the image which have unaccountably lost all contrast and detail. This is generally a characteristic of a blended, modified section of an digital image. An examination of the histogram shows major compression of grayscales in these areas.

Richard Hoagland has suggested that this may be signs of a mesh or construction grid, but such a grid would likely have more detail visible even in the direct sunlight. It is interesting to note that this area is coincidentally where you would expect to find an entrance to West Pyramid complex. If our observations about the "Castle of Barsoom" are correct, - that it is a watchtower over the main courtyard - then precisely where this mysterious "Fog" appears is where the "door" should be. Gee, what an unfortunate coincidence.


The Chrysler Symbol

Just below the southeast corner of the Giza Pyramid in the main Courtyard is a remarkable faceted object buried deep in the noise. It seems to be similar in many architectural respects to the D&M Pyramid or even the Corner Pyramid, but the corners are covered by noise and debris. There are several clear, bright vertices and edges which help imply the elevation and define the general outline.

The markup version shows the most obvious facets and the general layout of the object. In scale it is at least twice as big as the Great Pyramid at Giza and it bears a strong resemblance to an eroded pentagonal pyramid. It is possible that the "roof" has been taken off this object, accounting for the blocky regular appearance. The outline at the base is faint but noticeable. Unfortunately, it is doubtful that further enhancements can improve the quality of this image given the low contrast and resolution, so we must hope for a better image on a later orbit to test the accuracy of this shape analysis.



The Suburbs

The are two primary locations on this image where there are regular, repeating organized sets of knobs or raised structures. Both are near the previously noted hexagonal structures. One is just southeast of the West Pyramid complex and the other almost due south several miles.

From "tjp" enhancement of second Cydonia image

This image taken from the southernmost field is reminiscent of a city center or town square, complete with row houses and high rises spoking out from the largest and tallest object in the center. It stretches all the way to the southern hexagon which looks a lot like an amphitheater or stadium. Note how the paths or "Roads" spiral out from this geometric object.

Hoagland's enhancements reveal a series of objects ranging in size from a typical 2,000 square foot dwelling to a 5 story (hex shaped) building (right).


The most important thing to note about these areas is just how inadequate conventional geologic explanations are.


The organized pattern belies a flood plain or impact debris field, and the polygonal "Cracking" seen in some ancient ocean beds in the American southwest are on a far smaller scale and nowhere near as regular.

Note the shadow cast by this hex shaped "knob"

The most obvious comparisons are with the tombs of the builders (or workers) of the Great Pyramids found nearby at Giza. Note again the ordered rows and cell like organization.

The wider view provides an even better example, showing the organized, but not necessarily identical, individual tombs.


Taken individually, there are perhaps exotic geological explanations which could conceivably account for some or most of what we see at the City. However, the possibility that all of these various (and in some cases, contradictory) process could occur in such a confined area stretches sound reasoning to the break point. The simple reality is that artificial design is the only process which fits the observable data. The additive factor that the Artificiality Hypothesis (AH) inherently and explicitly predicts precisely the sort of formations and geometry's we are now observing leads to the inexorable conclusion - someone built this stuff.

The resemblance to the Giza ruins cannot be overlooked or minimized considering the degree to which NASA/JPL have gone to in appeasing the Gods of ancient Egypt. The bizarre rituals conducted by MSSS and JPL in the obtaining and release of these images demand a full accounting to those of us who have spent the money for this mission.

The critics of the AH have engaged in ad hominem attacks and faulty reasoning to support their position. The scientific method teaches us that subjective interpretation ("That doesn't look like a pyramid to me") and bias ("The people pointing these things out are 'conspiracy theorists', so everything they say is suspect") are no substitute for a predictive model. The critics have asserted no explanation for these obvious anomalies and have made no prediction regarding what the images would reveal. The advocates of the AH have, and they have now been stunningly confirmed and reinforced in their arguments. The time has come to declare Cydonia artificial and move to the next level in our explorations.




NASA/JPL Continues to Follow Symbolic Pattern in Mars Image Release ("click" on images to enlarge)