There is a kind of red dye called vakami, that you do not
observe at first, because it is at a distance . . . the
mountains contain rich ores. . . . There some of the sheep have
This country is inhabited. The entire population goes naked.
This region is known as the vilayet of Antilia. It is on the
side where the sun sets. They say that there are four kinds of
parrots, white, red, green and black. The people eat the flesh
of parrots and their headdress is made entirely of parrots'
feathers. There is a stone here. It resembles black touchstone.
The people use it instead of the ax. That it is very hard . . .
[illegible]. jPe saw that stone.
[NOTE: Piri Reis writes in
the "Bahriye": "In the enemy ships which we captured in the
Mediterranean, we found a headdress made of these parrot
feathers, and also a stone resembling touchstone."]
This map was drawn by Piri Ibn Haji Mehmed, known as the nephew
of Kemal Reis, in Gallipoli, in the month of muharrem of the
year 919 (that is, between the 9th of March and the 7th of April
of the year 1513).
This section tells bow these shores and also these islands were
These coasts are named the shores of
Antilia. They were discovered in the year 896 of the Arab
calendar. But it is reported thus, that a Genoese infidel, his
name was Colombo, be it was who discovered these places. For
instance, a book fell into the hands of the said Colombo, and be
found it said in this book that at the end of the Western Sea
[Atlantic] that is, on its western side, there were coasts and
islands and all kinds of metals and also precious stones.
The abovementioned, having studied
this book thoroughly, explained these matters one by one to the
great of Genoa and said: "Come, give me two ships, let me go and
find these places." They said: "O unprofitable man, can an end
or a limit be found to the Western Sea? Its vapour is full of
darkness." The above-mentioned Colombo saw that no help was
forthcoming from the Genoese, he sped forth, went to the Bey of
Spain [king], and told his tale in detail. They too answered
like the Genoese. In brief Colombo petitioned these people for a
long time, finally the Bey of Spain gave him two ships, saw that
they were well equipped, and said:
"O Colombo, if it happens as you
say, let us make you kapudan [admiral] to that country."
Having said which be sent the said
Colombo to the Western Sea. The late Gazi Kemal had a Spanish
slave. The above-mentioned slave said to Kemal Reis, be bad been
three times to that land with Colombo. He said: "First we
reached the Strait of Gibraltar, then from there straight south
and west between the two . . . [illegible]. Having advanced
straight four thousand miles, we saw an island facing us, but
gradually the waves of the sea became foamless, that is, the sea
was becalmed and the North Star-the seamen on their compasses
still say star-little by little was veiled and became invisible,
and he also said that the stars in that region are not arranged
They are seen in a different
arrangement. They anchored at the island which they had seen
earlier across the way, the population of the island came, shot
arrows at them and did not allow them to land and ask for
information. The males and the females shot hand arrows. The
tips of these arrows were made of fishbones, and the whole
population went naked and also very . . . [illegible]. Seeing
that they could not land on that island; they crossed to the
other side of the island, they saw a boat. On seelng them; the
boat fled and they [the people in the boat] dashed out on land.
They [the Spaniards] took the boat. They saw that inside of it
there was human flesh. It happened that these people were of
that nation which went from island to island hunting men and
They said Colombo saw yet another
island, they neared it, they saw that on that island there were
great snakes. They avoided landing on this island and remained
there seventeen days. The people of this island saw that no harm
came to them from this boat, they caught fish and brought it to
them in their small ship's boat [filika]. These [Spaniards] were
pleased and gave them glass beads. It appears that he [Columbus]
had read-in the book that in that region glass beads were
valued. Seeing the beads they brought still more fish. These
[Spaniards] always gave them glass beads. One day they saw gold
around the arm of a woman, they took the gold and gave her
They said to them, to bring more
gold, we will give you more beads, [they said]. They went and
brought them much gold. It appears that in their mountains there
were gold mines. One day, also, they saw pearls in the hands of
one person. They saw that when; they gave beads, many more
pearls were brought to them. Pearls were found on the shore of
this island, in a spot one or two fathoms deep. And also loading
their ship with many logwood trees and taking two natives along,
they carried them within that year to the Bey of Spain.
But the said Colombo, not knowing
the language of these people, they traded by signs, and after
this trip the Bey of Spain sent priests and barley, taught the
natives how to sow and reap and converted them to his own
religion. They had no religion of any sort. They walked naked
and lay there like animals. Now these regions have been opened
to all and have become famous. The names which mark the places
on the said islands and coasts were given by Colombo, that these
places may be known by them. And also Colombo was a great
astronomer. The coasts and island on this map are taken from
This section shows in what way this map was drawn. In this
century there is no map like this map in anyone's possession.
The-hand of this poor man has drawn it and now it is
constructed. From about twenty charts and Mappae Mundi-these are
charts drawn in the days of Alexander, Lord of the Two Horns,
which show the inhabited quarter of the world; the Arabs name
these charts Jaferiye-from eight Jaferiyes of that kind and one
Arabic map of Hind, and from the maps just drawn by four
Portuguese which show the countries of Hind, Sind and China
geometrically drawn, and also from a map drawn by Colombo in the
western region I have extracted it. By reducing all these maps
to one scale this final form was arrived at. So that the present
map is as correct and reliable for the Seven Seas as the map of
these our countries is considered correct and reliable by
It is related by the Portuguese infidel that in this spot night
and day are at their shortest of two hours, at their longest of
twenty two hours. But the day is very warm and in the night
there is much dew.
On the way to the vilayet of
Hind a Portuguese ship encountered a contrary wind [blowing]
from the shore. The wind from the shore . . . [illegible] it
[the ship]. After being driven by a storm in a southern
direction they saw a shore opposite them they advanced towards
it [illegible]. They saw that these places are good anchorages.
They threw anchor and went to the shore in boats. They saw
people walking, all of them naked. But they shot arrows, their
tips made of fishbone. They stayed there eight days. They traded
with these people by signs. That barge saw these lands and wrote
about them which. . . . The said barge without going to Hind,
returned to Portugal, where, upon arrival it gave information. .
. . They described these shores in detail. . . . They have
And in this country it seems that there are white-haired
monsters in this shape, and also six-horned oxen. The Portuguese
infidels have written it in their maps. . . . .
This country is a waste. Everything is in ruin and it is said
that large snakes are found here. For this reason the Portuguese
infidels did not land on these shores and these are also said to
be very hot.
And these four ships are Portuguese ships. Their shape is
written down. They traveled from the western land to the point
of Abyssinia [Habesh] in order to reach India. They said towards
Chalice. The distance across this gulf is 4200 miles.
.... on this shore a tower
.... is however
.... in this climate gold
.... taking a rope
.... is said they measured
fact that half of each of these lines is missing is the clearest
proof of the map's having been tom in two.]
And a Genoese kuke [a type of ship] coming from Flanders was
caught in a storm. Impelled by the storm it came upon these
islands, and in this manner these islands became known.
It is said that in ancient times a priest by the name of
Sanvolrandan (Santo Brandan) traveled on the Seven Seas, so they
say. The above-mentioned landed on this fish. They thought it
dry land and lit a fire upon this fish, when the fish's back
began to burn it plunged into the sea, they reembarked in their
boats and fled to the ship. This event is not mentioned by the
Portuguese infidels. It is taken from the ancient Mappae Mundi.
To these small islands they have given the name of Undizi
Vergine. That is to say the Eleven Virgins.
And this island they call the Island of Antilia. There are many
monsters and parrots and much logwood. It is not inhabited.
This barge was driven upon these shores by a storm and remained
where it fell. . . . Its name was Nicola di Giuvan. On his map
it is written that these rivers which can be seen have for the
most part gold [in their beds]. When the water had gone they
collected much gold [dust] from the sand. On their map. . . .
This is the barge from Portugal which encountered a storm and
cam( to this land. The details are written on the edge of this
map. [NOTE: see VIII.]
The Portuguese infidels do not go west of here. All that side
belong,, entirely to Spain. They have made an agreement that [a
line] two thousand mile., to the western side of the Strait of
Gibraltar should be taken as a boundary. The Portuguese do not
cross to that side but the Hind side and the southern side
belong to the Portuguese.
And this caravel having encountered a storm was driven upon this
island. Its name was Nicola Giuvan. And on this island there are
many oxen with one horn. For this reason they call this island
Isle de Vacca, which means, Ox Island.
The admiral of this caravel is
named Messir Anton the Genoese, but be grew up in Portugal. One
day the above-mentioned caravel encountered a storm, it was
driven upon this island. He found much ginger here and has
written about these islands.
This sea is called the Western Sea, but the Frank sailors call
it the Mare d'Espagna. Which means the Sea of Spain. Up to now
it was known by these names, but Colombo, who opened up this sea
and made these islands known, and also the Portuguese, infidels
who have opened up the region of Hind have agreed together to
give this sea a new name. They have given it the name of Ovo
Sano [Oceano] that is to say, sound egg. Before this it was
thought that the sea had no end or limit, that at its other end
was darkness. Now they have seen that this sea is girded by a
coast, because it is like a lake, they have called it Ovo Sano.
In this spot there are oxen with one horn, and also monsters in
These monsters are seven spans long. Between their eyes there is
a distance of one span. But they are harmless souls.